APPLIED THEORIES
ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT
CENTERS
REVIEW OF THE
DEVELOPMENTAL
THEORIES
Theories
Related To The
Learner’s
Development
Erikson
8 Psycho-social
Stages of
Development
Freud
3 Components of
Personal...
FREUD PSYCHO-SEXUAL THEORY
 Freud proposed that there were 5
stages of development. Freud believed
that few people succes...
Stage Erogenous Zone Fixation
Oral (birth to 18
months)
Mouth Drinking , eating,
smoking or nail biting
Anal (18-32 months...
“The principle goal of education is
to create men who are capable of
doing new things ,not simply to
repeating what other ...
Jean Piaget
Cognitive
Development Theory
 Children "construct" their
understanding of the world
through their active invo...
 Schema:
The term “schema” to refer to the cognitive
structures by which individuals
intellectually adapt to and organiz...
 Equilibration
Achieving proper balance between
assimilation and accommodation
Disequilibrium
this means there is a di...
PIAGET’S COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
STAGES
 Sensori-motor
 Ages birth - 2: the infant uses his senses and motor
abilities to ...
“ T H E P R I N C I P L E G O A L O F E D U C A T I O N I S T O C R E A T E M E N
W H O A R E C A P A B L E O F D O I N G ...
Jean Piaget (1896-
1980), Swiss psychologist,
best known for his pioneering
work on the development of
intelligence in chi...
Piaget’s Stages of
Cognitive Development
Stage 1.
Sensory-motor Stage
Stage 3.
Concrete- Operational
Stage
Stage 2.
Pre-Op...
Stage 1. Sensory-motor Stage
 The first stage corresponds from birth to infancy or
at the age of 2 years old.
Object perm...
Sub-stage 1.Simple Reflexes
 From Birth to 6 weeks.
 Three primary reflexes described by Piaget:
sucking of objects in t...
Sub-stage 2. First reflexes and primary
circular reactions phase
 This covers from 6 weeks – 4 months
 Primary reaction ...
Sub-stage 3. Secondary circular reactions
phase
 This comprises from 4-8 months
 There are three new abilities occur at ...
Sub-stage 4. Coordination of reactions stage
secondary circular
 This includes 8-12 months
 This stage is associated pri...
Sub-stage 5. Tertiary circular reactions,
novelty and curiosity
 This covers 12-18 months
 This stage is associated prim...
Sub-stage 5. Tertiary circular reactions,
novelty and curiosity
 Ex. When a baby seems to enjoy dropping the spoon
over a...
Sub-stage 6. Internalization of Schemes
(invention of new means through mental
coordination)
 This covers 18-24 months
 ...
Stage 2. Pre-Operational Stage
 The preoperational stage covers from about two to seven
years old or the preschool years....
Stage 3. Concrete-Operational Stage
 This covers the ages approximately between 8-11 years
old or the elementary school y...
Stage 4. Formal Operational Stage
 This stage covers ages between 12 and 15 years old where
thinking becomes more logical...
ERIKSON'S STAGES OF
PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
Stage Crisis Maladaptation Malignancy Virtue
Infancy Trust vs.
Mistrust
Sensory
Distortion
Withdrawal Hope
Early Adulthhoo...
Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development
 Assessed moral reasoning by posing hypothetical
moral dilemmas and examining the ...
KOHLBERG’S STAGES OF MORAL
DEVELOPMENT
Socio-Cultural Theory
Lev Vygotsky
 Definition
 Sociocultural Theory results from the dynamic
interaction between a person and
the surrounding social and c...
STRATEGIES TO UTILIZE THE
BENEFITS OF ZPD
a.)Scaffolding –requires demonstration, while
controlling the environment so tha...
Vygotsky theorized that
human development is not something
that is fixed and eternal. It will
change as a result of histor...
CULTURAL INFLUENCES
a) Imitative learning
b) Instructed learning
c) Collaborative learning
PRINCIPLES
a) Cognitive develop...
5 MAIN POINTS
 a) Use of Zone of Proximal Development
 b) Interaction with other people is important
for cognitive growt...
The belief that
development can't be
explained by a single
concept, but rather by a
complex system.
DEVELOPMENTAL SYSTEMS
...
Outline of 20th Century Theories
 Psychoanalytical Theories
Psychosexual: Sigmund Freud
Psychosocial: Erik Erikson
 Co...
LEARNING/THINKING STYLEs
-refer to the preferred way an individual processes
information.
- they describe a person’s typic...
VISUAL LEARNERS- tend to learn better
when a variety of visual aids are used.
Visual- iconic
-refers to those who are more...
AUDITORY LEARNERS- receive
information best by listening.
Listeners
-they remember things said to them and
make the inform...
Tactile/ kinesthetic learners
- they tend to prefer learning
by doing/ experiencing things.
CHARACTERISTICS OF TACTILE LEARNERS:
- Is good at sports.
- Can’t sit still for long.
- Is not great at spelling.
- Does n...
GLOBAL–ANALYTIC CONTINUUM
Analytic- they tend toward the
linear, step- by- step processes of learning.
(tree seers)
Global...
LEFT- BRAIN/RIGHT- BRAIN
CONTINUUM
Left- Brained Person- is portrayed as the
linear. (analytic)
Right- Brained Person- is ...
Successive processor (left brain)
- details leading to a conceptual
understanding.
SIMULTANEOUS PROCESSOR
(RIGHT BRAIN)
- ...
LEFT BRAIN( ANALYTIC) RIGHT BRAIN(GLOBAL)
Successive Hemispheric
Style
1. VERBAL
2. RESPONDS TO WORD MEANING
3. SEQUENTIAL...
MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES
- is an educational theory, first developed by Howard
Gardner, that describes an array of different...
INTELLIGENCES
- an ability or set of abilities
that allows a person to solve a problem
or fashion a product that is valued...
