About Meaning “ A meaning is generated by sign” About Sign ? “ Anything that tells us about something other than itself is a sign” Before Going Into the Subject....
Types of Meaning Intrinsic Inherent or essential meaning (direct connection of ourself to the universe) e.g. our physical substance and the universe & schemata Extrinsic Meaning based on convention (we are anything but passive receptors of outside stimuli, but always perceive them according to a former expectation) e.g. Language shapes both our thought and knowledge of reality (Whorf) “ The limit of my language is the limit of my world” Wittgenstein Meaning could be achieved through: Opposition or Association
Types of Signs Index Points to something (indicators, the word ‘big’, arrow etc.) Symbol Stand in place of an object (flags, door signs etc.) Icon Stand in place of an object (flags, door signs etc.)
Types of Signs Signifier Material aspect of sign
The mental concept of a sign
There are two types of signified:
Denotative-referent to the real object
Connotative-justification beyond the object
Sign : Area of Study ? Semantics Referring to meaning of sign: Relationship of sign to object they represent Syntactics How things are arranged together: Relationship of sign-vehicle within sign system Pragmatics Language used and its context: relationship of sign to interpreters Areas of investigation (as identified by Charles Morris)
Semiotics the study of signs and symbols and their use or interpretation Through semiotics, one could identify: Mnemonic meaning Relationships of signs Production of signs Functions of signs System and process underlaying signification Expression, representation and communication Identity
Semiotics Triangle Thought Content Concept Signified Symbol Form Word Signifier Referent Percept Denotatum Thing Source: Jenks, Charles, and George Baird ( 1969).
Architecture is not a language but works like one. This is manifested through the use of metaphors, symbols and analogy The new field of architecture which is based on the system of linguistics is known as “ Archististics” A bit about Architecture...
Linguistics: Choice of reading is more influenced by context of sentence and subcode of reader ( setting and subcode ) Architecture: Choice of reading is of the opposite. It is influenced by subcode of reader and context of sentence ( Architectural subcode and setting ) The Difference Between Architecture And Linguistics...
inseparable from the media campaigns conducted construct (and constrict)
their interpretation. new self-consciousness about building city symbols
( Examples: Sydney’s Opera House- ( new Self Consciousness) and Chandigarh (India) ,
Brasília (Brazil) and Three Gorges Dam (China) - ( National Symbols such as national symbols of modernity and arrival)
For most regimes, however, the challenge to construct forward-reaching symbols has been matched by an equally pressing need to build links to the past. This process of city-imaging (and nation-imaging) involves the construction of visually enhanced narratives of an idealised heritage designed to serve an equally idealised future
Based on ‘authority defined social reality’ -
as opposing to “everyday defined” (See Ibrahim, Zawawi (1998)
What is ‘Malay’ and what is ‘Islam’- give interpretation
The irony of being the ‘other’- The case of a mistaken interpretation
“ Visiting Putrajaya at night on a festive occasion and sometimes on weekend can be mistaken for a night-
out in Dubai or any of the Gulf states in the Middle East” Mahmood, Zari (2005: 20)
Suggested Reading A.B., Shamsul, ed. Debating About Identity in Malaysia: A Discourse Analysis . Edited by Zawawi Ibrahim, Cultural Contestations: Mediating Identities in a Changing Malaysian Society . London: ASEAN Acedemic Press Ltd., 1998. Abel, Chris. Architecture and Identity: Responses to Cultural and Technological Change . 2nd. Edition ed. Oxford: Architectural Press, 2000. Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities . Revised Edition ed. London: Verso, 1991. Architecture, The Aga Khan Award for. "Architecture and Identity." Paper presented at the Exploring Architecture in Islamic Cultures 1, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 1983 July 25-27, 1983. Barthes, Roland. Mythologies . London: Vintage, 2000 . ——— . Empire of Signs . Translated by Richard Howard. London: Jonathan Cape, 1970. Bhabha, Homi K. "Interrogating Identity: The Post Colonial Prerogative." In Identity: A Reader , edited by Paul du Gay, Jessica Evans and Peter Redman, 94-101. London: SAGE Publications Ltd., 2000. Broadbent, Geoffrey, Richard Bunt, and Charles Jencks. Signs, Symbols, and Architecture . Bath: John Wiley & Sons, 1980. Cobley, Paul, and Litza Jansz. Introducing Semiotics . Cambridge: Icon Books Ltd., 1997. Doshi, Balakrishna. "Cultural Continuum and Regional Identity in Architecture." Paper presented at the Regionalism in Architecture, Singapore 1985.
Suggested Reading Eco, Umberto. "Function and Sign: The Semiotics of Architecture." In Rethinking Architecture: A Reader in Cultural Theory , edited by Neil Leach, 182-202. London: Routledge, 1997. Hillenbrand, Robert. "Islamic Architecture: Form, Function and Meaning." (1994). Ibrahim, Zawawi. "Cultural Contestations: Mediating Identities in a Changing Malaysian Society." (1998): 204. Lim, Jimmy C.S. "The Rites of the Tropics." In Asian Architects 1 , edited by Tan Kok Meng, 187-208. Singapore: Select Books, 2000. Loomba, Ania. "Colonialism/Postcolonialism." (1998): 289. Mohamad Rasdi, Mohamad Tajuddin. "Malaysian Architecture: Crisis Within." (2005). Nasir, Abdul Halim. Seni Bina Masjid Di Dunia Melayu-Nusantara . Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia: Penerbitan Universiti Kebangsaan Malayia, 1995. Preziosi, Donald. Architecture, Language, and Meaning . The Hague: Mouton Publishers, 1979. Rose, Gillian. Visual Methodologies . London: SAGE Publications Ltd, 2001. Rossi, Aldo. The Architecture of the City . New York: The MIT Press, 1982.
Where do you stand? Ask your construct and strengthen your epistemology