CHAPTER 2REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE2.1. IntroductionAs a developing country, producing individuals who are physically, mentallyemotionally, and spiritually balanced is one of the crucial steps to be taken in order toachieve our nation’ goals. It would be a disappointment if the produced generation hashigh intellectual but emotional unstable and lack of emotional awareness. Emotionalintelligence has been identified as one of the key factors that contribute to individual’sachievement as a whole rather than academic qualification alone (Yvonne Styss &Shelley Brown, 2004; Mestre et al, 2006; M.A Brackett et al, 2004; Pablo Fernandez-Berrocal & Natalio Extremera, 2006; Hassan et al, 2009; Daniel Goleman, 1998, K.VPetrides et al,2004; Kimberly A. Barchard, 2007; D.A Adeyemo, 2007). All the studiescite in the current chapter were chosen because the variables had interactive relationshipthat related to each other. The literature review covers several subheadings such as thehistory and the development of emotional intelligence, and the definition of emotionalintelligence and its domain. Furthermore, this chapter reviews the history of thedevelopment of the learning of literature in Malaysia, the advantages of the learning ofliterature for ESL learners and the students’ perceptions and attitudes towards thelearning of literature. Finally, the chapter reviews about relationship of emotionalintelligence between the students’ perceptions and attitudes towards the learning ofliterature.
2.2. History and the Development of Emotional IntelligenceEmotional intelligence has become one of the key of interest in the psychology field(Bar-On, 2005; Mayer, J.D, 2001; Cherniss, C, 2000; Bastian et al, 2005). The emotionalintelligence concept had been revised as early in 1900 (Mayer, 2001). There are fivephases of times mentioned by Mayer (2001) as to describe the development of emotionalintelligence. The first phase is from 1900 to 1969, which was during this period, emotionsand intelligence were regard as two different matters and being studied separately.According to Geetu Orme (2001), in 1920, Robert Thondike had conducted a research toinvestigate the sources of intelligence and finally proposed that social intelligence wasone of the parts of general intelligence. He had defined “social intelligence” as “theabilities to understand others and to act or behave wisely in relations to others” (Orme,2001). In line with Robert Thondike, as mentioned by Cherniss (2000), David Wechslerhad also proposed the non-intellective elements such as affective, personal and socialfactors as important as cognitive intelligence. He also identified that other than traditionalIQ, there was other intelligence that people need to consider (Orme, 2001). As referred toBar-On (2005), an instrument has been created by Edgar Doll in order to measure thesocial intelligence skill among the young children. Quoted by Geetu Orme (2001), in1948, R.W Leeper suggested that emotions “arouse, sustain and direct activity”. Theprevious researches had proven that the psychologists had started to be aware of theimportance of emotions in our lives instead of cognitive intelligence. The concept ofsocial intelligence has become one of the important points for emotional intelligence
development as it gave big impact for emotional intelligence’s concept to develop (Bar-On, 2005).Mayer (2001) later had described the second phase of emotional intelligence as“precursors to emotional intelligence”. As contrast with the first phase, which theemotions and intelligence were studied separately, the researchers at the second phase ofthe development had started to examine the relationship between emotions and thoughts.According to Bar-On (2005) and Orme (2001), Howard Gardner in 1983 had proposedthe different category of intelligence, which is one of them, is the personal intelligence.He also elaborated the fact that “personal intelligence is based on intrapersonal(emotional) intelligence and interpersonal (social) intelligence”. Gardner also defined theintrapersonal intelligence as “the capacity at work here is access to one’s own feelingslife-one’s range of affect or emotions” (Mayer, 2001). Based on these researches, the gistof emotional intelligence had started to be discovered and examined by the expertise.The third phase as described by Mayer (2001) has being emphasized on “theemergence of emotional development”. Several articles on emotional intelligence hadbeen published by Peter Salovey and John Mayer (Mayer, 2001) as to discuss andconceptualize the emotional intelligence terms. The term of emotional intelligence wasfirst coined by Peter Salovey and John Mayer in 1990 (Hassan et al, 2009; Polat, Sonerand Oztan-Ulusoy, Yildiz, 2009; Aslan, Sebnem and Erkus, Ahmet, 2008; Cherniss,Cary, 2000; Orme, Geetu, 2001). According to Mayer (2001), during this period, theresearchers had also investigated the emotional intelligence in brain sciences field. Geetu
