Bridges, Collection by Dr. Aziz I. Abdulla

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Dridge Type, history, and design criteria
Collection
By Prof. Dr. Aziz I. Abdulla
Tikrit University

Published in: Design, Technology
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Bridges, Collection by Dr. Aziz I. Abdulla

  1. 1. Bridge ConstructionBridge Construction ‫الرحيم‬ ‫الرحمن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫بسم‬‫الرحيم‬ ‫الرحمن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫بسم‬
  2. 2. FUNCTION OF A BRIDGEFUNCTION OF A BRIDGE To connect twoTo connect two communities which arecommunities which are separated by streams,separated by streams, valley, railroads, etc.valley, railroads, etc. • Built in 1973Built in 1973 • Total length is 5000 ftTotal length is 5000 ft Bosporus Straits BridgeBosporus Straits Bridge at Istanbul, Turkey –at Istanbul, Turkey –
  3. 3. COMPONENTS OF A BRIDGECOMPONENTS OF A BRIDGE • Deck or Slab:Deck or Slab: supported roadway on abridgesupported roadway on abridge • Beam or Girder:Beam or Girder: A rigid, usually horizontal,A rigid, usually horizontal, structural elementstructural element • Abutment:Abutment: The outermost end supports on aThe outermost end supports on a bridge, which carry the load frombridge, which carry the load from the deckthe deck • Pier:Pier: A vertical supporting structure, such as aA vertical supporting structure, such as a pillarpillar • FoundationFoundation
  4. 4. DeckDeck GirderGirder AbutmentAbutment PierPier COMPONENTS OF A BRIDGECOMPONENTS OF A BRIDGE
  5. 5. Small Span BridgesSmall Span Bridges (up to 15m) Medium Span BridgesMedium Span Bridges (up to 50m) Large Span BridgesLarge Span Bridges (50-150m) Extra Large ( Long ) Span BridgesExtra Large ( Long ) Span Bridges (over 150m) Classification according to SpanClassification according to Span
  6. 6. Culvert BridgeCulvert Bridge Slab BridgesSlab Bridges T-Beam BridgeT-Beam Bridge Wood Beam BridgeWood Beam Bridge Pre-cast Concrete Box Beam BridgePre-cast Concrete Box Beam Bridge Pre-cast Concrete I-Beam BridgePre-cast Concrete I-Beam Bridge Rolled Steel Beam BridgeRolled Steel Beam Bridge Small Span BridgesSmall Span Bridges (up to 15m)
  7. 7. Medium Span BridgesMedium Span Bridges (up to 50m) Pre-cast Concrete Box Beam & Pre-cast Concrete I-BeamPre-cast Concrete Box Beam & Pre-cast Concrete I-Beam Composite Rolled Steel Beam BridgeComposite Rolled Steel Beam Bridge Composite Steel Plate Girder BridgeComposite Steel Plate Girder Bridge Cast-in-place RCC Box Girder BridgeCast-in-place RCC Box Girder Bridge Cast-in-place Post-Tensioned Concrete Box GirderCast-in-place Post-Tensioned Concrete Box Girder Composite Steel Box GirderComposite Steel Box Girder
  8. 8. BOX GIRDER
  9. 9. Large Span BridgesLarge Span Bridges (50 to 150m) Composite Steel Plate Girder BridgeComposite Steel Plate Girder Bridge Cast-in-place Post-Tensioned concrete Box GirderCast-in-place Post-Tensioned concrete Box Girder Post-Tensioned Concrete Segmental ConstructionPost-Tensioned Concrete Segmental Construction Concrete Arch and Steel ArchConcrete Arch and Steel Arch
  10. 10. Extra Large (Long) Span BridgesExtra Large (Long) Span Bridges (Over 150m) Cable Stayed BridgeCable Stayed Bridge Suspension BridgeSuspension Bridge
  11. 11. Discussion on Classification According ToDiscussion on Classification According To Structural ArrangementStructural Arrangement •Main Structure Below the Deck LineMain Structure Below the Deck Line •Main Structure Above the Deck LineMain Structure Above the Deck Line •Main Structure coincides with the Deck LineMain Structure coincides with the Deck Line
  12. 12. Main Structure Below the Deck LineMain Structure Below the Deck Line Arch BridgeArch Bridge Masonry ArchMasonry Arch Concrete ArchConcrete Arch Inclined Leg Frame ArchInclined Leg Frame Arch Rigid Frame ArchRigid Frame Arch Truss-Arch BridgeTruss-Arch Bridge Steel Truss-ArchSteel Truss-Arch Steel Deck TrussSteel Deck Truss
  13. 13. Main Structure Above the Deck LineMain Structure Above the Deck Line Suspension BridgesSuspension Bridges Cable Stayed BridgesCable Stayed Bridges Through-Truss BridgeThrough-Truss Bridge
