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  1. 1. “AUTISM” Autism is defined by the Autism Society Of America (ASA) as: "Autism is a complex developmental disability that typically appears during the first three years of life and is the result of a neurological disorder that affects the normal functioning of the brain, impacting development in the areas of social interaction and communication skills. Both children and adults with autism typically show difficulties in verbal and non-verbal communication, social interactions, and leisure or play activities.CAUSES Although autism is the result of a neurologic abnormality, the cause of these problems with the nervous system is unknown in most cases. Research findings indicate a strong genetic component. Most likely, environmental, immunologic, and metabolic factors also influence the development of the disorder Emotional trauma: Some believed that emotional trauma at an early age, especially bad parenting, was to blame. This theory has been rejected. Vaccines: Although the mercury preservative used in some vaccines is known to be neurotoxic, the most recent research on this subject does not suggest a specific link between vaccines and autism. Environmental factors and exposures may interact with genetic factors to cause an increased risk of autism in some familiesSYMPTOMS Difficulty with verbal communication, including problems using and understanding language Inability to participate in a conversation, even when the child has the ability to speak Difficulty with non-verbal communication, such as gestures and facial expressions Difficulty with social interaction, including relating to people and to his or her surroundings Inability to make friends and preferring to play alone
  2. 2. Unusual ways of playing with toys and other objects, such as only lining them up a certain way Lack of imagination Difficulty adjusting to changes in routine or familiar surroundings, or an unreasonable insistence on following routines in detail Repetitive body movements, or patterns of behavior, such as hand flapping, spinning, and head banging Preoccupation with unusual objects or parts of objectsCHARACTERISTICS (PHISICAL, MENTAL, EMOTIONAL AND SOCIAL)(PHISICAL) Myoclonal jerks, sudden muscle Abnormal gait and posture movements Toe walking Clumsiness Choreiform, jerky and involuntary Difficulty with sitting, lying, movements crawling and/or walking Poor eye-hand coordination Difficulty chewing and/or Limb apraxia, when it is difficult to swallowing make certain movements with an Unusual sweating arm or leg Abnormal reaction to sensory stimuli Problems with intentional Rashes, dermatitis, eczema and/or movements itching(EMOTIONAL) Sensitivity or lack of sensitivity to Unusually high or low pain sounds, textures (touch), tastes, tolerance. smells or light. Intolerance to certain food textures, Difficulty with loud or sudden colours or the way they are presented sounds.
  3. 3. on the plate (one food can’t touch Desires comfort items (blankets, another). teddy, rock, string). Inappropriate touching of self in Laughs, cries or throws a tantrum for public situations. no apparent reason.(SOCIAL) Very little or no eye contact. Difficulty understanding jokes, Resistance to being held or touched. figures of speech or sarcasm. Tends to get too close when speaking Difficulty reading facial expressions to someone (lack of personal space). and body language. Responds to social interactions, but Difficulty understanding the rules of does not initiate them. conversation. Does not generally share Difficulty understanding group observations or experiences with interactions. others.CLASSIFICATION/TYPES WITH EXPLANATION: Autistic Disorder is commonly called “classic autism.” It is a neurological and developmental disorder that is typically seen during the first three years of life. Individuals diagnosed with this disorder normally manifest developmental delays in communication, social and behaviour skills. They often display characteristics that set them apart from others such as the difficulty in engaging in social relationships and an obsession with behaviour patterns.TEACHING STRATEGIES AND TECHNIQUES Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA): The ABA teacher observes the behavior of a person with autism and then provides instructions on any necessary missing skills. The teachers
  4. 4. teach by providing a concise instruction and reward a correct response. The reward system encourages the positive behavior. TEACCH: TEACCH is a structured teaching method that provides an organized school environment with a strict schedule, visual teaching methods and short, clear instructions. TEACCH programs can easily be personalized. Sensory Integration Therapy: Therapists use sensory integration therapy to help children with autism who have repetitive behavior or sensory issues. The therapy can help some children develop language skills, especially with tomatis vocal exercises. Developmental, Individual Difference Floortime (DIR):Greenspans DIR Floortime uses play to teach autistic children emotional engagement, how to connect ideas and focus attention as well as problem solving and self-expression.MENTAL RETARDATION DEFINITION OF MENTAL RETARDATION Mental retardation (MR) is a generalized disorder appearing before adulthood, characterized by significantly impaired cognitive functioning and deficits in two or more adaptive behaviors. It has historically been defined as an Intelligence Quotient score under 70.CAUSES Infections (present at birth or Metabolic occurring after birth) Toxic Chromosomal abnormalities Trauma (before and after birth) Environmental Unexplained (this largest category is Genetic abnormalities and inherited for unexplained occurrences of metabolic disorders mental retardation)SYMPTOMS Continued infant-like behavior Failure to meet the markers of Decreased learning ability intellectual development
