Figure 1.1 emphasizes that there are several important HRM practices:Analyzing work and designing jobsAttracting potential employees (recruiting)Choosing employees (selection)Teaching employees how to perform their jobs and preparing them for the future (training and development)Evaluating their performance (performance management)Rewarding employees (compensation)Creating a positive work environment (employee relations)Supporting the organization’s strategy (HR planning and change management)An organization performs best when all of these practices are managed well.
For an organization to succeed at what it does, it needs employees with certain qualities, such as particular kinds of training and experience.This view means that employees in today’s organizations are not interchangeable, easily replaced by parts of a system, but the source of the company’s success or failure.By influencing who works for the organization and how these people work, human resources management therefore contributes to such basic measures of an organization’s success as quality, profitability, and customer satisfaction.Figure 1.2 (reproduced in this slide) shows this relationship.
In terms of business strategy, an organization can succeed if it has a sustainable competitive advantage (is better than competitors at something, and can hold that advantage over a sustained period of time).Thus, we can conclude that organizations need the kind of resources that will give them such an advantage. Human resources have these necessary qualities:Human resources are valuable. High-quality employees provide a needed service as they perform many critical functions.Human resources are rare in the sense that a person with high levels of the needed skills and knowledge is not common. An organization may spend months looking for a talented and experienced manager or technician.Human resources cannot be imitated. To imitate resources at a high-performing competitor, you would have to figure out which employees are providing the advantage and how.Human resources have no good substitutes. When people are well trained and highly motivated, they learn, develop their abilities, and care about customers.These qualities imply that human resources have enormous potential. An organization realizes this potential through the ways it practices human resource management.
With such varied responsibilities, the human resource department needs to bring together a large pool of skills. These skills fall into the four basic categories shown in Figure 1.3 on this slide.Human Relations Skills: The ability to understand and work well with other people is important to virtually any career, but human relations skills are especially significant for human resource management today.Decision-Making Skills: HR managers must make a wide variety of decisions that affect whether employees are qualified and motivated and whether the organization is operating efficiently and complying with the law.Leadership Skills: HR managers need to play a leadership role with regard to the organization’s human resources. In today’s environment, leadership often requires helping the organization manage change.Technical Skills: In HRM, professionals need knowledge of state-of-the-art practices in such areas as staffing, development, rewards, organizational design, and communication.Professionals must be able to evaluate the worth of new techniques and critically evaluate them in light of HRM principles and business value to determine which are beneficial.
Result in the greatest good for the largest number of people.Respect basic rights of privacy, due process, consent, and free speech.Treat employees and customers equitably and fairly.
The recruiter affects the nature of both the job vacancy and the applicants generated.True=A; False=BApplicants respond more positively when the recruiter is an HR specialist than line managers or incumbents.False – applicants tend to respond more positively to someone who is currently in the job or a manager.Applicants respond positively to recruiters whom are warm and informativeTrue - In general, applicants respond more positively to recruiters whom they perceive as warm and informative.Personnel policies are more important than the recruiter when deciding whether or not to take a job.True - For affecting whether people choose to take a job, the recruiter seems less important than an organization’s personnel policies that directly affect the job’s features.Realistic job previews should highlight the positive characteristics of the job rather than the negative.False - Realistic job previews provide background information about job’s positive and negative qualities.
Workshop Kewirausahaan IA IF - Human Resource
HR MANAGEMENTWorkshop Kewirausahaan Informatika23 Februari 2013
Goals• Semua partisipan dapat membuat plan untuk mengelola aspek yang berhubungan dengan human resource di perusahaannya.
HRM and Sustainable Competitive Advantage• An organization can succeed if it has sustainable competitive advantage.• Human resources have the necessary qualities to help give organizations this advantage: • Human resources are valuable. • Human resources with needed skills and and knowledge are sometimes rare. • Human resources cannot be imitated. • Human resources have no good substitutes.
