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  • 1. BASIC PROGRAMMING CONCEPTLESSON 1PROGRAM AND PROGRAMMINGPROGRAMA computer program is a series of organised instructions that directs acomputer to perform tasks. Without programs, computers are useless.A program is like a recipe. It containsa list of variables (called ingredients)and a list of statements (calleddirections) that tell the computerwhat to do with the variables.Like a recipe, a program can bewritten in different programminglanguages which may express thesteps differently according to theprogramming language syntax, butdeliver the same end result.PROGRAMMINGProgramming is a creation of a set ofcommands or instructions which directs acomputer in carrying out a task.Later these commands or instructions willbe compiled and/or interpreted and thentransformed to executable instructions thata computer or electronic device can executeor run.1
  • 2. PROGRAMMING LANGUAGEA programming language is a set of words, symbolsand codes that enables humans to communicatewith computers.It is a language used for writing computerprograms, that direct a computer to performcomputation and to organise the flow of controlbetween mechanical devices.EXAMPLES PROGRAMMING LANGUAGEHundreds of programming languages exist today.Each language has its own standard or rules forwriting the commands and/or instructions.Examples of programming languages are:BASIC (Beginner’s All Purpose SymbolicInstruction Code)PascalCSmalltalk.EXT : CAREER IN PROGRAMMINGA programmer is someone who writes computer programs. One who adoptsand practices a formal approach to programming is sometimes also referredto as a programmer analyst, computer scientist, software engineer andsoftware analyst.A programmer analyst designs computer programs besides writing them.A computer scientist is a generic or broad term for a professional withexpertise in computer software.These different job titles are quite subjective asdifferent companies may define them differently.Professional programmers may work in corporateIT departments, software houses and servicecompanies.Sometimes professional programmers work forconsulting companies and their work often takesthem to their client’s workplace.2
  • 3. LESSON 2GENERATIONS OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGEA low-level programming language is a programming language that provideslittle or no abstraction from computer’s microprocessor.A high-level programming language is a programming language that is moreabstract, easier to use, and more portable across platforms.LEVELS OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE3
  • 4. FIRST GENERATION OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGEThe first generation of programminglanguage, or 1GL, is machine language.Machine language is a set of instructionsand data that a computers centralprocessing unit can execute directly.Machine language statements are writtenin binary code, and each statementcorresponds to one machine action.SECOND GENERATION PROGRAMMING LANGUAGEThe second generation programming language, or2GL, is assembly language. Assembly language is thehuman-readable notation for the machine languageused to control specific computer operations.An assembly language programmer writes instructionsusing symbolic instruction codes that are meaningfulabbreviations or mnemonics.An assembler is a program that translates assemblylanguage into machine language.Since assembly language consist of human-readableabbreviations, the assembler must first convert assembly language intomachine-readable language before the computer can readily understand itsinstructions.4
  • 5. THIRD GENERATION PROGRAMMING LANGUAGEThe third generation of programming language, 3GL, or procedural languageuses a series of English-like words, that are closer to human language,to write instructions.High-level programming languages make complex programming simpler andeasier to read, write and maintain.Programs written in a high-levelprogramming language must be translated into machine language by acompiler or interpreter.PASCAL, FORTRAN, BASIC, COBOL, C and C++ are examples of thirdgeneration programming languages.FOURTH GENERATION PROGRAMMING LANGUAGEThe fourth generation programming language or non-procedural language, often abbreviated as 4GL,enables users to access data in a database.A very high-level programming language is oftenreferred to as goal-oriented programming languagebecause it is usually limited to a very specificapplication and it might use syntax that is never usedin other programming languages.5
  • 6. SQL, NOMAD and FOCUS are examples of fourth generation programminglanguages.FIFTH GENERATION PROGRAMMING LANGUAGEThe fifth generation programming language or visual programminglanguage, is also known as natural language.Provides a visual or graphical interface, called a visual programmingenvironment, for creating source codes.Fifth generation programming allows people to interact with computerswithout needing any specialised knowledge.People can talk to computers and the voice recognition systems can convertspoken sounds into written words, but these systems do not understandwhat they are writing; they simply take dictation.Prolog and Mercury are the best known fifth-generation languages.6
  • 7. EXT : OPEN PROGRAMMING LANGUAGEThe Open Programming Language (OPL) isan embedded programming languagefound in portable devices that run theSymbian Operating System.For example mobile telephones and PDAs.OPL is an interpreted language that isanalogous to BASIC.In the early years, before the computerwas invented, there are several inventionsof counting machines.LESSON 3PROGRAMING APPROACHESSTRUCTURED PROGRAMMING EDUCATIONStructured programming often uses a top-down design model wheredevelopers map out the overall program structure into separate subsectionsfrom top to bottom.In the top-down design model, programs are drawn as rectangles. A top-down design means that the whole program is broken down into smallersections that are known as modules.A program may have a module orseveral modules.7