  5. 5. Inability to meet educational Lack of curiosity demands at schoolCHARACTERISTICS of Mental Retardation Mental retardation can be classified into three categories: physical, intellectual and behavioral. Children with this problem have a slower rate of physical development, however, do not have any specific physical attributes that differentiate them from the rest of the population. They may exhibit conditions like hyponocity, abnormalities of the orofacial parts and unsteady gait. In terms of behavioral characteristics of mental retardation, these children exhibit characteristics such as limited self-control, aggressiveness or self-injury. In fact, some people with severe mental retardation characteristics are even found to exhibit obsessive compulsive disorder.Classification of Mental retardation Mild mental retardation-have an of IQ score ranges from 50-70 Moderate mental retardation- have IQ scores ranging from 35-55 Severe mental retardation-have IQ scores of 20-40 Profound mental retardation-have IQ score under 20-25Teaching Strategies For Mental Retardation For mild to severe mentally disabled children use behavioral objectives. Behavior objectives must be stated very specifically and in observable and measurable terms, you need to think about how the behavior will be measured only then you can come up with solutions. Writing effective behavior an objective requires a great deal of practice, be prepared to reflect on your objectives and learn from them.CEREBRAL PALSY Cerebral palsy (CP) is the term used for a group of nonprogressive disorders of movement and posture caused by abnormal development of, or damage to, motor control
  6. 6. centers of the brain. CP is caused by events before, during, or after birth. The abnormalities of muscle control that define CP are often accompanied by other neurological and physical abnormalities.CAUSES:Pregnancy Risk Factors• Maternal diabetes or hyperthyroidism • Poor maternal nutrition• Maternal high blood pressure • Maternal seizures or mental retardationDelivery Risk Factors• Premature delivery (less than 37 weeks gestation)• Prolonged rupture of the amniotic membranes for more than 24 hours leading to fetal infection• Severely depressed (slow) fetal heart rate during labor, indicating fetal distress• Abnormal presentation such as breech, face, or transverse lie, which makes for a difficult deliveryNeonatal Risk Factors• Premature birth – the earlier in gestation a baby is delivered, the more likely she is to have braindamage• Asphyxia – insufficient oxygen to the brain due to breathing problems or poor blood flow in the brain.• Meningitis – infection over the surface of the brain• Seizures caused by abnormal electrical activity of the brain• Interventricular hemorrhage (I. V. H.) – bleeding into the interior spaces of the brain or into the braintissue• Periventricular encephalomalacia (P.V.L.) – damage to the brain tissue located around the ventricles(fluid spaces) due to the lack of oxygen or problems with blood flowSYMPTOMS: Smaller muscles in affected arms or Dental problems legs. Accidents Abnormal sensations and perceptions Infections and long-term illnesses. Skin irritation
  7. 7. Types of cerebral palsy are as follows: Spastic (pyramidal): Increased muscle tone is the defining characteristic of this type. Dyskinetic (extrapyramidal): This includes types that affect coordination of movements. There are two subtypes. Athetoid: The person has uncontrolled movements that are slow and writhing. Ataxic: This type affects balance and coordination. Mixed: This is a mixture of different types of cerebral palsy. A common combination is spastic and athetoid.Teaching Strategies and TechniqueCommunication Assistance Many students with cerebral palsy have difficulty being understood when they speak. Accommodations should be made to assist the student in expressing herself verbally. The accommodations can include sign language, communication boards or verbal recognition software on a computer. The most important thing is for the teacher to be patient when communicating with a child who has cerebral palsy.DOWN SYNDROME Down syndrome: A common birth defect that is usually due to an extra chromosome 21 (trisomy 21). Down syndrome causes mental retardation, a characteristic facial appearance, and multiple malformations. Down syndrome was also once called mongolism, a term now considered out of date, as the disorder has no relationship to Mongolian or Asian heritage. It can occur in any racial or ethnic group.Causes: Down syndrome is caused by the abnormal cell division, most commonly at the level of the oocyte, before or at conception. Less commonly, abnormal cell division can affect spermtozoon at conception. The factors that cause cells to divide abnormally are not known. The genes are grouped in the form of chromosomes. Normally, a child inherits 46 chromosomes,23 from each parent. After the abnormal cell division, from Downsyndrom results an additional genetic material, usually an extra chromosome. Down syndrome is classified according to the specific way in which the extra genetic material is produced. Symptoms:
  8. 8. Poor muscle tone, loose ligaments Celiac disease Small hands and feet Eye problems, such as cataracts Congenital heart disease Thyroid dysfunctions Hearing problemsCharacteristics Eyes that have an upward slant, oblique Single, deep creases across the center fissures, epicanthic skin folds on the of the palm inner corner, and white spots on the iris Protruding tongue Low muscle tone Large space between large and second Small stature and short neck toe Flat nasal bridge A single flexion furrow of the fifth fingerTeaching Strategies Children with Down syndrome have particular strengths and weaknesses associated with their learning development : They are visual learners. They understand a lot more than they can say. They are able to follow classroom rules and routines. They need help to remember instructions shorter phrases or visual clues. They have the same feelings as any other child.“LEARNING DISSABILITY” Learning disabilities are problems that affect the brains ability to receive process, analyze, or store information. These problems can make it difficult for a student to learn as quickly as someone who isnt affected by learning disabilities.
