ANALYSIS REPORTBIRTH OFCIVILIZATION
INTRODUCTION      For 100s of 1000s of years humans lived by…         o Hunting         o Fishing      Collecting wild pla...
Lived in Mesopotamia    Developed first among river valley civilizations    Later ruled by Assyrians & BabyloniansThe Egyp...
o Define: CULTURE            What does it include?            What does it not include?  Culture – ways of living built ...
Neolithic AgeKey elements:   o Domestication of animals & plants (i.e. sheep, goats, wheat,     barley) – no longer necess...
o At about this time humans learned how to combine tin & copper to       make BRONZE     o By 3000 B.C.E. urban life & cen...
The Sumerian city of “Ur” rose to dominate portions of the Akkadian    empire (2125 – 2027 B.C.E.)    Babylonia endured an...
o Used several thousand characters       o Geometry & accounting were important types of math in         Mesopotamia.Relig...
o Lower Egypt   o Thanks to geography & climate Egypt was more isolated & secure     than Mesopotamia          As a resul...
 The Pharaoh’s residence moved from Thebes to a new town               just south of Memphis (see map p. 19)             ...
o Why were solar cults so popular?    In art gods & goddesses had human bodies with human or sometimes    animal heads (ex...
The Jewish God did not look like a human or any other creature  The Jewish religion featured strong ethical components    ...
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Birth of civilization

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Transcript of "Birth of civilization "

