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Urbanization at global level and in india
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Urbanization at global level and in india Urbanization at global level and in india Presentation Transcript

  • URBANIZATION ATGLOBAL LEVEL AND ININDIA AZIZ KHAN TANVI GUJRATHI AKSHATA HASE SWAPNIL KANSE NIKHIL MEHTA
  • INTRODUCTION URBANIZATION REFERS TO THE PROPORTION OF PEOPLE IN LIVING IN CITIES. IT ALSO REFERS TO THE PROCESS IN WHICH RURAL POPULATIONS MOVE TO URBAN AREAS. URBANIZATION REFERS TO ALL OF THE CITIES IN A COUNTRY, CONSIDERED AS AN URBAN SYSTEM.
  • INTRODUCTION URBANIZATION IS CLOSELY LINKED TO MODERNIZATION, INDUSTRAILIZATION, SOCIOLOGICAL PROCESS. URBANIZATION CAN BE DEFINE AS THE PROPORTION OF TOTAL POPULATION OR AREA IN CITIES OR TOWNS, THE TERM CAN DESCRIBE THE INCREASE OF THIS PROPORTION OVER TIME. SO IT CAN REPRESENT THE
  • URBANIZATION SCENARIO ININDIA INDIA’S CITIES ARE EXPANDING ON A LARGER SCALE AND AT A FASTER PACE THAN EVER BEFORE. TO DATE, THOUGH, THE COUNTRY HAS AVOIDED DEALING WITH THE HARD QUESTIONS ABOUT HOW BEST TO MANAGE ITS MASSIVE URBANIZATION. MANAGED POORLY, INDIA’S CITIES WILL FALL FURTHER INTO DECAY AND GRIDLOCK,
  • URBANIZATION SCENARIO IN INDIA HANDLED WELL, THIS URBAN EXPANSION WILL BE THE KEY TO INDIA’S CONTINUING ECONOMIC SUCCESS. A LACK OF EFFECTIVE POLICIES TO MANAGE URBANIZATION COULD JEOPARDIZE INDIA’S GDP (GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT)GROWTH RATE. BUT INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE SHOWS THAT INDIA COULD TURN ITS CITIES AROUND IN A DECADE. IF THE COUNTRY MAKES AND EXECUTES THE RIGHT POLICY CHOICES, IT COULD BOOST ANNUAL GDP BY 1 TO 1.5 PERCENTAGE POINTS. WITH RAPIDLY INCREASING POPULATION IN THE URBAN AREAS, URBANIZATION HAS EMERGED AS ONE OF THE MOST SERIOUS CHALLENGES BEFORE THE PLANNERS.
  • PROBLEMS IN URBANIZATION SOURCE OF LIGHTING- PERCENTAGE OF HOUSEHOLDS HAVING AN ELECTRIC SOURCE OF ENERGY IS MUCH HIGHER THAN IN THE RURAL AREAS, THEY HAD TO DEPEND ON OTHER SOURCES LIKE KEROSENE. AVAILABILITY OF EDUCATION FACILITIES -IN THE URBAN AREAS IS ALSO A KEY AREA, PARTICULARLY FOR THE POOR. THE POORER SECTIONS FIND IT HARD TO HAVE THE BASIC EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES. THE
  • PROBLEMS IN URBANIZATION HEALTHCARE FACILITIES-LACK OF GOOD HEALTHCARE FACILITIES IS ALSO AN AREA OF SERIOUS CONCERN. MORE THAN HALF OF INDIA’S URBAN POOR CHILDREN ARE UNDERWEIGHT AND THE STATE OF UNDER-NUTRITION IN URBAN AREAS IS WORSE THAN IN THE RURAL AREAS. THERE ARE SERIOUS GAPS IN THE AVAILABILITY OF INFRASTRUCTURE FACILITIES IN URBAN AREAS LIKE:- 1) ROADS ARE GETTING CONGESTED WITH MORE AND MORE NEW VEHICLES .
  • SOURCES OFURBANIZATION THE URBAN SYSTEM OF A COUNTRY GROWS MAINLY BY: 1. NATURAL POPULATION INCREASE (BIRTHS – DEATHS). 2. MIGRATION FROM RURAL AREAS (ESPECIALLY IN COUNTRIES WITH LARGE RURAL POPULATIONS). 3. IMMIGRATION FROM OTHER COUNTRIES (ESPECIALLY IN EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA). 4. RECLASSIFICATION OF URBAN BOUNDARIES
  • OPPORTUNITIES OF INDIA’SURBANIZATION BY 2030 THE REPORT PROJECTS THAT THE COUNTRY’S URBAN POPULATION WILL SOAR TO 590 MILLION IN 2030, FROM 340 MILLION IN 2008. INDIA’S CITIES COULD GENERATE 70 PERCENT OF THE NET NEW JOBS CREATED BY 2030, PRODUCE MORE THAN 70 PERCENT OF THE COUNTRY’S GDP, AND STIMULATE A NEAR-FOURFOLD INCREASE IN PER CAPITA INCOME. 1) 5 TIMES – THE NUMBER BY WHICH THE GDP WILL HAVE MULTIPLIED BY 2030 2) 590 MILLION PEOPLE WILL HAVE LIVE IN CITIES, NEARLY TWICE THE POPULATION OF UNITED STATES TODAY 3) 270 MILLION PEOPLE NET INCREASE IN WORKING-AGE POPULATION
  • OPPORTUNITIES OF INDIA’SURBANIZATION BY 2030 3) 270 MILLION PEOPLE NET INCREASE IN WORKING- AGE POPULATION 4) 70% OF NET NEW EMPLOYMENT WILL BE GENERATED IN CITIES 5) 91 million urban households will be middle class, up from 22 million today 6) 68 cities will have population of 1 million plus, up from 42 today; Europe has 35 today 7) $1.2 trillion capital investment is necessary to meet projected demand in India’s cities 8)700-900 million square meters of commercial and residential space needs to be built – or a new Chicago every year
  • GOVERNMENT RULE FOR THEIMPROVEMENT OF URBANIZATION FOR THE LAST ABOUT SIX DECADES, THE GOVERNMENT HAS FOCUSED ON RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND RURAL POVERTY ALLEVIATION. BILLIONS OF RUPEES HAVE BEEN SPENT BUT EVEN AFTER 60 YEARS OF CONCENTRATION ON THIS SECTOR, THE ABSOLUTE NUMBER OF RURAL POOR IN THE COUNTRY HAS ACTUALLY INCREASED. THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA, IN DECEMBER 2005, LAUNCHED AN AMBITIOUS PROGRAMME CALLED JAWAHARLAL NEHRU NATIONAL URBAN RENEWAL MISSION (JNNURM), FOR RENEWAL OF INDIAN CITIES ON SUSTAINABLE BASIS. 63 CITIES HAVE BEEN CHOSEN UNDER THE MISSION.
  • OVERALL COUNTRYSCENARIO AREA - 32.56 LAC SQ.KM TOTAL POPULATION(2001) - 1,027,015,247 FUTURE POPULATION - 1531.4 MILLION (2050) URBANPOPULATION - 1148.6 MILLION JUST 3.5 PERCENT OF THE COUNTRY’S
  • POPULATION CHART
  • THANKYOU