Organisational Development: The Process, Models, Factors & Implementation


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Organisational Development:
The Process, Models, Factors & Implementation

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Organisational Development: The Process, Models, Factors & Implementation

  1. 1. Abstract To face the onslaught of competition and to remain in existence it is imperative for organisations to change their strategies, structures, processes, people and cultures. Choosing the right consultant and the model of a planned change is crucial to ensure the process of changing takes place without major hiccups and the strategic objectives of the changes are met on time. Apart from collecting the correct data and information, diagnostic data processing and planning need to be done meticulously through collaborative diagnosis before embarking on the change process. During the transition period it is important to manage the changes and resistance accordingly to ensure smooth transition. All in all the top management support and leadership plays the most important role from initiating the change until the accomplishment and institutionalisation of the change. 1
  2. 2. Organisational Development: The Process, Models, Factors & Implementation By: Mohamed Azmi Taufik Objective Agenda To review the models and process of planned changed in Organisational Development 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Definition of OD OD as a Process Models of Planned Change Resistance to Change and Field Force Theory Factors affecting OD Model of a Planned Changes The Process of OD Summary & Conclusion
  3. 3. Definition of OD Organization Development (OD) is a planned process of change in an organization’s culture through the utilization of behavioral science technology, research, and theory. It is an adaptive development , improvement and reinforcement of such organizational features as, • • • • strategies, structures, processes, people and cultures that lead to organizational effectiveness. 3
  4. 4. OD is a planned change process to improve the effectiveness of organisation Old State Change Process OD as a process • Top management supported initiative • Long term effort to improve organisational problems • Done thru’ effective & collaborative diagnosis and management of organisational culture • Emphasis on formal work teams and inter-group culture • Assistance from consultant • Uses applied behavioral science & action research New Required State According to the org. strategy • Planned – long term • Managed from Top and sustained • Increase organisational effectiveness and health • Use OD interventions • Use of behaviour science principles 4
  5. 5. Models of Planned Change Planned organization change requires a systematic process of movement from one condition to another 1 3-Stage Model Unfreeze (Awareness/ Diagnosis) 2 Problem Identification Evaluation & follow-up Joint action planning & Implementation Change (Transition / intervention) Action Research Joint diagnosis Refreeze (Reinforcement) 3 Initiate Inquiry Data gathering, diagnosis & feedback Consultation with behavioural scientist Action Research Problem Identification Joint diagnosis Consultation with a Behavioral scientist Data gathering & preliminary diagnosis Feedback to Client Joint action planning Action Implementation Data gathering after action Appreciative Inquiry Inquire to best practices Discover Themes Envision a Preferred Future Design and Deliver Ways to Create the Future 5
  6. 6. Resistance to Changes and Field Force Theory Desired State Current State For change to happen the status quo, or equilibrium must be upset – either by adding conditions favourable to the change or by reducing resisting forces. What Kurt Lewin proposes is that whenever driving forces are stronger than restraining forces, the status quo or equilibrium will change. Before Change Change Takes Place After Change Time 6
  7. 7. Business and Human Factors Affecting Organisational Changes Human Factors Business Factors 1 Focus of Organisational Changes Globalisation 1 2 Strategy Attraction of future 2 4 3 Technology Systems Perceptions, values 3 Self Interest 4 5 Motivated 6 Structure 4 Technology 2 Org. Learning Competitors 3 Dissatisfaction 1 with Status quo Gov. Policies 5 Value & culture 5 Leadership 6 6 Public Demand Staffs 7
  8. 8. Model of Planned Change 1. Diagnosing Entering and Contracting Clarify the org issue Determine the relevant client Select appropriate OD practitioner --------------------------------------------Practitioner Skills - Intrapersonal - Interpersonal - Consultation - OD theory Organisations, Groups and Jobs 2. Collecting and analysing diagnostic info & data Collaborative process bet. Org & consultant Understand the org functions Provide necessary info for design change Understand org. issues How to develop action steps Draw conclusion for action planning & intervention -----------------Org Design Team / group functions Task structure Group composition & norms Team effectiveness – performance, QWL ----------------------------------Personal characteristic Skill variety Task identity / significance Individual effectiveness – satisfaction, performance, personal development -----------------------Planning to collect data Questionnaires, interviews, observations Analyses data, FFA Feeding back diagnostic info 1. Plan, Design &, Implement Intervention 2. Managing Change Plan for effective intervention - readiness for change - Capability to change - Capabilities of change agent - Strategic issues - Technology & structure - HR -------------------------------------Design Intervention - Human process - Techno-structural - HR management - strategic intervention -------------------------------------Managing - motivating change - resistance to change - activities for effective change - developing political support -Identify and rally stakeholders - transition Sustain momentum Staying on the course - individual & group enhancement - teambuilding - inter-group activities Evaluating and Institutionalizing Change Implement & evaluate feedback Measure the output ---------------------------------Institutionalize the change - congruence - stability in environment & technology - Unionisation Socialisation Commitment Rewards Sensing & calibration Indicators – - Knowledge - Performance - Preferences - Value consensus 8
  9. 9. Summary & Conclusion  Organisation need to change to remain effective  Need to adopt change models that is suitable for the process and to seek assistance from competence OD practitioner    Need to analyse the organisational issues and plan for the changes Implement the changes, manage the transformation and address resistances Institutionalise the changes and evaluate the effectiveness & congruence Organisation need to change adapt to uncertain technological, economic, political and cultural changes to remain effective and in existence. Initiative for changes comes from the top management and must be managed accordingly to ensure the transition process to complete as planned and the strategic objective of the changes are achieved. ThankA Q & you 9