EMERGENCE OF MODERN ARCHITECTURE BY – CHAITANYA AGRAWAL. BAKULESH BHOGLE. RIDDHI PARMAR.
Modern architecture is a term applied to an period in architectural history during the 20th century, with its exact definition and scope varying widely. Modern architecture began at the turn of the 20th century with advancement and the modernization of efforts to reconcile the principles underlying architectural design with rapid technological society. When compared to that which preceded it, modernism in architecture is broadly characterized by simplification of form and subtraction of ornament from the structure and theme of the building.
Common themes of modern architecture include: "Form follows function", meaning that the result of design should derive directly from its purpose. Simplicity and clarity of forms and elimination of "unnecessary detail" Visual expression of structure (as opposed to the hiding of structural elements) The related concept of "Truth to materials", meaning that the true nature or natural appearance of a material ought to be seen rather than concealed or altered to represent something else. Use of industrially-produced materials; adoption of the machine aesthetic.
There are multiple lenses through which the evolution of modern architecture may be viewed. Some historians see it as a social matter, closely tied to the project of Modernity and thus the Enlightenment. Modern architecture developed, in their opinion, as a result of social and political revolutions. Others see Modern architecture as primarily driven by technological and engineering developments. Still other historians regard Modernism as a matter of taste, the lavish stylistic excesses of architecture.
With the Industrial Revolution, the availability of newly-available building materials such as iron, steel, and sheet glass drove the invention of new building techniques. It was not until the early 1830s that Eaton Hodgkinson introduced the section beam, leading to widespread use of iron construction. A further development was that of the steel-framed skyscraper in Chicago around 1890 by William Le Baron Jenney and Louis Sullivan.
The Congrès Internationaux dArchitecture Moderne (CIAM) would be a force in the shaping Modernist urban planning, and consequently the design of cities and the structures within, from 1928 to 1959. Following its principles, in the late 1950s the entirely- new city of Brasília was built as a new capital for Brazil, designed by Lucio Costa, with prominent works for it designed by Oscar Niemeyer. In the Eastern Bloc, mass housing would take the form of prefabricated panel buildings, such as the Plattenbau of East Germany, Khrushchyovka of Russia and the Panelák of Czechoslovakia.
As the International Style took hold, others architects reacted to or strayed from its the purely functionalist forms, while at the same time retaining highly modernist characteristics. Mid-century modernism, or organic modernism, was very popular, due to its democratic and playful nature. Expressionist exploration of form was revived, such as in the Sydney Opera House in Australia by Jørn Utzon.
Tube architecture :- "a three dimensional space structure composed of three, four, or possibly more frames, braced frames, or shear walls, joined at or near their edges to form a vertical tube-like structural system capable of resisting lateral forces in any direction by cantilevering from the foundation. The first building to apply the tube-frame construction was the DeWitt-Chestnut Apartment Building which Khan designed and was completed in Chicago by 1963.
Chicago, Illinois. IBM Plaza (right), by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
The Salk Institute complex in La Jolla, California, by architect Louis Kahn.
The Bauhaus building at Dessau, designed by Walter Gropius
.National Congress of Brazil, by Oscar Niemeyer, in the modernist-designed city ofBrasilia
Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, New York City, illustrating an example of "NewFormalism"
The Sony Building (formerly AT&T building) in New York City, 1984, by PhilipJohnson
In 2007, the Sydney Opera House by Jørn Utzon was listed as a World Heritage Site.
Modern architecture met with some criticism, which began in the 1960s on the grounds that it seemed universal, elitist, and lacked meaning. The loss of traditionalist structures to make way for new modernist construction, especially via the Urban Renewal movement, led to further criticism.
Architects explored Postmodern architecture which offered a blend of some pre-modern elements, and deliberately sought to move away from rectilinear designs, towards more eclectic styles. High Postmodern aesthetics lacked traction and by the mid-1990s, a new surge of modern architecture once again established international pre-eminence. Although modern and postmodern design compete with a revival of traditional architectural design in commercial and institutional architecture; residential design continues to be dominated by a traditional aesthetic.
In Ancient Architecture their was use of natural resources or readily available materials like stone, sand, etc. But as emergence of modern Architecture started the use of new and different types of materials like steel, cement, etc started. As the emergence started the way and techniques of designing also started changing time to time.