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the only industry which is neglected by the government of Maldives since 1978. Neither Maumoon nor Nasheed have no concerns in the maritime sector. They do drafts, plans to get the publicity bu

the only industry which is neglected by the government of Maldives since 1978. Neither Maumoon nor Nasheed have no concerns in the maritime sector. They do drafts, plans to get the publicity bu

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    Maldives Maritime Center's_Maritime survival training_centre_eia_final Maldives Maritime Center's_Maritime survival training_centre_eia_final Document Transcript

    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment Maldives College of Higher Education Environmental Impact Assessment construction of Maritime Survival Training Centre at K. Villingili March 2007 Prepared by Land & Marine Environmental Resource Group Pvt Ltd 3rd Floor, H. Coleezium, Ameenee Magu, Malé 20-05, MALDIVES Tel: +960 331 5049, Email: lamer@riyan.com.mv i
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment TABLE OF CONTENTS A. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................... 6 B. PROJECT DESCRIPTION ............................................................................................................................. 8 B.1 PURPOSE OF THE REPORT AND NEED FOR THE EIA .................................................................................... 8 B.2 PROCEDURE OF THE EIA ........................................................................................................................... 8 C. PROJECT DESCRIPTION ...........................................................................................................................11 C.1 PROJECT PROPONENT ..............................................................................................................................11 C.2 THE PROJECT ...........................................................................................................................................11 C.3 PROJECT LOCATION .................................................................................................................................12 C.4 NEED FOR THE PROJECT ..........................................................................................................................13 C.5 LOCATION AND EXTENT OF SITE BOUNDARIES ........................................................................................13 C.6 CONSTRUCTION PHASES AND SCHEDULE FOR IMPLEMENTATION ............................................................14 C.7 MAJOR INPUTS - CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS, METHODS AND PROCESSES ..............................................15 C.8 RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH THE PROJECT ...................................................................................................18 D. LEGAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE FRAMEWORK.......................................................................................19 D.1 ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION AND PRESERVATION ACT OF MALDIVES ...................................................19 D.2 BY LAW, CUTTING DOWN, UPROOTING, DIGGING OUT AND EXPORT OF TREES AND PALMS FROM ONE ISLAND TO ANOTHER ......................................................................................................................................19 D.3 THE NATIONAL BIODIVERSITY STRATEGY AND ACTION PLAN 2002......................................................20 D.4 INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ORGANIZATION (IMO) CONVENTION.........................................................21 D.4.1 International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, 1978. Amendments made 1998, 2006......................................................................................22 D.4.1.1 Emergency, occupational safety, medical care and survival functions.......................................22 D.4.1.2 Special training requirements for personnel on certain types of ships .......................................26 E. EXISTING ENVIRONMENT.........................................................................................................................28 E.1 GENERAL SETTING - MALDIVES ...............................................................................................................28 E.2 GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION AND GENERAL SETTING OF K. VILLINGILI .......................................................29 E.2.1 Island Setting...................................................................................................................................29 E.2.2 Climatology .....................................................................................................................................30 E.3 BEACH ENVIRONMENT ............................................................................................................................40 E.4 MARINE ENVIRONMENT ..........................................................................................................................42 E.4.1 Introduction .....................................................................................................................................42 E.4.2 Methodology....................................................................................................................................42 E.4.3 Results and discussion.....................................................................................................................43 E.4.3.1 Reef benthos .................................................................................................................................43 E.4.3.2 Reef fish community .....................................................................................................................47 E.4.3.3 Invertebrates.................................................................................................................................49 E.4.3.4 Protected marine species .............................................................................................................49 E.4.3.5 Sea water quality..........................................................................................................................50 E.4.3.6 Terrestrial.....................................................................................................................................50 E.5 SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT ............................................................................................................................51 F. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND MITIGATION MEASURES ...............................................................53 F.1 ACTIVITIES CAUSING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ....................................................................................53 F.2 IMPACTS DURING CONSTRUCTION ............................................................................................................53 F.2.1 Schedule, logistics and loading and unloading construction materials .........................................54 F.2.2 Construction materials and solid waste..........................................................................................55 F.2.3 Impacts due to construction methods ..............................................................................................56 F.2.4 Impact on vegetation .......................................................................................................................57 F.2.5 Impact on groundwater ...................................................................................................................57 ii
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment F.2.6 Coastal structures ...........................................................................................................................58 F.2.7 Cumulative impacts .........................................................................................................................58 F.2.8 Social impacts, noise and air pollution...........................................................................................59 F.3 OPERATIONAL IMPACTS ...........................................................................................................................60 F.3.1 Social impacts..................................................................................................................................60 F.4 MITIGATION PLAN ...................................................................................................................................61 F.5 UNCERTAINTIES INVOLVED IN IDENTIFYING IMPACTS .............................................................................66 G. ALTERNATIVES ...........................................................................................................................................66 G.1 PROJECT LOCATION .................................................................................................................................66 G.2 DREDGING AND RECLAMATION METHOD ................................................................................................67 G.3 THE NO PROJECT SCENARIO .....................................................................................................................68 H. PUBLIC CONSULTATION ..........................................................................................................................69 I. MONITORING PROGRAM ...........................................................................................................................71 J. REFERENCES ...............................................................................................................................................73 K. ANNEXES .....................................................................................................................................................75 K.1 SCOPE OF WORK APPROVED BY MEEW (TOR).......................................................................................75 K.2 SCALED DRAWING SET ............................................................................................................................80 K.3 LANDUSE PLAN........................................................................................................................................91 K.4 PHOTO PLATES ........................................................................................................................................93 K.5 LETTER TO MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER ............................................................99 iii
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Project layout (see Annex 2 for scaled drawings set) ___________________________________ 11 Figure 2 Edge of small finger like reclaimed process (left), cement pavement damaged over the years, this area was used by landing crafts (right) _____________________________________________________ 12 Figure 3 Project site location at K. Villingili _________________________________________________ 12 Figure 4 Project site boundaries, giving direct and indirect impact areas from excavation and dredging works ________________________________________________________________________________ 14 Figure 5 Geographic location of Villingili at north Male’ atoll___________________________________ 30 Figure 6 Wind rose plots for the four seasons in Male region (daily wind data for the years 2002 and 2003 obtained from Department of Meteorology, Maldives)__________________________________________ 32 Figure 7 Tidal recordings at Hulhule _______________________________________________________ 33 Figure 8 Spectral density graph for the tidal records presented in figure 7 _________________________ 34 Figure 9 Graphs showing the significant wave height and wave directions in the southern region of Maldives (source: DHI, 1999) ____________________________________________________________________ 35 Figure 10 Wave height, Hs, exceedence curves for southern region of Maldives (Source DHI, 1999) ____ 35 Figure 11 Global distributions of mean monthly values of the mean wave direction, for the months of January, April, July and October. Values are shown as direction vectors (from Young, 1999). __________ 37 Figure 12 Map showing the types of waves experienced at K. Villingili ____________________________ 38 Figure 13 Current measurements taken using drogues, recording interval at 30s ____________________ 39 Figure 14 Accretion of sand at the northern side of the project area and southern side of waste management area at Villingili (Photo taken during February 2007) _________________________________________ 41 Figure 15 Condition of the small beach strip observed at the northern side of the project area, erosion observed at the northern side, whilst accretion observed at the southern side close to project area (photo taken during February 2007) _____________________________________________________________ 41 Figure 16 Location of survey sites and seawater sampling sites at Villingili reef_____________________ 43 Figure 17 Reef substrate in the vicinity if the proposed development site. 95% confidence interval for each category is shown. n=3 __________________________________________________________________ 44 Figure 18 Generic composition of the live coral community _____________________________________ 45 Figure 19 Porites lobata colony observed at the southern western side of the reef (left), three species of butterfly fish was observed at survey sites, two species of butterfly as seen in this picture, Hemiturichthys zoster and Chaetodon melannotus _________________________________________________________ 46 Figure 20 Effects of shore-based fishing and mis-management of solid waste; dense mesh of monofilament line from high intensity shore based fishing (left) and fish waste disposed to the reef from a nearby semi industrial fish processing household. _______________________________________________________ 47 Figure 21 Reef slope highly degraded with little coral cover (left), Acanthurus leucosternon schooling at the reef edge in the vicinity of the project site (right)______________________________________________ 49 Figure 22 Dhiggaa, Funna and Maggoo observed along the small beach strip at the northern side of the project area ___________________________________________________________________________ 51 Figure 23 Waste dumped at the project area, semi industrial work related solid waste ________________ 56 iv
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Construction schedule for the Maritime Survival Training Centre __________________________ 15 Table 2 Inputs for the development project- construction and operational phase _____________________ 17 Table 3 Summary of four seasons in Maldives ________________________________________________ 30 Table 4 Table summarizing tide levels at Hulhule Island, Male Atoll. _____________________________ 33 Table 5 Fish census survey at the proposed project area________________________________________ 48 Table 6 Fish diversity and abundance at the study sites_________________________________________ 48 Table 7 Seawater quality parameter at the sampling location in the reef at Villingili. Data analysis was carried out by the National Health Laboratory, Maldives Food and Drug Authority. Report number PHL/RE/WC166 _______________________________________________________________________ 50 Table 8 Type and source of potential solid waste generated during construction stage ________________ 55 Table 9 Potential impacts during construction and operation of the development project and possible mitigation measures identified to minimize the impacts _________________________________________ 62 Table 10 Monitoring plan for the development project at Villingili reef system. ______________________ 71 Issue Issue date Summary th A 8 March 2006 First draft submitted to Maldives College of Higher Education B 13th March 2006 Revised Draft C 15th March 2006 Final report D E v