9 DISTINCT FORMS
OF
INTELLIGENCE
1.VISUAL/ SPATIAL INTELLIGENCE
(PICTURE SMART)
- learning visually and organizing ideas
spatially.
2.VERBAL/ LINGUISTIC (W...
4. BODILY/ KINESTHETIc ( BODY SMART)
- learning through interaction with one’s
environment.
5. MUSICAL (MUSIC SMART)
- lea...
BEHAVIORISM:
PAVLOV, THORNDIKE,
WATSON, SKINNER
Behaviorist
Perspective
Pavlov,Thorndike,Watson,
Skinner
Behaviorism:
BEHAVIORISM
focuses on the study of observable and
measurable behavior.
It emphasizes that behavior is mostly
learned th...
Ivan
Pavlov
•a Russian psychologist is
well known for his work in
classical conditioning or
stimulus substitution.
•Most r...
Classical
Conditioning
•Stimulus Generalization- once the dog
has learned to salivate at the sound of the bell,
it will salivate at other similar...
•Discrimination- the dog could learn to
discriminate between similar bells and
discern which bell would result in the
pres...
Edward
Thornd
ike
•He explained that learning is
the result of associations
forming between stimuli and
responses. Such as...
Theory of Connectionism
- stated that learning has taken place when a
strong connection or bond between stimulus and
respo...
Principles derived from theory of
connectionism:
1.Learning requires both practice and
rewards (law of effect/exercise).
2...
John
Watso
n
• work with Pavlov's ideas
•Considered that humans are
born with a few reflexes and
the emotional reactions o...
Burrhu
s
Frederi
ck
Skinner
• operant conditioning
•Reinforcement
+R-any stimulus
given or added to
increase the response....
NEO BEHAVIORISM:
TOLMAN & BANDURA
 Basic Premise
 We learn behavior through observation
 Vicarious reinforcement: Learn through
observing consequences of...
*Characteristics of the models: similarity,
age, sex, status, prestige, simple vs.
Complex behavior
*Characteristics of ob...
The Observational Learning Process: 4 Steps
 Attentional Processes
 Retention Processes
 Production Processes
 Incenti...
Step 1: Attentional Processes
 Developing cognitive processes to pay
attention to a model- more developed
processes allow...
Step 2: Retention Processes
 To later imitate behavior, must remember
aspects of the behavior
 Retain information in 2 w...
Step 3: Production Processes
 Taking imaginal and verbal representations
and translating into overt behavior- practice
be...
Step 4: Incentive and Motivational Processes
 With incentives, observation more
quickly becomes action, pay more
attentio...
Aspects of the Self: Self-reinforcement and Self-
efficacy
 Self-reinforcement: Rewards or punishments
given to oneself f...
Self-Efficacy
 High self-efficacy
Believe can deal effectively with life events
Confident in abilities
Expect to overc...
Sources of Information in Determining Self-efficacy
 Performance attainment
Most influential
Role of feedback
More we ...
Sources of Information in Determining Self-efficacy
 Vicarious experience
 Seeing others perform successfully
 If they ...
Developmental Stages of Modeling and Self-efficacy
 Childhood
Infancy: Direct modeling immediately
following observation...
Developmental Stages of Modeling and Self-efficacy
 Adolescence
Involves coping with new demands
Success depends on lev...
Developmental Stages of Modeling and Self-efficacy
 Adulthood: 2 Periods
 Young adulthood:
Adjustments: Career, marriag...
Developmental Stages of Modeling and Self-efficacy
 Old age:
Decline in mental/physical function,
retirement
Requires r...
Application of Social Learning Theory: Behavior
Modification
 Fears and phobias
Guided participation: Observe and
imitat...
Assessment of Bandura’s Theory: Self-efficacy
 Age and gender differences
 Physical appearance
 Academic performance
 ...
Assessment of Bandura’s Theory:
Television and Aggressive Behaviors
 Relationship between watching violence and
imitating...
The most
important
single factor
influencing
learning is what
the learner
already knows..
- is a theory of learning based on
the idea that learner’s construct
knowledge for themselves.
Constructivism
TWO VIEWS OF CONSTRUCTIVISM
INDIVIDUAL CONSTRUCTIVISM
(COGNITIVE CONSTRUCTIVISM)
 - it emphasizes
individual, internal
co...
CHARACTERISTICS OF CONSTRUCTIVISM
1. Learners construct understanding.
2. New learning depends on current
understanding.
3...
ORGANIZING
KNOWLEDGE
People store knowledge in
many different ways.
CONCEPTS
- is a way of grouping or
categorizing object...
Concepts As Feature Lists
- involves learning specific features that
characterize positive instance of the concept.
DEFINI...
Concepts as Prototypes
prototype- is an idea or a visual
image of a “typical example”.
Concepts as Exemplars
exemplars- re...
SCHEMA
- is an organized body of knowledge about
something.
SCRIPT
- is a schema that includes a series of
predictable eve...
Montessori
Theory
Dr. Maria Montessori
Maria Montessori was a brilliant figure
who was Italy's first woman physician.
Montessori reflected a...
The method represents an explicit
idealism and turn away from violence
towards peace and reconstruction.
During this perio...
Friedrich Froebel applied his ideas to the
education of even younger children and began
the international movement towards...
Montessori strongly believed that the
child's mind absorbs the environment,
leaving lasting impressions upon it,
forming i...
Children’s House
Sensorial Language
Practical Life
Math Cultural
Using their hierarchy, the “Superordinate level” denotes ...
Children’s House
Letter recognition/
Care of indoors
Math Cultural+ - x / sq- cubes
Sensorial
The five senses
Attributes o...
On the Sensorial shelves, there are lessons for the 5 senses:
•Vision- these lessons are broken down into color recognitio...
1.Start with real life
2.Move to 2 dimensional representations
3.Provide interactive activities
4.Attach language with inc...