  • 8. Structured programming is beneficial for organising and coding computerprograms which employ a hierarchy of modules. This means that control ispassed downwards only through the hierarchy.Examples of structured programming languages include Ada, Pascal andFortran.OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMINGThe object-oriented approach refers to a special type of programmingapproach that combines data with functions to create objects.In an object-oriented program, the object have relationships with oneanother.One of the earliest OOP languages isSmalltalk. Java, Visual Basic and C++are examples of popular OOPlanguages.8
  • 9. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN STRUCTURED AND OBJECTORIENTED PROGRAMMINGStructured programming often uses a top-down design model.The object-oriented programming approach uses objects.LESSON 4TRANSLATORSometimes two people cannot understand each other because they don’tspeak the same language. So they need the help of a third person whounderstands both languages. This third person is known as a translator.All software packages or programs are written in high-level languages, forexample, C++, Visual Basic and Java.However, in order for the computer to be able to carry out the instructions,the high-level languages must be translated into machine language beforethe computer can understand and execute the instructions in the program.The translation of high level languages to machine language is performed bya translator.PROGRAMHave you ever wondered how your computer runs your favourite software?Your favourite software is a program that consists of several instructionsthat perform its operation.9
  • 10. A programmer will write a source code which consists of the instructionsneeded to run a program. Then the compiler or interpreter with assemblerwill translates the source code into machine language which is made of asequence of bits (eg. 01100011).The computer will load the machine code and run the program.ASSEMBLERAn assembler is a computer program for translating assembly language —essentially, a mnemonic representation of machine language — into machinelanguage.For example in intel 80836, the assembly language for the ’no operation’command is NOP and its machine code representation is 10010000.Example of assemblers are MACRO-80 Assembler and Microsoft MASM.INTERPRETERInterpreter is used to interpret and executeprogram directly from its source withoutcompiling it first. The source code of aninterpreted language is interpreted and executedin real time when the user execute it.The interpreter will read each codes converts it tomachine code and executes it line by line until theend of the program.Examples of interpreter-based language areBASIC, Logo and Smalltalk.10
  • 11. COMPILERThe source code (in text format) will beconverted into machine code which is afile consisting of binary machine codethat can be executed on a computer. Ifthe compiler encounters any errors, itrecords them in the program-listingfile.When a user wants to run the program,the object program is loaded into thememory of the computer and theprogram instructions begin executing.A compiled code generally runs fasterthan programs based on interpretedlanguage. Several programminglanguages like C++, Pascal and COBOLused compilers as their translators.LESSON 5HOW TO INSTALL VISUAL BASIC 6.0VISUAL BASIC 6.0 INSTALLATIONMicrosoft Visual Basic 6.0 was designed to be easy to learn and use. Thelanguage not only allows programmers to easily create simple GUIapplications, but also has the flexibility to develop fairly complex applicationsas well.Programming in Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 is a combination of visuallyarranging components or controls on a form. Hence a simple program can becreated without the programmer having to write many lines of code.VISUAL BASIC 6.0 FEATURESMicrosoft Visual Basic is fast and easy with intuitive tools that enable you torapidly build your own Windows applications. You can use Microsoft VisualBasic to develop programs such as games, calculator, phonebook databaseand lots more.The word “ Visual” refers to the technique used to build the Graphical UserInterface (GUI). Visual Basic features an easy “drag and drop” method toproduce an interactive Graphical User Interface (GUI) for your program.11
  • 12. The “Basic” part refers to the BASIC (Beginners All-Purpose SymbolicInstruction Code) language, a high level programming language develop byMicrosoft.VISUAL BASIC 6.0 FEATURESAmong the main features of Visual Basic aredrag and drop user interface, data accessfeatures, ActiveX technologies and internetcapabilities. Drag and drop user interfaceallows you to instantly create an interactiveuser interface for your software without dozensof codes.Data access features allow your application toaccess information from a database such as atelephone book program.ActiveX technologies allow you to make use of the functionality provided byother applications.Internet capabilities allow your program to interactively utilise the Internet.12
  • 13. LESSON 6BASIC ELEMENT IN PROGRAMMING5 Basic elements in programming.1. Constant.2. Variable.3. Data Type.4. Operators.5. Control Structures.CONSTANTS AND VARIABLESConstantsConstant is a data container that stores information. The value will neverchange (remains constant) at any time during the course of a program.Declare is the official term used in programming to announce to the programthe condition of statement in programming.VariablesVariable is a data container that stores information. The value inside maychange at any time during the course of a program.13