  14. 14. Main Structure Coincides with theMain Structure Coincides with the Deck LineDeck Line Girder BridgeGirder Bridge Slab (solid and voided)Slab (solid and voided) T-Beam (cast-in-place)T-Beam (cast-in-place) I-beam (pre-cast or pre-stressedI-beam (pre-cast or pre-stressed Wide-flange beam (composite & non-Wide-flange beam (composite & non- compositecomposite Concrete Box (cast-in-place, segmentalConcrete Box (cast-in-place, segmental & pre-stressed& pre-stressed Steel Plate Girder (straight & haunched) Steel box (Orthotropic deck)
  15. 15. Components of aComponents of a Girder bridge (Beam Bridge)Girder bridge (Beam Bridge)
  16. 16. TYPES OF BRIDGESTYPES OF BRIDGES •Beam or Girder BridgeBeam or Girder Bridge •Truss BridgeTruss Bridge •Rigid Frame BridgeRigid Frame Bridge •Arch BridgeArch Bridge •Cable Stayed BridgeCable Stayed Bridge •Suspension BridgeSuspension Bridge
  17. 17. GIRDER BRIDGEGIRDER BRIDGE ChesapeakeChesapeake Bay Bridge,Bay Bridge, VirginiaVirginia • Typical span length 30 to 650 ft • World’s longest: Ponte Costa e Silva, Brazil with a center span of 1000 ft
  18. 18. GIRDER BRIDGE
  19. 19. Bridge Cap and DamperBridge Cap and Damper
  20. 20. TRUSS BRIDGETRUSS BRIDGE Firth of Forth Bridge, ScotlandFirth of Forth Bridge, Scotland • Typical span length 150 to 1500 ft • World’s longest: Pont de Quebec, Canada with a center span of 1800 ft
  21. 21. Truss bridge
  22. 22. Truss Bridge
  23. 23. Truss Bridge
  24. 24. Truss Bridge
  25. 25. Truss Bridge
  26. 26. Truss Bridge
  27. 27. RIGID FRAME BRIDGERIGID FRAME BRIDGE •Girders and piers act togetherGirders and piers act together •Cross-sections are usually I-shaped or box-shaped.Cross-sections are usually I-shaped or box-shaped. •Design calculations for rigidDesign calculations for rigid frame bridges are moreframe bridges are more difficult than those of simpledifficult than those of simple girder bridges.girder bridges.
  28. 28. ARCH BRIDGEARCH BRIDGE • After girders, arches are the second oldest bridge type.After girders, arches are the second oldest bridge type. • Arches are good choices for crossing valleys and riversArches are good choices for crossing valleys and rivers • Arches can be one ofArches can be one of the more beautifulthe more beautiful bridge types.bridge types. • Typical span lengthTypical span length 130 ft – 500 ft.130 ft – 500 ft. • World’s longest:World’s longest: New River Gorge Bridge, U.S.A. with a center span ofNew River Gorge Bridge, U.S.A. with a center span of 1700 ft.1700 ft. Larimer Avenue Bridge, PittsburghLarimer Avenue Bridge, Pittsburgh
  29. 29. ARCH BRIDGE
  30. 30. ARCH BRIDGE
  31. 31. ARCH BRIDGE
  32. 32. ARCH BRIDGEARCH BRIDGE
  33. 33. CABLE STAYED BRIDGECABLE STAYED BRIDGE Normandie BridgeNormandie Bridge • Continuous girder withContinuous girder with one or more towersone or more towers erected above in theerected above in the middle of the span.middle of the span. • From these towersFrom these towers cables stretch downcables stretch down diagonally and supportdiagonally and support the girder.the girder. • Typical span lengthTypical span length 350 to 1600 ft.350 to 1600 ft. • World’s largest bridge:World’s largest bridge: Tatara Bridge, JapanTatara Bridge, Japan center span: 2900 ft.center span: 2900 ft. Different to suspension the cable straightDifferent to suspension the cable straight
  34. 34. SUNSHINE SKYWAY BRIDGE, USA Completion Date: 1987 Cost: $244 Million Length: 29,040 feet Type: Cable Stayed Materials: Steel, Concrete Span: 1200 feet
  35. 35. SUSPENSION BRIDGESUSPENSION BRIDGE • Continuous girder withContinuous girder with one or more towersone or more towers erected above in theerected above in the middle of the span.middle of the span. • At both ends of theAt both ends of the bridge, large anchors orbridge, large anchors or counter weights arecounter weights are placed to hold the ends ofplaced to hold the ends of the cables.the cables. • Typical span lengthTypical span length 250 to 3000 ft.250 to 3000 ft. Golden Gate Bridge, CaliforniaGolden Gate Bridge, California
  36. 36. Suspension BridgeSuspension Bridge
  37. 37. Suspension BridgeSuspension Bridge
  38. 38. Suspension BridgeSuspension Bridge
  39. 39. Factors Describe a BridgeFactors Describe a Bridge Four main factors are used in describing a bridge: • Span (simple, continuous, cantilever) • Material (stone, concrete, metal, etc.) • Placement of the travel surface in relation to the structure (deck, through) • Form (beam, arch, truss, etc.).
