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Brief guide to referencing
 

Brief guide to referencing

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This is a brief guide to help in managing your references and get the feeling of doing so

This is a brief guide to help in managing your references and get the feeling of doing so

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    Brief guide to referencing Brief guide to referencing Presentation Transcript

    • Ahmed Zeeneldin Prof of Medical Oncology March, 2014 “How to write a protocol” workshop
    • Agenda – ™ Why to reference? ™ Items – – – – – Citation ‫اﺳﺘﺸﮭﺎد -ﺗﻨﻮﯾﮫ‬ References ‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻊ‬ Bibliography ‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻊ-ﻣﺼﺎدر‬ Direct quotations “‫”اﻗﺘﺒﺎﺳﺎت ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮة‬ Paraphrasing ‫إﻋﺎدة ﺻﯿﺎﻏﺔ‬ ™ Categories of Referencing styles – Alphabetical (author and date) – Numbered ™ Referencing style ™ Referencing software 03/03/2014 Ahmed Zeeneldin 2
    • Why should you reference? – ™ Authorize to your work, strengthens your argument and demonstrates the breadth of your research. ™ Give credit to original authors ™ Enable the reader to find and verify your sources of information. ™ Avoid being accused for Plagiarism 03/03/2014 Ahmed Zeeneldin 3
    • Citation and reference – Citation Citation Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy in Egyptian females (Zeeneldin et al., 2013). COX-2 expression is encountered in 46% of patients (Abdelwahaab et al., 2012). Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy in Egyptian females [1]. COX-2 expression is encountered in 46% of patients [2]. Reference list Reference list Abdelwahaab A (2012) ……. Zeeneldin A (2013)………… 03/03/2014 1. Zeeneldin A ………… 2. Abdelwahaab A …….. Ahmed Zeeneldin 4
    • Categories of Referencing styles – Numbered Alphabetical Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy in Egyptian females (Zeeneldin et al., 2013). COX-2 expression is encountered in 46% of patients (Abdelwahaab et al., 2012). Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy in Egyptian females [1]. COX-2 expression is encountered in 46% of patients [2]. Reference list Abdelwahaab A (2012) ……. Zeeneldin A (2013)………… Reference list 1. Zeeneldin A ………… 2. Abdelwahaab A …….. 03/03/2014 Ahmed Zeeneldin 5
    • Categories of Referencing styles – ™ Alphabetical (author and date): – Used in Theses – In-text citations mention author last name and year – References are arranged in the reference list alphabetically in an ascending order. No numbers ™ Numbered: – Used in articles – In-text citations mention the reference number only – References are arranged in the reference list numerically in an ascending order according to their first encounter in the text. 03/03/2014 Ahmed Zeeneldin 6
    • Citing within the text (alphabetical) – Artificial intelligence can be defined as the science of making machines do things that would require intelligence if done by men (Minsky, 1968) (Minsky & Sriver, 1968) (Minsky et al., 1968). According to Striver (2001 p 20) “all aspects of rational thought should be considered to involve some degree of experimentation” (Striver, 2001 p20) 03/03/2014 Ahmed Zeeneldin 7
    • Citing within the text (alphabetical) – ™ Rules – include the author’s surname and the year of publication and also any page numbers if you are quoting from a specific page – If more than 2[3] authors, give only the first authors surname and initials followed by et al. – If you state the authors name within your work then just include the date of publication to indicate the work being cited 03/03/2014 Ahmed Zeeneldin 8
