My Ideological Stance inContent Area Instruction Aziza Abdul Kareem EDUC 505 Dr. Nelli
Background of Students• Business, Science, Mathematics, and Technology High School in urban setting.• Ninth grade class ages range from 14-17.• Students come from low socioeconomic background.• Reading and writing abilities of students varies.• Active learners who prefer group work and very opinionated.
Learning OutcomeAs a result of classroom instruction students will be able to constructknowledge about the application of multiple reading strategies whiledeciphering when and how to utilize comprehension techniquesthrough engagement with texts. Implementation of this learningoutcome will result from a dialectical constructivist model whichemphasizes the teachers’ ability to anticipate student’s needs byproviding strategies that serve as a scaffold to reading awareness,supervising the learning process through modeling exercises, andguiding student’s understanding as they internalize the model providedin creation of their own comprehension techniques (Pressley, Harris, &Marks 1992).
Critical Thinking & Academic LanguageCritical thinking is supported through the continued interaction betweenthe student and the classroom environment. Acquisition of newknowledge and reorganization of what is already known (e.g., White,1959) is motivated by the gap between current understanding and theunderstanding required to comprehend the world as it is (Pressley,Harris, and Marks 1992). In turn, academic language stemming fromthe social science discipline is developed through group discussionand explicit instruction such as think aloud or guided practice usingmorphemic analysis (word chunking), context clues (use of context tointerpret reading), and key concepts (general class linked by acommon element or idea) (Vacca, Vacca, & Mraz 2011).
Ideological StanceMy ideological stance is based upon three concepts:promotion of intellectual social justice or the abilityto make intelligent claims that counter authorityfigures’ beliefs, open minded acquisition of learningor the ability to consider opposing views, andencouraging students’ critical judgment in theanalysis of ideas and comments faced in texts whilesupporting claims with evidence.
Goal Academic Literacy•Academic Literacy involves becoming proficient in reading and writingwhile developing characteristic methods of acting, interacting, valuing,feeling, dressing, thinking, believing with other people and various objects,tools, and technologies (Gee 2012 pg. 152).•Access to Social Science Enduring Understandings comprises academiclanguage proficiency which requires students use linguistic skills tointerpret and infer meaning from oral and written language; discernprecise meaning and information from text, relate ideas and information,recognize the conventions of various genres, and enlist a variety oflinguistic strategies on behalf of a wide range of communicative purposes(Dutro & Moran 2003 pgs. 230-231).
Challenge• Elliot (2008) suggests, that the “critical analysis of the relationship between belief and practice is fundamental to teaching, yet many educators do not see it as imperative” (pg. 210).• The tension between use of reading strategies and student construction of social science enduring understandings is based upon the teacher’s ability to implement techniques that provide students with competencies while grappling with complex vocabularies, and developing necessary skills in the areas of analysis and synthesis of ideas. In other words, although reading strategies are implemented in instructional practices, this is not an indication that students know how to use these techniques independently.
Pedagogical Approaches• Cooperative Learning• Modeling• Active Literacy
Cooperative Learning• Cooperative groups facilitate active participation and should be a primary form of classroom organization when teachers bring students together to comprehend texts (Vacca, Vacca, & Mraz pg. 152).• Based on the social constructivist theory in which the collective efforts of students impose meaning on the world (Ormrod, 2011 pg. 221).• Equity and Access occurs when students’ zone of proximal development includes learning and problem solving with assistance from more competent adults and peers (Ormrod, 2011).• Social Science enduring understanding is achieved through positive interdependence, individual accountability, equal participation, and simultaneous interaction (Kagan, 1998).Examples:Jigsaw Groups Group InvestigationLearning Circles Group Retellings
Modeling• Modeling of academic skills can be especially effective when the model demonstrates not only how to do a task but also how to think about a task (Ormrod, 2011 pg. 330).• Based upon the social cognitive views of learning cognitive modeling helps students learn many academic skills, at least in part, by observing what others do (Ormrod, 2011 pg. 330).• Equity and access occurs through the use of demonstrations, integration of technology, and use of think aloud to provide follow up assistance to students with varying needs (Vacca, Vacca, & Mraz 2011 pg. 129).• Social Science enduring understanding is achieved through making predictions or showing students how to develop hypothesis, describing visual images, sharing an analogy which links prior knowledge with new information, verbalizing confusing points, demonstrating fix-up strategies(Alaska Department of Education & Early Development Instructional Methods). Examples: Think-Aloud, Modeling with Explicit Strategy
Active Literacy• Active literacy involves what a teacher does before, during, and after reading (B-D-A) as a crucial, active, and purposeful component of reading (Vacca, Vacca, & Mraz 2011 pg. 131).• Based upon the constructivist theory students take many separate pieces of information from before, during, and after reading activities to build an overall understanding or interpretation (Ormrod, 2011 pg. 218).• Equity and access is achieved through assignments that allow students to process content from multiple perspectives (Vacca, Vacca, & Mraz 2011 pg. 283).• Social Studies enduring understanding is developed through generating questions, summarizing, clarifying text, and predicting. Examples: Anticipation Guide, Double Entry Journals, and Exit Slips
ConclusionIn conclusion, use of the three pedagogical practices ofcooperative learning, modeling, and active literacyprovides the necessary scaffold for students’comprehension and acquisition of literacy strategies. Inturn students will develop skills necessary for academiclanguage development and content understanding.Through collaborative interactions meaningful learningtakes place as a result of collective metacognition.
ReferencesAlaska Department of Education & Early Development Instructional Methods Retrieved on 11/21/12http://www.eed.state.ak.us/tls/frameworks/sstudies/part3a5.htmDutro, S. & Moran, C. (2003). Rethinking English Language Instruction: An Architectural Approach. In G. Garcia (ed.) In English Learners: Reachingthe Highest Level of English Literacy. Intl Reading Assoc., Pgs. 227-258.Elliot, P. (2008). Mapping the Terrain(s) of Ideology in New Urban Teachers’ Professional Development Experiences. In L. Bartolome (Ed.)Ideologies in Education: Unmasking the Trap of Teacher Neutrality. Peter Lang. Pgs. 208-228.Gee, J. (2012). Discourses and literacies. Social linguistics and literacies: Ideology in discourses (4 th ed.) (pp. 147-178). New York, NY:Routledge.Kagan, S. (1998). New cooperative learning, multiple intelligences, and inclusion. In J.W. Putnam and R. W. Slavin (Eds.), Cooperative learningand strategies for inclusion: Celebrating diversity in the classroom (pp. 105-136). Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing.Pressley, M., Harris, K., & Marks, B. M. But good strategy instructors are constructivist! Educational Psychology Review, Vol 4., No. 1, 1992Ormrod, J.E. (2011). Educational Psychology: Developing Learners (7th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J. Pearson.Vacca, Richard T., Vacca, Jo Anne L., and Mraz, MaryAnn. Content Area Reading: Literacy and learning across the curriculum. Boston: PearsonEducation, Inc. 10th Edition 2011