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment A. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Maldives College of Higher Education has proposed the development project outlined below in order to establish a Maritime Survival Training Centre, especially catering requirements of courses such as personal survival techniques and proficiency in survival craft and rescue boat training. This EIA is concerned with the dredging of a small harbour (40m by 22m) and land reclamation of area 3700m3. Dredged material excavated from the harbour basin deepening works will be used as filling material during reclamation. A sea wall (breakwater) will be constructed at the western side of the harbour area. At the time of field surveys and report compilation, the bidding process was on-going; therefore the consultants are not informed of a specific time period for the development works. However, according to the proponent construction works have to be completed within 6 months. Therefore this timeframe was taken into consideration to describe the environmental conditions inherent to the project site. The projected number of workers at peak construction time is expected to be 30 labourers. Accommodation of labourers could be in rented rooms or houses at Villingili or Male’. All construction related materials can be stored in the project site once the reclamation work is completed. There are two main types of potential impacts arising from the development of the proposed project site: short term impacts during the construction phase and impacts from irreversible modifications of the site. Long term negative impacts due proposed development are few and the magnitudes of these impacts are difficult to determine due to the time available to carry out appropriate field assessments. Furthermore, no information is available of the impacts associated with coastal modification works that have been already implemented in Villingili as part of various development projects (at the moment large scale coastal modification is observed at Villingili, commercial and ferry harbour, reclamation and seawall at the southern side and coastal protection in the form of a revetment or retaining wall at the south west corner of the island). 6
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment The proposed site for the project appears to be suitable for the development, taking into account the environment, construction feasibility and economic values of the proposed development. No major impacts are predicted by the proposed development project. Minor impacts associated with the project are short-term (e.g. sedimentation) and due to the scale of the proposed activities and the nature of the habitat that would be impacted, the sedimentation impacts are considered insignificant. Hydrodynamics and coastal processes around the island may have already changed as a result of impacts associated with previous development works which are more significant and long-term (duration of the project) than the proposed project. Therefore, predicted coastal impacts associated with this project would be comparatively minor and insignificant. No major socio economic impacts were identified as a consequence of the project since no local people would be relocated. Furthermore, the land allocated for the project belongs to the state and there were no vegetation that may be privately owned. Despite negligible impacts associated with the project, appropriate monitoring of constructional activities will be part of the development strategy to further minimise any impacts identified. Furthermore the proposed monitoring would assist to mitigate any unforeseen impacts that may occur. 7
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment B. PROJECT DESCRIPTION B.1 Purpose of the report and need for the EIA This document presents the findings of an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for the construction of a Maritime Survival Training Centre at K. Villingili. The centre will have a harbour (40m in length, 22m in width) for life boat and emergency evacuation training. Part of the land allocated for the project has to be reclaimed. Estimated area of reclamation is 3700m2 (volume of dredged material required, 2856m3). Development projects are required to carryout EIA studies under the Environment Protection and Preservation Act of Maldives. The developer is required to obtain approval of the Ministry of Environment, Water and Energy prior to the implementation of any development activities on the island or on the reef system. Land and Marine Environmental Resource Group Pte Ltd (consultant) have been contracted by the Maldives College of Higher Education (client), to prepare the EIA and to provide assistance in other environmental related activities of the project. This EIA is thus prepared by the consultant is in accordance with Maldives Environmental Impact Assessment guidelines, and other relevant regulations and guidelines applicable to the proposed project. B.2 Procedure of the EIA All the development projects that have a socioeconomic relevance are required to submit an environmental impact report which forms the basis for project approval. As such projects are required to follow a screening process identifying the environmental impacts associated with the project. As the regulator, MEEW based on the impacts associated with project makes a decision on the nature of the report to be submitted. An EIA shall be submitted for projects with significant impacts whereas an IEE suits for projects without significant impacts. The screening process required to submit an EIA which requires an approval of the scope of work for the report in consultation with MEEW. In accordance to the regulations of Ministry of Environment, Energy and Water, a letter was send stating to the nature of the project and likely impacts associated. The study parameters stated in the letter will be used as the TOR for the EIA as agreed by the Ministry of Environment, Energy and Water (see Annex 1 for the letter). 8
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment The project proponent revealed the project to the consultant before a site inspection was carried out to assess the conditions at the site and determine the potential impacts. Qualitative methods were used to determine the coastal processes and areas affected: qualitative methods to assess substrate types and cover on the areas concerned by the works, as well as downstream from this area. This study was complemented with both land and underwater photographs of the area in question. The following tasks were undertaken in carrying out the EIA study: Task 1. Description of the Proposed Project - Provide a full description of the overall project using plans, maps and graphic aids at appropriate scales. This is to include: project locations; general layout (size, capacity, etc.); land and lagoon areas selected for development, construction methodology (excavation works, wharf etc.), site management, operation and maintenance activities; plans for providing utilities, waste disposal, sewage treatment and other necessary services; and employment. Task 2. Description of the Environment - Describe the physical, ecological, demographic setting of the project. Survey and present information provides a detail assessment of the existing conditions of the site. Assemble, evaluate and present baseline data on the relevant environmental characteristics of the study area, including the following: a- Physical environment; reef line; depth measurements; seawater quality; climate and meteorology and coastal oceanography. b- Biological environment: flora and fauna of the terrestrial, coastal environment, and coral reef ecosystems around the island. Task 3. Legislative and Regulatory Considerations - Describe the pertinent environmental laws, regulations and standards governing harbour developments, environmental quality, health and safety, protection of marine and terrestrial flora and fauna, protection of endangered species, and construction of tourism facilities. 9
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment Task 4. Determination of Potential Impacts – Identify the major issues of environmental concern and indicate their relative importance to the design of the project. Distinguish long-term and short-term impacts, construction and post-construction phase impacts. Identify the significant impacts and those that are cumulative, unavoidable or irreversible. Task 5. Mitigation and Management of Negative Impacts – Recommend feasible and cost-effective measures to prevent or to reduce the significant negative impacts to acceptable levels. Task 6. Development of a Monitoring Plan - Prepare the outline of a plan for monitoring the impacts of the project and the implementation of mitigating measures during construction and preconstruction. Task 7. Determination of Project Alternatives – Examine alternatives to the project including the no-action option. 10
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment C. PROJECT DESCRIPTION C.1 Project Proponent Project proponent of the proposed project is Maldives College of Higher Education. The Maritime Survival Training Centre will be managed by the Centre for Maritime Studies. This centre is a faculty of Maldives College of Higher Education. C.2 The Project The proposed development project involves reclamation of land (2856 m3), dredging a small harbour (40m in length and 22m in width) for life boat evacuation and emergency jumping training (880 m3) and break water of 36m long and 6.9m wide will be constructed at the western side of the harbour area to protect the harbour. The Harbour area will be sheet piled. Entrance area will also be dredged to -4.5MSL. Class room and changing facilities will be built on the reclaimed land (see Annex 2 for the scaled drawings of the site, harbour and the buildings). Figure 1 Project layout (see Annex 2 for scaled drawings set) 11
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment C.3 Project Location The island of Villingili is located on the southern periphery of K. Atoll, in the Maldivian Island chain (Figure 5). The project site is located at the western side of the Villingili south of the commercial harbour (Figure 3). The area was previously used as a boat yard for repairing works of vessels. Part of the vessel repair yard will be reclaimed under the proposed project. Furthermore, currently allocated commercial plots temporarily allocated to fish processors and other type of processors at cottage level falls within the allocated boundary. Alternative sites both for boat repair harbour and commercial plots have been identified by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Development (see Annex 3 for the land-use plan of Villingili demarcating the allocated land for the Maritime Survival Training Centre and alternative site for commercial plots; section E5). Figure 2 Edge of small finger like reclaimed process (left), cement pavement damaged over the years, this area was used by landing crafts (right) Figure 3 Project site location at K. Villingili 12
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment C.4 Need for the Project The centre of Maritime Studies conducts various types of seamanship trainings. The faculty for Maritime Studies is mandated with training seafarers to internationally required qualities and efficiency. These training programs have to comply with the requirements of IMO conventions on Standard of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping (STCW). Among the trainings, personal survival techniques and proficiency in survival craft and rescue boat training needs a water tank or pool to conduct the training with safety to trainees. For the above mentioned trainings, emergency evacuation training consists of abandoning vessels (jumping off) during a fire related or similar scenario. For this training a pool constructed inland would be considerably deep, which will have lots of maintenance problems (e.g. flushing, filtration). The easiest way would be to have a harbour like enclosure that has a depth of 4-4.5m. Since the training involves simulation of real event the participants have to jump from a tower that has similar height as a cargo or similar class vessel. Also since Maldives has signed the IMO convention, the government focal point has to provide the trainings for its international and national commercial seafarers. Shipping is a competitive and high-tech international industry; therefore it is imperative that Maldives train its seafarers to international standards to keep pace with other countries. C.5 Location and extent of site boundaries The proposed Maritime survival Training Centre will be located at the western side of the island, south of the commercial harbour close to the now abandoned vessel repair yard (Figure 2, 3). The area has already been modified over the years; the proposed site is also part of a reclaimed portion of Villingili. Project boundaries are defined by the dominant current flow (tidal currents) experienced at the area. Strong tidal currents are experienced at channels near Male’ (Gaadhoo kolu, channel between Male’ and Villingili and Channel between Villingili and Gulhifalhu). Direct impact area for the proposed project is the immediate project area, whilst the indirect impact areas are northern and southern side of the project area (Figure 4). 13
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment Figure 4 Project site boundaries, giving direct and indirect impact areas from excavation and dredging works C.6 Construction phases and schedule for implementation At the time of field surveys and report compilation, the bidding process was on-going; therefore the consultants are not informed of a specific time period for the development works. However, according to the proponent construction works have to be completed within 6 months. Therefore this timeframe was taken into consideration to describe the environmental conditions inherent to the project site. Wind, wave and current related impacts were assessed for both northeast and southwest monsoon to reflect the duration of the construction phase. Work schedules of similar dredging and excavation projects were used by the consultants to draw up a work schedule for the proposed project (harbour development at various islands in Maldives). According to the project 14
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment proponent they estimate 2-3 months for dredging and reclamation works. After that the sheet piling and levelling works will be done. After completion of the dredging and reclamation works, the sea wall protecting the harbour area will be constructed. After the levelling works is finished construction of davits, jumping platforms and class room facility will be initiated. Table 1 Construction schedule for the Maritime Survival Training Centre Work schedule for harbour construction No. Description 2007 February March April May June July August September October 1 Bidding 2 Mobilization 3 Excavation and dredging works 4 Sheet piling, inside and outside 5 Construction of sea wall 6 Construction of Devits and platforms Construction of class room and 7 changing facility 8 Demobilazation C.7 Major inputs - Construction materials, methods and processes At the time of this study, the bid hasn’t been awarded to a contractor yet; therefore method of excavation or dredging is not informed to the consultants. Therefore projects of similar nature were used to assess suitable methods that could be used for the proposed project. Due relatively small dredging and excavation involved in the project, most economical method would be to use excavators. One excavator will be enough to do the reclamation and dredging works. 2-3 trucks and bulldozer have to be used for levelling the ground. Sheet piling can be done either using the excavator with a hammer or crane with driving equipment. For the construction of seawall, a crane loaded on to a barge will be used. The rocks for the seawall construction will be loaded on to the barge for their deployment. Since the project location is at an inhabited island, constructing temporary accommodation isn’t required, but temporary storage shed may have to be built. Method and location of accommodating construction workforce depends on the contractor; either in Malé where the workforce can commute daily to the work site or in Villingili in rented accommodation. 15
