Ug part4 2nd lgacq


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Ug part4 2nd lgacq

  1. 1. Universal Grammar Part 4 Second Language Acquisition by Norzilah bte. Mohd. Zain [email_address] English Dept. IPG KBA IPG KAMPUS BAHASA ANTARABANGSA KUALA LUMPUR PISMP DENGAN KEPUJIAN (TESL) PEND. RENDAH TAHUN 1 SEM.2 (2011) TSL 3103 ELT METHODOLOGY 12/02/11 [email_address]
  2. 2. What is Second Language Acquisition? <ul><li>In second language learning, language plays an </li></ul><ul><li>institutional and social role in the community. It </li></ul><ul><li>functions as a recognized means of </li></ul><ul><li>communication among members who speak some </li></ul><ul><li>other language as their native tongue. </li></ul><ul><li>In foreign language learning, language plays no </li></ul><ul><li>major role in the community and is primarily </li></ul><ul><li>learned in the classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>The distinction between second and foreign </li></ul><ul><li>language learning is what is learned and how it is </li></ul><ul><li>learned. </li></ul>12/02/11 [email_address]
  3. 3. What is the Study of Second Language Acquisition? <ul><li>It is the study of: </li></ul><ul><li>how second languages are learned; </li></ul><ul><li>how learners create a new language system with limited exposure to a second language; </li></ul><ul><li>why most second language learners do not achieve the same degree of proficiency in a second language as they do in their native language; and </li></ul><ul><li>why some learners appear to achieve native-like proficiency in more than one language </li></ul>12/02/11 [email_address]
  4. 4. How Do Learners Acquire a Second Language? <ul><ul><li>Learners acquire a second language by making use of existing knowledge of the native language, general learning strategies, or universal properties of language to internalize knowledge of the second language. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These processes serve as a means by which the learner constructs an interlanguage (a transitional system reflecting the learner’s current L 2 knowledge). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication strategies are employed by the learner to make use of existing knowledge to cope with communication difficulties. </li></ul></ul>12/02/11 [email_address]
  5. 5. The Language Learner <ul><li>Individual differences affect L 2 acquisition. These may include: (1) the rate of development and (2) their ultimate level of achievement. </li></ul><ul><li>Learners differ with regard to variables relating to cognitive, affective and social aspects of a human being. </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed factors such as age and language learning aptitude are beyond external control. Variable factors such as motivation are influenced by external factors such as social setting and by the actual course of L 2 development. </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive style refers to the way people perceive, conceptualize, organize and recall information. </li></ul><ul><li>Field dependent learners operate holistically. They like to work with others. Field independent learners are analytic and prefer to work alone. </li></ul>12/02/11 [email_address]
  6. 6. Learner Strategies <ul><li>Learner strategies are defined as deliberate behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>or actions that learners use to make language learning </li></ul><ul><li>more successful, self-directed and enjoyable. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive strategies relate new concepts to prior knowledge. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metacognitive strategies are those which help with organizing a personal timetable to facilitate an effective study of the L 2 . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social strategies include looking for opportunities to converse with native speakers. </li></ul></ul>12/02/11 [email_address]
  7. 7. Natural Order of Strategies of Second Language Development <ul><li>Chesterfield & Chesterfield (1985) identified a natural order of strategies in the development of a second language. </li></ul><ul><li>1) repetition (imitating a word or structure); </li></ul><ul><li>2) memorization (recalling songs, rhymes or sequences by rote); </li></ul><ul><li>3) formulaic expressions (words or phrases that function as units i.e. greetings); </li></ul><ul><li>4) verbal attention getters (language that initiates interaction); </li></ul><ul><li>5) answering in unison (responding with others); </li></ul><ul><li>6) talking to self (engaging in internal monologue); </li></ul>12/02/11 [email_address]
  8. 8. <ul><li>elaboration (information beyond what is </li></ul><ul><li>necessary); </li></ul><ul><li>anticipatory answers (completing another’s </li></ul><ul><li>phrase or statement); </li></ul><ul><li>monitoring (self-correcting errors); </li></ul><ul><li>appeal for assistance (asking someone for help); </li></ul><ul><li>11) request for clarification (asking the speaker to </li></ul><ul><li>explain or repeat); and </li></ul><ul><li>role-playing (interacting with another by taking </li></ul><ul><li>on roles). </li></ul>Natural Order of Strategies of Second Language Development 12/02/11 [email_address]
  9. 9. Universal Grammar <ul><li>Universalist Theory defines linguistic universals from </li></ul><ul><li>two perspectives: </li></ul><ul><li>The data-driven perspective which looks at surface features of a wide-range of languages to find out how languages vary and what principles underlie this variation. The data-driven approach considers system external factors or input as the basis. </li></ul><ul><li>The theory-driven perspective which looks at in-depth analysis of the properties of language to determine highly abstract principles of grammar. System internal factors are those found in cognitive and linguistic processes. </li></ul>12/02/11 [email_address]
