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  • The final way we understand customers is based on their Lifestyle. There is saying “you are what you eat” and we have certainly found this to be true. We have been able to look into each customers basket and see what type of person they are - do they buy a lot of quality items or the cheapest on display.? - do they buy quick to cook products or do they cook from scratch? - do they buy Healthy products or are they more interested in keeping the kids quiet?

Marketing management 1 4 Marketing management 1 4 Presentation Transcript

  • Marketing Management Introduction Jon Kitto [email_address]
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  • Definition of Marketing
    • “ The management process responsible for identifying anticipating and satisfying customers ’ needs profitably. ”
      • CIM
    • “ Marketing is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas, goods and services to create exchange and satisfy individual and organisational objectives. ”
      • American Marketing Association
    • Includes: “ Facilitating a mutually beneficial exchange of value between sellers and customers - repeatedly. ”
      • Jon Kitto
  • Kotler on Marketing
    • “ The marketer ’ s job is to research new opportunities for the company and carefully apply segmentation, targeting and positioning (STP) to point a new business in the right direction.
    • Then marketers are supposed to flesh out the 4 Ps – Product, Price, Place and Promotion – making sure that they are consistent with each other and with the STP strategy.
    • Then marketers are supposed to implement the plan and monitor the results. ”
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  • The organisation ’ s marketing environment The organisation The economy Social factors Cultural forces Technology Political structures Legal structures Demography Suppliers Distributors & dealers The public Competitors Customers
  • Planning Summary
  • The planning process
    • Where are we now?
    • Marketing audit
    • Ratio analysis
    • Competitor analysis
    • Customer analysis
    • Where do we want to be?
    • Missions & objectives
    • Segmentation (STP)
    • Marketing strategies
    • How might we get there?
    • Marketing mix
    • Which way is best?
    • Choice criteria &
    • screening
    • Modelling
    • How can we ensure arrival?
    • Problems to overcome
    • Management controls
  • Marketing Situation Analysis Jon Kitto [email_address]
  • Environmental Analysis
    • Macro
      • Socio-Cultural
      • Technological
      • Economic
      • Environmental
      • Political
      • Legal
      • Educational
    • Micro
      • Suppliers
      • Publics
      • Intermediaries
      • Customers
      • Competitors
    • Internal
      • Men,
      • Money,
      • Machines,
      • Materials,
      • Management,
      • Management Information,
      • Marketing
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  • Porter’s value chain FIRM INFRASTRUCTURE HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROCUREMENT INBOUND LOGISTICS OPERATIONS OUTBOUND LOGISTICS MARKETING & SALES SERVICE MARGIN MARGIN SUPPORT ACTIVITIES PRIMARY ACTIVITIES Source: Porter
  • SWOT Frame M A T C H I N G Internal External Strengths Weaknesses Threats Opportunities Convert Convert
  • The Marketing Information System (MkIS) Marketing intelligence Marketing research Internal records Information analysis Marketing environment
    • Target markets
    • Marketing channels
    • Competitors
    • Publics
    • Macro-environment forces
    Marketing managers
    • Analysis
    • Planning
    • Implementation
    • Organisation
    • Control
    Developing information Distributing information Assessing information needs Marketing information system Marketing decisions and communications Source: Kotler et al
  • Marketing Management Customers & STP Jon Kitto [email_address]
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  • Brain Functions
    • LEFT BRAIN FUNCTIONS
      • uses logic
      • detail oriented
      • facts rule
      • words and language
      • present and past
      • math and science
      • can comprehend
      • Knowing
      • Acknowledges
      • order/pattern perception
      • knows object name
      • reality based
      • forms strategies
      • Practical
      • safe
    • RIGHT BRAIN FUNCTIONS
      • uses feeling
      • "big picture" oriented
      • imagination rules
      • symbols and images
      • present and future
      • philosophy & religion
      • can "get it" (i.e. meaning)
      • Believes
      • Appreciates
      • spatial perception
      • knows object function
      • fantasy based
      • presents possibilities
      • Impetuous
      • risk taking
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  • Psychographic - VALS
  • www.statistics.gov.uk
  • ACORN
    • Wealthy Achievers
    • Urban Prosperity
    • Comfortably Off
    • Moderate Means
    • Hard Pressed
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  • Dugree ’ s Model of the Motivation Process Tension Reduction
  • Hierarchy-of-effects models Table 3.1  Hierarchy-of-effects models Based on: Barry, T.E. and Howard, D.J. (1990), ‘A Review and Critique of the Hierarchy of Effects in Advertising’, International Journal of Advertising , 9, 121–35.
  • Kotler ’ s Model
    • Need Recognition
      • Hunger, Thirst, Low Social Esteem
    • Information Search
      • Sources:
        • Personal
        • Commercial
        • Public
        • Experiential
    • Options when Presented with Information
      • Get People to Modify Brand Choice
      • Alter Beliefs about Brand
      • Alter Beliefs about Competition
  • Kotler ’ s Model cont...