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment Major input of the proposed project is reclamation of 3700m2 area of land (volume 2856m3) and dredging of a harbour 40m in length and 22m in width to a depth of -4.5m (MSL). The dredged material removed (880 m3) during harbour basin excavation will be use as filling during reclamation. At present the entrance and entrance channel of the harbour for the proposed project has depth of -2.1m (MSL) and is sandy (probably dredged during construction of the temporary vessel repair yard). Materials needed for the proposed project can be brought to the site either using the existing commercial harbour north of the site. Trucks or lorries can be used to transport the material to the site. The materials can be stored on the reclaimed land. Rocks for the sea wall can be brought to the site on a barge. Since the construction of davits, platform and class room facilities will be initiated after the reclamation and dredging works, the harbour constructed under the project can also be used for downloading the construction materials. Since the bid is not awarded to a contractor, the number of labourers to be stationed at project site has not been brought to the knowledge of the consultants. Therefore work force used in similar projects is used to estimate the number of workers used during the peak period of construction. For the reclamation and dredging works total of 10 workers could be used (including heavy machine and equipment operators), for the sea wall construction 6 workers and for the rest around 30 workers. Electricity for the construction site can be met by portable generator sets or pubic electricity grid of Villingili. In case portable generator sets are used, fuel has to be stored in barrels on land. No groundwater will be used for the construction works, since it is not recommended by the environmental consultants and project consultants. Therefore freshwater will be brought to the site on tanks (plastic tanks of volume 3000-5000liters). The sewage out lets from the toilets in the changing room will be connected to the Villingili sewerage grid. Detail drawings of the harbour, seawall, and class rooms are given in Annex 2. 16
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment Table 2 Inputs for the development project- construction and operational phase Input resource(s) Type Method of purchase/obtain Construction 20-30 Construction By bidding and Phase workers and laboures (at Local, foreign announcement in local peak) newspapers Harbour: Bolts, nuts, angles, sheetpiles, bollards, tires, GI pipes, metal rods paving blocks Sea wall: 3 class rocks (amour rocks, filter stones) Davits, platforms: Cement, rods, GI pipes, nuts, bolts, machine screws, river sand, aggregate, timber, paving rocks, Purchase locally (depend on Construction material nails the contractor) Class room and changing facility: electrical cables and wires, DBs and MCBs, PVC pipes, light weight, telephone cable CAT 5, PVC conduits, floor and wall tiles, gypsum boards, calcium silicate boards, zinc coated corrugated metal roof, paint, varnish, lacquer, thinner, timber, nails, bolts, screws etc Purchase from MWSC at Fresh water Desalinated water, Villingili Diesel generators (depending on Electricity/Energy Depends on contractor contract) or Villingili electrical grid Energy efficient machinery and lighting; Electrical ozone-friendly refrigerators (class room Local suppliers appliances/machinery and changing facility) Import or local supply/ Local Fire pumps, Fire protection system, companies will be contracted Fire fighting equipment Smoke detectors; Carbon dioxide and for maintenance of Foam fire extinguishers. equipment (depends on project proponent) Operational Depends on the Project 5-6 staff Local phase proponent Timber, wooden shingles for roof, Depends on Project Maintenance material electrical cables, electrical appliances, proponent (maintenance paint work awarded by bidding) Fresh water Desalinated water for 8 toilets Villingili water grid (MWSC) For class room, changing facility and Electricity/Energy Villingili electrical grid harbour PABX system, fax machines, e-mail Local suppliers (depends on Telecommunications and internet facilities project proponent) 17
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment C.8 Risks associated with the project Major risks associated with the project are damage to the marine environment due to sedimentation by excavation and construction works. Chronic impacts such as this are cumulative and long term. Coastal modification involved by this proposed project may have some impacts on the littoral movement of the island. At present significant coastal modifications have already been carried out at K. Villingili, therefore hydrodynamic and littoral impacts by this project is likely to be significantly less compared to the large scale modifications made at the northern side and southern side (e.g. commercial harbour, Ferry harbour, reclamation and seawall at southern side). Since the site is located in between two man made features, the commercial harbour at northern side and revetment wall and breakwaters at the southern side, the site is effectively between two terminal groynes trapping the sediment in between creating a small beach. Therefore impacts on sediment movement by the proposed coastal modification are likely to be minor, if any. Damage to live coral is inevitable in development projects such as these. Major impacts are likely from sedimentation and smothering of live coral and other benthic organisms (close to the harbour basin and indirect impact areas, southern and northern side of the project area). In terms of social impacts, noise pollution at the excavation and construction site will be an issue. But considering this, at present a number of construction works are underway at Villingili. Heavy vehicles operating in the area may cause public safety issues. To counter this, the project area has to be closed by a fence. 18
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment D. LEGAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE FRAMEWORK This section outlines the relevant international convections and environmental legislation pertaining to the development under study for the construction of Maritime Survival Training Centre at K. Villingili. D.1 Environment Protection and Preservation Act of Maldives The Environmental Protection and Preservation Act of Maldives (Law no: 4/93) is concerned with the natural environment and its resources as a national heritage that need to be protected and preserved for future generation, taking in consideration land, water resource, flora, fauna, beaches, reefs, lagoons and all the natural resources. Major components of this law include environmental impact assessments prior to developmental projects that are likely to have significant impact to the environment. It also refers to specific procedure that should be followed with regard to waste disposal, oil and poisonous substances. Furthermore, hazardous, toxic and nuclear waste cannot be disposed in territorial water of Maldives and any trans-boundary movement of such material shall obtain prior permission if it is shipped through Maldives. Under Article 5 (a) of this law, an Environmental Impact Assessment has to be submitted by the developer of a project which may have potential impacts on the environment, to the Ministry of Environment, Energy and Water (MEEW) for approval before commencement of project. The development of all new resorts is outlined as such a project in the MEEW guidelines. D.2 By Law, Cutting down, uprooting, digging out and export of trees and palms from one island to another In pursuant to law number 4/93 (Environment Protection and Preservation Act of Maldives 1993), the Ministry of Environment, Energy and Water has made a by law with the purpose of educating developers about the 19
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment importance of trees including best management practices for maintaining trees and provide standards fro preservation of trees in the Maldives and set down rules and regulations to be adhered to prior to commencing felling, uprooting, digging out and exporting of trees and palms from one island to another in Maldives. The by law states that the cutting down, uprooting, digging out and export of trees and palms from one island to another can only be done if it is absolutely necessary and there is no other alternative. It further states that for every tree or palm removed in the Maldives two more should be planted and grown in the island. The by law prohibits the removal of the following tree types; • The coastal vegetation growing around the islands extending to about 15 meters into the island are protected by this by law; • All the trees and palms growing in mangrove and wetlands spreading to 15 meters of land area is protected under this by law; • All the trees that are in a Government protected area; • Trees that are being protected by the Government in order to protect species of animal/organisms that live in such trees; • Trees/palms that is abnormal in structure D.3 The National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan 2002 The national Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) is, in many ways, an environmental protection strategy and action plan. It establishes a number of pertinent guiding principles sets three focussed goals and adopts a number of wide-ranging policies and targets. This brief review identifies those elements of the NBSAP which are essentially relevant to the present project. One guiding principle established by the NBSAP is very relevant to coastal projects in general, viz. “While socio-economic development is essential, it cannot be achieved at the cost of the environment. Ecological sustainability must be a major goal in the national development”. Likewise, the following policy statements must be borne in mind when designing coastal development projects: 20
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment • Restrict coastal development projects such as ports only to island that have been identified in the national/regional development plan. • Discourage dredging/excavation of small harbour basins for every inhabited island by encouraging the use of natural harbours (vilu) and by seeking alternative means, such as jetties to access the islands. • Retain a shoreline vegetation buffer zone when allocating land for new housing zones or plots and other physical development activities in the inhabited islands. • Prohibit the use of coral for building coastal protection such as seawalls and promote use of alternative materials D.4 International Maritime Organization (IMO) Convention Maldives joined International Maritime Organization of United Nations in 1967. IMO convention on Standards of Training, Certificates and Watchkeeping of Seafarers was developed in 1978. The IMO convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping of Seafarers entered in to full was on 1st February 1997 with the 1995 amendments which completely revised the convention. The 1978 STCW Convention was the first to establish basic requirements on training, certification and watchkeeping for seafarers on an international level. Previously the standards of training, certifications, and watchkeeping of officers and rating were established by individual governments, usually without reference to practices in other countries. As a result standards and procedures varied, even though shipping is the most international of all industries. The Convention prescribes minimum standards relating to training, certification and watchkeeping for seafarers which countries are obliged to meet or exceed. The Convention did not deal with manning levels: IMO provisions in this area are covered by a regulation in Chapter V of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), 1974, whose requirements are backed up by resolution A.890(21) Principles of safe manning, adopted by the IMO Assembly in 1999, as amended by 21
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment Resolution A.955(23) Amendments to the Principles of Safe Manning (Resolution-A.890(21)). The Articles of the convention include requirements relating to issues surrounding certification and port state control. One especially important feature of the Convention is that it applies to ships of non-party States when visiting ports of States which are Parties to the Convention. Article X requires Parties to apply the control measures to ships of all flags to the extent necessary to ensure that no more favourable treatment is given to ships entitled to fly the flag of a State which is not a Party than is given to ships entitled to fly the flag of a State that is a Party. While Article VI requires flag States to ensure that seafarers hold certificates, Article X provides an enforcement mechanism by allowing Port States to verify that seafarers serving on board hold any required certificates, and to detain a ship when certain officers are not properly certificated. The port control aspects of STCW are discussed in more detail in section 4 of this handbook, under the heading "Regulation I/4 - Control Procedures." D.4.1 International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, 1978. Amendments made 1998, 2006 D.4.1.1 Emergency, occupational safety, medical care and survival functions Regulation VI/l Familiarization and basic safety training and instruction for all seafarers: The requirements in this regulation are divided into two categories. The details are specified in section A-VI/l of the STCW Code, and the required training or instruction must be provided before the seafarer concerned is assigned any shipboard duties. All seafarers (i.e., persons who are working on the ship and are not classified as passengers) must receive either (i) approved training in personal survival techniques, based on table VI/l-l; or (ii) sufficient information and instruction to be able to take steps in an emergency to respond quickly, properly and safely. A checklist of these skills is set out 22
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment in Section A-VI/l of the STCW Code. All seafarers who are working on the ship as part of the complement involved in manning, watchkeeping, emergency response training or instruction in four areas: personal survival; fire prevention and fire-fighting; elementary first-aid; and personal safety and social responsibilities. The standards of competence for these areas are set out in four-column tables in Section AVI/1 of the STCW Code. Seafarers subject to this training requirement must provide evidence of achieving or maintaining the standard of competence within the previous five years of being assigned shipboard duties. Except in respect of seafarers on passenger ships of over 500 gross tons on international voyages, and tankers, specific training requirements may be modified to suit a ship’s size and the length or character of its voyage. Regu1ation VI/2 - Proficiency in survival craft rescue boats and fast rescue boats: Under this regulation, a candidate for a certificate of proficiency in survival craft and rescue boats must (a) meet a minimum age requirement, (b) have approved seagoing service or a combination of approved training and seagoing service; and (c) meet the relevant standard of competence set out in Section AVI/2 of the STCW Code. A four-column table is provided in that section of the code. (This section of the code is referred to in the standard of competence in Chapters II and III, under the function of controlling the operation of the ship and care for persons on board at the operational level.) In addition to meeting the requirements described in the previous paragraph, a candidate for a certificate of proficiency in fast rescue boats must (a) attend an approved training course; and (b) meet the relevant standard of competence set out in a four-column table in Section A-VI/2 of the STCW Code. Regulation VI/3 - Training in advanced fire-fighting: Those responsible for controlling fire-fighting operations on seagoing ships must (a) complete advanced training in techniques for fire-fighting, with an emphasis on organization, tactics and command, and (b) meet the standard of competence set out in the four-column table in Section A-VI/3 of the STCW Code. Unless this training is already included as a qualification for a certificate (as it is for certain operational level certificates under Chapter II and III), the seafarer concerned is to be issued documentary evidence of having attended the training. 23