With all of those materials available to students, one might think the
classroom would cluttered or over-stimulating. But ...
CHARACTERISTICS OF A MONTESSORI
CLASSROOM
Free Flow Movement - Areas Relating To Ages And
Stages
Materials Which Relate To...
QuickTime™ and a
decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
QuickTime™ and a
decompressor
are needed to see this picture...
Teaching Method:
• No text books
• Children study independently
• Children learn directly from the environment,
and from o...
Montessori saw a child’s relationship
with the environment as the key to his or
her self-understanding.
Education is not a...
Children need organized learning environments
and educational materials that provide enriching
meaningful experiences to s...
Gardner, too, emphasizes the importance of the
environment on the development of human capabilities.
Gardner believes that...
Children are intrinsically motivated to learn
and they need the opportunities to explore
this. Children should not be forc...
Intelligence
Linguistic
Logical/Mathematical
Spatial/Visual
Bodily/Kinesthetic
Musical
Naturalist
Intrapersonal
Interperso...
Each lesson leads to another in a
spiral of learning, with the
curriculum building carefully over
time.
Sensorial Education - Multi Sensory
Materials
Montessori’s approach was far
in advance of the general
psychological unders...
Look At The Child
Dr. Montessori discovered the
child’s true nature by accident
while observing young children in
their fr...
I Do And I Understand
According to Montessori the
understanding of the sensory
motor nature of the young
child’s intellige...
LOOK AT THE CHILD
Both Montessori and
Piaget’s discoveries and
insights into the mind of
the child were achieved,
not by w...
Piaget and Montessori
emphasized the necessity of
active interaction between
learner and the environment.
Piaget and Monte...
The Montessori method encourages
accommodation to external reality
rather than assimilation to the
personalized motives an...
The child in the Montessori
classroom is allowed to learn
autonomously, which they
receive from the teacher. It is a
very ...
In conclusion, one could argue that Montessori is beginning this century as
she did at the start of the nineteenth century...
“The greatest sign of success for a
teacher...is to be able to say, "The
children are now working as if I did not
exist."”...
These principles are based on
the factors that affect transfer
of learning.
Conditions/ factors
affecting transfer of
learning
Principle of transfer Implication
Similarity between two
learning situa...
Conditions/ factors
affecting transfer of
learning
Principle of transfer Implication
Variety of learning
experiences
Expos...
Applied Theories
Applied Theories
Applied Theories
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Applied Theories
Applied Theories
Applied Theories
Applied Theories
Applied Theories
Applied Theories
Applied Theories
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Applied Theories
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Applied Theories

  1. 1. APPLIED THEORIES ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT CENTERS
  2. 2. REVIEW OF THE DEVELOPMENTAL THEORIES
  3. 3. Theories Related To The Learner’s Development Erikson 8 Psycho-social Stages of Development Freud 3 Components of Personality 5 Psychosexual Stages of development Piaget 4 Stages of Cognitive Development Kohlberg 3 Stages and 6 Substances of Moral Development Vygotsky • On Language •Zone of Proximal Development Brofenbrenner Bio-Ecological System
  4. 4. FREUD PSYCHO-SEXUAL THEORY  Freud proposed that there were 5 stages of development. Freud believed that few people successfully completed all 5 of the stages. Instead, he felt that most people tied up their libido at one of the stages, which prevented them from using that energy at a later stage.
  5. 5. Stage Erogenous Zone Fixation Oral (birth to 18 months) Mouth Drinking , eating, smoking or nail biting Anal (18-32 months) Anus Anal retentive and anal expulsive Phallic (3 – 6 years) Genitals Oedipus Complex and Electra Complex Latency (6- puberty) Genital (puberty +) Genitals
  6. 6. “The principle goal of education is to create men who are capable of doing new things ,not simply to repeating what other generations have done – men who are creative, inventive and discovers”. PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
  7. 7. Jean Piaget Cognitive Development Theory  Children "construct" their understanding of the world through their active involvement and interactions.  Studied his 3 children to focus not on what they knew but how they knew it.  Described children's understanding as their "schemas” and how they use:  assimilation  accommodation.
  8. 8.  Schema: The term “schema” to refer to the cognitive structures by which individuals intellectually adapt to and organize their environment.  Assimilation: This is the process of fitting a new experience into an existing or previously created cognitive structure or schema.  Accommodation: This is the process of creating a new schema.
  9. 9.  Equilibration Achieving proper balance between assimilation and accommodation Disequilibrium this means there is a discrepancy between what is perceived and what is understood. We then exert effort through assimilation and accommodation to establish equilibrium once more.
  10. 10. PIAGET’S COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT STAGES  Sensori-motor  Ages birth - 2: the infant uses his senses and motor abilities to understand the world  Pre-operation  Ages 2-7: the child uses metal representations of objects and is able to use symbolic thought and language  Concrete operations  Ages 7-11; the child uses logical operations or principles when solving problems  Formal operations  Ages 12 up; the use of logical operations in a systematic fashion and with the ability to use abstractions
  11. 11. “ T H E P R I N C I P L E G O A L O F E D U C A T I O N I S T O C R E A T E M E N W H O A R E C A P A B L E O F D O I N G N E W T H I N G S , N O T S I M P L Y O F R E P E A T I N G W H A T O T H E R G E N E R A T I O N S H A V E D O N E - M E N W H O A R E C R E A T I V E , I N V E N T I V E A N D D I S C O V E R E R S . ” - J E A N P I A G E T Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development
  12. 12. Jean Piaget (1896- 1980), Swiss psychologist, best known for his pioneering work on the development of intelligence in children. His studies have had a major impact on the fields of psychology and education.
  13. 13. Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Stage 1. Sensory-motor Stage Stage 3. Concrete- Operational Stage Stage 2. Pre-Operational Stage Stage 4. Formal Operational Stage Back
  14. 14. Stage 1. Sensory-motor Stage  The first stage corresponds from birth to infancy or at the age of 2 years old. Object permanence. This is the ability of the child to know that an object still exists even when out of sight.
