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Uitm proposal

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  • 1. 1 RESEARCH PROPOSAL IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF EDUCATION IN SABAH THROUGH EFFECTIVE PRACTICE AND LEADERSHIP OF SCHOOL INSPECTIONS by
  • 2. 2 Table of Contents THE MODEL OF RESEARCH......................................................................................................................3 CHAPTER ONE.........................................................................................................................................4 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY.....................................................................................................4 1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT................................................................................................................5 1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES ...............................................................................................................6 1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS................................................................................................................6 15. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY.....................................................................................................7 1.5 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY.......................................................................................................7 1.6 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ........................................................................................................7 1.7 POPULATION AND SAMPLE.........................................................................................................8 1.8 DATA ANALYSIS...........................................................................................................................8 REFERENCES............................................................................................................................................9
  • 3. 3 THE MODEL OF RESEARCH CHAPTER 1 RESEARCH TITLE: IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF EDUCATION THROUGH EFFECTIVE PRACTICE AND LEADERSHIP OF SCHOOL INSPECTIONS INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND OF RESEARCH The Educational system in Malaysia is undergoing several major changes and transformation with regards to the emergence of Malaysia Educational Blueprint 2013-2025 and the Strategic Plan of Education which strive to implement a systematic mechanism to elevate the quality of education in the country. This is further driven by the recent findings in the TIMSS and PISA study indicating an alarming decline in the area of public examinations and the performance of educational outputs among Malaysian students. This has created a gap between Malaysia’s educational system with other fast developing countries in the world. PROBLEM STATEMENT In the Malaysian educational system, the school inspectorate known as Jemaah Nazir dan Jaminan Kualiti plays a key role with regards to the quality control, implementation of policy, monitoring of such implementation and co-ordination of education. Based on the JNJK Strategic Planning 2010-2015 which emphasized on the aspect of producing balanced human capital in line with the requirement of the National Key Performance Area (NKRA), it is vital that this organization play its major role in ensuring quality standard of education in schools. The recent alarming concern of the decline results among Malaysian students in studies carried out by TIMSS and PISA place further demands to Malaysian school inspectors to play its vital role in standardizing the quality of education in Malaysia. Walaupun telah disebarluas dan digunapakai secara intensif,masih belum ada kajian yang mengkaji kefahaman warga pendidik tentang bagaimana menggunakan SKPM 2010 untuk meningkatkan keberkesanan kaedah penyampaian pengajaran mereka dalam bilik darjah. Penghayatan serta kefahaman warga pendidik tentang aspek kaedah penyampaian juga menjadi isu utama pihak JNJK semasa pemeriksaan sekolah. PURPOSE OF STUDY The purpose of this study is to highlight the problems faced by Malaysian school inspectors as quality assurance organizations and discuss ways of solving the problems with the view of improving the quality of education in Malaysia. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES 1. To identify the basic responsibilities of school inspectors appointed by the Malaysian Ministry of Education. 2. To examine and investigate the hindrances to effective performance of the school inspectors. 3. To investigate ways on improving the performance of school inspectors. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The importance of this study corresponds with the recent evolution in the Malaysian educational system and the alarming findings by TIMSS and PISA results of survey. Hence, it is crucially important that Malaysian school inspectors as the guardian of standard or custodian of quality in education play they key role in guarding the standard of educational quality in the country. RESEARCH QUESTIONS In the light of determining difficulties faced by Malaysian school inspectors and identifying ways to improve performance, this study sought to explore answers to these three questions: 1. What are the basic responsibilities of Malaysian school inspectors? 2. What are the hindrances to effective performance of the duties mentioned in question 1? 3. In what ways can the performance of school inspectors can be improved? RESEARCH METHODOLOGY  Qualitative method of research POPULATION / SAMPLE Malaysian school inspectors (Jemaah Nazir & Jaminan Kualiti, Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia) RESEARCH INSTRUMENT 1. Interviews 2. Document Analysis 3. Observations 4. School Inspectorate System of Information (E-Nazir)
