2 hrly gs ch 07 food & nutrition


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2 hrly gs ch 07 food & nutrition

  1. 1. Chapter Food & Nutrition
  2. 2. What is Nutrition? • Definition: – The entire process by which organisms obtain energy from food for growth, maintenance, and repair of damaged tissues
  3. 3. Nutrients • Substances that are required for the nourishment of an organism Non- Nutrients • Substances that do not provide nourishment to an organism
  4. 4. Types of Nutrients • There are two main groups of nutrients: – Macronutrients – Micronutrients
  5. 5. Macronutrients • Substances that we need to eat regularly in large quantity • These provide energy to the organism • Our body to a small extent can create these
  6. 6. • There are four important macronutrients: – Carbohydrates – Fats – Proteins – Water  does not provide energy
  7. 7. Micronutrients • Substances that we need to eat in small quantity • These do not provide energy • Without these, one cannot – Get the energy out of carbohydrates and fats – Transform proteins into body mass
  8. 8. • Our body does not make or store these substances, they can only be obtained from external sources • It’s deficiency can lead to different diseases • Help maintain oxygen level in brain
  9. 9. • There are two micronutrients – Vitamins – Minerals
  10. 10. Essential Non-nutrients • There are two essential non-nutrients, which even though do not provide energy, but are important part of our diet: – Fiber – Antioxidant ( berries, garlic , broccoli etc)
  11. 11. Carbohydrates • Our main source of energy • Contains 4 calories per gram • Organic compounds – They consists of Carbon, hydrogen, Oxygen
  12. 12. • Types of carbohydrates Simple - Easily digested - Pass into blood stream quickly - Eg: Sugar, white bread, white rice Complex - Provide extra nutrition too like vitamins, minerals - Take time to digest - Eg: grains, vegetables
  13. 13. Sources of carbohydrates
  14. 14. • As soon as we eat carbs, they are broken down into glucose molecules – Glucose serve as fuel for the body Carbs Glucose
  15. 15. • If more carbs are consumed than the body requires at that time, then the excess glucose is converted into glycogen and stored in liver and muscles as energy reserves Excess Glucose Glycogen - This gets stored in liver and muscles • Body can store only half day’s supply of glycogen
  16. 16. • If more glycogen is made, then it is converted into fats Excess Glycogen Fats • When the body needs a quick boost of energy, it converts glycogen into energy • When it needs a prolonged burst of energy, it converts fat to energy
  17. 17. • Benefits of carbohydrates: Source of immediate energy Prevents the breakdown of muscle tissues Fuel for brain and muscles Provide the body with phytonutrients
  18. 18. Low-Carbohydrate Diet • Due to low carb in-take, the body obtains from the stored glycogen • Low glycogen forces the body to switch to using more body fat and protein • Harmful effects – This weakens the immune defenses – Affect blood sugar production – Reduction in brain function (requires glucose)
  19. 19. – Usage of body protein • Retards muscular and bodily growth – Ketosis • Loss of water • Loss of sodium • Lack of energy – Affects Serotonin • Affect’s a person’s mood • Suppression of appetite
  20. 20. Excess of Carbohydrates • Can make a person fat • Excess consumption of carbs can lead to tooth decay – Can be prevented with fluoridation
  21. 21. Fats • Organic compounds – They consists of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen • Source of energy – Provide 9 calories per gram • Any food material is stored in the body in form of fats
  22. 22. • Types of fats Saturated Unsaturated - Solid at room Temperature Eg: Ghee - Liquid at room temperature Eg: Oil Hydrogenated - Zapping unsaturated oil with high pressure Hydrogen to turn into saturated fat. Eg: Margarine
  23. 23. Sources of Fats
  24. 24. Essential Fatty Acids • Unsaturated are of two types: – Monounsaturated Fats (MUFAs) – Polyunsaturated Fats (PUFAs) • The body cannot live without them • Amongst the two, the healthiest fats are MUFAs like olive oil, canola oil – They fight against heart disease
  25. 25. Smart Fats • Fats make 60% of brain and nerves • If we eat healthy fat, the better the brain • Body needs two kinds of fats to manufacture healthy brain cells: – Omega 3 fatty acids (tuna, walnuts) – Omega 6 fatty acids (corn, sesame oils)
  26. 26. Dumb Fats • Man-made fats  Hydrogenated fats • Hinder the brain’s work • Example – – – – Doughnuts Potato chips Cookies Deep-fried burgers
  27. 27. Benefits of Fats Storage system Reserve supply of energy Insulation material Fats form a protective cushion for your organs
  28. 28. Fats help the body store vitamins A,D,E,K Fats provides healthier skin Fats build healthy cells Fats add flavor to food
  29. 29. Excess of Fats • Excess fats leads to obesity – Heart problems – Breathing problems – High cholesterol levels – High blood pressure – Cancer  storage places for carcinogens