  9. 9. Causes of Learning Disabilities The damage usually manifest in one of the following ways: 1. Fewer numbers of brain cells in important areas of the brain 2. Smaller size of brain cells 3. Brain cells that moved into the wrong part of the brain (dysplasia) 4. Lower than normal blood flow to specific areas of the brain 5. Brain cells that metabolize glucose (the brains primary fuel) at lower than normal levelsSymptoms of Learning Disabilities Short attention span Eye-hand coordination problems; Poor memory poorly coordinated Difficulty following directions Difficulties with sequencing Inability to discriminate Disorganization and other sensory between/among letters, numerals, difficulties or sounds Poor reading and/or writing abilityCharacteristics of Learning Disabilities Has difficulty comparing things or Comments are often off track classifying and sorting items Difficulty thinking in a logical or according to a specific criteria sequential manner Time concepts present difficulty, Difficulty with number concepts before, after, tomorrow, last week Often requires a great deal of etc. clarification and one to one support often doesnt get jokes or ideas in humorous situations Classification of Learning Disability Creativity and imagination is usually limited Auditory Processing Disorders: Often slow to respond Aphasia: Difficult time prediciting what may happen next, or answering comprehension type questions Dysgraphia: Visual Processing Disorder: Dyspraxia: Dyscalculia Disorder: Short and Long Term Memory Problems:
  10. 10. Teaching strategies and techniques of learning disability Most instruction at home or in school can be adapted to accommodate the needs of students with learning disabilities such as Dyslexia or other learning problems. These strategies, and others on this site, can be used to modify instruction in most subject areas to improve students comprehension of tasks and the quality of their work. Set the stage for learning by telling children why the material is important, what the learning goals are, and what the expectations are for quality performance. Use specific language. Instead of saying, "do quality work," state the specific expectations. For example, in a writing assignment, a teacher might grade based on correct punctuation, spelling, and inclusion of specific points. If your child does not understand what his teachers expect of him, contact the teacher and ask for details you need to help your child. Suggest the teacher may want to begin posting that information on a school web site so others can use it as well. Teachers should develop a scoring guide, share it with students, and provide models of examples of each level of performance.“GIFTED” Gifted children are those considered by educational systems to have significantly higher than normal levels of one or more forms of intelligence.Characteristics common in gifted children Express curiosity about many things Have good memories Ask thoughtful questions Exhibit unusual talent in art, music, or creative dramatics Have extensive vocabularies and use complex sentence structure Exhibit especially original imaginations Are able to express themselves well Use previously learned things in new contexts Solve problems in unique ways Are unusually able to order things in
  11. 11. logical sequence Have sustained attention spans and are willing to persist on challenging tasks Discuss and elaborate on ideas Are very observant Are fast learners Show talent in making up stories and Desire to work independently and take telling them initiative Are interested in reading. Exhibit wit and humorClassification/ Types of Gifted ChildrenSuccessful Gifted Child Personality Type- These children are usually successful academically,and identified as gifted at school. They are high achievers and perfectionists who seek for otherpeople‟s approval. The problem, however, is that with time they often get bored and devoteminimum effort to achieving. At home these gifted children need independence and freedom ofchoice, as well as time for personal interests, and risk taking experiences.Challenging Gifted Child Personality Type- This personality type includes very creative, but oftenfrustrated or bored, gifted children. They question the systems around them and are oftenrebellious because their abilities are unrecognized.Underground Gifted Children Personality Type- Many of such children are never identified asgifted since they are usually quiet and insecure. They often hide their talents, resist challenges,and drop out of gifted school programs because of their shyness.Dropout Gifted Child Personality Type-These gifted children are angry and depressed becausethe school system does not recognize their abilities, and does not address their specialeducational needs.Double-labelled Gifted Child Personality Type- This type of gifted child is often unrecognizedbecause these children have a physical, emotional or learning disability.