    • Purchase Decision
      • Attitude of Others
      • Change in Financial Circumstances
        • Redundancy/Lottery Win
    • Post Purchase Evaluation
      • Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction with Purchase
      • Influences
        • Repurchase
        • Word of Mouth
      • Cognitive Dissonance
  • Purchase Decision
  • Factors influencing consumer behaviour Cultural Culture Sub-culture Social class Social Reference groups Family Roles and status Persona l Age and life cycle stage Occupation Economic circumstances Lifestyle and personality Psychological Motivation Learning Perception Beliefs and attitudes The buyer
  • Information Processing Personality Perception Attitudes Learning Environmental Influences Internal information processing
  • Freudian Theory
    • Psychoanalytic
    • Unconscious Needs or Drives
      • Especially Biological & Sexual
      • Id (Impulse), Super Ego (Morals & Ethics), Ego (Control)
      • Phases of Development in Childhood
        • Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latent, Genital
      • Consumers are Largely Unaware of Reasons for Buying Particular Products
  • Maslow ’ s Hierarchy of Needs
  • Family Life Cycle
    • Bachelor
      • I Young Single Adult Living Apart from Parents,
    • Newly Married
      • II Honeymooners, Young Married Couple
    • Full Nest I (Youngest Child<6 Years Old),
      • III Parenthood
    • Full Nest II (Youngest Child>6 Years Old),
    • Full Nest III (Older Children),
    • Empty Nest I (Head Working)
      • IV Postparenthood,
    • Empty Nest II (Head Retired)
    • Solitary Survivor I (Working)
      • V Dissolution,
    • Solitary Survivor II, (Not Working)
  • Customers are segmented by Lifestage TOTAL CUSTOMERS
  • JICNAR/Registrar General
  • Reference Groups
    • “ Any person that serves as a point of comparison (or reference) for an individual in forming either general or specific values, attitudes or a specific guide for behaviour. ”
    • Possible to use in order to affect desired changes in consumer behaviour
  • Decision Making Unit (DMU)
    • User - end user, may initiate request and help specify
    • Influencer - technical personnel or specialists, help specify, provide information
    • Buyer - formal authority holders, help specify, select vendors, negotiate
    • Decider - final approver (often also buyer)
    • Gatekeeper - control information flow to others, can prevent sales people gaining access
  • Factors influencing industrial buying behaviour ENVIRONMENTAL Levels of demand Economic prospects Interest rates The pace of technological change Political and legal structures Competitive structures ORGANISATIONAL Objectives Policies Structures Systems & degree of centralisation Processes and procedures Managerial attitudes to risk Financial l resource Previous experiences BUYING CENTRE Roles in DMU Group processes Interpersonal interactions INDIVIDUAL Personal objectives Job position Attitude to risk Previous experiences Technical knowledge Motivation BUYING DECISION SOURCE: Adapted from Webster and Wind, 1972
    • The two dimension segmentation provides understanding of the customer ’ s value. Together with other segments and data this gives a close indication of a customers ’ loyalty.
    The ‘ loyalty ’ of each customer is measured every week © Copyright,dunnhumby 2002 © Copyright,dunnhumby 2003
  • The Ladder Of Loyalty Advocate Supporter Client Customer Prospect Suspect
  • TYPE by Postcode 48 to 60 36 to 47 24 to 35 12 to 23 0 to 11
  • Segmentation, Targeting & Positioning Jon Kitto
  • Consumer segmentation
    • Profile variables: demographic, socio-economic, geographic
    • Behavioural variables – benefit, usage, purchase occasion
    • Psychographic – VALS, Monitor
  • Organisational segmentation
    • Macro-segmentation
    • size of organisation
    • location
    • industry sector
    • end use
    • Micro-segmentation
    • DMU structure
    • decision process
    • buy class
    • type of purchasing organisation
    • innovation level
    • purchasing strategy
  • Psychographics
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  • Customers are segmented by Lifestage TOTAL CUSTOMERS
    • The two dimension segmentation provides understanding of the customer ’ s value. Together with other segments and data this gives a close indication of a customers ’ loyalty.
    The ‘ loyalty ’ of each customer is measured every week © Copyright,dunnhumby 2002 © Copyright,dunnhumby 2003
  • Customers are segmented according to what they buy © Copyright,dunnhumby 2002 Age “ You are what you buy ” . Lifestyles segments are derived from item level sales and were first created in 1997 Affluence Mainstream 22% Family type meals Popular brands Kids products Finer Foods 18% “ Foodies who are time poor, money rich and choose everyday luxury items” Price Sensitive 16% Cost conscious customers who tend to buy cheapest on display Traditional 17% “ Traditional households with time to buy and prepare ingredients” Upmarket 24% market 53% Cost conscious 23% Convenience 9% “ People on the go who haven’t time or inclination for scratch cooking” Healthy 18% “ Organic shoppers, fruit and vegetables weight watchers etc”
  • Altogether this provides Tesco with an ability to provide for customer needs
    • Different customer groups have different requirements and expectations.
    • Understanding them is the first step, you then have to listen to them, and run the business around them.
    I have to stick to a budget The microwave is a godsend for me! I love baking on a Sunday afternoon I love exotic and adventurous food I care about the environment © Copyright,dunnhumby 2002 © Copyright,dunnhumby 2003
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  • Insight and data drive the message and offers © Copyright,dunnhumby 2002 Offers for things you buy Offers for things to try Vouchers based on points earned Flash boxes with targeted message Points details Flash message will also be targeted to customers