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Biography Born: February 7, 1870 Vienna, Austria Died: May 28, 1937 Aberdeen, Scotland Austrian psychiatrist Best Known For: Individual Psychology The concept of the inferiority complex President of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society, 1910
In collaboration with Sigmund Freud and a small group of Freuds colleagues, Adler was among the co-founders of the psychoanalytic movement as a core member of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society. He was the first major figure to break away from psychoanalysis to form an independent school of psychotherapy and personality.
View of Human Nature For Adler. Being unconscious is only a temporary unawareness. He also argued that the people can create their own personalities and lifestyle to achieve their highest goals.
Organ Inferiority People are more vulnerable to disease in organs that are less developed or ‚inferior‛ to other organs. These inferior organs develop biological deficiencies because of stress from the environment. These inhibit the person from functioning normally.
Feelings of Inferiority All children start life with feelings of inferiority because they are completely dependent on adults for survival. This feeling of being weak, inferior, and impotent stimulates an intense desire to seek power, thereby overcoming the feelings inferiority.
Adler did not consider feelings of inferiority bad. According to him, it is normal among human beings and therefore not a sign of weakness or abnormality. In fact, such feelings ate the primary motivating forces behind all personal accomplishments.
Striving for Superiority A fundamental fact of life, an innate need from the time of birth. It is master motive that leads people to pursue a superior or perfect society.
Style of Life Which an individual attempts to gain superiority. Determines which aspects of life are focused on and how these give a person individual identity Determines what is perceived and ignored. Specifies a person’s future goals and how they are to be attained. Unhealthy lifestyle is based on selfishness and is contrary to the views of
FictionalFinalism Fictional future goal which a person aspires for. Adler called this a ‚Guiding self ideal‛. This gave Adler’s theory a strong teleological component, although it did not ignore
Social Interest The innate need of all human beings to live in harmony and friendship with others and to aspire for the development of the perfect society.
Social Interest Social interest can be developed through tasks: 1. Occupational tasks or constructive work can be a means for a person to hep advance society. 2. Societal tasks require cooperation with fellow humans. 3. Love and marriage tasks help to perpetuate society.
Stages of Development Adler did not propose stages of development; instead emphasized the importance of family atmosphere and the family constellation. The latter refers to one’s position within the family in terms of birth order: Older children Younger children Middle children
Stages ofDevelopment The family constellation becomes more complicated in the case of twins or an only brother among relations between children and parents frequently consists of a continuing aerations between Indulgence Rejection
Adler referred to birthorder, first memories, anddream analysis as thethree ‚entrance gates‛ tomental life. He studiedthem extensively todiscern the origins oflifestyle and anindividual’s approach toproblem solving.
The first born children who later have younger siblings may have it the most. When the next child is born, suddenly, they are no longer the center of attention and fall into the shadows wondering why everything changed. They often have the greatest number of problems as they get older.
Themiddle born/the second born children may have it the easiest. They are also more fortunate compared to their older siblings. These children are not pampered as their older sibling was, but are still afforded the attention. They have a high need for superiority and are often able to seek it out through healthy competition.
The youngest children. Like the first born may be more likely to experience personality problems later in life. He gets pampered and protected more than his siblings. That’s why he/she is usually spoiled and very dependent. Sometimes he felt that he will always be inferior to others.
The only child is never dethroned by another sibling, but experiences shock upon learning that he or she cannot remain the center of attention. He or she is often very sweet and affectionate. An only child is not considered
2. First MemoriesIs a research techniqueof asking a person todescribe his or herearliest recollections.These recollections areevidence of the originsof one’s lifestyle.
Dream Analysis -is a methodwherein a person’sdreams are used to provide a way of dealing with the person’s life problems.
By analyzing how problems areconfronted and futureevents planned through their dreams, a greatdeal could be learned about a person’s lifestyle.
Psychological Types1. Ruling Type They are, from childhood on, characterized by a tendency to be rather aggressive and dominant over others.
2. Leaning Type They are sensitive people who have developed a shell around themselves which protects them but they must rely on others to carry them through life’s difficulties3. Avoiding Type They have the lowest levels of energy and only survive by essentially avoiding life— especially other people4. The Socially Useful Type This is the healthy person, one who has both social interest and energy. Note that without energy, you can’t really have social interest, since you wouldn’t be able to actually do anything for anyone.
Parenting Styles Pampering Referring to a parent overprotecting a child, giving him too much attention, and sheltering him from the negative realities of life.
ParentingStyles Neglect A neglected child is one who is not protected at all from the world and is forced to face lifes struggles alone.
Strengths 1. Adler’s greatest contribution psychology is his study of birth order and personality. Adler’s theory culminated in his insistence in understanding an individual through his or her attitude towards the world.
Strengths2. Adler considered his theory of the creative self as the climax of his studies.3. Adler said that many of our guiding goals are fictional. However, his use of the word ‚fiction‛ did not necessarily mean ‘not true’.
Fictional Finalists Cannot be treated as reality because these are not specific hypotheses that can be put to a crucial experiment. They are constructs or inventions of human psyche that arise as it encounters the world.
WEAKNESSES: 1. Adler viewed behavior as primary goal directed and consciously chosen rather than predetermined by the unconscious mind or biological drive.
WEAKNESSES: 2. He took it for granted that everyone experiences some feelings of inferiority. 3. The drive for aggression which he later substituted for striving for superiority was innately biological as that of sexual urge.
From the beginning, Adler’s theory ofpersonality was open to growth and evolution.His theory became more comprehensive andconclusive as his work matured, withoutcontradicting his earlier ideas. Adler chose the term individual psychologyfor his conception of personality. Nevertheless,he realizes early in his theorizing that theindividual could not be considered in isolation orapart from their context. His emphasis shiftedfrom the intra psychic (within the psyche) which isbasically Freudian, to the interpsychic(interpersonal relations).
Freud: Adler:-Emphasized the -Emphasized unconscious mind conscious mind.-Future goals are -Future goals are unimportant important source-Biological motives of motivation are primary -Social motives are-Pessimistic about primary human existence -Optimistic about human existence
Freud: Adler:-Dreams are used to -Dreams are tools detect contents of in solving the unconscious problems. mind. -Personality is-Personality is determined partly completely by the individual determined by themselves. heredity and -Minimize the environmental importance of sex.
Freud: Adler:-Goal of therapy is -Goal of therapy is to discover to encourage a repressed early lifestyle that memories. incorporates social interests.