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment Seafarers subject to this training requirement must provide evidence of achieving or maintaining the standard of competence within the previous five years of being certificated. Regulation VI/4 - Requirements relating to medical first-aid and medical care: Those responsible for "providing" medical first-aid on seagoing ships must meet the standard of competence in medical first aid as set out in the four-column table in Section A-VI/4 of the STCW Code. This standard, which is higher than elementary first aid, must be met by officers at the operational level under Chapters II and III. The master must be able to organize and manage the provision of medical care on board under Table A-II/2. Those designated to take charge of medical care on seagoing ships must meet the standard of competence in medical care as set out in the four- column table in Section A-VI/4 of the STCW Code. Unless this training is already included as a qualification for a certificate (as it is for a management level certificates under regulation 11/2), the seafarer concerned is to be issued documentary evidence of having attended the appropriate training. Except in respect of seafarers on passenger ships of over 500 gross tons on international voyages, and tankers, specific training requirements may be modified to suit a ship’s size and the length or character of its voyage. Regu1ation VI/2 - Proficiency in survival craft rescue boats and fast rescue boats: Under this regulation, a candidate for a certificate of proficiency in survival craft and rescue boats must (a) meet a minimum age requirement, (b) have approved seagoing service or a combination of approved training and seagoing service; and (c) meet the relevant standard of competence set out in Section AVI/2 of the STCW Code. A four-column table is provided in that section of the code. (This section of the code is referred to in the standard of competence in Chapters II and III, under the function of controlling the operation of the ship and care for persons on board at the operational level.) In addition to meeting the requirements described in the previous paragraph, a candidate for a certificate of proficiency in fast rescue boats must (a) attend an approved training course; and (b) meet the relevant 24
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment standard of competence set out in a four-column table in Section A-VI/2 of the STCW Code. Regulation VI/3 - Training in advanced fire-fighting: Those responsible for controlling fire-fighting operations on seagoing ships must (a) complete advanced training in techniques for fire-fighting, with an emphasis on organization, tactics and command, and (b) meet the standard of competence set out in the four-column table in Section A-VI/3 of the STCW Code. Unless this training is already included as a qualification for a certificate (as it is for certain operational level certificates under Chapter II and III), the seafarer concerned is to be issued documentary evidence of having attended the training. Seafarers subject to this training requirement must provide evidence of achieving or maintaining the standard of competence within the previous five years of being certificated. Regulation VI/4 - Requirements relating to medical first-aid and medical care: Those responsible for "providing" medical first-aid on seagoing ships must meet the standard of competence in medical first aid as set out in the four-column table in Section A-VI/4 of the STCW Code. This standard, which is higher than elementary first aid, must be met by officers at the operational level under Chapters II and III. The master must be able to organize and manage the provision of medical care on board under Table A-II/2. Those designated to take charge of medical care on seagoing ships must meet the standard of competence in medical care as set out in the four- column table in Section A-VI/4 of the STCW Code. Unless this training is already included as a qualification for a certificate (as it is for a management level certificates under regulation 11/2), the seafarer concerned is to be issued documentary evidence of having attended the appropriate training. 25
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment D.4.1.2 Special training requirements for personnel on certain types of ships Regulation V/1 - Training and qualification of masters, officers and ratings on tankers: Under this regulation, certificates must be issued in respect of two levels of training for three types of tankers. Officers and ratings who are assigned specific duties and responsibilities related to cargo or cargo equipment on tankers must (a) complete an approved shore based fire-fighting course (b) receive basic safety training as required under regulation VI of Chapter VI (discussed in section 9 of this handbook); and (c) either (i) complete at least three months of approved seagoing service on tankers in order to acquire knowledge of safe operational practices; or (ii) complete an approved tanker familiarization course covering the syllabus given in section A-V/i of the STCW Code. Masters, chief mates, chief engineer officers, and second engineer officers, as well as any other person who has immediate (supervisory) responsibility for loading, discharging and care in transit or handling of cargo, must, in addition to the requirements identified in the previous paragraph, have experience on the particular type of tanker on which they serve (in other words, oil, chemical or liquefied gas tanker), and complete an approved specialized training program covering the subjects listed in section A-V/i of the STCW Code for the type of tanker concerned. Regulation V 2 - Training and qualification of masters, officers and ratings and other personnel on ro-ro passenger ships: For purposes of this regulation, the term ‘ro-ro passenger ship" is defined in regulation III as meaning a passenger ship with roll on – roll off cargo spaces or special category spaces as defined in SOLAS, as amended. Regulation V/2 only applies to masters, officers and crew serving on ro-ro passenger ships engaged on international voyages. However, flag States are obligated to determine the extent to which the requirements in the regulation should apply to personnel serving on ro-ro passenger ships engaged on domestic voyages. The regulation requires personnel on ro-ro passenger ships to have specialized training, as outlined in section A-V/2 of the STCW Code, in areas such as crowd management, operational limitations of the ship, procedures for opening and closing hull openings, special emergency 26
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment procedures to prevent ingress of water on vehicle decks, loading and embarkation procedures, and crisis management. Refresher training is required at least every five years. Flag States are to ensure that documentary evidence of the completed training is issued to every person found qualified under the regulation. 27
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment E. EXISTING ENVIRONMENT E.1 General setting - Maldives The Maldives archipelago consists of a double chain of coral atolls, 80 – 120km wide stretching 860km from latitude 7° 6’ 30” N to 0° 41’ 48” S and longitude 72° 32’ 30 E to 73° 45’ 54” E (Ministry of Construction and Public Works, 1999). The double chain of Maldivian atolls lies on the parallel submarine ridges in the central part of Indian Ocean known as Laccadive- Chagos ridge. The archipelago comprises 25 atolls (Naseer, 2004) grouped into 20 administrative units. The atolls are separated by east-west running deeper channels. The atolls vary in shape from circular and oval to elliptical. The atolls contain 1190 islands, of which only 198 are inhabited. The total reef area of Maldives is 4,493.85km2 while the total land area is 227.45km2 (Naseer, 2004). Approximately 80% of Maldivian land area is less than 1m above mean sea-level. The characteristics of reefs and coral islands of the Maldives vary considerably from north to south. The atolls to the north are broad banks discontinuously fringed by reefs with small coral islands and with numerous patch reefs and faros (the word faros is derived from the Maldivian word “faru”) in the lagoon. To the south the depth of atoll lagoon increases, faros and patch reefs are rare in the lagoon, the continuity of the atoll rim is greater and a large proportion of the perimeter of the atolls is occupied by islands (Woodroffe, 1992). The islands have shallow reef flats on their seaward side, some with shingle ramparts at the seaward limit of the reef flat. The islands and the shingle ramparts owe their origin to the deposition of shingle or coral debris during storms. A number of islands can be found on a single reef. These islands may be separated by shallow passages that run across the reef flat. The width of some of these passages could be less 100m while some passages are over few hundred meters wide. 28
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment E.2 Geographic Location and General Setting of K. Villingili E.2.1 Island Setting The island of Villingili lie at coordinates 73°29.1’E and 4°10.4’ N which lies on the southern periphery of North Male Atoll (Figure 5). To the west at about 1km from Villingili is Gulhifalhu, which is a round shaped faro and to the east of Villingili is the island of Male. The typical depth within North and South Male Atolls is about 45 – 50m. Vaadhoo Kandu to the south of Villingili that separates North and South Male Atoll is a relatively deep channel. This channel has an average depth of about 400m and a width of about 10Km. This channel is well known to be a rough channel during the southwest monsoon. The reef system accommodating the island of Villingili has an area of approximately 0.563 km2. The reef flat on the southern and eastern sides of the island is shallower than the northern side reef flat. The southern side reef flat is typical of an ocean ward reef flat of the islands of Maldives. The near- shore environments of Villingili are composed of coralline and other bioclastic skeletal material derived from the reef. The sediments in this environment are predominantly coral fragments, calcareous algae (Halimeda) and foraminiferans. Coral predominates in coarser fraction while the sandy fraction is mainly Halimeda and foraminifera. The major forces, which produce sediment on the reef, are storm waves and waves driven by monsoon winds. Tidal and wave driven currents play a significant role in the transport of sediment. A large area of the islands limited reef flat area has been modified to cater for the needs of the population on the island. As such almost the entire reef flat area on the northern side of the island has been dredged to create small harbours (ferry and small commercial harbour). A large area of the reef flat on the southern side of the island has also been reclaimed in association with the development of the harbour in 2003. The extent of the reclamation reaches almost up to the reef edge. The ocean-ward extent of this reclaimed land is protected with a rubble mound revetment. 29
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment Figure 5 Geographic location of Villingili at north Male’ atoll E.2.2 Climatology The local Maldivians divide the climate of the Maldives into four monsoon periods that are characterised by very different wind climate, rain fall. These four seasons are (Table 3) the NE monsoon (Iruvai moosun), Transitonal period from NE monsoon to SW monsoon (Hulhangu halha), SW monsoon (Hulhangu moosun) and Transtional period from SW monsoon to NE monsoon (Iruvai halha). Table 3 Summary of four seasons in Maldives Season Month December NE-Monsoon January (Iruvai moosun) February Transition Period 1 March (Hulhangu halha) April 30
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment May June SW-Monsoon July (Hulhangu moosunAugust September Transition Period 2 October (Iruvai halha) November Generally the SW monsoon generates westerly winds and the seas are rough and the period is wetter than the NE monsoon. The NE monsoon in the Maldives archipelago is marked by north-northeast winds (Woodroffe, 1992) which are generally lighter and the period is dryer. Storms and gales are infrequent in this part of the globe and cyclones do not reach as far south as the Maldives archipelago (Ministry of Construction and Public Works, 1999). For detail analysis of wind patterns for the four seasons daily wind data for the years 2002 and 2003 for Male have been studied. The summary of these analysis indicate the winds in the central regions of Maldives is predominantly westerly and north easterly (Figure 6). The analysis also indicates that there is almost no wind from the quadrant between East and South. Analysis of the wind data for the four seasons (Figure 6) indicate that the during NE monsoon the wind is predominantly from ENE with wind speeds reaching as high as15 – 20 knots for 8% of this period (3 months). For up to 41% of the time the wind speed reaches 10 – 15 knots. During Hulhangu halha (2 months) wind direction varies between SW – E. The predominant wind direction during this period remains between ENE and E. The maximum wind speed reached during this period is 14knots. For up to 11% of this period the wind speed reaches over 10knots. For 43% of the time the wind speed is between 5 and 10knots. During SW monsoon (5 months) the wind direction is distinctly from W and WNW. Up to 8% of this period the wind speed reaches between 15 and 20knots. For 28% of the time the wind speed reaches between 10 and 15knots. For 51% of the time the wind speed is between 5 and 10knots. During the transitional period from SW monsoon to NE monsoon (2 months) the predominant wind direction remains westerly. For up to 26% of the time wind speed reaches between 15 and 20knots, 22% of the time the wind speed is between 10 and 15knots, 48% of the time the wind speed reaches between 5 and 10knots. These results have been confirmed by Kench and Brander, 2005 to be consistent with the mean long term trend in the wind climate in the central region of the Maldives. 31
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment All seasons NE monsoon Hulhangu Halha (T1) SW monsoon Iruvai Halha (T2) Figure 6 Wind rose plots for the four seasons in Male region (daily wind data for the years 2002 and 2003 obtained from Department of Meteorology, Maldives) 32