  12. 12. Autonomous Gifted Child Personality Type- These are self-confident and independent childrenthat are successful academically, motivated, goal-oriented, and responsible. Each subtype ofgiftedness can be strongly pronounced in one personality.Teaching Strategies and TechniquesTip #1: Familiarize yourself with the Characteristics of Intellectually Gifted StudentsNot all gifted students in your classroom will be identified and even those who are may notalways appear to be gifted. As such, it is important that you dont allow yourself to bedistracted by false stereotypes. Gifted students come from all ethnic groups, they are both boysand girls, they live in both rural and urban areas and they arent always straight A students.Students who are intellectually gifted demonstrate many characteristics, including: a precociousability to think abstractly, an extreme need for constant mental stimulation; an ability to learnand process complex information very rapidly; and a need to explore subjects in depth.Students who demonstrate these characteristics learn differentlyTip #2: Let Go of "Normal"In order to be an effective teacher, whether its your first year or your 30th, the best thing youcan do for yourself is to let go of the idea of "normal." I cant encourage you enough to offer allstudents the opportunity to grow from where they are, not from where your teacher trainingcourses say they should be. You will not harm a student by offering him/her opportunities tocomplete work that is more advanced. Research consistently shows that curriculum based ondevelopment and ability is far more effective than curriculum based on age.Tip #3: Conduct Informal AssessmentsMeeting the needs of gifted students does not need to be an all consuming task. One of theeasiest ways to better understand how to provide challenging material is to conduct informalwhole class assessments on a regular basis. For example, before beginning any unit, administerthe end of the unit test. Students who score above 80% should not be forced to "relearn"information they already know. Rather, these students should be given parallel opportunitiesthat are challenging. I generally offered these students the option to complete an independentproject on the topic or to substitute another experience that would meet the objectives of theassignment, i.e. taking a college/distance course.
  13. 13. Tip #4: Re-Familiarize Yourself with Piaget & BloomThere are many developmental theorists and it is likely that you encountered many of themduring your teacher preparation course work. When it comes to teaching gifted children, Irecommend taking a few moments to review the work of Jean Piaget and Benjamin Bloom. JeanPiaget offers a helpful description of developmental stages as they relate to learning. Giftedstudents are often in his "formal operations" stage when their peers are still in his "pre-operational" or "concrete operations" stages. When a child is developmentally advanced he/shehas different learning abilities and needs. This is where Blooms Taxonomy can be a particularlyuseful. Students in the "formal operations" developmental stage need learning experiences atthe upper end of Blooms Taxonomy. Essentially all assignments should offer the student theopportunity to utilize higher level thinking skills like analysis, synthesis and evaluation, asdefined by Bloom. I recommend using the Internet to learn more about these two importanttheorists. A couple of websites that may be of interest include:Piagets Stage Theory of DevelopmentBlooms TaxonomyTip #5: Involve Parents as Resource LocatorsParents of gifted children are often active advocates for their children. If you are not preparedfor this, it can be a bit unnerving. The good news is that, at least in my experience, what theywant most is to be heard and to encounter someone who is willing to think differently.Generally, I found that if I offered to collaborate with them, rather than resist them, we wereable to work together to see that their childs needs were met. For example, if they wantedtheir child to have more challenging experiences in math, I would then enlist their help infinding better curriculum options. I generally conducted an informal assessment to help themdetermine the best place to start and then encouraged them to explore other options that couldbe adapted to the classroom. Most parents understood when I explained that I didnt have theluxury of creating a customized curriculum for every student, but that I would be willing tomake accommodations if they would do the research. Flexibility and a willingness to thinkdifferently helped me create many win-win situations.Tip #6: Learn About Distance Learning OpportunitiesThe choices available to teachers and parents in this area have exploded in the past severalyears. Distance learning opportunities have dramatically increased options for meeting the
  14. 14. needs of gifted students. Programs such as EPGY math and the Johns Hopkins Writing Tutorialsas well as online high school and college courses, including online AP classes, are a great wayto substitute more challenging curriculum for students who demonstrate proficiency with gradelevel material. Of course, these classes generally arent free, but they are an option. And, in myexperience, they are an option that many parents are willing to fund. Search the freeonline Davidson Gifted Database to find resources recommended by students, parents andteachers.Tip #7: Explore Acceleration ~ Its Free and It Works!Another option is to allow students to attend classes with other students who are at the samedevelopmental level, rather than with their age peers. If a 9 year old can demonstrate that he isready to learn algebra, why should he be forced to take fourth-grade math just because he is 9years old? Same goes for language arts, or science, or social studies or any other area of thecurriculum. Many well-meaning teachers worry that a student will run out of things to learn ifthey are given access to curriculum designated for older students. Whenever I hear thisquestion I cant help but ask -- can a person ever truly run out of things to learn? Indeed, if welet Susie, a third grader, learn fifth grade math this year, then fifth grade math isnt going to beappropriate for Susie when she gets to fifth gradeTip #8: Learning from the Experiences of Othersmany well-meaning teachers innocently commit the following blunders when they encountergifted students. Don-t feel bad if you have committed them. I know I have and I wish someonewould have pointed them out to me before I had to learn about them the hard way.Tip #9: Utilize Outside ResourcesThere is a lot of information in this article, and it is likely youre feeling a bit overwhelmed! Hereis the best news so far...you are not alone and you dont have to come up with all of theanswers by yourself. There are several national organizations devoted entirely to assistinggifted young people and the professionals who serve them. The three most notableorganizations are the National Association for Gifted Children, Belin - Blank Center for GiftedEducation and Talent Development and the Davidson Institute for Talent Development. As afirst step, I recommend joining the Davidson Institutes free Educators Guild. Members haveaccess to private electronic mailing lists and bulletin boards to exchange ideas, locate resourcesand discuss issues with educators all over the country.