    • Citing within the text (numbered) – Artificial intelligence can be defined as the science of making machines do things that would require intelligence if done by men [1]. According to Striver (2001) “all aspects of rational thought should be considered to involve some degree of experimentation” [2]. 03/03/2014 Ahmed Zeeneldin 9
    • Bibliography (reference list) – ™ Alphabetical (author and date): – References are arranged in the reference list alphabetically in an ascending order of author sur. No numbers ™ Numbered: – References are arranged in the reference numerically in an ascending order according to their first encounter in the text. 03/03/2014 Ahmed Zeeneldin 10
    • Bibliography (reference list) – ™ Alphabetical (author and date): – References are arranged in the reference list alphabetically in an ascending order of author sur. No numbers ™ Zeeneldin A (2006)....... ™ Zeeneldin A (2007a)....... ™ Zeeneldin A (2007b)....... ™ Zeeneldin A, Taha F (2006)...... ™ Zeeneldin A, Taha F, .........., Monir M (2006)....... ™ Zeeneldin A, Taha F, Monir M, et al. (2006)....... 03/03/2014 Ahmed Zeeneldin 11
    • Essential components – ™ Who: ™ What: ™ Where: ™ When: 03/03/2014 Ahmed Zeeneldin 12
    • Essential components – ™ Who: Zeeneldin A ™ What: Breast cancer in Elderly Egyptians ™ Where: JENCI 13(7):23-29 ™ When: 2012 03/03/2014 Ahmed Zeeneldin 13
    • Essential components – Who Authors What Title (article, book, book chapter, thesis) Where Journal, book, website, thesis. Exact numbers when Year of publication 03/03/2014 Ahmed Zeeneldin 14
    • Essential components – ™ Who: Authors – Surname, initials (Zeeneldin, A [AA]) – List all authors without AND ™ Elshafiey MM, Zeeneldin AA, Elsebai HI, Moneer M, Mohamed DB, Gouda I, Attia AA. – List some followed by et al. ™ 6: 5 et al. ™ 4: 3 et al. ™ Elshafiey MM, Zeeneldin AA, Elsebai HI, et al. 03/03/2014 Ahmed Zeeneldin 15
    • Essential components – ™ What: title – – – – – – 03/03/2014 Title of an article Book Book chapter Website Thesis Other Ahmed Zeeneldin 16
    • Essential components Where ™ Article: – ™ Book: – journal title (abbreviated e.g. NEJM). – Volume and issue – Page numbers – Edition number if not first (2nd ed.) – Publisher – City – Pages ™ Website: – [Online]. Available at: www……. – (Accessed 20 Nov 2013) 03/03/2014 ™ Book chapter – In: book authors (eds.) – Rest as the book Ahmed Zeeneldin 17
    • Essential components when: year – ™ ™ ™ ™ Who: Zeeneldin A What: Breast cancer in Elderly Egyptians Where: JENCI 13(7):23-29 When: 2012 - Zeeneldin, A. Breast cancer in Elderly Egyptians. JENCI 13(7):23-29. 2012 - Zeeneldin, A (2012). Breast cancer in Elderly Egyptians. JENCI 13(7):23-29. - Zeeneldin, A. Breast cancer in Elderly Egyptians. JENCI 2012; 13(7):23-29. 03/03/2014 Ahmed Zeeneldin 18
    • Examples – ™ Book: – Halliday, D., Resnick, R. & Walker, J. (2005) Fundamentals of physics. 7th ed. New York: Wiley. pp 20-50. ™ Book chapter: – Murray, A.P. (1999) Fundamental equations of surface theory. In: Ledermann, W. & Vajda, S. (eds.) Combinatorics and geometry. 2nd ed. Chichester: John Wiley, pp. 23-66. 03/03/2014 Ahmed Zeeneldin 19
    • Examples – ™ Article: – Kim, H.S. (2007) ‘A new model for communicative effectiveness of science’. Science Communication, 28(3), pp. 287-313. ™ Webpage: – Allen, S. (2007). Referencing: a guide for University of Liverpool online students [Online]. Available from http://www.liv.ac.uk/library/ohecampus/ref.htm (Accessed 15 August 2007). 03/03/2014 Ahmed Zeeneldin 20
    • Examples – ™ Thesis – McDonald, L.R. (2005) Assessment of body composition using magnetic resonance imaging. Ph.D. thesis. University of Liverpool. 03/03/2014 Ahmed Zeeneldin 21
    • Reference style – ™ Alphabetical: – Harvard ––- ™ Numbered – Vancouver ––- 03/03/2014 Ahmed Zeeneldin 22
    • Referencing software – ™ Endnote ™ Ref manager ™ Ref works ™™™- 03/03/2014 Ahmed Zeeneldin 23
    • – 03/03/2014 Ahmed Zeeneldin 24
    • Thank YOU – 03/03/2014 Ahmed Zeeneldin 25