Orme (2001) had stated in her book that David Caruso had joined Mayer and Salovey todevelop a test for emotional intelligence. In 1990, emotional competency had beensuggested by Carolyn Saarni, who is a developmental psychologist that later publishedher dissertations in 1997 and 1999 (Orme, 2001). John D. Mayer and his colleagues hadexamined the previous researches in order to produce the formal definition of emotionalintelligence and the coordinated measurement had also being demonstrated by them tomeasure the emotional intelligence level for individuals (Mayer, 2001). In conclusion, thethird era (1990 to 1993) has been highlighted as the remarkable years for the emergenceof emotional intelligence as quoted by Stenberg (Mayer, 2001).The forth era, which is in 1994 until 1997, as described by Mayer (2001), was calledas “The Popularization and Broadening” period. During this period, the emotionalintelligence term was started to popular as it entered the conventional field with DanielGoleman in 1995 (Polat, Soner & Oztan-Ulusoy, Yildiz, 2009; Sebnem & Erkus, 2008;Mayer, 2001; Culver, 1998; Cherniss, Cary, 2000; Orme, Geetu, 2001; Boyatzis et al,1999). Goleman has emphasized on the importance of emotional intelligence inworkplace especially in educational aspect (Goleman, 1998). As quoted by Caruso,Mayer, and Salovey (2008), Gibbs (1995) stated that press has given the bestseller bookwritten by Goleman in 1995, a very wide exposure “including a cover story in Timemagazine” which had contributed to the popularity of the concepts. Soner & Oztan-Ulusoy (2009) stated that all those expertise such as psychological, educational andmanagement researchers and consultants become attracted by the current development ofemotional intelligence at that time. In 1996 the first scientific instrument had been created
by Dr. Reuvon Bar-On, an Israeli scientist to measure the emotional intelligence which isknown as the Bar-On EQ-i (Orme, 2001). Geetu Orme (2001) also stated that, in 1998,Goleman and his consulting firm, Hay McBer has created an instrument in order tomeasure the emotional intelligence of people in business which is called as “360-degree”.The last phase, as referred by Mayer (2001), the period from 1998 until present is thetime whereby the researches of emotional intelligence have been widely conductedaround the world. The emotional intelligence concept at this period has become a catch ofinterest for many fields like educational, management, consultant, as it is believed tocontribute in one’s success in life. Mayer (2001) also mentioned that at this phase, thereare a lot of “refinement to the concept of emotional intelligence” has been taken placealong. Moreover, many instruments to measure the level of emotional intelligence havebeen developed (as example TEIQue (2001)).2.3. The Definitions of Emotional IntelligenceEmotion has its own roles in a human life. Thus, due to this fact, emotionalintelligence has become a matter of concern in the eyes of the psychologists, educatorsand researchers. Many researchers have conducted many studies to comprehend theconcepts of emotional intelligence and its relations in our lives. The numerousresearchers and papers have been presented in order to investigate the concepts ofemotional intelligence as well as to provide the formal definition of emotionalintelligence. Quoted by Hassan et al (2009), Mohd Azhar Abdul Hamid (2006) stated that
the word “emotion” was originated from Latin word “emovere” which is defined asmoving, happiness and hesitation. John Mayer as referred by Geetu Orme (2001) alsobelieved that emotions as “…occurs when there are certain biological, certainexperiential, and certain cognitive states which all occur simultaneously. There areemotions, which are more biologically oriented, and then there are complex emotions thatare saturated with thoughts and cognition”.As for emotional intelligence, according to Geetu Orme (2001), David Caruso, theco-designer of the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS) has definedemotional intelligence as “the ability to use your emotions to help solve problems andlive a more effective life. Emotional intelligence without intelligence or intelligencewithout emotional intelligence is only part of a solution. The complete solution is thehead working with the heart”. Geetu Orme (2001) then interpreted emotional intelligenceas “the ability to tune into emotions, understand them and take appropriate action and addup to advanced common sense”. In the other words, we use our emotions accordingly inorder to think, decide and take proper action. If we face any difficulties, we should awareour own feelings and emotions so the distressing feelings do not affect others around us.The excerpt below is taken from Geetu Orme (2001) in her book, “What Is EmotionalIntelligence?” (p. 8) describing her concept on emotional intelligence.“When you are having a conversation with a friend, are you tuned into how youand they are feeling? Do you understand why you feel what you do? Do you act in linewith these feelings? When you are feeling sad, do you take action to make life better for