  15. 15. “HEARING IMPAIRMENT” Hearing impairment is a generic term including both deaf and hard of hearing which refers to persons with any type or degree of hearing loss that causes difficulty working in a traditional way. It can affect the whole range or only part of the auditory spectrum which, for speech perception, the important region is between 250 and 4,000 Hz. The term deaf is used to describe people with profound hearing loss such that they cannot benefit from amplification, while hard of hearing is used for those with mild to severe hearing loss but who can benefit from amplification.Causes / Symptoms of Hearing Impaired 1. Prenatal causes Viral diseases Toxic conditions Congenital malformation 2. Perinatal causes Traumatic experience during Heavy sedation delivery Blockage of the infants Anoxia or lack of oxygen due to respiratory passage prolonged labor 3. Postnatal causes Diseases ailments condition -meningitis -external otitis (inflammation of the outer ear) -otitis media (often characterized by running/discharging ears the infection of middle ear) -impacted or hardened earwax (cerumen) which may lead to infection 4. Other causes Heredity Malnutrition PrematurityCharacteristics of Hearing Impaired
  16. 16. Hearing impairment is a common but serious problem affecting children of all ages. Accordingto the Palo Alto Medical Foundation, roughly 2 percent of children suffer from some degree ofhearing loss. Without prompt and effective treatment, hearing loss can cause a child to sufferfrom significant speech delays, social problems and educational challenges. Hearing impairmentand deafness generally manifest with specific symptoms and characteristics. Althoughsymptoms vary among children, certain traits and behaviors are characteristically indicative ofhearing difficulties.Speech Delays- Delays in the development of speech and language are classic symptoms ofhearing loss and deafness in children. The Palo Alto Medical Foundation notes that manychildren are first diagnosed with hearing impairment in infancy or as toddlers. Children who donot say single words by age 1 or two-word phrases by age 2 might suffer from hearing loss. Atoddler with normal hearing can typically name familiar objects, follow simple commands, andrecognize the names of family members by 15 to 24 months of age. Children with poor hearingmight be unable to communicate because they cannot understand or imitate spoken language.When diagnosed and addressed early, children with early childhood speech delays generallycatch up to their peers.Brain Training Games Improve memory with scientifically designed brainexercises. www.lumosity.comCommunication Difficulties- Children with mild to moderate hearing impairment may developspeech and language at roughly the same time as their peers. However, they might stillstruggle to communicate and speak normally. According to the Palo Alto Medical Foundation,children who are preschool-aged and older might manifest language-related symptoms ofhearing loss such as responding inappropriately to questions or experiencing difficultyarticulating themselves. The child might also have a peculiar voice, intonation, pattern ofspeech or challenges with pronunciation.Selective Hearing- Although it is relatively normal for children to "tune out" some statements orcommands from adults in authority, many children who seem to ignore their parents are unableto hear them. The American Academy of Pediatrics reports that children with hearing loss mightbe able to hear certain sounds and pitches. Hearing-impaired children are often unable to heartheir names when called, and their behavior can be mistakenly labeled as inattention or
  17. 17. behavioral misconduct. A hearing test or developmental evaluation can help to determine thecause or nature of a childs selective hearing.Behavioral Characteristics- Deaf and hearing-impaired children can develop a variety ofbehavioral symptoms. Many children will turn up TVs or radios to an inappropriate volume in anattempt to compensate for their sensory challenges. Children struggling with deafness may alsoclosely watch their peers to emulate behavior and body language -- a symptom known asechopraxia. The American Academy of Pediatrics notes that hearing-impaired children mightappear dizzy or disoriented because the nerves in the ears also control balance. Academicproblems and irritability are also common symptoms of hearing loss in children.Differential Diagnosis- Some children who appear to have the characteristics of hearing lossmight suffer from unrelated disorders. Behavioral and emotional disturbances can cause speechdelays and social difficulties, which might be mistaken for challenges with hearing or sensoryprocessing. Autism also manifests with many symptoms similar to hearing loss, includingselective hearing, language delays and abnormal speech patterns, according to MayoClinic.com.Only a professional evaluation can correctly identify the cause of these symptoms andcharacteristics.Classification / Types of Hearing ImpairedThere are different types of hearing loss, depending on which part of the hearing pathway isaffected. A specialist will always try to localize where in the hearing pathway the problem lays,so as to be able to classify the hearing loss as belonging to one of the following groups. This ismost important in determining the appropriate treatment.They are: Conductive hearing loss Functional hearing loss Sensorineural hearing loss Mixed hearing loss Central hearing lossTeaching Strategies