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment E.2.2.1 Tide Tides experienced in the Maldives are mixed semi-diurnal and diurnal with a strong diurnal inequality. A tide station at Male International Airport has continuous records of tide for over the past 30 years. The maximum tidal range recorded at this tide station is 1.20m. The highest astronomical tide level is +0.64m (MSL) and the lowest astronomical tide level is -0.56m (MSL) (Table 4). Due to close proximity of the permanent tide station at Male International Airport (Hulhule) it was assumed that the tidal signal at Hulhule will be the same as that at Villingili. Therefore the tidal datum for Hulhule applied at Villingili. Table 4 Table summarizing tide levels at Hulhule Island, Male Atoll. Tide level Water level referred to Mean Sea Lev (MSL) (m) Highest Astronomical Tide (HAT) +0.64 Mean Higher High Water (MHHW) +0.34 Mean Lower High Water (MLHW) +0.14 Mean Sea Level (MSL) 0.0 Mean Higher Low Water (MHLW) -0.16 Mean Lower Low Water (MLLW) -0.36 Lowest Astronomical Tide (LAT) -0.56 Figure 7 Tidal recordings at Hulhule 33
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment Figure 8 Spectral density graph for the tidal records presented in figure 7 E.2.2.2 Waves Information on the swells around Maldives is limited, but there have been a few studies carried out around Male and Fuahmulah (southern region of Maldives). Wave data for Male that were recorded for the period between June 1988 and January 1990 revealed that the maximum significant wave height (Hs) recorded for the month of June 1989 was 1.23m with a mean period (Tm) of 7.53s. For the month of July 1989 maximum recorded Hs was 1.51m and the corresponding Tm was 7.74s. In June and July 1989 mean wave periods were 5.0 – 9.0s and the peak wave periods within 8.0 – 13.0s. Wave data for the period between September 1988 and July 1989 shows a probability of exceedance of Hs = 1.0 m was approximately 0.1 and of Hs = 1.5 m was approximately 0.0015 based on the wave data of period September 1988 to July 1989. JICA, (1992) reported that the wave climate in Male region is generally higher in the months of June, July and August with a predominant wave direction of S (180o). During October-December the waves have a shorter period with wave directions varying from S and W (180o -270o) (Figure 9). 34
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment Figure 9 Graphs showing the significant wave height and wave directions in the southern region of Maldives (source: DHI, 1999) According to DHI, (1999) the significant wave height (Hs) in the southern regions of Maldives exceeds 3m in about 0.1percent of the time (Figure 10). Figure 5 also shows that the highest waves are from W and S. From NW, N, NE and E, significant wave height exceeds 1m in less than about one per cent of the time. Figure 10 Wave height, Hs, exceedence curves for southern region of Maldives (Source DHI, 1999) 35
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment Deepwater wave information for the region obtained from global wave climate data indicates that the dominant swell approaches Maldivian archipelago from southerly quarters (Young 1999) (Figure 10). On a seasonal basis, swell is from the south-southwest from March to October with a peak significant wave height (Hs) of 1.8 m in July, and from the southeast from November to February with a minimum mean Hs of 0.75 m in March. During the field visit, monsoonal wind generated waves were experienced at the western side of the island. Wind direction during field surveys was north eastern direction. Since the commercial harbour is located at the northern side, the project area is considerably sheltered. Since the weather was calm during the field visit, wave action at Vaadhoo channel was low. During the south west monsoon, wind direct will be from south west to west. The presence of large ring reef, Gulhi falhu protects the western side of Villingili. But during rough weather swell induced waves break off at the south western corner of Villingili reef. During the south west monsoon the project site will be sheltered. Diffracted waves hitting the southern corner of Villingili channel may create circular currents at the southern side of the Villingili channel (see figure 12 for general wave direction for K. Villingili). 36
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment Figure 11 Global distributions of mean monthly values of the mean wave direction, for the months of January, April, July and October. Values are shown as direction vectors (from Young, 1999). 37
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment Figure 12 Map showing the types of waves experienced at K. Villingili 38
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment Figure 13 Current measurements taken using drogues, recording interval at 30s 39
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment Current measurements at the western side and southern side of the island, using a drogue that was tracked with a DGPS system provided limited information on the current pattern at the project location (figure 13). These data indicated that the current at the project location is driven by the wind generated waves and tidal currents flowing through the Villingili channel and Vaadhoo channel. At the time of drogue tracking exercise the tidal current was flowing out of the atoll lagoon. This is recorded by the tracks, during a mid tide, as a slow mowing current at a maximum speed of 0.17m/s. But at the central area of the channel, currents created by waves at the Vaadhoo channel breaking at the south eastern corner of Gulhi falhu, creates a wirl pool current (area where both currents meet). Current measurements taken at the Vaadhoo channel close to the Villingili channel entrance recorded currents speed at a maximum 0.57m/s. Waves converging to shallow reef slope area creates a current at slow speed of 0.29m/s. This current then moves into the channel, where it meets the current generated by the wind waves and tide flux. E.3 Beach Environment Significant alterations and modifications have been made to the Villingili shoreline over the past several years. Among the modifications, the ferry terminal at the north eastern side of the island, Commercial harbour at northern western side of the island, reclamation and seawall at southern side have significantly impacted the beach environment of Villingili. A somewhat modified stretch of beach (partly replenished beach suing sediments from a previous reclamation project) in the proximity of the project is at the northern south of the commercial harbour. This beach is relatively stable in the area because; the commercial harbour wall and vessel repair yard acts as two terminal groynes trapping the sediments with little change to the shoreline due to alternating monsoons. During the north east monsoon the beach accumulates at the vessel harbour/boat repair area. During south west monsoon the beach accumulates at the commercial harbour area (figure 14, 15). At the time this survey (north east monsoon) the beach is accumulated at vessel harbour/boat repair end. The sediment movement at the southern side of Villingili is also obstructed trapped in between two man-made coastal structures. The revetment wall of waste management area and the coastal protection constructed at the south 40
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment eastern side (granite rock composed break water). During north east monsoon sediment accumulates at the waste management site area, whilst during the south west monsoon this sand is transported to the reclaimed bay like area at the southern side (see annex 3 to identify various locations). At present a natural beach is formed on the eastern side of the island in between the projection of the shoreline extending east and the expanded ferry harbour somewhat creating a bay. The beach here is likely to alternate to in response to monsoonal winds and near-shore currents. In short, due to the coastal modifications that exist around the island with several terminal groynes there is very little room for beach sediments to move around the island and the extent of beach movement is determined by these coastal structures. Figure 14 Accretion of sand at the northern side of the project area and southern side of waste management area at Villingili (Photo taken during February 2007) Figure 15 Condition of the small beach strip observed at the northern side of the project area, erosion observed at the northern side, whilst accretion observed at the southern side close to project area (photo taken during February 2007) 41
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment E.4 Marine Environment E.4.1 Introduction This EIA report presents the environmental impacts associated with the construction of Maritime Survival Training Centre at K. Villingili (western side of the island). Impacts associated with such projects maybe multiple and cumulative, and in some cases can lead to significant damages to the environment. Purpose of this survey is to describe the current status of the environment and also to establish a baseline for monitoring possible impacts related to the project on major marine habitats. E.4.2 Methodology In order to assess the status of the marine environment in the vicinity of the proposed project location was surveyed. Documenting the status of the reef benthic community prior to start of construction works of the project was considered as a major component of the marine environment that could be used to monitor impacts to the marine environment especially due to the project construction and operation activities. The reef benthic community in the vicinity of the project site were studied using standard marine survey methodologies. These include photographic quadrat survey method for the assessment of reef benthic community and the visual census methodology for the assessment of the fish community. One square meter frame was used along a fixed transect line in the vicinity of the proposed development area, photographs taken every meter along a 20 meter transect line. Same transect line was used as the basis for the fish survey to assess the abundance and diversity of reef fish at the time of the survey. The locations of the reef surveys are given in Figure 16. These survey methods are widely practiced in coral reef ecological surveys in many coral reef areas of the world and the methodology is described in survey manual for tropical marine studies (English et al., 1997). 42
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment Figure 16 Location of survey sites and seawater sampling sites at Villingili reef 43
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment E.4.3 Results and discussion E.4.3.1 Reef benthos The reef comprising Villingli is an atoll rim ring reef on the south-western end of North Male atoll (figure 5). This reef is separated from the other reefs by two channels on its west and east. On the east is the Villingili channel between Male and Villingili and on the west is Gulheefalhu (ring reef) separated by a narrow channel. Reef morphology here is characteristic of typical atoll out side reefs with poorly developed spur and groove formation at wave break zone. On the north side the reef is characterized by a typical atoll inner reef. With two channels on either side of the reef, the reef complex of Villingili is surrounded by a diversity of habitats. Villingili has a history of various types of developments. Prior to 1970s the island was used as a jail, subsequently developed as a tourist resort until early 1980s until it was decided to develop to meet the housing demand for Male’. As such, the existing urbanization started in 1980s and slowly became a dense population centre next to Male’. Along this development include the requirement for various infrastructures, which include expansion of the old harbour, waste disposal and collection centre. The land required for this infrastructure development was reclaimed by material dredged from the shallow lagoon. As such the land reclaimed and developed on the shallow reef flat added to the landmass and the reclamation extended to the reef edge from north and west side of the island exhausting the extend of reclamation. Because of this reclamation the outer reef flat and reef slope has been considerably modified. This ecological study is an attempt to describe the existing marine environmental condition at the proposed project site. It has been recognized that the proposed project implementation would have little impact on ecological functioning of the reef. It is evident that significant environmental impact has already resulted through various coastal development activities over the past several decades. These include Villingili ferry terminal, Villingili harbour, reclamation works on the southern side of Villingili and reclamation works associated with waste disposal site of Villingili on the western shoreline. These activities have directly resulted in substantial change not only to the 43
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment coastal hydrodynamics but also adjoining coastal habitats almost exclusively to the coral reefs. It is also evident that some modification has been resulted to the reef ecosystem in the vicinity. Live coral cover was relatively low for all surveyed sites (figure 17). Coral cover ranged from very low 5% to 8% between the sites surveyed at the proposed reclamation area and the vicinity around 2 to 3 meter depth. Over 40% of the reef substrate consisted of coral rock, rubble and sand. Turf algae covered approximately 40% of the reef substrate covering the dead corals and reef pavement. These rubbles have originated from dead branching corals that may have been part of the coral community in these locations. 45 40 35 30 % cover 25 20 15 10 5 0 Turf algae Macro algae Rock Rubble Sand Soft coral Coralline algae Others Live coral Ascidians Figure 17 Reef substrate in the vicinity if the proposed development site. 95% confidence interval for each category is shown. n=3 Coral species diversity was low for all the surveyed transects and was similar to both sites and depths surveyed (figure 18). Branching coral species (mainly Acropora sp) were few but recorded from all transects. Recently settled corals are not common in the survey area. The presence of adult colonies in the area indicates that it potentially would be the source of larvae as new coral settlement. However, in the presence of environmental stress such as sedimentation, mortality of newly settled corals would be high. Smothering of newly settled corals and its death would therefore be high on horizontal surfaces compared to vertical surfaces. Massive types of corals such as poritids 44
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment and several species of Faviids (Favia, Favites, Pavona and Leptoria) are present among the live coral cover. The dominant coral genera were Porites (76%) and 5 genera of the family Faviidae accounting to 19%. Pavona was low in abundance (2%). In general coral of massive growth forms are dominant corals among the coral community. Pocillopora (mainly Pocillopora verrrucosa) accounted for less than 2% of the live coral cover (figure 18). Favia 4% Favites 5% Leptoria 6% Pavona 2% Hydnophora 2% Platygyra 2% Porites 76% Pocillopora 1% Others 2% Figure 18 Generic composition of the live coral community Previous studies at Villingili reported similar results on reef benthos. Direct comparison of the can be made on live coral cover reported at the same site as part of an environmental evaluation for a reclamation project by Ministry of Housing and Urban Development (Environmental Evaluation for the Proposed Reclamation and Coastal Protection Works at Villingili, Male atoll, 2006). Live coral cover reported from this site ranged from 2 to 8% with an average cover of 5% from 4 transects. This is in agreement with the coral cover estimated from this study. 45