  10. 10. Universal Grammar <ul><li>Several Characteristics of the data-driven approach include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It has language typology which delves into patterns which exist among languages and how they vary in human languages. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language universals focus on what is common. For example, subject/verb/object. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implicational universals which refer to the properties of language such as “all languages have vowels” without looking at any other properties. </li></ul></ul>12/02/11 [email_address]
  11. 11. <ul><li>Several Characteristics of the theory-driven approach include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language is acquired through innateness. Certain principles of the human mind are biologically determined. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are sets of principles and conditions where knowledge of language develops. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal grammar is seen as part of the brain. </li></ul></ul>Universal Grammar 12/02/11 [email_address]
  12. 12. <ul><li>Nativist Theory views language acquisition as innately determined. Theorists believe that human beings are born with a built-in device of some kind that predisposes them to acquire language. </li></ul><ul><li>This predisposition is a systematic perception of language around us, resulting in the construction of an internalized system of language. </li></ul><ul><li>Nativists are on the opposite end of the theoretical continuum and use more of a rationalist approach in explaining the mystery of language acquisition. </li></ul><ul><li>Chomsky (1965) claimed the existence of innate properties of language that explain a child’s mastery of his/her native language in a short time despite the highly abstract nature of the rules of language. </li></ul>12/02/11 [email_address]
  13. 13. <ul><li>This innate knowledge, according to Chomsky, is embodied in a “little black box” of sorts called a Language Acquisition Device (LAD). </li></ul><ul><li>McNeill (1966) described the LAD as consisting of four innate linguistic properties: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the ability to distinguish speech sounds from other sounds in the environment; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. the ability to organize linguistic events into various classes that can be refined later; </li></ul></ul>12/02/11 [email_address]
  14. 14. <ul><ul><li>3. knowledge that only a certain kind of linguistic system is possible and that other kinds are not; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. the ability to engage in constant evaluation of the developing linguistic system in order to construct the simplest possible system out of the linguistic data that are encountered. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nativists have contributed to the discoveries of how the system of child language works. Theorists such as Chomsky, McNeill, and others helped us understand that a child’s language, at any given point, is a legitimate system in its own right. </li></ul>12/02/11 [email_address]
  15. 15. Components of Communicative Competence <ul><li>Canale and Swain (1983) identified four </li></ul><ul><li>components of communicative </li></ul><ul><li>competence: </li></ul><ul><li>1) grammatical competence </li></ul><ul><li>2) sociolinguistic competence </li></ul><ul><li>3) discourse competence </li></ul><ul><li>4) strategic competence </li></ul>12/02/11 [email_address]
  16. 16. Components of Communicative Competence <ul><li>Grammatical competence means understanding the skills and knowledge necessary to speak and write accurately. Grammatical competence includes: </li></ul><ul><li>1) vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>2) word formation </li></ul><ul><li>3) meaning </li></ul><ul><li>4) sentence formation </li></ul><ul><li>5) pronunciation </li></ul><ul><li>6) spelling </li></ul>12/02/11 [email_address]
  17. 17. Components of Communicative Competence <ul><li>Sociolinguistic competence involves knowing how to produce and understand the language in different sociolinguistic contexts, taking into consideration such factors as: </li></ul><ul><li>1) the status of the participants </li></ul><ul><li>2) the purpose of the interaction; and </li></ul><ul><li>3) the norms or conventions of the </li></ul><ul><li>interaction . </li></ul>12/02/11 [email_address]
  18. 18. Components of Communicative Competence (Continued) <ul><li>Discourse competence involves the ability to combine and connect utterances (spoken) and sentences (written) into a meaningful whole. Discourse ranges from a simple spoken conversation to long written texts. </li></ul>12/02/11 [email_address]
  19. 19. Components of Communicative Competence (Continued) <ul><li>Strategic competence involves the manipulation of language in order to meet communicative goals. It involves both verbal and non-verbal behaviors. Speakers employ this competence for two main reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>1) to compensate for breakdowns in communication such as when the speaker forgets or does not know a term and is forced to paraphrase or gesture to get the idea across; and </li></ul><ul><li>2) to enhance the effectiveness of communication such as when a speaker raises or lowers the voice for effect. </li></ul>12/02/11 [email_address]
  20. 20. Competence Vs. Performance <ul><li>According to Chomsky (1965), competence consists of mental representations of linguistic rules that constitute the speaker-hearer’s internal grammar. </li></ul><ul><li>This internal grammar is implicit rather than explicit. It is evident in the intuitions, which the speaker-hearer has about the grammaticality of sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Performance consists of the use of this grammar in the comprehension and production of the language. </li></ul><ul><li>Communicative competence is that aspect of the language user’s competence that enables them to convey and interpret messages and to negotiate meanings interpersonally within specific contexts. </li></ul><ul><li>Language is a form of communication that occurs in social interaction. It is used for a purpose such as persuading, commanding, and establishing social relationships. No longer is the focus on specific knowledge of grammatical form. Instead, the competent speaker is recognized as one who knows when, where, and how to use language appropriately </li></ul>12/02/11 [email_address]