Conditions that Contribute toHigh Performance• Teams perform work.• Employees participate in selection.• Employees receive formal performance feedback and are actively involved in the performance improvement process.• Ongoing training is emphasized and rewarded.• Employees’ rewards and compensation relate to the company’s financial performance.• Equipment and work processes are structured and technology is used to encourage maximum flexibility and interaction among employees.• Employees participate in planning changes in equipment, layout, and work methods.• Work design allows employees to use a variety of skills.• Employees understand how their jobs contribute to the finished product or service.• Ethical behavior is encouraged.
Challenge HR yang dihadapi oleh Startup• Dibandingkan dengan perusahaan yang sudah establish, startup memiliki tantanga: • Belum punya arahan yang jelas dan dasar yang kuat tentang perusahaan • Strukturnya berubah-ubah • Kerjaannya tiap orang random tergantung kebutuhan saat itu • Kesulitan bersaing di labor market yg sama untuk gaji&benefit • Minim pengalaman di beberapa lini • Belum ada program training dan pengembangan yang jelas • Pengelolaan dan penilaian performance sistemnya belum ada • Sistem kompensasinya apakah dapat mempengaruhi performa perusahaan dan memotivasi karyawan belum diketahui. • Sistem kerjanya belum mendukung kinerja yang paling optimal. • Etc.
What to do?• Building Foundation• Define Organization Plan & Establish Organizational Structure• Design and Clarify Task Required for each Job and Position• Manage and Lead People from selection, training, and development• Fair and Motivating Reward Systems• Establish Information System
Why build strong foundation?• People tend to work for purpose.. bigger purpose.
Define Vision and Mission, CorporatePhilosophy and Culture• Why your company exist?• What is core value that will be embodied to your company?• What is your company vision and mission?
How to define?• Tanya kepada diri kita, founder, top management, atau key person kenapa perusahaan ini ada, apa visi dari perusahaan, target-target apa yang ingin dicapai perusahaan dan nilai-nilai apa yang selama ini kita jaga dan akan selamanya kita jaga secara konsisten dan itu menunjang tujuan perusahaan.• Yang penting bukan apakah nilai-nilai itu benar, tapi apakah kita yakin nilai-nilai itu sesuai dan dapat dijaga secara konsisten oleh orang-orang yang ada di perusahaan.
How to align it in company?• Communicate, motivate, lead• Implementasikan dalam setiap kegiatan di perusahaan• Pemimpin selalu mengingatkan nilai-nilai tersebut baik dalam rapat besar, kecil, waktu kerja sehari-hari, maupun dalam kegiatan lain• Komunikasikan terus melalui media yang ada (poster- poster di kantor, website internal, wallpaper komputer, dll) dan ke semua pihak baik internal maupun eksternal (public atau customer)
Benefit• More easier to attract and influence people with same value• Employee can be more motivated and productive to support company mission
What Next?• Create Strategic Plan of your company • Set Company Goals • What is Company Strategies to achieve the Goals • Organizational Structure • Functional • Division • Matrix, etc• The Company Strategic Plan will be used as input to create HR Planning
Work Flow in Organization Work Flow Position Job Design• The process • The set of • A set of of analyzing duties (job) related tasks performed duties. necessary by a for the particular production person. of a product or service.
Job Analysis Job• The process of Analysis getting detailed information about jobs. Job Descriptions Job Specifications
Job Description• Job Description: a list of tasks, duties, and responsibilities (TDRs) that a particular job entails.• Key components: • Job Title • Brief description of the TDRs • List of the essential duties with detailed specifications of the tasks involved in carrying out each duty
Job Specifications• Job Specification: a list of the knowledge, skills, abilities, a nd other characteristics (KSAOs) that an individual must have to perform a particular job. • Knowledge: factual or procedural information necessary for successfully performing a task. • Skill: an individual’s level of proficiency at performing a particular task. • Ability: a more general enduring capability that an individual possesses. • Other Characteristics: job- related licensing, certifications, or personality traits.