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment Figure 19 Porites lobata colony observed at the southern western side of the reef (left), three species of butterfly fish was observed at survey sites, two species of butterfly as seen in this picture, Hemiturichthys zoster and Chaetodon melannotus Similarly, a large-scale survey around the reef system of Villingili conducted in 1998 as part of ecological assessment of Villingili harbour development project. Live coral cover for the outer reef stations reported from this study varied from 12-27%. Coral cover in the atoll channel (close to this project site) was reported higher (20%) in the reef slope compared to the corresponding reef flat stations. Live coral cover then (1998 study) at approximately same location of the present study reported approximately 7- 15%. Comparable figures to reef health to the previous estimations were also reported in 1988 in Villingili Development Plan, a report prepared by United Nations Centre for Human Settlement in 1988 (UNCHS/project MDV 88/006). Based on this information and the results of the present study it can be concluded that the reef environment around Villingili has experienced some inevitable damage to the reef as result of the reclamation and show a declining trend in coral cover over the past few decades. Large part of reef flat of Villingili has been reclaimed very close to the reef edge for various coastal development projects consequently leading to the current status of the reef. In addition to these coastal development projects, natural causes may also have contributed to degradation of the reef. Among these, the most significant damage to the reefs has been caused by coral bleaching event which severely affected the reefs in Maldives. Live coral cover in shallow reef areas around Maldives was reduced from 40-60% (average value for a healthy reef) to less than 5%. In addition there is significant evidence that the reefs are compounded with solid waste either direct disposal to the reef or spill over during the transport of waste to Thilafushi. It also noteworthy to mention that prior to the current waste management practice the waste generated from 46
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment Villingili was disposed as a landfill in Villingili. This has lead to substantial level of solid waste pollution on the reef environment. There are no studies on impact of pollution specific to this site to substantiate whether the current reef status resulted from waste disposal on to the reef. However it is likely that harmful leachates from the waste may be a significant factor influencing to the current deteriorated state of the reef, especially due to the proximity of the waste disposal site to the shoreline. Figure 20 Effects of shore-based fishing and mis-management of solid waste; dense mesh of monofilament line from high intensity shore based fishing (left) and fish waste disposed to the reef from a nearby semi industrial fish processing household. E.4.3.2 Reef fish community Fish census surveys showed similar trends in terms of abundance of fish at the two sites surveyed. Between 35 species of fishes belonging to 11 groups of fish were recorded (Table 5, 6). Schools of damselfishes, surgeon-fishes and fusilier form school within the study area. The densities of fish grouped as families are given in (Table 5, 6). Butterfly fishes and parrot-fishes are good in species diversity despite the low live coral cover. The reef slope is characterized by relatively high topographic relief which may have been the reason for the diversity and abundance of fish species (figure 21). Commercially valuable food fishes such as jacks and snappers are also recorded here though not in abundance. Fusiliers, a popular baitfish species are also observed schooling in the vicinity. 47
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment Table 5 Fish census survey at the proposed project area Name Species Numbers Species Numbers Species Numbers CHAETODONTIDATE (Butterflyfishes) 5 10 3 12 2 8 POMACANTHIDAE (Angelfishes) 2 3 2 14 1 7 SCARIDAE (Parrotfishes) 5 8 4 13 2 7 LUTJANIDAE (Snappers) 2 8 3 6 2 5 CARANGIDAE (Jacks) 1 8 2 7 1 3 LETHRINIDAE (Emperors) 1 4 1 4 1 5 POMACENTRIDAE (Damselfishes) 3 schools 1 12 3 34 ACANTHURIDAE (Surgeonfishes) 4 schools 2 34 2 35 CAESIONIDAE (Fusiliers) 2 schools 2 15 0 schools SERRANIDAE (Groupers) 1 4 2 5 1 2 LABRIDAE (Wrasses) 4 10 3 9 2 13 Total 30 55 25 131 17 119 Table 6 Fish diversity and abundance at the study sites No. of Total Density Name species Number no./m2 CHAETODONTIDATE (Butterflyfishes) 7 30 0.1 POMACANTHIDAE (Angelfishes) 2 24 0.1 SCARIDAE (Parrotfishes) 5 28 0.1 LUTJANIDAE (Snappers) 2 19 0.1 CARANGIDAE (Jacks) 2 18 0.1 LETHRINIDAE (Emperors) 1 13 0.0 POMACENTRIDAE (Damselfishes) 3 46+ school >0.5 ACANTHURIDAE (Surgeonfishes) 5 69+ school > 0.2 CAESIONIDAE (Fusiliers) 2 15+ school > 0.3 SERRANIDAE (Groupers) 2 11 0.0 LABRIDAE (Wrasses) 4 32 0.1 48
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment Figure 21 Reef slope highly degraded with little coral cover (left), Acanthurus leucosternon schooling at the reef edge in the vicinity of the project site (right) E.4.3.3 Invertebrates Very few invertebrates were seen during the field surveys, since most are cryptic and nocturnal species hiding under rocks and crevices. One species of sea cucumber were observed at the survey sites, Graeffe’s sea cucumber (Pearsonothuria graeffei). Two species of giant clams were encountered; among them the previously commercially exploited species (now protected) Tridacna maxima was observed. The other species recorded was large giant clam (Tridacna squamosa); a species usually observed growing in depressions on large living or dead Porites bommies. Two species (Linckia multifora and Culcita schedeliana) of sea stars were recorded; these species are mostly cryptic species and are difficult to observe during field surveys. One Painted rock lobster (Panulirus versicolor) was observed at the southen side of the reef. Two species of soft coral were observed during the field surveys at K. Villingili. Soft coral species observed at the reef were Finger-lobed leather coral (Lobophytum sp) and Mushroom leather coral (Sarcophyton sp). E.4.3.4 Protected marine species Only one protected marine species were recorded during the field surveys at K. Villingili. Giant clams (Tridacna squamosa) were observed at survey site S2, southern side. One Painted rock lobster (Panulirus versicolor) was observed at the southern side of the reef. 49
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment E.4.3.5 Sea water quality Seawater sample was collected at western side of the reef and at proposed harbour basin area (see figure 16) and analysed for their chemical and physical properties. The main purpose of this exercise is to provide some indication of the seawater quality in the reef system and also to form a basis for a reference and benchmark for subsequent monitoring. Changes in the level of nutrients in the water column have the potential to affect the benthic assemblages and hence the reef community as whole. Enhanced nutrients and sediment loads can have variety of effects on the coral reefs. The analytical results of the parameters tested to assess the water quality are given in table 7. Salinity at harbour basin area was 31000 mg/l. Table 7 Seawater quality parameter at the sampling location in the reef at Villingili. Data analysis was carried out by the National Health Laboratory, Maldives Food and Drug Authority. Report number PHL/RE/WC166 Parameters Sample1 Physical appearance Clear Apparent colour 6 TCU Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) 2.8 Sulphate (mg/l) 2450 Salinity (mg/l) 31000 Nitrate (mg/l) 0 pH 7.9 Total Dissolved Solids (mg/l) 32150 Suspended solids (mg/l) 2 Chemical Oxygen Demand (mg/l) 1456 E.4.3.6 Terrestrial Only the vicinity of the project area was surveyed, since the project will have no impacts on vegetation or groundwater. The coastline at western side of Villingili is modified; part of dredge material removed during the excavation works of commercial harbour is dumped along side. The natural shoreline vegetation at present is observed as a small band of trees; behind it is a main road. Only plants were observed at the area, amongst them, Dhiggaa (Hibiscus tiliaceus) was dominant. Other plants observed were Maggoo 50
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment (Scaevola taccada), Goats foot creeper (Ipomea pes-caprae), Coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) and Funna (Calophyllum inophyllum). Figure 22 Dhiggaa, Funna and Maggoo observed along the small beach strip at the northern side of the project area E.5 Social Environment Villigili Island, currently regarded as a 5th ward of Malé was initially developed to meet the housing requirements of Male as a rapid increase in population in early 1980s. Population estimates of Villingili in 2006 show over 6800 compared to 4300 in 2000 (National census of Maldives 2006). Over the past several years of development for housing several basic infrastructures such as school, health centre and several mosques have been built rapidly filling available space for development. In addition to these, other large part of the land has been allocated to Dhiraagu (telecommunication station), Maldives Defence Force, Maldives Police Services and Centre for Maritime Studies (CMS). The Centre for Maritime Studies has been in operation for several years under ministry of Transport and Civil Aviation which is currently under the umbrella of Maldives College of Higher Education (MCHE). Large proportion of the population commutes daily to Male for work for both public and private sector. Since Villingili is considered as 5th ward of Malé, all the basic infrastructures such as schools, health services, electricity are similar to the standard in Malé compared to elsewhere in Maldives. 51
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment Regular and efficient ferry services to and from Malé is provided by MTTC. No motorised public transport is allowed in Villingili except few vehicles with special permits. Commercial plots that falls within the proposed development area has been relocated as part of the new development plan for Villingili by Ministry of Housing and Urban Development. The existing plots were only temporary to relocate some of the small scale industries (e.g. fish processing) in Malé due to consistent complaints by the community as these were within residential plots in Malé. A new area has already been allocated to accommodate these and other similar industries (per.com. Athifa Shukoor, Director, MHUD). Similarly, the boat repair site has already been allocated in Thilafushi by land use management authority, Malé Municipalty. According to MHUD there is no formal boat repair site in Villingili and the current use of this site is illegal as timeline to remove all the vessels to Thilafishi has expired (per.com. Athifa Shukoor, Director, MHUD). 52
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment F. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND MITIGATION MEASURES Impacts on the environment from various activities of the development works (constructional impacts) and operation of the harbour (operational impacts) have been identified through interviews with the Maldives College of Higher Education, field data collection and surveys and based on past experience in similar development projects. Possible impacts arising from the construction and operation works are categorized into reversible and permanent (irreversible) impacts. The impacts identified are also described according to their location, extent (magnitude) and characteristics. Reversible and irreversible impacts are further categorized by intensity of impacts (negligible, minor, moderate and major) for identifying best possible remedial (mitigation measures) action to be taken. Below are the impact categories: • Negligible- the impact has no significant risk to environment either short term or long term • Minor- the impact is short term and cause negligible impact on the environment • Moderate- Impacts give rise to some concern, may cause long term environmental problems but are likely short term and acceptable • Major- impact is long term, large scale environmental risk F.1 Activities causing environmental impacts The potential environmental impacts forecast for the development have been divided into two categories: impacts during construction and irreversible modifications. The impacts are then presented together with mitigation measures identified to minimize them (Table 9). F.2 Impacts during construction Any development work involving excavation or dredging works will have major impacts on reef, lagoon and coastal hydrodynamics. The Impacts of excavation 53
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment can range from smothering of live coral to kill of live coral. Coastal modification involved in the construction of the harbour can have short to long term impacts. F.2.1 Schedule, logistics and loading and unloading construction materials Since the contract is not awarded at the moment, method of downloading materials or logistics is not known to the consultant. Therefore possible methods were taken into account and impacts relating to are discussed. There are three possible routes for bringing the construction materials to the site. 1) via ferry harbour using heavy cargo vessels, 2) commercial harbour and 3) Maritime Survival Training Centres harbour after the dredging works are completed. The excavators, trucks and bulldozers can be brought to the site on barges and unloaded at the jetty like structure (reclaimed) at the project area. Increased activities of larger vessels (like heavy cargo dhonis) to supply the construction materials (cement) will also have direct and indirect impact through: • Accidental spillage of construction materials (cement bags, timber, sheet piles etc) • Accidental oil spills • Accidental spillage of amour rocks (this is very unlikely, since these rocks are very heavy). • Wake of the propellers might break few fragile corals observed at the side of the existing harbour. • Solid waste from the transport vessels (plastic bags, tins, cans) After the reclamation works has been completed the materials for the sheet piling and classroom facility can be stored at make shift sheds on the reclaimed land. Since the class room facility will be located at the southeast corner of the allocated land, the western side will be empty. So this area can be used for storing and in the event temporary accommodation is needed, one or two accommodation sheds (temporary). 54
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment F.2.2 Construction materials and solid waste Transportation of construction materials such as cement, timber, plywood and fuel for excavators and trucks to the site has the potential to aesthetically damage the marine environment especially the lagoon areas due to accidental spillage. Quite often construction waste finds their way into the marine environment during the course of their disposal unless necessary measures are taken to avoid this from happening. Pollution of the lagoon and reef system can be caused by waterborne and windblown debris escaping from the construction site or from transportation vessels such as large cargo dhonis. Waste and residue arising from construction activities such as oil spills and other waste (used wooden moulds) may affect the marine environment. Construction related solid waste impacts are possible at the classroom facility, davits and platform tower construction stages. During the dredging and reclamation work stage, solid waste problem will be minor. Since only barges, and heavy machinery will be used. Table 8 Type and source of potential solid waste generated during construction stage Type of waste Source Plastic bottles, empty engine oil bottles, Generator set operation (if it is used), chemical bottles (concrete mixing) from transport vessels (during material download, if material brought to site on vessels) Wooden crates, saw dust, packing During construction work of class room material, card board boxes, metal plates, facility, davits, towers (shingles and gypsum board, shingles, wooden frame wooden frame work can be reused) work, re-enforced metal bars, masonry waste (cement, concrete) Hazardous waste, batteries, lube oil, During reclamation works, construction empty paint/sealing/staining tins and of class room facility, batteries and chemicals (concrete mixing) engine oil used in machinery, equipment Amour rocks and filter stones (can be During break water construction categorized as solid waste if accidentally (accidental spillage from the barge) and spilled or dumped on the reef area) , paving work damaged paving blocks 55
