5. boot process

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  • 1. 5 – Boot processMarian Marinov Borislav VaradinovCEO of 1H Ltd. System Administratormm@1h.com bobi [ at ] itp.bg
  • 2. ● Local boot process – HDD – CD – USB● Boot loaders● Remote booting – With local drives – Without local drives
  • 3. ➢ Hardware initialization ➢ Find all storage controllers ➢ Initialize all storage controllers➢ BIOS storage search ➢ Depending on the BIOS boot priority list ➢ Hard Disks ➢ CD ➢ USB ➢ Floppy ➢ Network
  • 4. ● Identify bootable device● Search for boot loader● Copy the loader into memory
  • 5. ➢ Search the first 1024 bytes➢ If partition table is found, search for the firstPRIMARY partition marked as BOOT➢ Search the first 1024 bytes of the partition➢ Load the boot loader into memory➢ Set the Instruction Pointer to the beginning ofthe boot loader binary
  • 6. Boot loaders➢ LILO➢ GRUB/GRUB2➢ SYS/ISOLINUX➢ uBoot➢ PXElinux
  • 7. Boot loaders➢ LILO ➢ Direct block offset to the kernel ➢ The loader and its configuration is written directly in the MBR ➢ Support for serial console ➢ Kernel parameters prompt /etc/lilo.conf image = /boot/bzImage-3.8.2-terion root = /dev/sdb2 label = Terion-3.8.2 read-only
  • 8. Boot loaders➢ GRUB/GRUB2 ➢ Only the base loader data is written in the MBR, everything else is read from the device ➢ Dynamic configuration ➢ Shell like command prompt ➢ Support for serial console ➢ Support network loading of binaries
  • 9. Boot loaders➢ GRUB/boot/grub/menu.lsttitle CentOS (2.6.32-279.14.1.el6.x86_64) root (hd0,1) kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.32-279.14.1.el6.x86_64 ro root=/dev/sda4crashkernel=auto SYSFONT=latarcyrheb-sun16 LANG=en_US.UTF-8KEYTABLE=us initrd /initramfs-2.6.32-279.14.1.el6.x86_64.img
  • 10. Boot loaders➢ GRUB2menuentry Fedora (3.7.6-201.fc18.i686) --class fedora --class gnu-linux --class gnu--class os { load_video set gfxpayload=keep insmod gzio insmod part_msdos insmod ext2 set root=(hd0,msdos5) search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root f098d5f7-abf7-4161-966b-b265c6179abe echo Loading Fedora (3.7.6-201.fc18.i686) linux /vmlinuz-3.7.6-201.fc18.i686 root=UUID=c567e7ef-eb7e-4ced-8c21-64d1075eb72e ro rd.md=0 rd.lvm=0 rd.dm=0 KEYTABLE=us quietSYSFONT=latarcyrheb-sun16 rhgb rd.luks=0 LANG=en_US.UTF-8 echo Loading initial ramdisk ... initrd /initramfs-3.7.6-201.fc18.i686.img}
  • 11. Boot loaders➢ ISO/SYSLINUX ➢ Mainly used for live/install CD/USB ➢ Static configuration ➢ No command prompt
  • 12. Boot loaders➢ uBoot ➢ Developed entirely for embedded devices ➢ EVERYTHING embedded runs this ➢ Configuration similar to SYSLINUX
  • 13. Network Boot➢ Optional (boot)ROM ➢ Currently implemented directly in the BIOS on almost all new hardware➢ With local storage➢ Without local storage
  • 14. Network Boot BIOSDHCP Server Acquire IP address Load Network boot loader Optional ROMTFTP Server Boot loader Load OS Kernel Kernel
  • 15. Boot processhttp://academy.telerik.com/student-courses/software-technologies/os-windows-linux/
  • 16. Beer time
  • 17. Free Trainings @ Telerik Academy Operating Systems @ Telerik Academy http://telerikacademy.com/Courses/Courses/Details/35 Telerik Software Academy  academy.telerik.com Telerik Academy @ Facebook  facebook.com/TelerikAcademy Telerik Software Academy Forums  forums.academy.telerik.com