  18. 18. Encourage students with hearing impairment to seat themselves toward the front of the lecture theatre where they will have an unobstructed line of vision. There is a range of inclusiveteachingstrategies that can assist all students to learn but there are some specific strategies that are useful in teaching a group which includes students with hearing impairment. Repeat clearly any questions asked by students in the lecture or class before giving a response. Provide written materials to supplement all lectures, tutorials and laboratory sessions. Announcements made regarding class times, activities, field work, industry visits etc should be given in writing as well as verbally. Any videos or films used should, where possible, be captioned. When this is not possible, you will need to consider alternative ways for students with hearing impairment to access the information. Students with hearing impairment, especially those with an associated speech disorder, may prefer to have another student present their tutorial papers.BEHAVIOR DISORDER Behavior Disorders or BD are conditions that are more than just disruptive behavior. They are related to mental health problems that lead to disruptive behavior, emotional and social problems. Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is an example of a behavior disorder. Children with behavior disorders typically need a variety of professional interventions including medication, psychological treatment, rehabilitation, or possibly other treatments. Causes and Symptoms of Behavior Disorder All children have occasional behavioral issues. Problems that last more than six months and are more severe than those of peers may indicate that a behavioral disorder is present. These problems can develop into chronic patterns of aggression, hostility, defiance and disruption. The specific cause of behavioral disorders is not known, but a number of factors may contribute to their development. Genetics may play a role, as behavioral disorders are more
  19. 19. common in children who have a family history of mental illness or substance abuse. Environment factors, such as unstable home life, child abuse, lack of supervision, and inconsistent discipline, all seem to increase the risk of children developing behavioral disorders.Characteristics Disrupts classroom activities Intimidates and bullies other Impulsive students Inattentive, distractible Regularly absent from school Preoccupied consistently blames others for Does not follow or appear to care their dishonesty about classroom rules Low self esteem Poor concentration Difficulty working in groups Resistance to change and Demonstrate self-injurious transitions in routines behavior Often speaks out with irrelevant Cannot apply social rules related information or without regard to to others personal space and turn taking rules belongings Demonstrates aggressive behavior Teaching Strategies and Techniques Educational Recommendations teaching strategies for these students should be based on changing the behavior itself. The system is often centered on discouraging the unwanted behavior and rewarding/encouraging the desired behavior. Specifically identify the behavior which needs to be changed. Create a baseline of the observed behavior.
  20. 20. Closely examine the information in the baseline and evaluate what has been observed and documented Develop short and long term goals for the student. In the plan create a reward system to be used. Such as: give student a check mark for every 15 minutes behavior is appropriate. When the student receives 8 checks they may have 10 minutes of computer time. Reevaluate the plan for effectiveness. Has the behavior reduced occurrence in a variety of settings? Make modifications in the behavior plan to reinforce the desired outcome.“VISUAL IMPAIRMENT” Visual impairment (or vision impairment) is vision loss (of a person) to such a degree as to qualify as an additional support need through a significant limitation of visual capability resulting from either disease, trauma, or congenital or degenerative conditions that cannot be corrected by conventional means, such as refractive correction, medication, or surgery. Symptoms Symptoms and signs of ABI VI Photophobia (problems with bright depend on the kind of vision light) impairment the person has, but may Problems seeing an object that is include: obvious to other people Blurry or hazy vision Partial loss of the visual field (half of Double vision the visual field in each eye or a Knocking or bumping into things quarter of the visual field in each Problems with balance or depth eye) perception Loss of central vision. Common causes Some of the many causes of ABI VI can include: Stroke or „brain attack‟, where part of the brain is damaged by a haemorrhage or blockage in a blood vessel of the brain Traumatic brain injury – for example, following a car accident or fall Infection, such as meningitis or cytomegalovirus
  21. 21. Lack of oxygen, such as near-drowning or a heart attack, which can interrupt the flow of blood to the brain Disease, such as a brain tumour or multiple sclerosis. A range of vision impairments Some of the different kinds of vision impairment caused by brain injury include: Visual field defects – such as homonymous hemianopia, when one half of the visual field in each eye is missing. Double vision (diplopia) this is where a single object is seen as two and cannot be merged together.TreatmentABI VI cannot be corrected with glasses or contact lenses, as the cause lies within the person‟sbrain rather than their eyes.Treatment involves managing the symptoms and depends on the type of vision impairment andits cause. Options may include:Treating the underlying brain injury. If the brain can recover from its injury, the person‟s visionmay also improve.Wearing an eye patch – this can relieve double vision.Options for managing poor visual clarity include using large print, writing with a thick black penon a white background to heighten contrast, increasing magnification and ensuring adequateand appropriate lighting.A person with a visual field defect can learn to use their eyes and/or head in a scanningfashion, which means moving the eyes and head back and forth to make sure they look forobjects in their blind spot.Special programs, such as the Acquired Brain Injury Mobility Service provided by Guide DogsVictoria, are available to people with ABI VI.Acquired Brain Injury Mobility ServiceThe aim of the Acquired Brain Injury Mobility Service is to help the person with ABI VI achieveindependence. The rehabilitation program includes:Individually tailored programsInformation on the vision impairmentSuggestions on how to make the most of the remaining visual field – for example, learning the