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment Figure 23 Waste dumped at the project area, semi industrial work related solid waste F.2.3 Impacts due to construction methods Since using excavators is the most economic method for the dredging and reclamation work of the projects, impacts due to use of this machinery will be discussed. Using excavators for the dredging and reclamation works, sedimentation is inevitable and this is an impact that will be unavoidable. An option to reduce sedimentation is building a sand bund wall initially, but even with this option sedimentation is inevitable. Although it is unavoidable the impacts will be short termed. The strong currents (influenced by tide) experienced at the channels and reef system will ensure dispersal or removal of fine sediment from the area. Since live coral cover is very low at the immediate and indirect impact areas (southern and northern side) impacts due to sedimentation will be minor. The presence of turf algae at the immediate project area and indirect impact area may cause trapping of fine sediment, which would kill the algae. Presence of fine layer of sediment may hinder coral recruitment. Major environmental concerns associated with dredging and reclamation works are direct habitat loss, sedimentation and deterioration in water quality. High levels of sedimentation and silt from dredging activities is a major source of reef degradation. The consequences of excessive sedimentation on corals are well known and include: - direct physical impacts like smothering of corals and other benthic reef organisms, 56
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment - reduced light penetration, which has a direct effect on zooxanthellae photosynthesis and thus the net productivity of corals. It also reduces coral growth, calcification rates and reproduction, - dredged silt may form false bottoms, characterised by shifting unstable sediments, - silt suspension may increase nutrient release, leading to eutrophic blooms, - silt may act as sink or trap for many pollutants, which are absorbed onto the sediments. Construction of breakwater near the edge of reef flat will direct physical impacts of the reef habitat. These impacts include loss of habitat, mortality of immobile or slow moving organisms (clams, coral) and smothering. Construction of the breakwater also may have impacts on the hydrodynamics by acting as an obstruction. Considering possibility of dead spots within the harbour basin (normally due to inefficient flushing), tidal flux alone will be enough for sufficient flushing due to the small size of the harbour basin. F.2.4 Impact on vegetation Since majority of land required for the project will be reclaimed from the lagoon, no impacts are envisaged on the vegetation. The area has been already reclaimed partly, and the shoreline vegetation is approximately 50- 60m away from the project location. F.2.5 Impact on groundwater The project site will be on reclaimed land at the shore, no impacts are envisaged to groundwater. Part of the project area is already in reclaimed land; therefore original shoreline of the island lies beyond the boundaries of the project area. Over the years part of the water lens may have developed over the area (which is very unlikely, because the existing reclaimed area is protruding in to the lagoon). Groundwater should not be used for any construction purpose at the project site. Desalinated waster should be used for all purposes. This will further ensure that there will be no impact on ground water. Since the class room facility will be a single storey building, dewatering is not required. 57
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment F.2.6 Coastal structures The impact of new physical structures such as breakwaters, access channels and harbours on the hydrodynamic regime, can be quite significant and often permanent. It can interfere with littoral sediment transport patterns and seasonal coastal dynamics resulting in a number of impacts. These include: • Change of near shore hydrodynamic (currents and wave patterns) • Erosion at the energy relief areas (beach in between proposed Maritime Survival Training Centres edge and commercial harbour, north western or south western side) during either monsoon • Sedimentation or increased turbidity due to movement of sediment around the structure (harbour walls or protection walls), which in turn reduces light penetration, which has a direct effect on zooxanthellae photosynthesis and thus the net productivity of corals • Alteration of substrate topography, hydrodynamic regime and the continual re-suspension of dredged sediments can result in increasing sedimentation and forming dredge silts • Degradation of seawater quality due to suspended sediments. F.2.7 Cumulative impacts The dredged material generated by the dredging works will be used as filling for the reclamation component of the project. Since the harbour and western side area facing the channel will be sheet piled, sedimentation impacts will be short termed. But the southern side facing the vessel repair yard will not be sheet piled. After completion of the works, the vessel repair yard will be somewhat enclosed (breakwater at the western side and reclamation edge at the northern side), thereby restricting the flow of sediment fines out of the area. This area is likely to be filled at a later stage as required by MHUD. Therefore some level of sedimentation may happen due to this. Littoral movement impacts due to the project will be limited to the short beach stretch at the northern side of project site, in between the proposed reclamation area and commercial harbour. This sand would only move side to side during the transition of monsoons (southern side during NE monsoon and northern side during SW monsoon). Beach impact on other areas of Villingili 58
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment due to this project will be minor or none, since both sides of the proposed project area is obstructed by coastal modifications (revetment wall, reclamation and seawall at the southern side and commercial harbour at the northern side). Impact on live coral is inevitable, and will be a cumulative impact, due to the already severe conditions observed at Villinigili reef. Comparatively these impacts (e.g. sedimentation related impacts), the impact from raw sewage disposal at the southern side will be more direct and indirect impact on the reef habitat at Villingili. Since strong currents are experienced at Vaadhoo channnel, contaminants may reach other areas. However impacts of sewage on the marine environment are not well documented in the Maldives. F.2.8 Social impacts, noise and air pollution Operation of heavy machinery and construction related equipment will contribute to noise pollution. Noise pollution during the dredging works will be mainly due to the operation of excavator, cranes, and trucks. Construction noise at Villingili will be dictated by the predominant wind direction. As the since the bid isn’t awarded to a contractor, exact timeline of activities is unknown. There noise pollution during both seasons is discussed. During the north east monsoon, predominant wind direction is from north or north east, therefore noise will levels will be lower on the residential area. During the south west monsoon, predominant wind directs are west or south west; therefore noise reaching the residential areas. But since the reclamation is estimated to be finished within 2-3 months of initiation, noise related impacts will be short termed. If the construction material is downloaded and brought from the commercial harbour at the north west of Villingili, public transport and safety issue may arise. Since this activity will not go on through out the project duration, social impacts due to transportation of materials will be minor and short termed. In the event the constructed harbour basin of the proposed project is utilized, above mentioned social impacts will not be an issue. Air pollution due to the project will be mainly due to operation of heavy machinery like excavator, cranes, trucks and boats (tug boats, cargo vessels). 59
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment But in since use of heavy machinery will be limited to a short period of time; impacts are envisaged to be minor. F.3 Operational Impacts Environmental impacts associated from the operational phase of the current proposed development project are limited to a relatively few activities. These activities can cause short term to long term impacts on the reef environment. Below are some of the possible impacts: - degradation of sea water quality from possible alteration of littoral sediment transport regime causing turbidity (sediment leaching from the sides at the vessel repair yard side) - possible impacts due to accidental spillage of oil (by vessels using the harbour) - following construction, the proposed development may influence existing hydrodynamic patterns affecting water circulation and possibly leading to “dead spot” in the inner harbour areas where floating litter and other pollutants could accumulate (since it is small volume of water, sufficient flushing will be attained during tidal fluxes) - accidental spillage of waste (vessels using the harbour) F.3.1 Social impacts Only positive impacts are envisaged in the operational phase in terms of increased employment opportunities and capacity building. Having a centre especially designed to cater training needs for seafarers will increase employment opportunities in foreign vessels for Maldivians. Since enforcement of STCW Convention of IMO, all seafarers must have IMO acceptable level of certifications. No adverse impacts are envisaged during the operation of the facility. 60
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment F.4 Mitigation Plan There are a number of actions that can be taken to minimize the identified impacts. Those that are explored below emerged out of the discussions and consultations during this EIA and from the past experience of the consultant. Mitigation measures are selected to reduce or eliminate the severity of any predicted adverse environmental effects and improve the overall environmental performance and acceptability of the project. In considering the mitigation measures it has to be noted that the western side reef of Villingili (especially North West and West central area) is significantly impacted due development activities carried out over the years. The mitigation measures formulated below may not have an observable change or improvement to the reef environment. Mis-management of near shore fishery or shore fishery and industrial work (fish processing) have significantly degraded the reef environment, and major work has to be done to control or regulate and monitor these development or industrial activities. 61
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment Table 9 Potential impacts during construction and operation of the development project and possible mitigation measures identified to minimize the impacts Time frame Impact Institutional Possible Impacts Mitigation measures Location Cost (USD) (Phase) intensity responsibility Littering on marine Littering, accidental disposal and spillage Reef flat, lagoon During Minor to MCHE, Contractor N/A environment of any construction wastes should be and land construction moderate, avoided by pre-planning ways of their short term transportation and disposal. Careful impact planning of the work activities can also reduce the amount of waste generated. During construction of protection walls Lagoon, reef flat During Minor MCHE, Contractor, N/A, should be and break waters, all construction related construction included in the waste collected and disposed at Villingili contract of work waste management area or at Thilafushi Alteration to localized - Negligible due to the project. Major Reef slope, reef During Minor, short to N/A hydrodynamic regime coastal modifications have been part of flat construction long term, the existing coastline which is protected already with seawalls. significant alterations are made at the northern and southern side of the project area. Damage to reef by Awareness raising of project managers Reef flat and reef During Minor, short MCHE, Contractor N/A loading and unloading on environmentally friendly practices to slope lagoon construction term impact works minimize negative impacts. Including a clause stating proper handling during 62
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment loading or unloading works Careful planning to reduce time of the Lagoon During Minor MCHE, Contractor N/A unloading process construction Sedimentation and Creation of a sand bund to reduce the Reef flat reef During Major, short MCHE, Contractor May increase siltation on the reef sedimentation impact (an option, but it is slope lagoon construction (3 term impact the number of and lagoon due to likely that in a small scale project as the months) (since after days thereby excavation works one proposed here, impact from creating completion of increasing a sand bund will also have equaling reclamation, reclamation cost amount of sedimentation) the edges will USD 1500-2000 be sheet piled) Dredging works of the harbour basin and Reef flat and During Moderate, MCHE, Contractor May increase clearance work at the entrance will be lagoon areas construction short term. The the number of carried out during the low tide) phase (3 currents at the days thereby months) area are increasing relative strong reclamation cost allowing USD 1500-2000, maximum depend on the flushing contractor Loss of habitat, Stakes put at the corners of the harbour Reef flat, lagoon During Major, short MCHE, Contractor N / A , should be damage or death of dredging area so the excavator operator construction term, may included in the coral at the entrance can identify the perimeter of the harbour phase (3 have a positive initial costs area, protection wall basin, thereby avoiding unnecessary loss months) impact on long area of or trampling of live coral. term by creating Since no live coral is observed at the additional area there will be no impact on coral, fish substrate for being mobile fish would move away from coral growth 63
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment impact zone If possible coral transplantation to Reef flat, lagoon During N/A MCHE, Contractor Assigning a another location (only very few live coral construction (2 supervisor or are observed, mostly massive or months) hiring encrusting forms therefore may have consultants to difficulty in transplanting) manage or monitor (USD 500-600 per month) Excavation works will be carried out Reef flat, lagoon During Major, short Contractor May increase during low tide to minimize sedimentation construction (3 term. Since the the number of around the existing entrance area months) tidal currents days thereby and swell increasing induced reclamation cost currents are USD 1500-2000 strong sediment plume will be directed away from the reef Air pollution Completing the excavation works as soon Air Construction Minor/short Contractor N/A as possible. phase (3 termed months) 64