yourself or do you tend to sit in sadness for hours? In situations where it would be happy,are you able to “turn on” this feeling so that it can help you deal with particularsituation? ... they all have to do with your emotional intelligence…”In the same book, Geetu Orme (2001) also cited some definitions of emotionalintelligence as defined by some expertise during sessions at a conference on emotionalintelligence and a conference on virtual reality. The conferences were held in Chicago, inOctober 2000 and in November 2000. Kate Cannon, the inventor of the world’s firstemotional intelligence in American Express Financial Services has defined emotionalintelligence as “emotional intelligence is about using the power of emotion as a source ofinformation, motivation and connection.” (Orme, 2001). While Liz Morris, the partner ofBuckholdt Associates/ Center for Applied Emotional Intelligence stated that “emotionalintelligence is the practice of paying attention to one’s own and other people’s emotionalstates and using the information to inform one’s action” (Orme, 2001). Besides that, asreferred by Geetu Orme (2001) the creator of the EQ Map, Esther Orioli interpretedemotional intelligence as “the ability to sense, understand, and effectively apply thepower of emotions as a source of energy, information, creativity, trust and connection.”David Ryback, the author of Putting Emotional Intelligence to work, cited byGeetu Orme (2001), described emotional intelligence as “…involves the ability to readthe unspoken feelings in individuals as well as the collective dynamic”. Faxon Green, asreferred by Geetu Orme (2001), also described its term as “…to acknowledge that there isno separate between thinking and feeling- they are simultaneous activities. People who
practice emotional intelligence are aware of the “whole self” – the head, heart and gut’ ofeach person. Being emotionally intelligent requires personal self-awareness in themoments of interpersonal interactions”. Emotional intelligence has been widely describedand defined by the expertise as they started to be aware of its role and significant in thehuman lives.In lines with those concepts, the formal definition of emotional intelligence hasbeen defined by John Mayer in 1990 in his early version while working with hiscolleague, Peter Salovey (Mayer, 2001). The early version of the term is shown below:“A type of emotional intelligence processing that includes accurate appraisal of emotionsin oneself and others, appropriate expression of emotion, and adaptive regulation ofemotion in such a way as to enhance living. [36, p.773]”Then, nine years later in 1999, John Mayer and his colleagues have madeamendment to the early version of the emotional intelligence’s definition (Mayer, 2001)which is as follow:“Emotional intelligence refers to an ability to recognize the meanings of emotions andtheir relationships and to reason and problem-solve on the basis of them. Emotionalintelligence is involved in the capacity to perceive emotions, assimilate emotion-relatedfeelings, understand the information of those emotions and manage them. [34, p. 267]”
Based on the research done by John Mayer and Peter Salovey in 1997 (Mayer,2001), they had conceptualized the emotional intelligence into a model as called as “TheFour- Branch Model of Emotional Intelligence. The first branch is emotional perceptionand expression which is “involves recognizing and inputting verbal and nonverbalinformation from the emotion system” (Mayer, 2001). The second branch is emotionalfacilitation of thought which also known as using emotional intelligence. Basically forthe second branch, it refers “to use emotions as part of cognitive processes such ascreativity and problem solving” (Mayer, 2001). Then, the third branch which isemphasizing on “cognitive processing of emotions, that is, insight and knowledgebrought to bear upon one’s feelings or the feelings of others” is known as emotionalunderstanding (Mayer, 2001). Whereas the forth branch, emotional management isfunctioned to “concern the regulation of emotions in oneself and other people” (Mayer,2001).According to Reuvon Bar-On, stated by Geetu Orme (2001), he defined emotionalintelligence as “an array of emotional, personal and social abilities which influence one’soverall ability to cope effectively with environmental demands and pressures”. Asreferred by D.A. Adeyemo (2007), ten factorials components of emotional intelligencehave been discovered by Bar-On (2007) which is stated as follow:1. Self-regard: The ability to accurately perceive and appraise ourselves2. Emotional awareness: The ability to be aware of and understand our emotion.