  22. 22. „scanning‟ techniqueAdvice on managing the vision impairment, including strategies to negotiate obstacles in a roomand to safely cross the roadTraining to develop the use of the other senses – for example, touch and hearingTraining, firstly in secure indoor areas and progressing in stages to crowded and hard-to-negotiate areas such as shopping centresThe program is available free of charge to both the client and their carers.Accommodation is available in the residential training centre, known as Arnold Cook House, ifnecessary.PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED A physical disability is any impairment which limits the physical function of one or more limbs or fine or gross motor ability. Other physical disabilities include impairments which limit other facetCauses of physical disabilities Prenatal causes:disabilities that are acquired before birth -Geneticincompatibilities between the parents. Perinatal causes: disabilities that are acquired during birth -Perinatal causes - bornprematurely Postnatal causes: disabilities gained after birth -Accidents - Other illnesses - infectionTypes of physical disabilities Mobility impairment Visual impairment Hearing impairment
  23. 23. Teaching Strategies and Techniques Physical therapy and occupational therapy are two services that are sometimes provided to students with physical disabilities in the public school system. Physical therapy focuses on gross motor skills that involve the larger muscles in the body. A disabled child can improve strength, movement, endurance and muscle tone through exercises that are performed with a therapists help. School physical therapy treatment assists a student in traveling throughout the school environment; participating in classroom activities; maintaining and altering positions in the classroom; as well as managing stairs, restrooms and the cafeteria. Physical therapy is also recommended for improving wheelchair mobility. A special needs student often meets with the physical therapist once or twice per week, depending on the child‟s individual needs. However, in some instances, the physical therapist‟s role is to consult with the student‟s teachers regarding impact of mobility and functional movement on the childs participation in school activities then make appropriate recommendations. Occupational therapy plays a role in helping students engage in activities of daily living, such as educational activities, work, play, leisure and social participation. In the school setting, activities of daily living include academic and non-academic activities such as social skills, math, reading, writing, PE and recess participation, and self-help skills. When students need assistance with self-help skills such as washing hands, managing clothes for toileting, and tying shoes, a referral for occupational therapy is usually made. Students with physical disabilities also qualify for occupational therapy services when they have delays with fine motor skills such as cutting with scissors, typing and handwriting. The occupational therapist sometimes works directly with students once or twice per week, and sometimes the therapist‟s role is to consult with the teachers and parents and make recommendations.
  24. 24. “ADHD” Health experts say that ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) is the most common behavioral disorder that starts during childhood. However, it does not only affect children - people of all ages can suffer from ADHD. Psychiatrists say ADHD is a neurobehavioral developmental disorder.Signs or symptoms of ADHD Inattention Has difficulty concentrating Has unrelated thoughts Has problems focusing and sustaining attention Appears to not be listening Performance depends on task May have better attention to enjoyed activities Has difficulty planning, organizing, and completing tasks on time Has problems learning new things Demonstrates poor self-regulation of behavior, that is, he or she has difficulty monitoring and modifying behavior to fit different situations and settings Hyperactivity“MULTIPLE HANDICCAPED” Definition: Multiple disabilities is a disability category under IDEA. As you might expect, children with multiple disabilities have two or more disabling conditions that affect learning or other important life functions. To qualify for special education services under this category, both of the students disorders must be so significant that her educational needs could not be met in programs that are designed to address one of the disabilities alone.CharacteristicsPeople with severe or multiple disabilities may exhibit a wide range of characteristics,depending on the combination and severity of disabilities, and the person‟s age. Thereare, however, some traits they may share, including:
  25. 25. Psychological May Feel ostracized Tendency to Withdraw from society Students with multiple disabilities may become fearful, angry, and upset in the face of forced or unexpected changes. May execute self-injurous behavior Behavioral May display an immature behavior inconsistent with chronological age May exhibit an impulsive behavior and low frustration level May have difficulty forming interpersonal relationships May have limited self-care skills and independent community living skills Physical/health Challenges Families A variety of medical problems may accompany severe disabilities. Examples include seizures, sensory loss, hydrocephalus,and scoliosis. Time is needed to ensure their safety at home in times of condition like seizures. May have slow clerical speed. May tend to forget skills through disuse May have trouble generalizing skills from one situation to another May lack high level thinking and comprehension skills May have poor problem-solving skills Ability to engage in abstract thinking is limited May be poor test taker due to limiting factors of the disabilities May have difficulty locating the direction of sound May have speech that is characterized by substitution, omissions May have difficulty learning about objects and object relationships May lack maturity in establishing career goals