  15. 15. Sub-stage 1.Simple Reflexes  From Birth to 6 weeks.  Three primary reflexes described by Piaget: sucking of objects in the mouth, following the moving and interesting objects with the eyes and closing of the hand when an object makes contact with the palm (palmar grasp).
  16. 16. Sub-stage 2. First reflexes and primary circular reactions phase  This covers from 6 weeks – 4 months  Primary reaction because the action is focused on the infant’s body. Circular reaction because it is a repetition of an action that initially occurred by chance.  Ex. Infants might repeat the motion of passing their hand before their face.
  17. 17. Sub-stage 3. Secondary circular reactions phase  This comprises from 4-8 months  There are three new abilities occur at this stage:  Infants will intentionally grasp the air in the direction of desired object.  Secondary circular reactions or repetition of an action involving an external object. (Ex. Switching the flashlight on and off repeatedly.) and;  The differentiation between means and ends.
  18. 18. Sub-stage 4. Coordination of reactions stage secondary circular  This includes 8-12 months  This stage is associated primarily with the development of logic and the coordination between means and ends.  Piaget calls this as “first proper intelligence.”  Also this stage marks the beginning of goal orientation, the deliberate planning of steps to meet an objective/goal.
  19. 19. Sub-stage 5. Tertiary circular reactions, novelty and curiosity  This covers 12-18 months  This stage is associated primarily with the discovery of new means to meet goals.  Piaget describes the child at this point in time as the “young scientist” because they are discoverers of new methods of meeting challenges.
  20. 20. Sub-stage 5. Tertiary circular reactions, novelty and curiosity  Ex. When a baby seems to enjoy dropping the spoon over and over again in many different ways, a proof of the creation of novel of variations in events.  Baby then discovers a pattern that “objects fall down – not up.”
  21. 21. Sub-stage 6. Internalization of Schemes (invention of new means through mental coordination)  This covers 18-24 months  Infants develop the ability to use primitive symbols and form mental representations.  This stage is associated primarily with the true creativity. This marks the passage into the pre- operational stage.
  22. 22. Stage 2. Pre-Operational Stage  The preoperational stage covers from about two to seven years old or the preschool years.  This stage is highlighted by the following: *Symbolic Function *Irreversibility *Egocentrism *Animism *Centration *Transductive Reasoning
  23. 23. Stage 3. Concrete-Operational Stage  This covers the ages approximately between 8-11 years old or the elementary school years.  The concrete operational stage is marked by the following: *Decentering *Conservation *Reversibility *Seriation
  24. 24. Stage 4. Formal Operational Stage  This stage covers ages between 12 and 15 years old where thinking becomes more logical.  This stage is characterized by the following: *Hypothetical Reasoning *Deductive Reasoning *Analogical Reasoning
  25. 25. ERIKSON'S STAGES OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
  26. 26. Stage Crisis Maladaptation Malignancy Virtue Infancy Trust vs. Mistrust Sensory Distortion Withdrawal Hope Early Adulthhood Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt Impulsivity Compulsion Will Power Pre-school Initiative vs. Guilt ruthlessness Inhibition Purpose School Age Industry vs. Inferiority Narrow Virtuosity Inertia Competence Adolescence Identity vs. Role Confusion Fanaticism Repudiation Fidelity Young Adulthood Intimacy vs. Isolation Promiscuity Exclusivity Love Middle Adulthood Generativity vs. Stagnation Over extention Rejectivity Care Maturity Ego Integrity vs. Despair Presumption Disdain Wisdom
  27. 27. Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development  Assessed moral reasoning by posing hypothetical moral dilemmas and examining the reasoning behind people’s answers  Proposed three distinct levels of moral reasoning: preconventional, conventional, and postconventional  Each level is based on the degree to which a person conforms to conventional standards of society  Each level has two stages that represent different degrees of sophistication in moral reasoning
  28. 28. KOHLBERG’S STAGES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT
  29. 29. Socio-Cultural Theory Lev Vygotsky
  30. 30.  Definition  Sociocultural Theory results from the dynamic interaction between a person and the surrounding social and cultural forces. 3 CLAIMS OF VYGOTSKY  a) Fundamentally shaped by cultural tools  b) Functioning emerges out of social processes  c) Developmental methods (Zone of Proximal Development)
  31. 31. STRATEGIES TO UTILIZE THE BENEFITS OF ZPD a.)Scaffolding –requires demonstration, while controlling the environment so that one can take things step by step. b) Reciprocal Teaching – open dialog between student and teacher which goes beyond simple question and answer session.
  32. 32. Vygotsky theorized that human development is not something that is fixed and eternal. It will change as a result of historical development.
  33. 33. CULTURAL INFLUENCES a) Imitative learning b) Instructed learning c) Collaborative learning PRINCIPLES a) Cognitive development is limited to a certain range at any given age. b) Full cognitive development requires social interaction.
  34. 34. 5 MAIN POINTS  a) Use of Zone of Proximal Development  b) Interaction with other people is important for cognitive growth  c) Culture can make daily living more efficient and effective.  d) Advanced mental methods start through social activities.  e) Increase of the independent use of language and thought during a child’s first few years of life.
  35. 35. The belief that development can't be explained by a single concept, but rather by a complex system. DEVELOPMENTAL SYSTEMS THEORY
  36. 36. Outline of 20th Century Theories  Psychoanalytical Theories Psychosexual: Sigmund Freud Psychosocial: Erik Erikson  Cognitive Theories Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget Socio-cultural: Lev Vygotsky  Systems Theories Ecological Systems: Urie Bronfenbrenner
  37. 37. LEARNING/THINKING STYLEs -refer to the preferred way an individual processes information. - they describe a person’s typical mode of thinking, remembering or problem solving. SENSORY PREFERENCES Individuals tend to gravitate toward one or two types of sensory input and maintain a dominance in one of the following types : -Visual Learners - Auditory Learners - Tactile/ Kinesthetic Learners
  38. 38. VISUAL LEARNERS- tend to learn better when a variety of visual aids are used. Visual- iconic -refers to those who are more interested in visual imagery such as film, graphic displays, pictures. Visual- symbolic - refers to those who feel comfortable with abstract symbolism such as mathematical formula or the written word.