Importance of Job Analysis• Job analysis is so • Work redesign important to HR • Human resource planning managers that it has been called the building block • Selection of all HRM functions. • Training• Almost every HRM • Performance appraisal program requires some • Career planning type of information determined by job • Job evaluation analysis:
Designing Jobs That Motivate: The JobCharacteristics Model
Designing Jobs that Motivate• Job Enlargement : Broadening the types of tasks performed in a job by: • Job Extension • Job Rotation• Job Enrichment : Empowering workers by adding more decision-making authority to jobs,i.e: • Schedule work, • Setup team members, • Resolve problems,• Flexibility : • Flextime • Job Sharing • Telework
HR Planning• Dari Strategic Plan Perusahaan mulai diturunkan kira-kira untuk membantu mencapai target perusahaan, bagaimanakah kebutuhan human resource yang diperlukan? strategi apa yang perlu dilakukan?
Personnel Internal versusPolicies external recruiting• Several personnel Lead-the-market pay policies are strategies especially relevant to Employment-at-will recruitment: policies Image advertising
Recruitment Sources: Internal Sources• Job Posting: the process of communicating information about a job vacancy: • On company bulletin boards • In employee publications • On corporate intranets • Anywhere else the organization communicates with employees• Advantage: • Lebih tahu perusahaan • Lebih tahu tentang lowongan pekerjaan yang lowong, sehingga lebih mengetahui ekspektasi terhadap pekerjaan tersebut • Lebih murah dan cepat
Recruiter Traits and BehaviorsTrue = A False = B • Enhancing impact:• Applicants respond more • Recruiters should provide timely positively when the recruiter is feedback. an HR specialist than line managers or incumbents. • Recruiters should avoid offensive behavior.• Applicants respond positively to recruiters whom are warm • They should avoid behaving in and informative ways that might convey the• Personnel policies are more wrong impression about the important than the recruiter organization. when deciding whether or not • The organization can recruit with to take a job. teams rather than individual• Realistic job previews should recruiters. highlight the positive characteristics of the job rather than the negative.
Learning Organization• Learning organization – an organization that supports lifelong learning by enabling all employees to acquire and share knowledge.• The people in a learning organization have resources for training, and they are encouraged to share their knowledge with colleagues.• Managers take an active role in identifying training needs and encouraging the sharing of ideas.
Key Features of Learning Organizations1. Continuous learning – each employee’s and each group’s ongoing efforts to gather information and apply the information to their decisions.2. Knowledge is shared – one challenge is to shift the focus of training away from teaching skills and toward a broader focus on generating and sharing knowledge.3. Critical, systemic thinking – is widespread and occurs when employees are encouraged to see relationships among ideas and think in new ways.4. Learning culture – a culture in which learning is rewarded, promoted, and supported by managers and organizational objectives.5. Employee are valued - the organization recognizes that employees are the source of its knowledge. It therefore focuses on ensuring the development and well-being of each employee.
HR Development Contribution to HighPerformance• HRM practices match organization’s goals• Individuals and groups share knowledge• Work is performed by teams• Organization encourages continuous learning• Organization monitors employees’ satisfaction• Discipline system is progressive• Skills and values of a diverse workforce are valued and used• Pay system rewards skills and accomplishments• Performance management system measures customer satisfaction and qualit
Purpose of Performance Management• Strategic Purpose – means effective performance management helps the organization achieve its business objectives.• Administrative Purpose – refers to the ways in which organizations use the system to provide information for day-to- day decisions about salary, benefits, and recognition programs.• Developmental Purpose – means that it serves as a basis for developing employees’ knowledge and skills.
Measuring Performance:Making Comparisons Simple Forced Paired Ranking Distribution Comparison • Requires • Assigns a • Compares managers to certain each rank percentage employee employees in of with each their group employees other from the to each employee to highest category in a establish performer to set of rankings. the poorest categories. performer.
Measuring Performance:Measuring Results• Management by Objectives (MBO): people at each level of the organization set goals in a process that flows from top to bottom, so that all levels are contributing to the organization’s overall goals.
