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1 hrly gs ch 03 continents

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  • Polynesia stretches across the Pacific Ocean from Hawaii in the north to New Zealand in the southwest and also includes the countries of Samoa, Tonga, and Tuvalu, along with the French territory of French Polynesia
    Melanesia is a region of the South Pacific Ocean and includes the countries of Vanuatu, Fiji, Solomon Islands, as well as the French colony New Caledonia.
    The over 2000 Pacific Ocean islands that comprise the countries of the The Federated States of Micronesia, Marshall Islands, Kiribati, and Palau along with the Mariana Islands (including Guam) composes the region known as Micronesia.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Continents
    • 2. Definition: – A large, continuous, discrete mass of land, ideally separated by an expanse of water • There are currently seven continents on the Earth
    • 3. • By size (smallest to largest): – – – – – – – Australia Europe Antarctica South America North America Africa Asia
    • 4. • By population (as of 2008): – Antarctica • 4,000 during the summer • 1,000 during the winter – – – – – – Australia = 20 million approx South America = 370 million North America = 520 million Europe = 700 million Africa = 900 million Asia = 3.9 billion • The total world population is over 6.7 billion
    • 5. • By the number of countries – – – – – – Africa Europe Asia North America Oceania South America - (53) (46) (44) (23) (14) (12)
    • 6. • Today’s Earth was quite different millions of years ago • It is postulated that the separate continents joined together to form one super-continent • Over the years, the map of the Earth has always been changing; not only has the underlying plates been moving, but the plates have changed in size
    • 7. • In 1915, Alfred Wegener's postulated: – All the continents had at one time formed a single supercontinent called the "Urkontinent", before later breaking up and drifting to their present locations.
    • 8. Name of Continent Years Ago Urkontinent about 3 bn Kenorland 2.7 to 2.1 bn Columbia 1.8 to 1.5 bn Rodinia about 1.1 bn to 750 m Pannotia about 600 m Pangaea about 300 m
    • 9. Pangaea
    • 10. • The super-continent broke into separate continents due to continental drift
    • 11. Oceania • Oceania is NOT a continent, but a word for a large region in Pacific Ocean that includes: – – – – Australia Papua New Guinea New Zealand The islands of • Melanesia  directly north of Australia • Micronesia  directly north of Melanesia • Polynesia  which is to the east
    • 12. • There are about 19 countries • Spanning an area of ocean about the size of South America • The population of Oceania is about 36 million – With all but 11 million living in Australia or New Zealand
    • 13. Middle East • The Middle East (or the Near East, in opposition to Far East) is a region that encompasses southwestern Asia and Egypt
    • 14. • In some contexts, the term has recently been expanded in usage to sometimes include – – – – Afghanistan Pakistan The Caucasus and Central Asia North Africa • This region is known as the Greater Middle East
    • 15. Greater Middle East
    • 16. Scandinavian Countries • Scandinavia is a region in northern Europe that includes at – a minimum Denmark – Norway – Sweden • Finland, Iceland and the Faroe Islands are sometimes also included
    • 17. Faroe Islands
    • 18. Eurasia • A term used to describe the combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia – Geographically it is a single continent, comprising the traditional continents of Europe and Asia • It is located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres
    • 19. Afro-Eurasia • Also known as Afrasia or Eurafrasia • Term used to describe the largest landmass on earth • Defined as a super continent, consisting of the continents of – Africa – Eurasia • Asia • Europe
    • 20. • It has roughly 85% of the world population • It is also known as the Old World – As opposed to the Americas, which are known as the New World
    • 21. Central America • It is the central geographic region of the Americas • The southernmost part of North America that links the continent to South America • It consists of the countries of: – – – – Guatemala Belize Honduras El Salvador - Nicaragua - Costa Rica - Panama
    • 22. Latin America • Latin America is a region of the Americas where Romance languages particularly Spanish and Portuguese, and variably French – are primarily spoken – Romance languages - The group of languages derived from Latin
    • 23. Central Asia • It is core region of the Asian continent • Sometimes referred to as Middle Asia • Include these five republics of the former Soviet Union: – – – – – Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan Turkmenistan Uzbekistan
    • 24. South Asia • It is the southern region of the Asian continent • Also known as Southern Asia or the Indian Subcontinent • It includes: – – – – Pakistan Bangladesh India Nepal - Bhutan - Maldives - Sri Lanka
    • 25. South-East Asia • This region is located at – – – – South of China, East of India, West of New Guinea and North of Australia - Bhutan - Maldives - Sri Lanka
    • 26. • It consists of the following countries: – – – – – – – Brunei Burma Cambodia East Timor Indonesia Laos Malaysia - Singapore - Philippines - Thailand - Vietnam - Maldives - Sri Lanka
    • 27. Island Definition – Any piece of land that is completely surrounded by water
    • 28. • There are also artificial islands – They are also known as man-made island – Islands that have been constructed by people rather than formed by natural means – Examples • Jumeirah Palm Beach, Dubai • Kansai International Airport, Japan • Flevopolder, Netherlands
    • 29. Kansai International Airport Jumeirah Palm Beach
    • 30. Archipelago Definition – A group of related islands • Examples – – – – – – Indonesia Japan The Philippines New Zealand The United Kingdom Hawaii
    • 31. Indonesia
    • 32. Japan
    • 33. Peninsula • It is a Latin word – Pene  Almost – Insula  Island • A piece of land that is a look-alike of an island but actually isn't considered as an island
    • 34. Definition – In other words, Peninsula is a land mass, surrounded by water on three sides • Examples – Arabian Peninsula – Kenai Peninsula of Alaska, USA – Baja Peninsula in Mexico