  39. 39. AUDITORY LEARNERS- receive information best by listening. Listeners -they remember things said to them and make the information their own. Talkers - they are the one who prefer to talk and discuss. ( auditory- verbal processors)
  40. 40. Tactile/ kinesthetic learners - they tend to prefer learning by doing/ experiencing things.
  41. 41. CHARACTERISTICS OF TACTILE LEARNERS: - Is good at sports. - Can’t sit still for long. - Is not great at spelling. - Does not have great handwriting. - Like science lab. - Studies with loud music on. - Like adventure books, movies. - Likes role playing. - Takes breaks when studying. - Builds models. - Is involved in martial arts, dance - Is fidgety during lectures.
  42. 42. GLOBAL–ANALYTIC CONTINUUM Analytic- they tend toward the linear, step- by- step processes of learning. (tree seers) Global- they lean towards non- linear thought and tend to see the whole pattern rather than particle elements. (forest seers)
  43. 43. LEFT- BRAIN/RIGHT- BRAIN CONTINUUM Left- Brained Person- is portrayed as the linear. (analytic) Right- Brained Person- is viewed as non- linear. (global)
  44. 44. Successive processor (left brain) - details leading to a conceptual understanding. SIMULTANEOUS PROCESSOR (RIGHT BRAIN) - general concept going on to specifics.
  45. 45. LEFT BRAIN( ANALYTIC) RIGHT BRAIN(GLOBAL) Successive Hemispheric Style 1. VERBAL 2. RESPONDS TO WORD MEANING 3. SEQUENTIAL 4. PROSESSES INFORMATION LINEARLY 5. RESPONDS TO LOGIC 6. PLANS AHEAD 7. RECALLS PEOPLE’S NAME 8. SPEAKS WITH FEW GESTURES 9. PUNCTUAL 10. PREFERS FORMAL STUDY DESIGN 11. PREFERS BRIGHT LIGHTS WHILE STUDYING. Simultaneous Hemispheric Style 1. VISUAL 2. RESPONDS TO TONE OF VOICE 3. RANDOM 4. PROCESSES INFORMATION IN VARIED ORDER 5. RESPONDS TO EMOTION 6. IMPULSIVE 7. RECALLS PEOPLE FACES 8. GESTURES WHEN SPEAKING 9. LESS PUNCTUAL 10. PREFERS SOUND/ MUSIC BACKGROUND WHILE STUDYING 11. PREFERS FREQUENT MOBILITY WHILE STUDYING
  46. 46. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES - is an educational theory, first developed by Howard Gardner, that describes an array of different kinds of intelligences exhibited by human beings. Howard Gardner - he believes that different intelligences may be independent abilities and all of us possess the intelligences but in varying degrees of strength and skill. - the theory was first laid out in Gardner’s 1983 book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences and has been further refined in subsequent years.
  47. 47. INTELLIGENCES - an ability or set of abilities that allows a person to solve a problem or fashion a product that is valued in one or more cultures.
  48. 48. 9 DISTINCT FORMS OF INTELLIGENCE
  49. 49. 1.VISUAL/ SPATIAL INTELLIGENCE (PICTURE SMART) - learning visually and organizing ideas spatially. 2.VERBAL/ LINGUISTIC (WORD SMART) - learning through the spoken and written word. 3. MATHEMATICAL/ LOGICAL ( NUMBER SMART/ LOGIC SMART) - learning through reasoning and problem solving.
  50. 50. 4. BODILY/ KINESTHETIc ( BODY SMART) - learning through interaction with one’s environment. 5. MUSICAL (MUSIC SMART) - learning through patterns, rhythms and music. 6. INTRAPERSONAl (SELF SMART) - learning through feelings, values and attitudes. 7. INTERPERSONAL (PEOPLE SMART) - learning through interaction with others. 8. NATURALIST (NATURE SMART) - learning through classification,categories and hierarchies. 9. EXISTENTIAL (SPIRIT SMART) - learning by seeing the “big picture”
  51. 51. BEHAVIORISM: PAVLOV, THORNDIKE, WATSON, SKINNER
  52. 52. Behaviorist Perspective Pavlov,Thorndike,Watson, Skinner Behaviorism:
  53. 53. BEHAVIORISM focuses on the study of observable and measurable behavior. It emphasizes that behavior is mostly learned through conditioning and reinforcement ( rewards and punishment ) It does not give much attention to the mind , and the possibility of thought processes occurring in the mind. Contributions in the development of the behaviorist theory largely came from Pavlov, Watson, Thorndike and Skinner.
  54. 54. Ivan Pavlov •a Russian psychologist is well known for his work in classical conditioning or stimulus substitution. •Most renowned experiment involved meat, a dog and a bell. Measuring the dog’s salivation in order to study digestion.
  55. 55. Classical Conditioning
  56. 56. •Stimulus Generalization- once the dog has learned to salivate at the sound of the bell, it will salivate at other similar sound. •Extinction- if you stop pairing the bell with the food, salivation will eventually cease in response to the bell. •Spontaneous Recovery- extinguished responses can be recovered after an elapsed time, but will soon extinguish again if the dog is not presented with food.
  57. 57. •Discrimination- the dog could learn to discriminate between similar bells and discern which bell would result in the presentation of food and which would not. •Higher-order conditioning- once the dog has been conditioned to associate the bell with the food, another unconditioned stimulus, such as a light may be flashed at the same time that the bell is rung. Eventually the dog will salivate at the flash of the light without the sound of the bell.
