“Urban” in India is defined as a human settlement with a minimum population of 5000 persons, with 75% of the male working population engaged in non-agricultural activities and a population density of at least 400 persons per sq. km. Further, all statutory towns having a Municipal Corporation, Municipal Council or Nagar Panchayat as well as a Cantonment Board are classified as “URBAN”
99% of the housing shortage of 24.7 million at the end of the 10th Plan pertains to the Economically Weaker Sections (EWS) and Low Income Groups (LIG) sectors. National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) 61st Round reports that the number of urban poor has risen by 4.4 million persons, between 1993-94 to 2004-05. From 12 in 1981 with 26.8% share of the total urban population, the number of million plus cities has increased to 35 in 2001 with 37% share of the total urban population.
It is important to highlight the fact that the informal sector in urban areas is growing exponentially. In the decade 1991-2001, workers classified as “marginal workers” registered an increase of 360% as compared to an increase of only 23% for workers classified as “main workers.” As a consequence, the ratio of marginal workers to total workers increased from 2.2% in 1991 to 7.9% in 2001 The proportion of female workers to total workers rose from 14.3% in 1991 to 16% in 2001
Itis important to highlight the fact that the informal sector in urban areas is growing exponentially. In the decade 1991-2001, workers classified as “marginal workers” registered an increase of 360% as compared to an increase of only 23% for workers classified as “main workers.” As a consequence, the ratio of marginal workers to total workers increased from 2.2% in 1991 to 7.9% in 2001. The proportion of female workers to total workers rose from 14.3% in 1991 to 16% in 2001
The way to bring about a symbiotic development between rural and urban areas is by adopting “a Regional Planning approach.” In view of the fact that 50% of India’s population is forecasted to be living in urban areas by 2041, it is necessary to develop new integrated townships. Development of sustainable habitat is closely related to the adoption of ‘the Regional Planning approach’ while preparing Master Plans of towns/ cities, District Plans and Regional/Sub-Regional Plans. The new Habitat Policy reaffirms the importance of small and medium urban agglomerates/towns which have potential for future urban growth.
Affordable Housing for All Spotlight on EWS Housing for promoting social inclusion Special focus on SC,ST,BC, Minorities & empowerment of women within ambit of urban poor
The Cooperative Sector The Labour Housing sector The Employee Welfare Housing Sector The Employer Housing Sector ,and The Private Sector
The new policy considers the 74th Amendment Act in terms of preparation of District Plans by District Planning Committees (DPCs) as a vital determinant of systematic urban planning.
Facilitating accessibility to serviced land and housing with focus on economically weaker sections and low income group categories. Suitable restructuring for enabling both institutions at the State and Centre levels as well as the private sector for increasing supply of land.
Addressing the special needs of women headed households, single women, working women and women in difficult circumstances in relation to housing serviced by basic amenities.
Forging strong partnerships between public, private and cooperative sectors for accelerated growth in the Housing Sector and sustainable development of habitat
Developing cities/towns in a manner which promotes a healthy environment, encouraging use of renewable energy resources and ensuring effective solid waste management in collaboration with persons involved in recycling activities. Protecting our cultural heritage and architecture as well as promoting traditional skills with suitable adaptation to modern technologies.
Develop Greenfield towns & integrated urban housing extensions of existing towns with complementary infrastructure or Special Economic Zones (SEZs) with both FDI and national investments in housing and infrastructure. Ensurethat such fully integrated housing projects are well connected by MRTS corridors.
Undertake research to respond to different climatic conditions with a focus on transition from conventional to innovative, cost effective and environment friendly technologies Intensify efforts for transfer of innovative technologies and materials from lab to field
The Central Government will encourage and support the States to prepare a State Urban Housing and Habitat Policy and also a State Urban Housing & Habitat Action Plan In order to augment sustainable and affordable housing stock along with related infrastructure like water, drainage, sanitation, sewerage, solid waste management, electricity and transportation, the Action Plans of States/UTs should focus on accelerated flow of funds for housing (including various cost-effective slum-related options) and infrastructure
The Ministry is introducing a new scheme for providing interest subsidy of 5% on housing loans by banks/HFCs & MFIs for EWS/LIG segments of society for construction of houses It is aimed at providing 400,000 Dwelling Units during the 11th Five Year Plan. The total interest subsidy requirements for the construction of 400,000 houses for EWS/ LIG segments financed during the next 4 years (2008-12) is projected at Rs. 1100 crores.
Total cost of a Low Cost Sanitation Unit with superstructure is pegged at Rs.10,000 in plains & Rs.12500 in hilly or difficult terrains. Subsidy by Central Govt. is 75%; Subsidy by State Govt. is 15%; & Beneficiary contribution is 10%. Strong involvement of NGOs. Adoption of a Citywide Approach. Innovative Sanitation Systems. Allocation of Rs.600 crores for urban areas during the 11th Plan Period.
Mandatory (ULB Level) Mandatory (State Level) Adoption of double entry Implementation of decentralisation system of accounting measures as envisaged in Constitution 74th Amendment Act Introduction of e-Governance Rationalisation of Stamp duty to bring it down to no more than 5% within next 7 years Reform of property tax with GIS-based Tax Mapping Enactment of Community Participation Law to Internal earmarking for basic institutionalise citizen services to the urban poor participation & Area Sabha Provision of basic services to Assigning or associating elected ULBs with “city planning function” urban poor – Accountability platforms for parastatals
Revision of bye-laws to streamline the approval process for construction Simplification of legal and procedural frameworks Introduction of Property Title Certification System in ULBs. Earmarking at least 20-25% of developed land for EWS and LIG category Computerised process of registration of land and property Revision of bye-laws to make water conservation measures in all building Bye- laws for reuse of recycled water Administrative reforms Structural reforms Encouraging private-public partnership
Launching little entrepreneurial boats SEAS : Small Enterprise Advisory Services Advantages of Localisation Advantages of Solidarity : scale of production Matching demand for employment with supply of skilled workers, supervisors and managers Skill Development Mission & Non profit company for promotion of Skill Development : Private Sector Employment.
Model guidelines from the Central Government, States to pass legislation for setting up a State Urban Regulator, Regulator to mediate disputes between ULBs and Parastatals & Regulator to ensure Provision of land at institutional rates for “no profit no loss” housing.
CityDevelopment Plan, Master Plan, Spatial Dimension of Financial Investments, Role of Central ,State and Local Governments & Domestic Investment & FDI
A Tale of Two Cities, The Antyodaya Approach, BSUP Fund of each city & Special Development Plan for the Urban Poor of each city