Sources of Performance Information andTypes of Errors• 360-Degree Performance Appraisal: performance measurement that combines information from the employees’: • Managers • Peers • Subordinates • Self • Customers• Contrast errors: the rater compares an individual, not against an objective standard, but against other employees.• Distributional errors: the rater tends to use only one part of a rating scale. • Leniency: the reviewer rates everyone near the top • Strictness: the rater favors lower rankings • Central tendency: the rater puts everyone near the middle of the scale• Rater bias: raters often let their opinion of one quality color their opinion of others. • Halo error: when the bias is in a favorable direction. This can mistakenly tell employees they don’t need to improve in any area. • Horns error: when the bias involves negative ratings. This can cause employees to feel frustrated and defensive.
Giving Performance Feedback• Scheduling Performance Feedback • Performance feedback should be a regular, expected management activity. • Annual feedback is not enough. • Employees should receive feedback so often that they know what the manager will say during their annual performance review.• Conducting the Feedback Session • During the feedback session, managers can take any of three approaches: 1. “Tell-and-Sell” – managers tell employees their ratings and then justify those ratings. 2. “Tell-and-Listen” – managers tell employees their ratings and then let the employees explain their side of the story. 3. “Problem-Solving” – managers and employees work together to solve performance problems.
Reward Type• Financial • Direct : Wages, Salaries, Commissions, Bonuses • Indirect : Insurance Plan, Social Assistance Benefits, Paid Absences• Non Financial • The Job : Interesting Duties, Challenge, Responsibility, Recognition, Feeling of Achievement, Advancement Opportunities • Job Environment : Sound Policies, Competent Supervision, Congenial Coworkers, Appropriate Status Symbols, Comfortable Working Conditions, Flextime, Compressed Workweek, Job Sharing, Cafetaria, Telecommuting, etc.
Financial Compensation • Determinant: • Labor Market (Cost of living, surveys, government regulation) • The Organization (Compensation Policies, Ability to Pay) • The Job (Job Evaluation) • The Employee (Comparable Worth, Performance, Seniority, Ex perience, Membership in Organization, Potential)
Pay Level: Deciding What to PayPay at the rate set by the marketPay at a rate above the marketPay at a rate below the market
Gathering Information About Market Pay• Benchmarking – a procedure in which an organization compares its own practices against those of successful competitors• Pay surveys• Trade and industry groups• Professional groups
Employee Judgments About Pay Fairness• Employees compare their pay and contributions against three yardsticks: 1. What they think employees in other organizations earn for doing the same job. 2. What they think other employees holding different jobs within the organization earn for doing work at the same or different levels. 3. What they think other employees in the organization earn for doing the same job as theirs.
Opinions About Fairness –Pay Equity• If employees conclude that they are under- rewarded, they are likely to make up the difference in one of three ways: 1. They might put forth less effort (reducing their inputs). 2. They might find a way to increase their outcomes (e.g., stealing). 3. They might withdraw (by leaving the organization or refusing to cooperate).• Employees’ beliefs about fairness also influence their willingness to accept transfers or promotions.
Pay Structure: Putting It All Together Job Job Define Evaluation Structure Key Jobs Pay Policy Pay Pay Rates Line Survey Pay Pay Pay Grades Ranges Structure
Job Structure: Relative Value of Jobs• Job Evaluation : An administrative procedure for measuring the relative internal worth of the organization’s jobs.• The characteristics of a job that the organization values and chooses to pay for. • Required Experience • Required Education • Job Complexity • Working conditions • Responsibility
Job Structure: Defining Key Jobs• Key Jobs – jobs that have relatively stable content and are common among many organizations.• Organizations can make the process of creating the job structure and the pay structure more practical by defining key jobs.• Research for creating the pay structure is limited to the key jobs that play a significant role in the organization.
Pay RatesOrganization obtains pay surveydata for its key jobs.Pay policy line is established.Pay rates for non-key jobs are thendetermined.
Sample Pay Grade Structure• Pay grades – sets of jobs having similar worth or content, grouped together to establish rates of pay.• Pay ranges – a set of possible pay rates defined by a minimum, maximum, and midpoint of pay for employees holding a particular job or a job within a particular pay grade.
Summary• Scope HR• Building Foundation:Philosophy,Culture,&Value• Building Environment and System