  58. 58. Edward Thornd ike •He explained that learning is the result of associations forming between stimuli and responses. Such association or habits become strengthened or weakened by nature and frequency of the S-R pairings. •The main principle of connectionism was that learning could be adequately explained without considering any unobservable internal states.
  59. 59. Theory of Connectionism - stated that learning has taken place when a strong connection or bond between stimulus and response is formed. THREE PRIMARY LAW 1.Law of Effect- S-R is strengthened when the consequence is positive and weakened when the consequence is negative. 2.Law of Exercise- when S-R bond is practice the stronger it will become. 3.Law of Readiness- the more readiness the learner has to respond to the stimulus, the stronger will be the bond between them.
  60. 60. Principles derived from theory of connectionism: 1.Learning requires both practice and rewards (law of effect/exercise). 2.A series of S-R connection can be chained together if they belong to the same action sequence (law of readiness). 3.Transfer of learning occurs because previously encountered situations. 4.Intelligence is a function of the number of connections learned.
  61. 61. John Watso n • work with Pavlov's ideas •Considered that humans are born with a few reflexes and the emotional reactions of love and rage. •Experiment on Albert and a white rat •His work did clearly show the role of conditioning in the development of emotional responses to certain stimuli.
  62. 62. Burrhu s Frederi ck Skinner • operant conditioning •Reinforcement +R-any stimulus given or added to increase the response. -R- any stimulus that results in the increased frequency of a response when it is withdrawn or removed.
  63. 63. NEO BEHAVIORISM: TOLMAN & BANDURA
  64. 64.  Basic Premise  We learn behavior through observation  Vicarious reinforcement: Learn through observing consequences of behaviors of others  Modelling  Observe behavior of others and repeat the behavior  Bobo doll studies (1963)  Disinhibition: Weakening of inhibition through exposure to a model Albert Bandura: Social / Observational Learning
  65. 65. *Characteristics of the models: similarity, age, sex, status, prestige, simple vs. Complex behavior *Characteristics of observers: low self- confidence, low self-esteem, reinforcement for imitation Reward consequences of behavior: directly witnessing associated rewards Factors Influencing Modeling: Impact Tendency to Imitate
  66. 66. The Observational Learning Process: 4 Steps  Attentional Processes  Retention Processes  Production Processes  Incentive And Motivational Processes
  67. 67. Step 1: Attentional Processes  Developing cognitive processes to pay attention to a model- more developed processes allow for better attention  Must observe the model accurately enough to imitate behavior
  68. 68. Step 2: Retention Processes  To later imitate behavior, must remember aspects of the behavior  Retain information in 2 ways: Imaginal internal representation: Visual image Ex: Forming a mental picture Verbal system: Verbal description of behavior Ex: Silently rehearsing steps in behavior
  69. 69. Step 3: Production Processes  Taking imaginal and verbal representations and translating into overt behavior- practice behaviors  Receive feedback on accuracy of behavior- how well have you imitated the modeled behavior?  Important in mastering difficult skills Ex: Driving a car
  70. 70. Step 4: Incentive and Motivational Processes  With incentives, observation more quickly becomes action, pay more attention, retain more information  Incentive to learn influenced by anticipated reinforcements
  71. 71. Aspects of the Self: Self-reinforcement and Self- efficacy  Self-reinforcement: Rewards or punishments given to oneself for reaching, exceeding or falling short of personal expectations Ex: Pride, shame, guilt  Self-efficacy: Belief in ability to cope with life Meeting standards: Enhances self-efficacy Failure to meet standards: Reduces self- efficacy
  72. 72. Self-Efficacy  High self-efficacy Believe can deal effectively with life events Confident in abilities Expect to overcome obstacles effectively  Low self-efficacy Feel unable to exercise control over life Low confidence, believe all efforts are futile
  73. 73. Sources of Information in Determining Self-efficacy  Performance attainment Most influential Role of feedback More we achieve, more we believe we can achieve Leads to feelings of competency and control
  74. 74. Sources of Information in Determining Self-efficacy  Vicarious experience  Seeing others perform successfully  If they can, I can too  Verbal persuasion  Verbal reminders of abilities  Physiological and emotional arousal  Related to perceived ability to cope  Calm, composed feelings: Higher self-efficacy  Nervous, agitated feelings: Lower self-efficacy
  75. 75. Developmental Stages of Modeling and Self-efficacy  Childhood Infancy: Direct modeling immediately following observation, develop self-efficacy with control over environment By age 2: Developed attentional, retention and production processes to model behavior some time after observation, not immediately
  76. 76. Developmental Stages of Modeling and Self-efficacy  Adolescence Involves coping with new demands Success depends on level of self- efficacy established during childhood
  77. 77. Developmental Stages of Modeling and Self-efficacy  Adulthood: 2 Periods  Young adulthood: Adjustments: Career, marriage, parenthood High self-efficacy to adjust successfully  Middle adulthood: Adjustment: Reevaluate career, family life Need to find opportunities to continue to enhance self-efficacy
  78. 78. Developmental Stages of Modeling and Self-efficacy  Old age: Decline in mental/physical function, retirement Requires reappraisal of abilities Belief in ability to perform a task is key throughout the lifespan
  79. 79. Application of Social Learning Theory: Behavior Modification  Fears and phobias Guided participation: Observe and imitate Covert modeling: Imaginal  Anxiety Fear of medical treatment Test anxiety
  80. 80. Assessment of Bandura’s Theory: Self-efficacy  Age and gender differences  Physical appearance  Academic performance  Career choice and job performance  Physical health  Mental health  Coping with stress
  81. 81. Assessment of Bandura’s Theory: Television and Aggressive Behaviors  Relationship between watching violence and imitating violence ASSESSMENT OF BANDURA’S THEORY  Strengths:  Focus on observable behavior- research support  Practical application to real-world problems  Large-scale changes
  82. 82. The most important single factor influencing learning is what the learner already knows..