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment Noise pollution Completing the excavation works as soon land Construction Minor/short Contractor N/A as possible, avoid work at night phase (3 term months) Public safety (social Construct a fence restricting access to Land Construction Short termed Contractor USD 1500-2000 impact) project area phase (6 should be months) included in the initial cost Alteration to the local none (direct impact from the proposed beach, lagoon Operational minor N/A hydrodynamics, project is insignificant compared to large phase currents scale modifications already made to Villingili coastline) Solid waste Employee a staff for monitoring and Harbour Operational Minor, long Maldives College of equivalent to cleaning the harbour Phase term Higher Education government employees Accidental spillage Put up sign boards advising good Harbour Operational Minor, long Maldives College of USD 30-40 (oils, materials) practices phase term Higher Education 65
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment F.5 Uncertainties involved in identifying impacts In spite of the measures that will be taken to mitigate against the foreseeable impacts, there is always the possibility of impacts the were not foreseen, or the extent of predicted impact can turn out to be greater than predicted, or the mitigatory measures may not be as effective as expected. In order to ensure that such incremental impacts do not suddenly appear without warning, the project will monitor key parameters in the vicinity of the development which can serve as environmental indicators (given in section I. Monitoring program). The area (project area, direct impact area and indirect impact area) has been surveyed and a baseline and reference plots have been established at key locations on the reef and lagoon. These areas will be monitored (during the monitoring program) regularly to provide an indication of impacts before they become too advanced for corrective action Since the project has not been awarded to a contractor yet, the method that has been discussed in this report may not be used, instead a different method for example use of a dredger or cutter suction pump might be used. In that case the impacts by those would be different. But considering these it is very unlikely that a contractor would use a dredger or a cutter suction pump since it is very costly and economically not feasible for small projects. G. ALTERNATIVES G.1 Project location The land allocated for the Maritime Survival Training Centre was decided by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Development. Other locations were requested by the Maldives College of Higher Education, including other sites at Villingili and Hulhumale. According to Maldives College of Higher Education the current allocated land isn’t the most ideal location but due scarcity and availability of land they had to do with the allocated land. In terms environmental impacts or social impacts constructing the Survival Training Centre at Hulhumale or other location at Villingili would be the same. 66
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment Both locations have undergone significant coastal modifications by development activities. Villingili over the years, with the development activities and increased population, have significantly damaged the reef environment. Severe anthropogenic impacts are observed at the reef flat and slope areas. Major impacts at Hulhumale reef area is due to sediment related impacts due large scale reclamation works. Therefore considering the fact that land is scarce and the kind of location needed for the project (access to sea and requires a pool or harbour) is difficult to attain, the proposed location is appropriate. Considering environmental impacts, it is better to have this kind of project at Villingili than at some place else where such significant impacts and degradation is not observed. Also it has to be noted that the project proponent can only suggest locations where this kind of facility could be built (considering the requirements of the project) to the government agency mandated to formulating land use plans and allocating land. G.2 Dredging and reclamation method Since the project has not been awarded to a contractor at the time of report compilation, the consultants made assumptions on what type of excavation or dredging method would be used in projects of this nature. Since the dredging works involved in the proposed project is minor, using excavators would be the most economically feasible method. Using excavators for the dredging and reclamation works can have significant impacts on the reef environment by sedimentation impacts. One alternative to minimise this impact is to employ a cutter-suction dredge which reduces the amount of silt suspended in the water column. It will also eliminate the need for blasting should hard substrate be encountered (at the entrance area). But unfortunately, the use of cutter-suction dredges for the small quantity of dredging involved in the proposed project is not economical due to the high costs of mobilization and operation. 67
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment Dredging and reclamation can also be done using a dredger. In using the dredger, similar impacts as excavators are possible but to a lesser extent. But similar to the option of using cutter suction pump, high cost of mobilization and operation is a problem in small scale projects such as the reclamation and dredging under the proposed project. An alternative to reclamation method is to utilize the dredged material stored at the southern side of Villingili. But since the project needs a harbour regardless of method of reclamation or attaining fill material, sufficient amount of dredged material will be generated. In considering this option, method of disposing the dredged material from harbour basin excavation has to be decided. It could be used to reclaim the abandoned vessel repair yard. But this aspect is beyond the scope of this EIA. G.3 The no project scenario If considering the no project scenario, the significant environmental impacts due to sedimentation and suspension of fine silt in the water column can be avoided. Indirect impacts include degradation of water quality, damage to live coral and slower rate of coral growth. Direct impacts which are irreversible (dredging of harbour basin and clearance of entrance) can have significant impacts on the fauna observed at the area. But considering this alternative (no project scenario), the reef system of Villingili has no significant features so as to label the reef an important site. The reef is not used by any of the safari boats or resorts as a dive site. The live coral and reef fish diversity is low. The reef is already damaged and degraded at some areas to alarming levels (figure 20). Coastal modifications and developments at the Villingili have significantly altered the littoral regime and reef condition (figure 20 and Annex 4). Therefore construction of harbour here would have less impact compared to a harbour in Ga, Gdh or Addu atoll (areas where live coral cover is highest in the Maldives after the 1998 mass coral bleaching event). 68
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment H. PUBLIC CONSULTATION The decision to site the maritime training centre is a policy decision to meet future training requirements by the Centre for Maritime Studies, currently a Faculty of Maldives College for Higher Education. This is partly in compliance with IMO Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watch Keeping of Seafarers of which Maldives is party to since 1978 and also to meet the maritime related training service by CMS. Based on this decision the land required for the proposed development was allocated by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Development, the national authority for land use planning, in consultation with Malé Municipality and Vilingili office. Therefore all the relevant government agencies are involved in the site selection and allocation procedure. Although the draft EIA guideline of MEEW requires public consultation and information disclosure to consider their concerns issues prior to the approval of a specific project this consultation process is rarely practiced. Instances where public consultation are taken as part of a decision making process for major development projects, their concerns and aspirations are often redundant as the development sites are predetermined and alternatives sites are almost never considered. Although the project site has been already allocated, and the scale of the project is relatively small the aspiration of the community in the vicinity of the project site has been taken into consideration in this EIA process. Several individuals from the households on the vicinity were asked of their expectation and concerns with construction and operation of the facility; none showed a major objection locating such a facility in the neighbourhood especially with respect to noise and aesthetics (blocking the sea view). However, one household people complained because they use near-shore disposed fish waste, where part of the training centre would be located. Waste generation was not seen a problem as a designated waste disposal facility is located on the island. This site is managed by waste section of Ministry of Construction and Public works. 69
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment These concerns and other points of view of the community and the environmental issues associated with the project and its components have formed the basis of this EIA, supplemented by the consultants’ observations and knowledge on the environmental issues in the Maldives. Public consultation would be made as part of the public information and disclosure process as required by MEEW. As soon as the report is approved by MCHE and MEEW, it would be available at least for perusal, to those who request it. The report would be published in MCHE website: www.mche.edu.mv It would also be made available at MEEW website: www.environment.gov.mv 70
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment I. MONITORING PROGRAM Monitoring of the environment is essential to ensure that potential impacts are minimized and to mitigate unanticipated impacts. The following table provides the methods and indicators that will be used and the frequency of sampling of the marine environment (Table 10). Indicators used will be percentage of live coral cover and fish diversity and abundance. Data from the photo quadrates will be used as baseline data to carry out monitoring to assess whether previous levels of indicators had increased or decreased. Table 10 Monitoring plan for the development project at Villingili reef system. Reef community Methodology Sampling Estimated cost frequency for monitoring coral and other LIT Twice( during Rate per field benthic cover and after survey USD 500.00 completion of project) Reef fish Fish visual Census Twice( during Rate per field community, diversity and after survey USD 500.00 and abundance completion of project) Coral recruitment, Quadrate method Twice( during Rate per field growth rates and including photo- and after survey USD 500.00 mortality quadrate completion of methodology project) Sedimentation rates Quantitative Every two month Rate per field assessment of survey USD 200.00 sediment loading on the reef benthos sediment traps deployed at the predetermined locations Sea water quality Water samples sent Twice( during Rate per test set to Food and drug and after USD 100.00 authority for completion of analysis. Following project) parameters are to be tested; salinity, pH, Electrical 71
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment conductivity, dissolved oxygen, Nitrite, Nitrate, Phosphate, Sulphates, total coliforms and faecal coliforms. * Show line and beach monitoring is not included in the monitoring program since impact to the small beach strip observed north of the proposed reclamation area will be minor or none. 72
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment J. REFERENCES Allison, W.R., (1996) ‘Methods for surveying coral reef benthos’. Prepared for IMS, Zanzibar, 18 pp. An assessment of Maldivian coral reefs and bait fish populations from the Indian Ocean tsunami (Unpublished) (2005), Prepared by the Australian government and Marine Research Center: 7-23. DHI (1999). Physical modelling on Navigation conditions and wave disturbance Maaneru site. Danish Hydraulic Institute. Shore Protection Manual, (1994) US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. Aslam, M. (2004). Reef Flat and Shallow Passage Hydrodynamics: Addu Atoll Maldives. MSc. Thesis, University of Auckland, New Zealand. English, S., Wilkinson, C. and Baker, V. (1997). Survey Manual for Tropical Marine Resources. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, Australia. 390pp. JICA (1992). The development study on the seawall construction project for Male Island in the Republic of Maldives. Kench, P. S .and Brander, R. (2005). Sensitivity of reef islands to seasonal climate oscillations: South Maalhosmadulu atoll, Maldives. Submitted to Coral Reefs. Masselink, G., (1998). Field investigation of wave propagation over a bar and the consequent generation of secondary waves. Coastal Eng. 33, 1 – 9. Kench, P.S. and McLean, F.R. (2004). Hydrodynamics and sediment transport fluxes of functional Hoa in an Indian Ocean Atoll. School of Geography and Environmental Science, The University of Auckland, New Zealand. Loya, Y. (1978). A Plotless and transect methods. In: Stoddart, D.R. and R.F. Johannes (eds). Coral Reefs: research methods. UNESCO, Paris: pp197-217. 73
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment Ministry of Construction and Public Works. (1999). Environmental/Technical Study for Dredging/Reclamation Works Under the Hulhumale Project, Maldives – Draft Final Stage 1 Report. Naseer, A. and Bruce, G. H. (2004). Inventory of the Maldives coral reefs using morphometrics generated from Landsat ETM+ imagery. Coral Reefs. Ohlhorst SL; Liddle WD; Taylor RJ and Taylor JM. (1988). Evaluation of reef census techniques. Proceedings of 6th International Coral reef Symposium. Australia. 2: 319-324 Segal, B. and Castro, C.B. (2001). A Proposed Method for Coral Cover Assessment: A case study in Abrolhos, Brazil. Bulletin of Marine Science 69 (2): 487-496. Woodroffe, C.D. (1992). Morphology and evolution of reef islands in the Maldives. Proc 7th Int Coral Reef Symp. 2: 1217 – 1226. Young, I.R. 1999. Seasonal variability of the global ocean wind and wave climate. International Journal of Climatology, 19: 931-950. Kuiter R. H. (1998). Photo guide to Fishes of the Maldives Coleman, Neville (2000). Marine Life of Maldives. Veron, JEN (John Edward Norwood) (2000). Corals of the World 74
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment K. ANNEXES K.1 Scope of work approved by MEEW (TOR) 75
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment K.2 Scaled drawing set 80
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment K.3 Landuse plan 91
    • SEVENTH FLOOR, MTCC TOWER, MALE' 20-02 REPUBLIC OF MALDIVES TEL: 337717, 321960 FAX: 328999 e-mail :- planning@mhud.gov.mv
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment K.4 Photo plates 93
    • Existing entrance channel area to the vessel repair yard, part of this area will be used as entrance area to the harbour of the proposed project General condition of the proposed reclamation area
    • Harbour basin of the vessel repair yard, now filled with waste and few sunken vessels Out of the break water constructed to protect the vessel repair yard harbour area
    • General reef condition at the northern side of the project area near the commercial harbour Few colonies of Pocillopora was observed growing on the tumbled down rocks of the breakwater
    • Fish waste dumped near the fish processing area at the western reef /lagoon of Villingili Fish waste dumped near the fish processing area at the western reef /lagoon of Villingili
    • Gross mis-management of shore based fishery at Villingili. The approximately 300m area to a depth of 20-25m covered in dense entangled fishing lines A tree bracnh entangled with fishing line, the very few live coral at area was also entangled in fishing line
    • Maritime Survival Training Centre Environment Impact Assessment K.5 Letter to Ministry of Environment, Energy and Water 99