  • 14. DATA TYPES, OPERATOR AND CONTROLSTRUCTURES14
  • 15. LESSON 7THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ETHICS AND LAWCONSTANTS AND VARIABLESConstant is a virtual data container that stores information. The value willnever change (remains constant) at any time during the course of aprogram.Variables is a virtual data container that stores information. The valueinside may change at any time during the course of a program.DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CONSTANTS ANDVARIABLES15
  • 16. LESSON 8RIGHTS DATA TYPESDATA EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENT DATA TYPESData type determines the typeof data a variable can store,for example a number or acharacter. Examples of datatypes are integer, double,string and boolean.16
  • 17. DATA EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENT DATA TYPESIntegerInteger data type contains any whole number value that does not have anyfractional part.This is how we declare an integer type constant in Visual Basic statement.This is how we declare an integer type variable in Visual Basic statement.DoubleAny number value that may and could contain a fractional part.This is how we declare a double type constant in Visual Basic statement.This is how we declare a double type variable in Visual Basic statement.StringAny value that contains a sequence of characters.This is how we declare string type constant in Visual Basic statement.This is how we declare string type variable in Visual Basic statement.17
  • 18. BooleanBoolean type consists either a True or False value. Programmers usually useit to store status.This is how we declare a boolean type constant in Visual Basic statement.This is how we declare a boolean type variable in Visual Basic statement.OTHER DATA TYPES18
  • 19. LESSON 9MATHEMATICAL AND LOGICAL OPERATORSMATHEMATICAL, RELATIONAL AND LOGICALOPERATORSOperator is a symbol or notation that tells a computer to perform certainactions or operations.An example: the plus (+) notation will tell the computer to perform the"add" operation.Lets look at some examples of Mathematical Operators.19
  • 20. Lets look at some examples of Relational Operators.20
  • 21. Lets look at some examples of Logical Operators.FUNCTION OF MATHEMATICAL OPERATORSMathematical operators are notations that tell thecomputer to perform mathematical operations.FUNCTIONS OF RELATIONAL OPERATORSRelational operators perform comparison betweentwo elements.They return an element of logical 1 (True) where the relation is true, andelement of logical 0 (False) where the relation is false.The diagram shows some common relational operators and their expression.21
  • 22. Let’s understand a relational operation with the following examples.In this expression, A >= B isused to test if the value of leftexpression (A) is greater thanor equal to that of the rightexpression (B).If the conditions are met, thenthe program will return a logical1 and proceed to print "A isgreater than or equal to B" elseit will return a logical 0 andproceed to print "A is less thanB".FUNCTIONS OF LOGICAL OPERATORSLogical operators are notations that tell the computer to perform logicaloperations.Examples of Logical operation are: AND, OR, and NOT.Logical operator compares 2 conditions and returns a TRUE or FALSE value.22
  • 23. AND operatorThe diagram shows a truth table of AND operator.Notice that truth value of X AND Y is True ( 1 ) ifonly both X and Y are True ( 1 ).Else it is false ( 0 )OR operatorThe diagram shows a truth table of OR operator.Notice that truth value of X OR Y is only True ( 1 )if either X or Y are True ( 1 ) or both X and Y aretrue ( 1 )Else it is false ( 0 )NOT operatorThe diagram shows the truth table of NOToperator NOT X is the negation of X, it isessentially the 1s complement operation.Notice that truth value of NOT X is True( 1 ) when X is False and vice versa.23
  • 24. DIFFERENCES IN MATHEMATICAL AND LOGICALOPERATORSAs we have learned, there are somedifferences between mathematical,relational and logical operators.Function :Mathematical operators perform mathematicaloperations such as plus or substract.Relational operators perform element-by-elementcomparisons between twoarrays.Logical operators perform logical operations such aschecking the condition of two Boolean values.24
  • 25. Symbols :These operators have their own symbols based on the programminglanguage.EQUALITY OPERATORSThe equality determine an operand equal to ornot equal to another operand.Remember we must use "=" and not "<>" whentesting if two primitive values are equal inMicrosoft Visual Basic 6.0.LESSON 10PSEUDO CODESPseudo code is text only sentences thatdescribe the logic and program flow of acomputer program. Pseudo codeesembles plain English.It usually does not have any specificprogramming language syntax andgrammar.Pseudo code is directly linked to thecomputer codes because each pseudocode statement can often be convertedinto the programming language virtuallyline by line.25
  • 26. There are no set rules for writing pseudo code.A programmer can have his or her personalised pseudo code.He or she must use consistent language and syntax in the pseudo code, sothat he or she can understand it at a later stage.AN EXAMPLE PROGRAM BASED ON A PSEUDO CODEEXT : STANDARDS OF GOOD PSEUDO CODEPseudo-Code is simply a numbered list of instructions to perform some task.In this course we will enforce three standards for good pseudo codeNumber each instruction. This is to enforce thenotion of an ordered sequence of the operations.Furthermore we introduce a dot notation (e.g. 3.1come after 3 but before 4) to number subordinateoperations for conditional and iterative operationsEach instruction should be unambiguous andeffectively computable.Completeness. Nothing is left out.Pseudo-code is best understood by looking at examples.26