3. Assertiveness: The ability to constructively express our emotions andourselves4. Stress tolerance: The ability to effectively manage our emotion.5. Impulse control: The ability to effectively control our emotion.6. Reality testing: The ability to objectively validate our feelings and thought.7. Flexibility: The ability to adapt and adjust our feelings and thought to newsituation.8. Problem solving: The ability to solve our personal and interpersonal problems.9. Empathy: The ability to be aware of and understand others’ emotion.10. Interpersonal relationship: The ability to relate well with others.Based on Daniel Goleman in his book, Working with Emotional Intelligence(1998, p.375), he defined emotional intelligence as “the capacity for recognizing our ownfeelings and those for others, for motivating ourselves, and for managing emotions wellin ourselves and in our relationship. He also managed his adaptations on emotionalintelligence based on Peter Salovey and John Mayer’s definition on emotionalintelligence which are self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy and socialskills (Goleman, 1998).According to this research, the five basic emotional and competencies (self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy and social skills) by Daniel Goleman(1998) is being utilized. The elaboration for the competencies had been attached on thedefinition of operational terms in the chapter one of this study.
2.4. History of the Development of the Learning of Literature in MalaysiaIn Malaysia context, the awareness of the teaching and learning of the literaturehas grown since the decades ago. As the second language in schools, the acquisition ofthe language among the ESL learners has become a focus. Thus, as the part of thelanguage, learning of literature cannot be separated from the syllabus since the studentshave to be introduced to the literary pieces. The benefits of learning literature in ESLclassroom are various and because of that, the concern of introducing the literaturecomponent in English syllabus has also increased.According to Chacko (2007), since independence, English language and theEnglish Literature have been taught in isolation. Both of these subjects have their mainobjectives where the literature class emphasized on “the study of literature for literature’ssake”, as mentioned by Suraya Ali (1995), taken from Chacko (2007). At that period,according to Suraya Ali (1995), Chacko (2007) claimed that learning of literature wasassumed to be done among the elite students who came from elite family background asthe level of difficulty was quite high. This had lead to the decrease of the number of thestudents who took this subject.After The Language Act (1967) changed the status of English Language whereMalay Language has become the medium of instruction in school, replacing the EnglishLanguage, the interest of learning literature had become more decreased (Chacko, 2007).That moment, the literature class had remained to the majority of the urban schools thathad been used as missionary run –secondary schools. Then, in 1989, Malaysiagovernment has introduced the Class Reader Programme in the syllabus as the beginningof introducing the literature subject to the students (Sivapalan and Subramaniam, n.d).
This programme was believed to open the door to the students’ readiness in literaturelearning in schools. Sivapalan and Subramaniam, (n.d) also stated that under thisprogramme, the students were given one class period to associate with the chosen literarytext.Finally, in line with our government’s objectives that wants to produce thestudents who are well balanced and have good proficiency level in English Language, forthe sake of our nation’s future, the literature component has been introduced officially in2000 (Sivapalan, Idrus, Bhattacharyya, and Nordin, 2008). Sivapalan and Subramaniam,(n.d) emphasized that the inclusion of literature component in Malaysian ELT syllabuswas implemented as the roles and significant of literature learning in ESL languagelearning has been acknowledged by the Ministry of Education. Kalamanathan (1999) alsohighlighted, as mentioned by Chacko (1997) that literary genres like poetry and dramashould be contained in English Language syllabus as it would provide alternatives inlearning the English Language. One of the four objectives of the KBSM EnglishLanguage Programme that have given stress on literature is stated as below:“At the end of the KBSM English Language Programme, the students should beable to read and understand prose for information and enjoyment.”(KBSM English Language Syllabus, MoE, 1988. p.2)
2.5. The Advantages of the Learning of Literature to ESL Learners in EmotionalGrowthThe implementation of the inclusion of the literature component by the Ministryof Education has indeed opened the eyes of many people including the parents and thestudents themselves. Sivapalan and Subramaniam (n.d) stated that literature hasconnection with someone’s life. Based on O’Sullivan (1991), referred by Sivapalan andSubramaniam (n.d), literature is able to stimulate creativity among the learners.Furthermore, Sivapalan et al (2008) mentioned that Langer (1997) has claimed that, inliterature learning, the learners are given chance to express on three crucial aspects,which are the language, learning and also their own lives.In the learning of literature, it is believed that the learners are given a rightmedium develop their emotional intelligence skills and personal growth development.Panavelil (2011) has presented that activities in poetry in literature lesson could stimulatestrong emotional feedbacks from the learners. Hess (2003), referred by Panavelil (2011),was in line with the statement as he told that learning poetry gives the learners toexploring the language with the human reality experience. Heath (1996) also agreed withthose statements as he felt that the literature lesson is a medium for the learners to expressand project their own reflections and feelings. Eur (n.d) also proposed that poetry lessongive them an opportunity to relate their interpretation to human experience and increasetheir self-awareness. While completing the literature activities in the class, the learnerswill learn to accept others’ opinion and be rational about them.