  83. 83. - is a theory of learning based on the idea that learner’s construct knowledge for themselves. Constructivism
  84. 84. TWO VIEWS OF CONSTRUCTIVISM INDIVIDUAL CONSTRUCTIVISM (COGNITIVE CONSTRUCTIVISM)  - it emphasizes individual, internal construction of knowledge. SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM  - it emphasizes that knowledge exists in a social context and is initially shared with others.
  85. 85. CHARACTERISTICS OF CONSTRUCTIVISM 1. Learners construct understanding. 2. New learning depends on current understanding. 3. Learning is facilitated by social interaction. 4. Meaningful learning occurs within authentic learning tasks.
  86. 86. ORGANIZING KNOWLEDGE People store knowledge in many different ways. CONCEPTS - is a way of grouping or categorizing objects or events in our mind.
  87. 87. Concepts As Feature Lists - involves learning specific features that characterize positive instance of the concept. DEFINING FEATURE- characteristics present in all instances. CORRELATIONAL FEATURE- is one that is present in many positive instances but not essential for concept membership.
  88. 88. Concepts as Prototypes prototype- is an idea or a visual image of a “typical example”. Concepts as Exemplars exemplars- represent a variety of examples.
  89. 89. SCHEMA - is an organized body of knowledge about something. SCRIPT - is a schema that includes a series of predictable events about a specific activity .
  90. 90. Montessori Theory
  91. 91. Dr. Maria Montessori Maria Montessori was a brilliant figure who was Italy's first woman physician. Montessori reflected a late19th century vision of mental development and theoretical kin-ship with the great European progressive educational philosophers, such as Rousseau, Pestalozzi, Seguin and Itard. She was convinced that children's natural intelligence involved three aspects from the very start:  rational  Empirical - observation  spiritual
  92. 92. The method represents an explicit idealism and turn away from violence towards peace and reconstruction. During this period schools were being based on the factory model of production and geared towards assimilating immigrant children into the American populous through a process of “subtractive schooling” i.e. stripping away there family, community and culture.
  93. 93. Friedrich Froebel applied his ideas to the education of even younger children and began the international movement towards universal kindergarten, which continues today. The kindergartens neglected to place the child at the pedagogical epicenter and remained in the tradition of teacher-centered education.
  94. 94. Montessori strongly believed that the child's mind absorbs the environment, leaving lasting impressions upon it, forming it, and providing nourishment for it. Montessori warned that ‘the quality of the environment could greatly enhance a child's life or seriously diminish it’.
  95. 95. Children’s House Sensorial Language Practical Life Math Cultural Using their hierarchy, the “Superordinate level” denotes the broad category, the “basic level” describes a group category and subordinate categories are specific exemplars. In other words, (broad) ANIMALS (basic) DOG (subordinate) German shepherd or poodle. In the Montessori classroom, the Superordinate Categories are: Practical Life, Sensorial, Math, Language and Cultural.
  96. 96. Children’s House Letter recognition/ Care of indoors Math Cultural+ - x / sq- cubes Sensorial The five senses Attributes of geometry Care of the person Care of outdoors Practical Life Handwriting Word building/ grammar Language Mathematics 1-10, 1- 9,999 Properties/ frac Cultural Arts, Sciences Cultures, Time Cultural Arts, Sciences Cultures, Time
  97. 97. On the Sensorial shelves, there are lessons for the 5 senses: •Vision- these lessons are broken down into color recognition, identifying shades of color, magnified vision, using binoculars (distance and depth perception), etc. •Auditory sense materials that teach pitch, scales, loud and soft gradation of •Tactile (sense of touch) lessons that teach rough and smooth, stereognostic memory bags (using “feel” to recognize items)….etc •Taste Tasting solutions foods and drinks. •Smell (olfactory) smelling bottles, environment, herbs, flowers, perfumes, ect Once we have learned to recognize individual attributes, we use our senses to experience LENGTH, WIDTH, HEIGHT, DEPTH, CIRCUMFERENCE, SHAPES, VOLUME… Under the basic category CULTURAL, you’ll find the subordinate categories of Art and Art history, geography, Geology, Zoology, Botany, Biology, Cultures (humanities) and Time, for example
  98. 98. 1.Start with real life 2.Move to 2 dimensional representations 3.Provide interactive activities 4.Attach language with incrementally increasing complexity
  99. 99. With all of those materials available to students, one might think the classroom would cluttered or over-stimulating. But instead, the classrooms are very homelike and quite cozy. There is a place for everything, and everything in its place!
  100. 100. CHARACTERISTICS OF A MONTESSORI CLASSROOM Free Flow Movement - Areas Relating To Ages And Stages Materials Which Relate To Gardener’s 8 Core Intelligences Teacher As Observer And Director Prepared Environment - Self Discipline - Work Cycle No Discrimination Between Work And Play
  101. 101. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. A Montessori classroom is a specially prepared learning environment designed to meet the developmental needs of young children and to appeal to their diverse learning styles. The Montessori environment is also prepared to foster independence, grace and courtesy and a sense of personal responsibility. Each classroom is organized into five curriculum areas: Practical life, sensory education, language skills, math and the cultural subjects, which encompass the arts and sciences.
  102. 102. Teaching Method: • No text books • Children study independently • Children learn directly from the environment, and from other children • Teacher is trained to teach one child at a time, with a few small groups and almost no lessons given to the whole class. •She is trained in the basic lessons of arithmetic, language, the arts and sciences, and in guiding a child's research and exploration, capitalizing on interests and excitement about a subject. The Colour Wheel •Large groups occur only in the beginning of a new class, or in the beginning of the school year, and are phased out as the children gain independence. •The child is scientifically observed, observations recorded and studied by the teacher. Children learn from what they are studying individually, but also from the amazing variety of work that is going on around them during the day.