  • 4. 4 CHAPTER ONE 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Education plays a central role in any country’s pursuit of economic growth and national development. Education in Malaysia is significantly seen as a major contributing determinant that help mould and build the progress and development of our nation. In today’s global economy, a nation’s success depends fundamentally on the knowledge, skills and competencies of its people. In recent years, the Malaysian Educational system has gone under increased public scrutiny and debate, as parents’ expectations rise and employers voice their concern regarding the system’s ability to adequately prepare young Malaysians for the challenges of the 21st century. This contributes to the need for ambitious actions which are seen both important and urgent. Today’s educational system in Malaysia has indeed experienced several major transformations in line with the vast changes in economic, cultural and political aspects. As the Minister of Education YAB Tan Sri Dato Hj. Muhyidin Mohd Yassin pointed out in Berita Harian dated on 25th April 2012, there are nine key areas that will be focused upon in the formulation of Malaysia Education Blueprint 2013-2025 and the Strategic Plan of Education. One of the prominent key area mentioned is related with the delivery system in education which is hoped to be able to create an effective and outstanding ‘check and balance’ mechanism. This is thereby consistent with the objective of Malaysia Educational Blueprint which aims to develop a system which is able to evaluate the performance of Malaysia’s current education system with considerations of historical starting points against international benchmarks as in TIMSS and PISA. All these aspects mentioned therefore create a critical need for Malaysian learners to receive desirable qualities of education as this contributes and determines the level of development of the nation in the long run. This is supported by Agentha (2006) stating that trained and educated human resource constitutes manpower and personnel that bring about progressive national development. There has been a public concern over the decline of the standard and quality of the Malaysian educational system specifically as indicated by the recent study in the area of public examinations and the performance of education outputs held by TIMS and PISA. Historically, the Malaysian education system has emphasised the development of strong content knowledge in subjects such as Science, Mathematics and languages. As stated in the Malaysia Education Blueprint 2013-2025 this is however, increasing global recognition that is no longer enough for a student to leave school with three Rs (Reading, wRiting & aRithmetic). The emphasis is no longer just on the importance of knowledge, but also on developing high-order thinking skills. While Malaysian studens’t performance has improved over several decades, those remarkable gains may be at risk in both relative an absolute terms. Firstly, other systems in other countries are improving student performance more rapidly, and have found ways to sustain that momentum. The gap between Malaysia’s system and those others is therefore growing. Secondly, international assessments suggest that Malaysian student performance is declining in absolute terms. Over the past two decades, international student assessments, such as the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), have emerged as a means of directly comparing the quality of educational outcomes
  • 5. 5 across different systems. These assess the variety of cognitive skills such as application and reasoning. When Malaysia first participated in TIMSS in 1999, its average student score was higher than the international average in both Mathematics and Science. By 2011, the last published cycle of results, the system’s performance had slipped to below the international average in both subjects with a clear drop in ranking. Critically, 35% and 38% of Malaysia’s students failed to meet the minimum proficiency level in Mathematics and Science in 2011, a two to fourfold increase from 7% and 13% respectively in 1999. These students were identified as possessing only limited mastery of basic mathematical and scientific concepts. While the most recent TIMSS and PISA results are a cause for concern among educational stakeholders, there are still numerous factors determining the level of performance in the school system especially the quality of the input and school process variables. Ochuba (2008) cited that goals of education can only be achieved with a well -organized school system that will ensure that all aspects of school life are well articulated and effectively co-ordinated. As stated