  21. 21. Language Learning <ul><li>Chomsky pointed out that in many cases there was a very poor match between the kind of language found in the input that learners received and the kind of language they themselves produced. </li></ul><ul><li>L2 learners go through several phases of types of utterance that are not similar to their L1 or L 2 they hear. </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive maturity of most L2 learners </li></ul><ul><li>Different motivation for learning the language </li></ul><ul><li>Already speak one language </li></ul>12/02/11 [email_address]
  22. 22. UG and the critical period hypothesis <ul><li>Research suggests that UG becomes inaccessible at a certain age and learners increasingly depended on explicit teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>Although all of the language may be governed by UG, older learners might have great difficulty in gaining access to the target language’s underlying rules from positive input alone. </li></ul><ul><li>Language ability also declines with age. </li></ul>12/02/11 [email_address]
  23. 23. Language Development <ul><li>Linguistic processes consist of the subconscious aspects of language development, an innate ability all humans possess for acquisition of oral language, as well as the metalinguistic, conscious, formal teaching of language in the school and acquisition of the written system of language. </li></ul><ul><li>This includes the acquisition of the oral and written systems of the student’s first and second languages across all language domains, such as phonology, vocabulary, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics and discourse. </li></ul><ul><li>To assure cognitive and academic success in a second language, a student’s first language system, oral and written, must be developed to a high cognitive level at least through the elementary school years. </li></ul>12/02/11 [email_address]
  24. 24. Socio-cultural Processes <ul><li>At the heart of the figure is the individual student going </li></ul><ul><li>through the process of acquiring a second language at school. </li></ul><ul><li>Central to that student’s acquisition of language are all of the surrounding social and cultural processes occurring through everyday life within the student’s past, present, and future, in all contexts-home, school, community, and the broader society. </li></ul><ul><li>Sociocultural processes may include individual student variables such as self-esteem, anxiety, or other affective factors. </li></ul><ul><li>At school the instructional environment in a classroom or administrative program structures may create social and psychological distance between groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Community or regional social patterns such as prejudice and discrimination expressed towards groups or individuals in personal and professional contexts can influence students’ achievement in school, as well as societal patterns such as the subordinate status of a minority group or accuLturation vs. assimilation forces. </li></ul><ul><li>These factors can strongly influence the student’s response to a new language, affecting the process positively only when the student is in a socioculturally supportive environment. </li></ul>12/02/11 [email_address]
  25. 25. Conclusion The Learner/The Teacher <ul><li>The learner needs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>expectations of success; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the confidence to take risks and make mistakes; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a willingness to share and engage; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the confidence to ask for help; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>an acceptance of the need to readjust. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The teacher needs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>respect for and interest in the learner’s language, culture, thought and intentions; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the ability to recognize growth points, strengths and potential; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the appreciation that mistakes are necessary to learning; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the confidence to maintain breadth, richness and variety, and to match these to the learner’s interests and direction; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to stimulate and challenge; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a sensitive awareness of when to intervene and when to leave alone. </li></ul></ul>12/02/11 [email_address]
  26. 26. Bibliography <ul><li>Cummins, J. (1979a). Cognitive/academic language proficiency, linguistic interdependence, the optimal age question and some other matters. Working Papers in Bilingualism . No. 19 (pp. 197-205). Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. </li></ul><ul><li>Ellis, R. (2003). The study of second language acquisition (10th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Gass, S.,& Selinker, L. (2001). Second language acquisition (2 nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. </li></ul><ul><li>Krashen, S. D. (1981). Second language acquisition and second language learning . Oxford: Pergamon press. </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas, W., & Collier, V. (1997). School effectiveness for language minority students. National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education Resource Collection Series, No. 9. </li></ul>12/02/11 [email_address]
  27. 27. TUTORIAL TASK <ul><li>Discuss how UG is linked to the first language acquisition with reference to the critical period. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the effect of UG in second language acquisition. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the role of UG in second language acquisition. </li></ul>12/02/11 [email_address]