  26. 26. May face problems in socializing with peersBased on the above symptoms listed in its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, theAmerican Psychiatric Association has identified three subtypes of ADHD: 1. ADHD, Combined Type: Both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms 2.ADHD, Predominantly Inattentive Type: Inattention, but not enough (at least 6 out of 9) hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms 3. ADHD, Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type: Hyperactivity-impulsivity, but not enough (at least 6 out of 9) inattention symptomsADHD Diagnosis Based on Brain Scans Daniel Amen, MD, a child, adolescent, and adult psychiatrist who serves as medical director of the Amen Clinics in California, Washington, and Virginia, has used a combination of symptoms and brain scans to come up with his own types of ADHD. Amen considers these to be the hallmark symptoms of ADHD: Short attention span Distractibility Disorganization Procrastination Poor internal supervisionBased on these symptoms, and the use of brain scans to measure blood flow(SPECT), to highlight activity in the parts of the brain related to attention, short-term memory, and forethought, Amen described these six types of ADHD: Type 1 -- Classic ADHD. Symptoms of ADHD, plus hyperactivity and impulsivity; responds well to stimulant medications Type 2 -- Inattentive ADHD. Features of ADHD, but instead of hyperactivity, there is low energy; responds well to stimulant medications
  27. 27. Type 3 -- Overfocused ADHD. Symptoms of ADHD and negative thoughts and behaviors, such as opposition and arguing; tends to respond better to anantidepressant (such as Prozac) combined with a stimulant Type 4 -- Temporal Lobe ADHD. The hallmark features of ADHD, plus irritability, aggressiveness, and memory and learning problems; responds better to antiseizure medications (like Neurontin) than to stimulants Type 5 -- Limbic ADHD. Combines ADHD with depression and low energy and decreased motivation; responds better to stimulating antidepressants than to stimulants Type 6 -- The Ring of Fire. Cross between ADHD and bipolar disorder; characterized by moodiness, aggressiveness, and anger; Anticonvulsants or newer antipsychotic medications tend to work better than stimulantsAccommodations/strategies A multi-disciplinary team consisting of the student‟s parents, educational specialists, and medical specialists in the areas in which the individual demonstrates problems should work together to plan and coordinate necessary services. Involvement of the appropriate professionals (Eg. occupational therapists, speech/language therapist etc.) The arrangement of places school and homes must be easily accessible. Have a buddy system that ensures their needs are heard and that they get aid when needed. Give Simple and Specific and Systematic instructions to what you exactly want the person to do. Use visual aids when communicating with the child. Engage the child regularly in oral language activity.
  28. 28. NOTEShttp://www.prevention-news.com/1997/causes.htmhttp://health.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/mental-retardation/overview.htmlhttp://www.buzzle.com/articles/mental-retardation-characteristics.htmlhttp://www.scribd.com/doc/53078772/Classification-and-Types-of-Mental-Retardationhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autismhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Causes_of_autismhttp://www.autism-resources.com/autismfaq-char.htmlhttp://www.child-autism-parent-cafe.com/characteristics-for-autism.htmlhttp://www.special-learning.com/article/autism_classificationhttp://www.ehow.com/way_5372352_autism-teaching-strategies.htmlhttp://www.searo.who.int/en/Section1174/Section1199/Section1567/Section1825_8084.htmhttp://kidshealth.org/parent/medical/brain/cerebral_palsy.htmlhttp://kidshealth.org/parent/medical/brain/cerebral_palsy.htmlhttp://www.medicinenet.com/cerebral_palsy/page3.htmhttp://www.emedicinehealth.com/cerebral_palsy/article_em.htmhttp://www.healblog.net/down-syndrome-causes-symptoms-treatmenthttp://downsyndrome.about.com/od/downsyndromebasics/a/symptomsess_ro.htmhttp://www.buzzle.com/articles/characteristics-of-down-syndrome.htmlhttp://dsawa.asn.au/children/education/teaching-strategies.htmlhttp://learningdisabilities.about.com/od/whatisld/a/whatissld.htmhttp://thelearningcenter.net/what_causes_learning_disabilitieshttp://specialed.about.com/cs/learningdisabled/a/ldconceptual.htmhttp://www.understandingspecialeducation.com/types-of-learning-disabilities.htmlhttp://giftedkids.about.com/od/gifted101/a/definitions.htm
  29. 29. http://www.brainy-child.com/article/gifted-child.shtmlhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deafnesshttp://www.livestrong.com/article/509643-characteristics-of-hearing-impairment-and-deafness-in-children/http://ehealthmd.com/content/different-types-hearing-losshttp://www.adcet.edu.au/View.aspx?id=3956http://www.gallaudet.edu/clerc_center/information_and_resources/info_to_go/educate_children_(3_to_21)/students_with_disabilities/emotionalbehavioral_disorders.http://www.vaxa.com/types-of-behavior-disorders.cfmRead more: Characteristics of Physically Handicapped Children |eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/list_7717535_characteristics-physically-handicapped-children.html#ixzz28iPdD7Buhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physical_disabilityhttp://www.brighthubeducation.com/special-ed-physical-disabilities/29178-services-available-for-students-with-physical-disabilities-in-public-schoolhttp://www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/ADHD/http://www.webmd.com/add-adhd/guide/types-of-adhdhttp://www.gallaudet.edu/clerc_center/information_and_resources/info_to_go/educate_children_(3_to_21)/students_with_disabilities/emotionalbehavioral_disorders.htmlhttp://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Vision_impairment_neurological