by Malaysian Minister of Education earlier, for the education industry to carry out its functions of developing quality human capital, there is a dire need for checks and balances by regular and effective supervision and inspection. Wilcox (2000) defined inspection as the process of accessing the quality and performance of educational institutions, services, programmes and projects by those (inspectors) who are not directly involve in them and who are specifically appointed to fulfil these responsibilities. The Malaysian Congregation of Inspectorate under the Ministry of Education is an organization directly responsible for the inspections and quality control of standards in institutions below the tertiary level. The Education Act 1996 of sub section 117(a), (b), (c), (d) and sub section 121 outlined the responsibilities to this organization to ensure the existence and maintenance of teaching and learning standards of schools in Malaysia. In realization of the significance maintaining standards in education practice nationwide, in 2008 the Malaysian Congregation of Inspectorate or also commonly known as Jemaah Nazir dan Jaminan Kualiti emerged with a new systematic mechanism aimed to set a standardized quality descriptors known as Standard Tinggi Kualiti Pendidikan (STKP). Throughout years of research and studies, the quality descriptors has evolved and based on the recent Educational Transformation and National Key Result Areas (NKRA), the standard of quality descriptors is now known as Standard Kualiti Pendidikan Malaysia (SKPM). 1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT The school inspectorate has always played a key role in the Malaysian educational system, particularly as regards quality control, implementation of policy, and monitoring of such implementation, and the modernization and co-ordination of education. The inspectorate is in fact the highest educational authority in frequent direct contact with daily reality of schools and classes. Administratively, school inspectorate answers and reports directly to the Minister of Education and executive committee within the Ministry of Education. This centralised control permits a certain co- ordination between inspectors in different forms, services and levels of education. In spite of the recognition of the potential contributions instructional supervision can make towards strengthening teacher quality and revitalising education, a literature research reveals that little has been done to investigate empirically the extent to which instructional supervisory responsibilities are being carried out.
  • 6. 6 Conversely, various studies have been conducted with regards to the issues of school inspections and teachers’ perceptions towards the role played by Inspectors of School. However, it is found that there has been no study done relating the aspect of school inspection with the recent alarming findings in TIMSS and PISA as well as the urgent need for effective school supervisions as outlined by the recently launched Malaysia Education Blueprint (2013-2025) by the Ministry of Education. As evidenced in the alarming TIMSS and PISA recent findings, the standard of education is continually declining leading to the production of low quality output who are feared of being unable to contribute to societal development. Education stakeholders have blamed the quality assurance organization (School Inspectorate) for the failing standard. The assumptions is that schools are not regularly inspected and that the quality of inspection is below expectations. The result of these inadequacies is that the quality of instruction in schools has progressively declined as evidenced in the poor performance of students in the TIMSS and PISA surveys as well as in examinations and graduates in their work places. This study is therefore aims to investigate the roles of school inspectors in Malaysia, specifically in Sabah. To further stipulate, it seeks to examine the knowledge of school inspectors on their basic responsibilities, hindrances to effective performance of their duties and leadership, as well as strategies for improvement. 1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES The main purpose of this study is therefore to determine and identify the problems and difficulties faced by school inspectors as the appointed quality assurance organization by the Ministry of Education and discuss ways of solving the problems with a view to improve the quality of education in Malaysia. To specify, the objectives of this study are: 1.3.1 To identify the basic responsibilities of School Inspectors appointed by the Malaysian Ministry of Education. 1.3.2 To examine and investigate the hindrances to effective performance of the School Inspectors. 1.3.3 To resolve the means and ways on improving the performance of School Inspectors. 1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS In the light of determining the difficulties faced by Malaysian school inspectors and identifying ways for improvement in terms of performance, this study is aimed to explore the answers to these three significant research questions: 1.4.1 What are the basic responsibilities of School Inspectors in Malaysia? 1.4.2 What are the hindrances to effective performance of the duties mentioned in question 1? 1.4.3 In what ways can the performance of School Inspectors be improved upon?