  40. 40. Basic Span TypesBasic Span Types Simple Span Continuous Span Cantilever Span
  41. 41. LOADS ON BRIDGESLOADS ON BRIDGES • Permanent Loads: remain on the bridge for an extended period of time (self weight of the bridge) • Transient Loads: loads which are not permanent - gravity loads due to vehicular, railway and pedestrian traffic - lateral loads due to water and wind, ice floes, ship collision, earthquake, etc.
  42. 42. VEHICULAR DESIGN LOADS (HL 93)VEHICULAR DESIGN LOADS (HL 93) • AASHTO – American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials This model consists of: • Design Truck • Design Tandem • Design Lane
  43. 43. 145 kN 145 kN 35 kN 4.3 to 9.0 m 4.3 m 9.3 N/m DESIGN TRUCK DESIGN TRUCKDESIGN TRUCK
  44. 44. 110 kN 110 kN 9.3 N/m 1.2 m DESIGN TANDEM DESIGN TANDEMDESIGN TANDEM
  45. 45. DESIGN PRINCIPLESDESIGN PRINCIPLES Resistance ≥ effect of the applied loads Strength of the Member ≥ Factor of Safety x Applied Load Allowable Stress Design (ASD): Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD): η ∑γiQi ≤ φi Rn Where, Qi = Effect of loads Rn = Nominal resistance γi = Statistically based resistance factor applied to the force effects φi = Statistically based resistance factor applied to the nominal resistance
  46. 46. MATERIALS FOR BRIDGESMATERIALS FOR BRIDGES • Concrete • Steel • Wood
  47. 47. CONCRETE BRIDGESCONCRETE BRIDGES • Raw materials of concrete: cement, fine aggregate coarse aggregate, water • Easily available • can be designed to satisfy almost any geometric alignment, straight to curved • can be cast-in-place or precast • Compressive strength of concrete range from 5000 psi to 8500 psi • Reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete
  48. 48. STEEL BRIDGESSTEEL BRIDGES • Minimum construction depth • Rapid construction • Steel can be formed into any shape or form • Predictable life • Ease of repair and demolition
  49. 49. WOOD BRIDGESWOOD BRIDGES • Convenient shipping to the job site • Relatively light, lowering transportation and initial construction cost • Light, can be handled with smaller construction equipment • Approx. 12% of the bridges in US are wood bridges • Commonly used for 20-80 ft span
  50. 50. Wood Bridge onWood Bridge on Concrete AbutmentsConcrete Abutments Three Span WoodThree Span Wood BridgeBridge
  51. 51. GIRDER CROSS-SECTIONSGIRDER CROSS-SECTIONS COMMONLY USED IN BRIDGESCOMMONLY USED IN BRIDGES
  52. 52. COLLAPSE OF BRIDGESCOLLAPSE OF BRIDGES • Poor design • Inadequate stability of the foundation • Fatigue cracking • Wind forces • Scour of footing •Earthquake
  53. 53. BeforeBefore CollapseCollapse After CollapseAfter Collapse
  54. 54. AKASHI KAIKYO BRIDGE, JAPAN Completion Date: 1998 Cost: $4.3 billion Length: 12,828 feet Type: Suspension Materials: Steel Span: 6,527 feet
  55. 55. NEW RIVER GORGE BRIDGE, USA Completion Date: 1978 Cost: $37 Million Length: 4,224 feet Type: Arch Materials: Steel Span: 1700 feet
  56. 56. THANK YOUTHANK YOU

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