Besides that, Sell (2005) told that literature itself can motivate the learners. Hequoted Duff and Maley (1990), emphasized that it enhances the students’ motivation bylearning from the authentic materials and the subjects and themes might interest thelearners as they can relate them to their own lives. After that, Khatib, Derakhshan andRezaie (2011) mentioned that Mckay (1982) claimed that when the learners start todevelop their interest in reading the literature text, they will feel motivated. Khatib et al(2011) also briefed that Shrestah (2008) stated that short stories in literature learning hasincreased the students’ motivation. Agree by this statement, Clanfield (n.d) claimed thatas the literature is symbolized as high status in many countries, the learners will feelmotivated when they can learn the literature.Nasr (2001), mentioned by Bagherkazemi and Alemi (2010), has reviewed thatliterature helps the learners to instill the feelings to the learnt language. Nasr (2001), thenquoted that, referred by Ladousse-Porter (2001), due to the involvement of creativity andvisualization of the readers, the emotional intelligence (EQ) skills which are self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy and social skills (Goleman, 1998) areactivated and enhanced by reading the literature works. This statement is supported byGhosn (2002), as reported by Amer (2003) as he stressed that the roles of literature as agood “change agent” by stimulating the students’ concern about culture, instill thestudents’ empathy and at the same time fostering the emotional intelligence skills.Khatib, Derakhshan and Rezaie (2011) kept highlighting the roles of the literaturelearning as the change agent as it could change the students’ attitudes and perceptions andat the same time booster the emotional intelligence skills. This will happen when the
learners start to appreciate the text and empathy with the characters and the story line,and they will able to apply their feelings to the real world.Banegas (2010) explained that by learning a novel, motivational source formethodologies activities is embraced. Novels can associate the reader intelligently,linguistically and emotionally. Bhavani (2008) stressed on the important of using thelanguage with emotional intelligence skill as without the skills the learners seem rude.He also did emphasize that literature has its own role in stimulating the emotionalintelligence skills among the learners by exposing the learners to utilize their emotionalexperience and activate the empathy circuit in the brain. He told that literature itself is“the source of the language of emotions”. The learning of the adequate language that isemotionally intelligence is very crucial in communication. Bhavani (2008) highlightedon of the effects of having low emotional intelligence in communication, is the learnerscannot express themselves by using “emotionally equipped vocabulary”.“Research has established the correlation between physical and psychologicaldevelopment. However of late, the comprehension role of education, that of developingthe physical, intellectual and emotional aspects of the individual child has beenignored.”(Vaidyam, 2007)This excerpt was taken by Bhavani (2008) that explained the needs of having a balancededucation that involved all those aspects. He grew the concern of the young learners arehaving not enough emotionally rich words. He claimed literature is the only way to learnthe emotional language and it helps the learners to familiarize with the specific
vocabulary to express the language. For him, literature learning and emotionalintelligence has reciprocal relationship that affects each other. Then, he said that, bylearning from the literary text, adding by the learners’ personal experience, one wouldable to develop the sufficient emotionally intelligent language. Based on his oldexperience learning the piece of literary text, the rich literature text was able to providethe strong emotional language. He also stated that all literature texts that reflect the reallife can change one’s moral attitude and emotionally intelligence language and able tobecome a better person. He concluded that by reading and listening to many literaturetexts will foster the learners with emotional intelligence skills in speech and in heart.Thus, the learning of literature is able to foster the emotional intelligence skills amongthe ESL learners.2.6. The Students’ Perception and Attitudes towards the Learning of LiteratureCurrently, the awareness of integrating literature in ESL curriculum has increased.The implementation of teaching literature as one of the curriculum components hasattracted many people to voice out all the reactions and the expressions. But there is nodenial the fact that teaching literature in ESL classroom has given a big challenge forneither the students nor the teachers for many reasons.One of the perceptions is the students feel difficult to comprehend the literaturetext. Sivapalan et al (2006) indicated that, mentioned by Or (1995), literature itself is a“complex and inaccessible for the foreign language learner”. This inaccessible indeed
will reduce the chance for the learners to associate with the literary text (Sivapalan et al,2006). Gurnam (2003) taken by Sivapalan et al (2006) in her research of the challengefaced by ESL learners in learning literature, found that the students felt the chosen textswere not suitable, linguistic difficulty and cultural barrier. All these problems haveleaded to the negative perceptions and attitudes towards the learning of literature.Based on the researches done by international and local researchers, the findingshave shown that learning poetry in the literature subject has been the least favorite ascompare to the short stories and drama. Quoted by Sharminnie and Kunaratnam (2009),Widdowson (1985) has stated that a poem has been ranked the least favorite item bymajority of ESL learner due to its “deviant use” of language. In fact, Sharminnie andKunaratnam (2009) also agreed that the students’ inability to appreciate poetry hasbrought a gap to them in ESL literature learning. This problem indeed will make thestudents demotivated to learn ESL, although utilizing poetry as the material in ESL classactually will help the students to engage in the learning process significantly (Panavelil,2011). Several researches conducted have listed various positive outcomes in integratingpoetry in English Language acquisition as it also helps the students developing theirpersonal growth, parallel with the learning objectives that has been derived inCurriculum Specification for English (1990, pp. 8-9). Nica (2011) has grown herconcern about this issue as she found that her students have considered literary text as aburden. Therefore, she believes that there is a need for changing the students’perceptions about learning literature as a whole, and this aim can be reached by adaptinginteresting teaching approaches.
