2 hrly gs ch 08 vertebrates part 1

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2 hrly gs ch 08 vertebrates part 1

  1. 1. Vertebrates Chapter
  2. 2. Animal Kingdom Invertebrates Vertebrates Animals without a Backbone or Spinal Column Animals with a Backbone or Spinal Column
  3. 3. Invertebrates Jellyfish Snail
  4. 4. Butterfly Starfish
  5. 5. Octopus Shrimp
  6. 6. Cold-blooded Animals • They take on the temperature of their surroundings • They are hot when their environment is hot and cold when their environment is cold • In hot environments  can have blood that is much warmer than warm-blooded animals
  7. 7. • In warm environment  more active • In cold environment  sluggish and lazy – This is because their muscle activity depends on chemical reactions which run quickly when it is hot and slowly when it is cold. Period of inactivity is called aestivation (hibernation)
  8. 8. Warm-blooded Animals • Try to keep the inside of their bodies at a constant temperature. – In a cooler environment  by generating their own heat – In a hotter environment  by cooling themselves when they are hot. • To generate heat, warm-blooded animals convert the food that they eat into energy.
  9. 9. Types of Food-eating Animals • Carnivorous  Animals that eat other animals • Herbivorous  only eat vegetables • Omnivorous  eat both meat and plants
  10. 10. Vertebrates Vertebrates are further divided into five main groups: – Pisces  Fish – Amphibia  Amphibians – Reptilia  Reptiles – Aves  Birds – Mammalia  Mammals
  11. 11. Pisces • They are aquatic and live in different habitats – Fresh water, Salt water, Ocean, Rivers – Except Dead Sea • Fish are cold-blooded • Skin  Scales • Means of locomotion  fins
  12. 12. • Respiration  Through gills – Exception: Lung-fish, and snake-head fish have two respiratory systems Lung Fish Snakehead Fish
  13. 13. • Eating habit – Carnivorous  Angler fish, Shark, Wolf fish, Catfish, Snakehead – Herbivorous  Trout, Goldfish, Scat, Pacu, Clown fish – Omnivorous  Panda corydoras, Swordfish, Piranha
  14. 14. Carnivorous Fish Vampire Fish Shark
  15. 15. Wolf Fish Angler Fish
  16. 16. Herbivorous Fish Goldfish Rainbow Trout
  17. 17. Clown Fish Tuna
  18. 18. Omnivorous Fish Piranha Panda corydoras
  19. 19. Swordfish
  20. 20. • Live both on land and water Amphibians • Cold-blooded • Egg-lying – Immature life in water  Gills – Adults live on land  Lungs and absorption through skin • Slimy skin  absorb moisture and oxygen through skin – Without moist conditions, their skin dries out and they die.
  21. 21. • Habitat – Mostly often found near ponds, marshlands, swamps, and other areas where freshwater is available • Locomotive organs – Young ones  tail – Adult  Legs • Examples – Frog, Toad, Salamander, Axolotl, Blind olm
  22. 22. Toad Frog
  23. 23. Poison Dart Frog Salamander
  24. 24. Axolotl Axolotl
  25. 25. Blind Olm Red-spotted Newt
  26. 26. • Cold-blooded Reptiles • Skin  Dry, Tough and Scaly – As a reptile grows, it sheds its outer layer of skin. • Tetrapods  two sets of paired limbs • Sprawling posture  the upper legs join the body at the sides.
  27. 27. • Respiration  Lungs • Hearing organs – Lack outer ears – Inner ear  respond to vibrations • Capable of regeneration – Lizard • Longevity – Tortoise and turtles live up to 150 years – Crocodiles can live up to 100 years
  28. 28. Herbivorous Reptiles Tortois e Prehensile tailed skink
  29. 29. Pogona Vitticeos Mali Uromastyx
  30. 30. Green Iguana
  31. 31. Carnivorous Reptiles Crocodile Alligator
  32. 32. Snapping Turtle Leatherbac k Turtle
  33. 33. Chameleo n Anaconda
  34. 34. Omnivorous Reptiles Turtle The Red Eared Terrapin
  35. 35. Water Dragon
  36. 36. • Adapted for flight Aves – Exception: Hen, Penguin, Peacock, Ostrich, Kiwi, Emu, Turkey, The Falkland Flightless Duck, Rheas, Cassowaries, Flightless Comorants, Snoring Rail, Campbell Island Teal, The Kakapo Parrot • Warm-blooded • Egg-lying • Skin  Have feathers – Prevents loss of body heat – Helps in flight – Exception: Penguin
  37. 37. • Hollow bones – Provide passage for air from lungs, which supply it direct to all parts of body • Locomotive organs – Wings, exception  Penguins – Legs – Toes  Adapted for particular purposes • Hearing organ – Lack outer ear – Inner ear
  38. 38. • Mouth  Beak (Adapted for particular purposes) • Neck  Flexible – For wide vision – Aid feeding – Helps in sleeping • Sense of sight  Most important organ • Habitat  Land, Air, Water • Migration  Annual and seasonal.
  39. 39. • Eating habits – Herbivorous  Sparrow, Pigeon, Duck, Goose, Cockatoo, Blue macaw, Toucan, Ostrich, Swan, Nightingale, Parrot, Lovebird – Carnivorous  Eagle, Kites, Pelican, Owl, Falcons, Hawks, Roadrunner, Kingfisher, Vulture, Penguins – Omnivorous  Crow, Ravens, Rail Birds, Emus, Starlings, Flamingo, Woodpecker
  40. 40. Flightless Birds Peacock Kiwi
  41. 41. Rooster Hen
  42. 42. Ostrich Emu
  43. 43. Rheas Penguin
  44. 44. The Falkland Flightless Duck Campbell Island Teal
  45. 45. Cassowaries Flightless Comorants
  46. 46. Snoring Rail The Kakapo Parrot
  47. 47. Herbivorous Birds Sparrow Pigeon
  48. 48. Cockato o Goose
  49. 49. Nightingale Toucan
  50. 50. Blue Macaw Swan

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