08 si(systems analysis and design )

1,249 views

Published on

Kumpulan Materi Kuliah IT (SI)

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,249
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
193
Comments
0
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

08 si(systems analysis and design )

  1. 1. Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, Fourth Edition
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Prioritize the system requirements based on the desired scope and level of automation for the new system </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the strategic decisions that integrate the application deployment environment and the design approach for the new system </li></ul><ul><li>Determine alternative approaches for system implementation </li></ul>Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition
  3. 3. Learning Objectives ( continued ) <ul><li>Evaluate and select an implementation approach based on the needs and resources of the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Describe key elements of a request for proposal (RFP) and evaluate vendors’ proposals for outsourced alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a professional presentation of findings to management </li></ul>Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition
  4. 4. Overview <ul><li>Chapter explains last three activities of analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prioritize systems requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generate and evaluate alternatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review recommendation with management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Refocus project direction </li></ul><ul><li>Transition from discovery and analysis to solutions and design </li></ul><ul><li>Set direction for design and implementation of solution system </li></ul>Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition
  5. 5. Project Management Perspective <ul><li>Project manager and senior technical members of project team work together </li></ul><ul><li>Eight areas of project management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procurement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk </li></ul></ul>Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition <ul><ul><li>Scope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Deciding on Scope and Level of Automation <ul><li>Scope determines which business functions will be included in system </li></ul><ul><li>Level of automation is how much computer support exists for functions included in scope </li></ul><ul><li>Scope creep </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requests for addition of system functions after requirements have been defined and decision has been made </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Users typically request more business functions than budget allows </li></ul>Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition
  7. 7. Determining the Level of Automation <ul><li>Low level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functions automated for simple computer record keeping </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Medium level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Midrange point that combines features from low and high alternatives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System automates most processing of business functions </li></ul></ul>Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition
  8. 8. RMO Customer Support System Functions, Priority, and Three Levels of Automation (Partial Figure 8-1) Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition
  9. 9. Selecting Alternatives <ul><li>Entire group of alternatives is evaluated together to provide “big picture” view of proposed system </li></ul><ul><li>Key criteria that are used </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic feasibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schedule and resource feasibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technological feasibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operational, organizational, and cultural feasibility </li></ul></ul>Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition
  10. 10. Defining the Application Deployment Environment <ul><li>Configuration of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development tools </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Existing environment generally considered and compared with proposed environment </li></ul>Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition
  11. 11. Range of Application Types <ul><li>Stand-alone applications on mini- and personal computers </li></ul><ul><li>Online interactive applications </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed applications </li></ul><ul><li>Web-based applications </li></ul>Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition
  12. 12. Hardware, System Software, and Networks <ul><li>Computers range from handheld to super computers </li></ul><ul><li>Operating systems range from Windows to Unix </li></ul><ul><li>Database management systems range from Oracle to SQL Server to IBM DB2 </li></ul><ul><li>Software components and standards range from Java 2 Enterprise (J2EE) to Microsoft .NET </li></ul><ul><li>Web servers range from IIS to Apache </li></ul>Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition
  13. 13. Deployment Environment Characteristics to Consider <ul><li>Compatibility with system requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Compatibility among hardware and system software </li></ul><ul><li>Required interfaces to external systems </li></ul><ul><li>Conformity with IT strategic plan and architecture plans </li></ul><ul><li>Cost and schedule </li></ul>Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition
  14. 14. Development Tools <ul><li>Development environment – programming languages, CASE tools, and other software used to develop application software </li></ul><ul><li>Java and Visual Studio .NET are examples </li></ul><ul><li>Application deployment environment decisions limit development tool choices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating system environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Database management system (DBMS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed software standard </li></ul></ul>Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition
  15. 15. Existing Processing Environment at RMO (Figure 8-3) Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition
  16. 16. Processing Environment Alternatives (Figure 8-4) Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition
  17. 17. Strategic Directions for RMO Processing Environment (Figure 8-5) Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition
  18. 18. Choosing Implementation Alternatives <ul><li>Variations on obtaining system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilities management – outsource all IS support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Packaged software, turnkey system, ERP system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Custom-built software systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In-house development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Selection dimensions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buy vs. build </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In-house vs. outsource </li></ul></ul>Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition
  19. 19. Implementation Alternatives (Figure 8-6) Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition
  20. 20. Selecting an Implementation Alternative <ul><li>Identifying criteria for selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparisons can be difficult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different proposed systems have strengths in different areas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three major areas to consider </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional requirements </li></ul></ul>Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition
  21. 21. Partial Matrix of General Requirements, Weights, and Scores for Alternatives (Figure 8-7) Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition
  22. 22. Partial Matrix of Functional Requirements, Weights, and Scores for Alternatives (Figure 8-8) Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition
  23. 23. Partial Matrix of Technical Requirements, Weights, and Scores for Alternatives (Figure 8-9) Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition
  24. 24. Making the Selection <ul><li>First, rate each alternative with raw score </li></ul><ul><li>Weighted scores are then tabulated and compared to make a choice </li></ul><ul><li>RMO decided on in-house development for most CSS development to keep expertise within RMO </li></ul><ul><li>RMO wants to hire some new technical specialists </li></ul><ul><li>RMO feasibility review showed no serious problems – after specialists are added </li></ul>Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition
  25. 25. Contracting with Vendors <ul><li>Generate request for proposal (RFP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal document sent to vendors if in-house development is not selected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>States requirements and solicits proposed solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Considered a competitive contract offer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bid on supplying hardware, software, and/or support services </li></ul></ul>Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition
  26. 26. Sample RFP Table of Contents (Figure 8-10) Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition I. Introduction and Background II. Overview of Need III. Description of Technical Requirements IV. Description of Functional Requirements
  27. 27. Sample RFP Table of Contents ( continued ) Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition V. Description of General Requirements VI. Requested Provider and Project Information VII. Details for Submitting Proposal IV. Evaluation Criteria and Process
  28. 28. Sample RFP Table of Contents ( continued ) Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition
  29. 29. Benchmarking and Choosing a Vendor <ul><li>Observe in use or install trial version </li></ul><ul><li>Benchmark – evaluate the system against a standard </li></ul><ul><li>Visit another company using a particular system </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a contract </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed-dollar – risk is on vendor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost-plus-percentage – risk is on purchaser </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost-plus-fixed-fee – r isk is shared by both </li></ul></ul>Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition
  30. 30. Presenting Results and Making Decisions <ul><li>Compile and organize documentation </li></ul><ul><li>Present alternatives and critical issues in easy-to-understand but complete manner </li></ul><ul><li>Final choice generally made by executive steering committee </li></ul><ul><li>Format of documentation and presentation style varies with organization </li></ul>Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition
  31. 31. Summary <ul><li>These activities are primarily project manager responsibilities with support from project team </li></ul><ul><li>Focus of project changes from discovering requirements to developing solution system </li></ul><ul><li>Prioritize requirements based on scope and level of automation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scope of new system determines functions it will support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level of automation is a measure of how automated the selected functions will be </li></ul></ul>Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition
  32. 32. Summary ( continued ) <ul><li>Application deployment environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer hardware, systems software, and networks in which new system will operate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determines constraints imposed on system development alternatives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analyst must define environment to match </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Application requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization’s strategic application plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization’s technology architecture plans </li></ul></ul>Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition
  33. 33. Summary ( continued ) <ul><li>Determine what alternatives are possible for developing solution </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation alternatives include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building system in-house </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buying packaged or turnkey solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contracting with developer to build system (outsource) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Develop recommendations and present to management to make funding decisions </li></ul>Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition
  34. 34. Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 4th Edition Thank You Nurdin Al-Azies http://www.azies-site.co.cc [email_address]

×