  30. 30. Proteins • Building blocks of any organism – Hair – Skin – Teeth – Bones – Hemoglobin – Antibodies – Nails
  31. 31. • Proteins help muscle development, increases strength and improves athletic performance • Contains 4 calories per gram • Made up of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen
  32. 32. Sources of Proteins
  33. 33. Benefits of Proteins Building and repairing tissues Makes antibodies Makes hemoglobin Source of energy
  34. 34. Excess of Proteins • Excess proteins leads to – Rapid weight loss due to loss of fluids • This in turn can lead to dehydration – Effect liver and kidney  stones – Becoming fat – Loss of calcium  osteoporosis
  35. 35. Water • The most important nutrient – An average person can live for 40-45 days without food but only 3-5 days without water – 2/3 of body is made up of water – 80% blood consists of water
  36. 36. – 85% brain is made up of water – 75% of muscles contains water – Every cell in body needs water to live • On average, a person should drink 16 glasses of water – Excluding Coffee, tea, juices, sodas, energy drinks
  37. 37. Benefits of Water Helps to remove toxins from body Cushions your joints Helps regulate body temperature Carries oxygen to cells
  38. 38. Low in-take of water • Low water intake can lead to: – Dehydration • Lack of energy • Constant exhaustion – Clotting of blood – Weakening of Immune system – Storage of toxins inside body – Overburdening of liver and kidney
  39. 39. Vitamins • Vitamins are essential for human beings • Taking vitamins is a must because human beings cannot synthesize vitamins • Vitamins are substances which, in small amounts, are necessary to sustain life • They have no energy value of their own and are not components of body structures.
  40. 40. • They must be obtained from food as they are either not made in the body at all, or are not made in sufficient quantities for growth, vitality and well-being. water to live • A deficiency of a particular vitamin causes disease symptoms which can only be cured by that vitamin
  41. 41. Types of Vitamins Water-Soluble Fat-Soluble - Don't get stored -They are stored in fat tissues & in liver as much in your body - Whatever the body doesn't use is flushed out - Stay in body fat until body needs them - Vitamin C, B-complex - Vitamins A, D, E, K
  42. 42. Types of Vitamins • Vitamin A  helps you see at night • B vitamins  help body make protein and energy • Vitamin C  helps in keeping gums and muscles in good shape and helps the body in resisting infection • Vitamin D  helps your bones
  43. 43. • Vitamin E – maintains a lot of your body’s tissues like the ones in your eyes, skin, and liver. – protects lungs from getting damaged from polluted air. – helps in the formation of red blood cells • Vitamin K is the clot master. It helps in clotting of blood
  44. 44. Sources of Vitamins
  45. 45. Minerals • there are 17 minerals that play a role in our nutrition • Minerals work together with vitamins in order to bring a balance functioning body to complete wellness. We need minerals in order to maintain a healthy mental and physiological structure.
  46. 46. Some Minerals And Their Function • Boron  Works in conjunction with calcium and magnesium to provide the body with strong joints • Copper  Helps oxygen travel in the blood • Fluoride  Protects our teeth, and helps in the bones formation • Iodine  Needed for healthy thyroid functioning and supports the body's ability to burn fat
  47. 47. • Magnesium - Vitamins take over in the utilization functioning of magnesium. If the body has no vitamin D it cannot utilize magnesium properly. Here's another interesting fact in regard to magnesium, if you consume calcium by the ton then you need the same amount of magnesium. Its also has been medically proven that patients who suffer with high cholesterol have an increased need for magnesium
  48. 48. Sources of Minerals
  49. 49. Fiber • Fiber is a virtually indigestible substance that is found mainly in the outer layers of plants • It is a special type of carbohydrate that passes through the human digestive system virtually unchanged, without being broken down into nutrients
  50. 50. Benefits of Fiber Keeps the digestive system healthy Speeds up the excretion of waste and toxins from the body Avoids constipation Helps prevent obesity from overeating
  51. 51. Prevents Diabetes Prevents heart disease
  52. 52. Antioxidant • Within the human body, millions of processes are occurring at all times. • These processes require oxygen. • Unfortunately, that same life giving oxygen can create harmful side effects, oxidant substances, which cause cell damage and lead to chronic disease
  53. 53. • Oxidants, commonly known as "free radicals," are also introduced through external sources such as – exposure to the sun or pollution – Stress – things that people put into their bodies, • alcoholic beverages • unhealthy foods • cigarette smoke