It refers to a certain changes that occur in human beings between conception and death.It is not applied to all changes, but rather to those that appear in orderly ways and remain for a long period of time.
ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENTPhysical development - deals with the changes in the body.Personal development - changes in the individual’s personality.Social development - changes in the way how an individual relates to others.Cognitive development -
PRINCIPLES OF DEVELOPMENT1. People develop at different rates.2. Development is relatively orderly.3. Development takes place gradually.
THE BRAIN AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENTCerebral cortex - the outermost layer of gray matter making up the superficial aspect of the cerebrum.Neuroscientists understand that brain development is related to the aspects of adolescence such as decision making and managing impulsive behaviour.
AREAS OR LOBES OF THE BRAIN Frontal Lobe- responsible for memory formation, emotions and thinking processes. Parietal Lobe- responsible for senses and integrates sensations. Temporal Lobe- responsible for hearing and information retrieval. Occipital Lobe- responsible for our visual capacity and capability.
NEURONSNeurons sends messages to each other by releasing chemicals that jump across the tiny spaces called synapses.These synapses can be seen between the dendrites of one neuron and the axons of the other neurons.
SYNAPTIC OVERPRODUCTIONExperienced-expectant – synapses are overproduced in certain parts of the brain during certain developmental periods.Experienced-dependent – synaptic connections are formed based on the individual’s experiences.
TENDENCIES IN THINKINGOrganization- ongoing process of arranging information and experience into mental systems or categories.Adaptation- adjustment to the environment. Assimilation- fitting new information into existing schemes. Accommodation- creating new schemes in response to new information.
SENSORIMOTOR STAGEAge: birth to 2 yearsCharacteristics: Begins to make use of imitation, memory and thought. Learns the concept of object permanence. Moves from reflex actions to goal- directed activity.
PREOPERATIONAL STAGEAge: 2 to 7 yearsCharacteristics: Starts to use language Capable of thinking in the forms of mental images and words Egocentric thinking or self- centered Difficulties seeing other’s point of
CONCRETE OPERATIONAL STAGEAge: 7 to 11 yearsCharacteristics: Increase ability to think logically Understands law of conservation and is able to classify and seriate Understands reversibility
FORMAL OPERATIONAL STAGEAge: 11 to adultCharacteristics: Can think in abstract terms Can solve problems systematically and reason hypothesis Hypothetic-deductive reasoning Adolescent egocentrism
More interested in understanding children’s thinking. He believed that the main goal of education should be to help children learn how to learn. Student are the best sources of information about their own thinking abilities
UNDERSTANDING &BUILDING ON STUDENT’S THINKINGImportant implication of Piaget’stheory for teaching is what Hunt years ago(1961) called“the problem of the match”
WHAT IS THE “PROBLEM OF THE MATCH”?According to Hunt, disequilibrium must be kept “just right” to encourage growth. Setting up situation that lead to errors can help create an appropriate level of disequilibrium. When students experience someconflict between what they think should happen and what actually happens,they may rethink the situation and new knowledge may develop.
ACTIVITY AND CONSTRUCTING KNOWLEDGEThe individuals construct their own understanding; learning is a constructive process.
In his words:Knowledge is not a copy of reality. To know an object, to know anevent, is not simply to look at it andmake a mental copy or image of it.To know an object is to act on it. To know is to modify, and as a consequence to understand the way the object is constructed.
As a general rule, student shouldact, manipulate, observe, and then talk and/or write about what they have experienced.
THE VALUE OF PLAY Maria Montessori said: “Play children’s work”. In games they learn cooperation, fairness, negotiation, wining and losing. All important skills for work someday. Without cooperation, there is no
Trouble with Stage lack of consistency in children’s thinking.Underestimating Children’s Abilities Underestimated the cognitive abilities of children, particularly younger ones.
Cognitive Development & Information Processing Focus on the child’s developing information processing skills such as attention, memory capacity, and learning strategies.Cognitive Development & Culture Overlooks the important effects of the child’s cultural and social group.
“Vygotsky’s conceptualizeddevelopment as thetransformation of socially sharedactivities into internalizedprocesses”One of his key ideas was that ourspecific mental structures andprocesses can be traced to ourinteraction with others.
Two Themes in Vygotsky’s Writings: The Social Sources of Individual Thinking Social level Individual level Social interaction was more than influence, it was the origin of higher mental processes. Piaget – most helpful interactions were those between peers.
Cultural tools and Cognitive DevelopmentCultural tools (such as printing presses,rulers, abacus, computers, internet etc.)supports thinking, learning and plays a veryimportant role in cognitive development.Vygotsky emphasized the tools that theculture provides to support thinking –Psychological tools ( language, signs andsymbols) The psychological tools can help students advance their own development.
Cultural tool kit – filled with physical tools and psychological tools for acting mentally.Vygotsky’s theory: “language is themost important symbol system in thetool kit, and it is the one that helps tofill the kit with other tools.
THE ROLE OF LANGUAGE AND PRIVATE SPEECH Piaget - “egocentric speech” He assumed that egocentric speech is another indication that young children can’t see the world through the eyes of others. As they mature children developed socialized speech and learn how to listen and exchange
Vgotsky – “self-regulation” He believed that self-regulation developed in a series of stage. The child’s behavior is regulated by others, usually parents, using language and other signs such as gestures. The child learns to regulate her own behavior by using silent inner speech.
THE ROLE OF LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT Piaget defined development as the active construction of knowledge and learning as the passive formation of associations.
Vygotsky believed that learning was an active process that does not have to wait for readiness. Learning pulls development to higher level means that other people play a significant role in cognitive development. He saw a learning as a tool in development-learning pulls development up to higher levels
THE ROLE OF ADULTS AND PEERS Vygotsky’s believed that cognitive development occurs through the child’s conversations and interactions with more capable members of the culture. These people serve as guides and teachers, providing the information and support
Scaffolding – children use this help for support while they build a firm understanding that will eventually allow them to solve the problems on their own.
FUNDS OF KNOWLEDGE Knowledge that families and community members haveacquired in many areas of work,home, and religious life that canbecome the basis for teaching.
FACTORS THAT PLAY A ROLE IN LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT: Biological Cultural Experiential
To master a language, childrenmust: a) Read the intentions of others so they can acquire the words, phrases, and concepts of their language and also b) Find patterns in the ways other people use the words and phrases to construct the grammar of their language.
Sounds & Pronunciation By about age 5, most children have mastered the sounds of their native language, but a few sounds may remain unconquered.Vocabulary & Meaning Expressive vocabulary- the words a person can speak.
Receptive vocabulary- the words a person can understand in spoken or written words.Bilingual- Speaking two languages and dealing appropriately with the two different cultures.
Grammar & Syntax Over regularize- to apply a rule of syntax or grammar in situations where the rule does not apply.Syntax- The order of words in phrases or sentences
Pragmatics: Using Language in Social Situations Pragmatics- the rules for when and how to use language to be an effective communicator in a particular cultureMetalinguistic Awareness- Understanding about ones own use of language
Benefits of Bilingualism Higher degrees of bilingualism are correlated with increased cognitive abilities in such areas as concept formation, creativity, theory of mind, cognitive flexibility, and understanding that printed words are symbols of language.
Heritage language- the language spoken in the students home or by members of the family.Balanced bilingualism- adding a second language. capability without losing your heritage language
Emergent literacy-the skills andknowledge, usually developed inthe preschool years, that are thefoundation for the development ofreading and writing.