  • 27. Each example below demonstrates one of the control structures used inalgorithms : sequential operations, conditional operations, anditerative operations.We also list all variables used at the end of the pseudo-code.Example:Computing discount:Pseudo-code:Computing the final price of an itemafter figuring in discount.Note the three types ofinstructions:input (request),process/calculate (=) andoutput (print)LESSON 1127
  • 28. FLOW CHARTLet’s identify some of the main elements in the flow chart. We have fivemain elements in a flow chart.Terminator shows the beginning or endof a program.Flowline and arrowhead use to connectsymbols and indicate the sequences ofoperation.Input or output shows either an inputoperation (e.g. an INPUT from theuser) or an output operation (e.g. PRINTsome messages).Process shows a process to be carried out(e.g. calculation).Decision shows a decision (or choice) tobe made. The program should continuealong one of two routes (e.g. if...else).A flow chart is a diagram using symbols to show the step-by-step sequenceof procedures in a program. A flow chart describes the logic and programflow of a computer program graphically.Example:A student requests his marks fromthe program.The program will then check whetherhis marks is more/equal to 50 ornot.If the marks are over or equal to 50,the program will print acongratulatory message togetherwith the marks.If the marks are lower than 50 thenthe program will print a motivationalmessage together with the result.28
  • 29. LESSON 12CONTROL STRUCTURESControl structure is a structure of statements in programming that allowsthe programmer to control the flow of a program.Control structure can be dividedinto sequence, selection andrepetition control structures.SEQUENCE CONTROLSequence control refers to the linear execution of codes within a program. Insequence control, the statements are executed one by one in consecutiveorder.In sequence control, the statements areexecuted one by one in consecutive order.29
  • 30. Lets see an example of pseudo code that has sequence controlstructure.This program will request the user’sdate of birth and then request today’sdate, calculate the age and finally willprint the user’s age.For example, today’s date is 1-JAN-2006, then the results will be shown asfollows:Let’s see another example of pseudo code that has sequence controlstructure.The following is the result of theexample.Lets see the flow chart for a general sequence controlstructure.As we can see, the flow chart for sequence control is verysimple.It will execute statement 1 followed by statement 2 and anyfollowing statements.EXAMPLE30
  • 31. SELECTION CONTROLThe flow chart represents a programthat will request the user’s date ofbirth and then request today’s date,calculate the age and finally will displaythe user’s age.There are times when you want your program to make a decision based onthe situation given.For example, a program that stores student’smarks may respond differently to differentmarks.Or maybe a simple mathematical program willdisplay its result as odd or even, based on theresult.Selection control enables the programmer toassign different events for different situations.An example of selection control is “If...Then...Else” statement. The basicpseudo code for “If...Then...Else” statement is as follows.Lets see a pseudo codeexample for the“If...Then...Else" statementfor a program that will print“You are too heavy to ridethe toy car” if the student’sweight is more than orequal to 50.Otherwise it will print “You can ride the toy car”Lets see the flow chart for a similar selection control example.31
  • 32. Lets see a program that willrespond differently for differentservice hours in a school library.A student requests her service hoursin a library from the program, theprogram will then check whether herservice hours are more than/equalto 30 or not.If the service hours are over orequal to 30, the program will print amessage, “Thank you for yourservice”.If the service hours are lower than30 then the program will print amessage, “Please continue to servein the library”.Lets write an example of a program that implements sequencecontrol structure.This program will declare a constantpi equal to 3.142. Then the programdeclares two variables to be used inthe program (r and volume).The program will then assign somevalue to the r variable.The program will then calculate thevolume using the formula volume =(4/3)πrThe program will then display thevolume calculated with a messagebox.32
  • 33. Now write an example program that implements selection controlstructure.Write a program that will retrieve thecurrent date from the system.If today’s date is more than 15 then theprogram will display a message box withthe message “We are towards the end ofthe month”.Else the program will print “We are atthe beginning of the month”.DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN SELECTION CONTROLAND SEQUENCE CONTROL33
  • 34. EXT : REPETITION CONTROL STRUCTURESLet’s learn about the last control structure which is repetition controlstructure. A repetition control structure allows the programmer to specify anaction to be repeated while some condition remains true.This is a pseudo code of "While" structure.This program segment will continue its looping until the condition of variablenamed product is greater than 3000.This is a flow chart of a repetition control structure.34