  1. 1. ANALYSIS REPORTBIRTH OFCIVILIZATION
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION For 100s of 1000s of years humans lived by… o Hunting o Fishing Collecting wild plants Approximately 10,000 years ago, humans learned to do some REVOLUTIONARY things o Cultivating plants o Herding animals o Making air-tight pottery o Some humans could begin living a settled life Approximately 5,000 years ago, humans learned how to control the waters of great river valleys o Results: richer harvests, increases in population People in these river valley societies created the earliest civilizations o Invented writing o Produced metal for tools & weapons o Built towns & cities o Developed complex religions o Created social divisions (kings, priests, soldiers) The Sumerians Emerged around 3500 B.C.E. 2
  3. 3. Lived in Mesopotamia Developed first among river valley civilizations Later ruled by Assyrians & BabyloniansThe Egyptians Emerged around 3100 B.C.E. Lived in the Nile River valley Protected from invasions by the Sahara Desert Influenced by neighboring cultures (i.e. Nubia, Syria-Palestine, Aegean) Birth of Civilization Empires rose & fell in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Asia Minor between 2000-500 B.C.E. o Hittites o Assyrians o Babylonians o PersiansDefining Culture Religion helps define human culture Humans are cultural beings Group Discussion: 3
  4. 4. o Define: CULTURE  What does it include?  What does it not include? Culture – ways of living built up by a group & passed on from one generation to another; language plays a key role in this transmission; culture is learnedPaleolithic Age Early human cultures are defined by the kinds of tools that were in use Paleolithic – Greek for “old stone” tools Date range: 1 Million years ago – 10,000 B.C.E. Key elements: o Making & controlling fire o Acquiring language o Developing religious & magical beliefs (“There is more to the world than meets the eye”) o Learning how to plant & care for seedsNeolithic Age Neolithic – Greek for “new stone” tools Date range: 10,000 B.C.E. – 3100 B.C.E. 4
  5. 5. Neolithic AgeKey elements: o Domestication of animals & plants (i.e. sheep, goats, wheat, barley) – no longer necessary to go out into the wild for food o Invention of pottery – storing, transporting, & cooking food o Emergence of permanent dwellings  Most homes & settlement were small  Exceptions were Catal Hoyuk (Turkey) & Jericho (Syria- Palestine)Bronze AgeDate range: 3100 B.C.E. – 1200 B.C.E. (in the Near East & EasternMediterraneanBegan with the growth of Neolithic towns in river valleys o Tigris-Euphrates o Nile o IndusGrowth of towns resulted in a hierarchy of larger & smaller settlements inthe same regionSome towns became very large cities featuring: o Monumental buildings like temples & fortifications o Metal tools & weapons became common o Social stratification increased o Writing emerged 5
  6. 6. o At about this time humans learned how to combine tin & copper to make BRONZE o By 3000 B.C.E. urban life & centralized states were well established in the Tigris-Euphrates & Nile valleys o Intelligent management of water resources was critical to agricultural success in both these areas o Provided protection from floods o Provided a means for storing waterMesopotamian Civilization Two Ecological Zones: o Babylonia – South of modern Baghdad o Assyria – North of modern Baghdad o Oldest Mesopotamian cities founded by the Sumerians in Babylonia  By 3000 B.C.E. “Uruk” was the world’s largest city (see map p. 10)  1st Kings in history – Northern Babylonia – City of “Kish” 1st Empire in history – Eastern Babylonia o The “Akkadians” (2370 B.C.E.)  Conquered all the Sumerian city-states  Invaded Iran & Syria  A heartland, provinces, & an absolute ruler (good basic definition of an empire) “Sargon” – first & most legendary king of the Akkadians 6
  7. 7. The Sumerian city of “Ur” rose to dominate portions of the Akkadian empire (2125 – 2027 B.C.E.) Babylonia endured an invasion from the NW – The Amorites ruled in Babylon from 2000 – 1800 B.C.E. The Sumerian city of “Ur” rose to dominate portions of the Akkadian empire (2125 – 2027 B.C.E.) Babylonia endured an invasion from the NW – The Amorites ruled in Babylon from 2000 – 1800 B.C.E. A new & powerful king rose in Babylon (1792 – 1750 B.C.E.) o “Hammurabi”  Famous for his codification of laws Society divided by class (i.e. nobles, commoners, slaves) Laws treated classes differently Punishments were generally harsh (i.e. “an eye for an eye”) About 1600 B.C.E., the Babylonian kingdom fell to invaders from the North (non-Mesopotamians)Government in Mesopotamia Sumerians were ruled by monarchs (depicted in art as a military leader, sometimes as a priest) The government & temples owned & cultivated large tracts of land o Manual work done by low class laborers o Exported wool & textiles for metalsWriting & mathematics Sumerians invented a writing system called CUNEIFORM (for ex. see p. 16) 7
  8. 8. o Used several thousand characters o Geometry & accounting were important types of math in Mesopotamia.Religion in Mesopotamia Polytheistic – worshipping many gods & goddesses Visualized in human form Identified with natural phenomena (i.e. sky, storms, water) One important deity assigned to each city Tolerant; accepted the idea that different people might have different gods Inspired the construction of temples called ZIGGURATS o A tower built in stages o Exact purpose unknown o The “Tower of Babel” in the Bible was probably one of these What kind of rights did women enjoy in Mesopotamia? o Owned property o Operated businesses (i.e. taverns, money lending, etc.) o Could recover their dowry if seeking divorce.Egyptian Civilization Centered on a 750 mile stretch of the Nile River Two geographic divisions (p. 19): o Upper Egypt 8
  9. 9. o Lower Egypt o Thanks to geography & climate Egypt was more isolated & secure than Mesopotamia  As a result, Egyptians in general had a more optimistic outlookAncient Egyptian history spans about 3000 years o King Menes (united Upper & Lower Egypt) o Conquest of Alexander the Great (332 B.C.E.)Old Kingdom (2700 – 2200 B.C.E.) o “Pharaoh” – rules as a king & a god o Pharaoh’s rule was based on the ideal of “maat” – a combination of order, justice, & truthOld Kingdom Building Programs: o Old Kingdom pharaohs demonstrated their greatness & proved their devotion through their building programs  The Pyramids – served as pharonic tombs  The “Sphinx” – served as a monument dedicated to the worship of the sunPolitics during the Old Kingdom o Water management was local, not national o Territory was divided into local districts called NOMES1st Intermediate Period (2200 – 2052 B.C.E.) o The Pharaoh’s power waned; local leaders asserted their powerMiddle Kingdom (2052 - 1630 B.C.E.) o Three important changes to royal government 9
  10. 10.  The Pharaoh’s residence moved from Thebes to a new town just south of Memphis (see map p. 19)  Nome structure was clarified  Establishment of a “co-regent”; designed to make the progression of rulers move more smoothly o Foreign policy became more aggressive  Building fortresses in the south to control Nubia  Building fortresses in the north to stop settlers from Syria & Palestine 2nd Intermediate Period (1630 – 1550 B.C.E.) o More internal division (East vs. West)Politics New Kingdom (1550 – 1075 B.C.E.) o Foreign expansion in all directions o *Peak of Egyptian economic & political power o Rulers dug tombs deep into cliffs – “Valley of the Kings” (ex. King Tut)Language & Literature Writing first appeared in Egypt (ca. 3000 B.C.E.) o HIEROGLYPHS – Greek for “sacred carvings”  Consisted of 100s of picture signsRELIGION Three different explanations for creation; each based on the philosophy of a leading city Solar cults & mythologies were highly developed (ex. Re [pronounced “Ra”] – the primary Sun god) 10
  11. 11. o Why were solar cults so popular? In art gods & goddesses had human bodies with human or sometimes animal heads (ex. Anubis had a jackal’s head p. 24) Most Egyptians worshipped at small local shrines o Many believed a wide variety of amulets could ward off evil (ex. scarab or beetle Egyptians did believe in the possibility of life after death o At first only for the pharaoh, gradually became a hope for everyone o Osiris was an important deity in the Egyptian concept of the afterlife o Egyptians believed that the body must be preserved to secure immortality  Led to the invention & development of mummification techniques.Women’s Role & Rights Could own & control property Could sue for divorce Expected to manage the household Royal women naturally had more influence Ancient Judaism From 722 B.C.E. forward, Israelites came to be known as “Jews” The major contribution by the Jews to the development of western civilization is MONOTHEISM – the belief in one universal God, creator & ruler of the universe 11
  12. 12. The Jewish God did not look like a human or any other creature The Jewish religion featured strong ethical components o God was a severe, but just judge o Therefore humans must act righteously in accordance to God’s laws o God himself was also expected to act righteouslyTHE END 12

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