But, there are many students who are still believe on the importance that literaturebrings especially in developing reading activities. A study conducted by Sivapalan et al(2006) revealed that majority of the engineering students feel that literature has its ownrole in developing their ability in reading. Unfortunately, they also stated that they werelacking of time in reading the literary text. This situation can affect the students’ interesttowards literature learning and demotivate them to read the literary text meaningfully. Ina research done by Sivapalan and Subramaniam (2005) showed that the technicalstudents felt that there was no need for them as the future engineer to learn literature intheir course as it would not help them to be a good engineer. Besides that, some of thestudents were disagree if they had to take literature in undergraduate level as thedifficulty in learning literature would affect their grades (Sivapalan and Subramaniam,2005). The technical students in this research argued about the relevance of literaturesubject in their technical course.Rosli Talif (1995) as referred by Awang and Adi Kasuma (2010) claimed that theliterature was a burden for them and as a result, they were demotivated to read theliterary pieces. Awang and Adi Kasuma (2010) also revealed that Hill (1986) explainedthat the students’ perceptions were negative as they faced challenge in language andculture barrier while dealing with the literary text. Awang and Adi Kasuma (2010)explained briefly that this situation has made the learners became passive and dependedtotally to the teachers. As the result, the learning environment would not be able toproduce a positive class environment. Thus, there is a need for the changes of thisnegative perceptions and attitudes towards the learning of literature in ESL classroom.
2.7. ConclusionAs for the conclusion, according to these related literature, it may crucial toinvestigate the concept of emotional intelligence and its roles in the learning of literaturein ESL classroom. Based on this research, further comprehension can be achieved to seewhether there is a relationship between emotional intelligence and the students’perceptions and attitudes towards the learning of literature is the ESL classroom.
2.9. Operational Definitions2.9.1. Emotional IntelligenceEmotional intelligence can be defined as “The capacity for recognizing our own feelingsand those of others, for motivating ourselves and for managing emotions well inourselves and in our relationship”. (Daniel Goleman, 1998, p. 375)2.9.2. Self-AwarenessKnowing what we are feeling in the moment, and use those preferences to guide ourdecision making, having a realistic assessment of our own abilities and a well- groundedsense of self-confidence. (Daniel Goleman, 1998, p. 376)2.9.3. Self-RegulationHandling our emotions so that they facilitate rather than interfere with task at hand; beingconscientious and delaying gratification to pursue goals; recovering well from emotionaldistress. (Daniel Goleman, 1998, p. 376)2.9.4. Self-MotivationUsing our deepest preferences to move and guide us toward our goals, to help us takeinitiative and strive to improve, and to persevere in the face of setbacks and frustrations.(Daniel Goleman, 1998, p. 376)
2.9.5. EmpathySensing what people are feeling, being able to take their perspective, and cultivatingrapport and attunement with a broad diversity of people. (Daniel Goleman, 1998, p. 376)2.9.6. Social SkillsHandling emotions in relationship well and accurately reading social situations andnetworks; interacting smoothly; using these skills to persuade and lead, negotiate andsettle disputes for cooperation and teamwork. (Daniel Goleman, 1998, p. 376)