  • 7. 7 15. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY From a general perspective, this study is important because the provision of quality education is a priority of the nation and school inspectors are acknowledged as the custodian of quality in education. This study strives to identify the responsibilities and factors affecting the hindrances to effective performance of Malaysian school inspectors. It is also important to note that it further aims to highlight the ways in which the practices and performances of school inspectors can be improved. For the education system to be improved upon, the need for efficient and charismatic school inspectors is therefore crucially vital. As it is the responsibility of school inspectors as the guardian of standard or custodian of quality (avant-garde) to ensure the level of quality and performance in schools, it is consequently precise that schools inspectors be well equipped with appropriate attribute as well as aptitude in facing the recent challenges in the educational system. The importance of this study also corresponds with the recent development and requirement in the Malaysian educational system which emphasized on the excellence of student academic performances as well as the teaching-learning processes in classrooms which is seen as the major contributing determinants for quality in education. In this respect, suffice to note that this study is apparently beneficial to school inspectors of Jemaah Nazir and Jaminan Kualiti, teachers, school administrators, education officers as well as to the Ministry of Education. By providing findings that could be used to improve supervisory practices, this study could contribute to the world knowledge of practice especially within the context of Malaysian educational system. In this light, this study seeks to create awareness of the roles and challenges faced by the school inspectorate in Malaysia. 1.5 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The function and role of Malaysian inspectorate in the educational system are indeed broad, thereby this study is limited in investigating and examining the basic responsibilities of school inspectors in the state of Sabah. Equally important is the exploration of the hindrances affecting effective performance of schools inspectors in Sabah and ways to improve them. This study is focussed and limited to Malaysian school inspectors of Jemaah Nazir dan Jaminan Kualiti, Ministry of Education to generalize findings. However, the entire population in JNJK will not be used , as such, a proportional random sample will be drawn from the population of interest which will consists of school inspectors in the state of Sabah. Therefore, the data realized will be subjected to the limitations of the sample. 1.6 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Creswell (2014) highlighted that research methodology refers to the overall decision involves which approach should be employed by a researcher to study a topic. He further added that this includes selecting the philosophical assumptions to be brought into the study, procedures of inquiry and specific research methods of data collection, analysis and interpretation. It is also specified that the selection of a research approach is also based on the nature of the research problem or issue being explored, the researcher’s personal experiences and the audiences for the study.
  • 8. 8 Hence, in this study I will draw my own experiences as one of the Ministry of Education’s appointed school inspectors to best investigate and explore the issues being addressed by employing qualitative methodology of research. Three study themes will be chosen in line with the research questions, namely; i. Duties of the school inspectors ii. Hindrances to effective inspection of schools iii. Strategies for improving the performance of school inspectors 1.7 POPULATION AND SAMPLE The participants of this study are school inspectors appointed by the Malaysian Ministry of Education in the state of Sabah. Data collection will be in the form of interviews and Focus Group Discussion held with the two groups of school inspectors.  The twenty (20) Sabah state inspectors comprising Chief Inspector and Vice Chief of Inspector of the state.  The five (5) school inspectors in the state branch of Keningau district in Sabah. The discussions with the state school inspectors will take place during one of their meetings in the state of Sabah headquarters while that of the branch school inspectors will take place in their offices respectively. 1.8 DATA ANALYSIS In the light of reducing the problem of data over load characteristic in this qualitative analysis, a summary of the significant feature of focus in the study is going to be discussed and presented. The qualitative data collected from the participants is going to be stratificated and presented in three themes mentioned earlier : Duties of school inspectors, Hindrances to effective inspection of schools and Strategies for improving the performance of school inspectors.
  • 9. 9 REFERENCES Creswel, J.W. (2014). Research Design : Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches.University of Nebraska,Lincoln.Sage Publications. Agentha, J.A. (2006). Human Resource Development and Planning in Nigeria. Second Faculty of Education Distinguish Lecture Series, University of Benin, Benin City. Ochuba, V.O.(2008). Participants’ perceptions about the effectiveness of a Federal Ministry of Education workshop on capacity building for inspectors of education in Nigeria. Benin Journal of Gender Studies, 1(I),76-85.