  103. 103. Montessori saw a child’s relationship with the environment as the key to his or her self-understanding. Education is not acquired by listening to words, but in virtue of experiences in which the child acts on his environment. (Montessori 1967)
  104. 104. Children need organized learning environments and educational materials that provide enriching meaningful experiences to support their cognitive development.
  105. 105. Gardner, too, emphasizes the importance of the environment on the development of human capabilities. Gardner believes that the "smarter" the environment and the more powerful the interventions and resources, the more competent individuals will become and the less important will be their particular genetic inheritance. He asserts that even individuals who seem gifted in a specific intelligence will accomplish little if they are not exposed to resources and materials that support that intelligence.
  106. 106. Children are intrinsically motivated to learn and they need the opportunities to explore this. Children should not be forced to do or learn something; the will and perseverance should come from them.
  107. 107. Intelligence Linguistic Logical/Mathematical Spatial/Visual Bodily/Kinesthetic Musical Naturalist Intrapersonal Interpersonal Characteristics Play with words, enjoys stories, interest in sounds of language (phonics) Exploration of patterns, counting, reasoning, problem solving Visualization of concepts Strong motor skills and coordination. Learning through movement Ability to produce and appreciate pitch, rhythm. Understanding of musical expressiveness Classification of living things – plants, animals, features of the natural world Understanding of one’s self, ability to discriminate and act on one’s feelings Ability to understand others and work well together. Availability of leadership roles Montessori Representation LANGUAGE AREA: Sandpaper letters, moveable alphabet, insets for design, stories, writing SENSORIAL/MATHS AREA: Knobless cylinders, solid cylinders, PRACTICAL LIFE: Order in the environment. Specific place for each material ALLL AREAS OF CLASSROOM & OUTDOORS CURRICULUM: MUSIC AREA: Montessori bells, songs, rhymes, music specialists GEOGRAPHY & BIOLOGY AREA: Geography and social studies curriculum, care of indoor and outdoor environment Respect of personal spaces, ability to choose to work alone
  108. 108. Each lesson leads to another in a spiral of learning, with the curriculum building carefully over time.
  109. 109. Sensorial Education - Multi Sensory Materials Montessori’s approach was far in advance of the general psychological understanding of her time. Montessori developed materials and a prepared environment for the intellectual training through sensory motor modalities for children aged three to six years of age.
  110. 110. Look At The Child Dr. Montessori discovered the child’s true nature by accident while observing young children in their free, self directed activity. Building on Seguin’s work and materials, Dr. Montessori found that young children came to acquire surprising new outward qualities of spontaneous self- discipline, love of order, and a perfect harmony with others.
  111. 111. I Do And I Understand According to Montessori the understanding of the sensory motor nature of the young child’s intelligence stemmed from acute observations of children. Up until then the idea of intelligence was based on verbal development and the manipulation of visual images and ideas.
  112. 112. LOOK AT THE CHILD Both Montessori and Piaget’s discoveries and insights into the mind of the child were achieved, not by what Piaget described as ‘adultmorphic’ thinking (seeing the child as a miniature adult), but by unbiased, astute, direct observations of the child.
  113. 113. Piaget and Montessori emphasized the necessity of active interaction between learner and the environment. Piaget and Montessori also emphasised the child’s relationship with peers as the principal means to overcoming egocentrism in learning. The Quality of the Environment Can Help or Hinder a Child’s Development
  114. 114. The Montessori method encourages accommodation to external reality rather than assimilation to the personalized motives and fantasies of the child (spontaneous play). Montessori and Piaget observed that certain conditions were necessary for optimal cognitive growth. Among these conditions is the creation of learning situations that involve particular kinds and qualities of autonomy. Autonomous Environments Work
  115. 115. The child in the Montessori classroom is allowed to learn autonomously, which they receive from the teacher. It is a very special relationship based on the teacher’s trust in the child to reveal their true nature.
  116. 116. In conclusion, one could argue that Montessori is beginning this century as she did at the start of the nineteenth century. Her ideas and pedagogy are being revisited, validated and included in the challenge to the contemporary construction and conceptualization of childhood. Montessori’s principles could be seen as pre-empting concepts and thinking that are considered ‘cutting edge’ today; principles that place a child’s wellbeing as central to her or his experience.
  117. 117. “The greatest sign of success for a teacher...is to be able to say, "The children are now working as if I did not exist."” Dr. Maria Montessori
  118. 118. These principles are based on the factors that affect transfer of learning.
  119. 119. Conditions/ factors affecting transfer of learning Principle of transfer Implication Similarity between two learning situations The more similar the two situations are, the greater the chances that learning from one situation will be transferred to other situation Involve students in learning situations and tasks that are similar as possible to the situations where they would apply the task Degree of meaningfulness/ relevance of learning Meaningful learning leads to greater transfer than rote learning Remember to provide opportunities for learners to link new material to what they learned in the past Length of instructional time The longer the time spent in instruction, the greater the probability of transfer To ensure transfer, teach a few topics in depth rather than many topics tackled in a shallow manner
  120. 120. Conditions/ factors affecting transfer of learning Principle of transfer Implication Variety of learning experiences Exposure to many examples and opportunities for practice to encourage transfer Illustrate new concepts and principles with a variety of examples. Plan activities that allow your learners to practice their newly learned skills Context for learner’s experiences Transfer of learning is most likely to happen when learners discover that what they learned is applicable to various contexts Relate topic in one subject in one subject to topics in other subjects or disciplines. Relate it also to real life situation Focus on principles rather than task Principles transfer easier that facts. Zero in on principles related to each topic together with strategies based on those principle s. Emphasis on metacognition Student reflection improves transfer of learning Encourage students to take responsibility for their own learning and to reflect on what they learned.

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