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    09  unified project management methodology upmm chapter one 09 unified project management methodology upmm chapter one Document Transcript

    • Unified Project Management Methodology (UPMM) CHAPTERONE CHAPTER ONE BACKGROUND
    • Unified Project Management Methodology (UPMM) CHAPTERONE CHAPTER ONE: BACKGROUND TABLE OF CONTACTS1 CHAPTER ONE: BACKGROUND 1.1 LITERATURE REVIEW 1.2 EXISTING METHDOLOGIES , BEST PRACTICES AND TECHNOLOGIES 1.2.1 Service Management Framework (SMF) 1.2.2 P3o 1.2.2.1 Management Of Portfolios (MOP) 1.2.2.2 Management Of Programs (MSP) 1.2.2.3 Management Of Projects – Prince 2 PMPOK 1.2.3 Management Of Quality 1.2.4 Management Of Risk 1.2.5 Management Of Change 1.2.6 Management Of Safety 1.2.7 American Institute Of Architects (AIA) 1.2.8 Construction Specifications Institute Overview 1.2.9 Managing Organizational Change 1.2.10 GIS (Geographic information systems) 1.2.11 Building Information Modeling (BIM) 1.2.12 Portal 1.3 SUMMARY OF CHAPTER 1
    • Unified Project Management Methodology (UPMM) CHAPTERONE 1.1 LITERATURE REVIEW
    • Unified Project Management Methodology (UPMM) CHAPTERONE 1.2 EXISTING METHDOLOGIES AND BEST PRACTICES 1.2.1 MANAGEMENT OF PORTFOLIOS (MOP) Organizations are much more cautious with their investments these days. Organizations need to answer the following questions for initiatives within projects and programmes: Can we afford this? Can we take the risk? Should we be doing this? As such, the days of projects being funded without having a clear understanding of the full costs, benefits and risk are well and truly behind us. MoP helps organizations answer a fundamental question ‗Are we sure this investment is right for us and how will it contribute to our strategic objectives?‘ Investment is the keyword because portfolio management is about investing in the right business initiatives and implementing them correctly. MoP achieves this by ensuring that: The programmes and projects undertaken are prioritized in terms of their contribution to the organization‘s strategic objectives and overall level of risk Programmes and projects are managed consistently to ensure efficient and effective delivery Benefits realization is maximized to provide the greatest return (in terms of strategic contribution and efficiency savings) from the investment made. Projects (and to a lesser extent programmes) have been the focus of organizations‘ efforts to manage change for many years. More recently, portfolio management has come to the fore as organizations have become increasingly aware that delivery is only half the battle. Just as important is whether or not the change initiatives are the ‗right‘ ones and whether the potential return on investment is achieved. Understanding which change initiatives contribute most to an organizations strategy is both complex and difficult; furthermore making informed decisions about their overall status, prioritization, risk and benefits is even more difficult. MoP provides a solution to such difficulties. It does not mandate specifically how organizations should use portfolio management; it would be futile to do so because every organization is so different. However, it does provide a picture of success and defines the principles and practices that have been used by organizations to achieve that success. MoP helps organizations to use Best Practice to manage projects, programmes and services consistently and effectively. MoP focuses on strategic investment decision-making and integrates seamlessly with all other best practice methodologies. It is highlighted throughout MoP that portfolio management will be more effective where robust programme and project management (PPM) exists.
    • Unified Project Management Methodology (UPMM) CHAPTERONE Definition A Portfolio is the totality of an organizations‘ investment in the changes required to achieve its strategic objectives. Portfolio Management is a coordinated collection of strategic processes and decisions that together enable the most effective balance of organizational change and ‗business as usual‘. Effective MoP will provide immediate value in the form of: More of the ‗right‘ programmes and projects being undertaken Removal of redundant, duplicate and poorly performing programmes and projects More effective implementation of programmes and projects via consistent approaches and improved dependency management More effective implementation of programmes and projects via consistent approaches and improved dependency management More efficient resource utilization Better management of risk at a collective level Greater benefits realization and return on investment Enhanced transparency, accountability and corporate governance Improved engagement and communication between senior management and staff. 1.2.2 MANAGING SUCCESSFUL PROGRAMMES (MSP) Managing Successful Programmes (MSP®) is a best-practice framework for delivering complex programmes in accordance with long-term strategies. MSP was developed for and is owned by the Office of Government Commerce (OGC), an agency of the Government of the United Kingdom. MSP was released in recognition of the need for greater links between an organization‘s longer-term strategy, objectives and goals and the projects being undertaken by that organization. MSP defines programme management as ‗the action of carrying out the coordinated organization, direction and implementation of a dossier and transformation activities to achieve outcomes and realize benefits of strategic importance to the business.‘ Organizations need to have a reasonable level of project management maturity to enable the programme management framework to be efficiently applied. Organizations in this position are often interested in applying a more holistic approach to their work which is more focused on stakeholder engagement and benefits management. MSP is a pragmatic approach to programme management which ensures that a strong leadership and governance structure is established and maintained. There is a strong emphasis placed on stakeholder engagement and benefits realization management. MSP ensures that these areas receive the focus required to ensure
    • Unified Project Management Methodology (UPMM) CHAPTERONE change occurs and benefits are generated. The benefits of adopting a recognized approach are primarily that all programmes will be managed in the same way – utilizing best-practice. This will raise the visibility of all aspects of the programme and enable the assurance and governance functions to operate effectively. 1.2.2.1 AN OVERVIEW OF THE MSP FRAMEWORK The MSP framework was designed to enable the delivery of significant and longer- term change which will allow the organization to achieve its strategic objectives. The programme requires the management of two distinct environments to enable the realization of benefits. These environments are: The delivery of projects that create the capability for change The operational environment which will undergo change in order to deliver the benefits. The MSP framework comprises three major elements: Principles: Seven principles of programme management which are applied to every programme Governance themes: Nine aspects of governance which ensure that the programme can be controlled Transformational flow: A series of interdependent steps which enable the change to be coordinated and delivered with benefits realized. 1.2.2.2 PRINCIPLES The principles identified by MSP represent key aspects of programme management which should be adopted to ensure success. These principles have been distilled into seven features which form the foundation of the framework. The seven principles of programme management are: 1. Remaining aligned with corporate strategy 2. Leading change 3. Envisioning and communicating a better future 4. Focusing on benefits and threats 5. Adding value 6. Designing and delivering a coherent capability 7. Learning from experience. 1.2.2.3 GOVERNANCE THEMES The governance themes represent topics which need to be addressed constantly throughout the life of the programme. It is the control framework which enables the programme to deliver and ensures that there is visibility for the stakeholders. 1. Organization The organization theme details the roles required to deliver the programme and its associated change. This role-based approach ensures that the governance structure is applied through a sponsoring group and their appointed representative, the Senior Responsible Owner (SRO).
    • Unified Project Management Methodology (UPMM) CHAPTERONE A programme board is established to drive the programme on a daily basis. The key personnel appointed to the programme board are: The Senior Responsible Owner (SRO) – who represents the sponsoring group The Programme Manager – who is responsible for the coordination and management of the delivery of the projects within the programme The Business Change Manager (BCM) – who is responsible for the realization of benefits. 2. Vision The vision, defined by the vision statement, is agreed and committed to by the sponsoring group. It represents the better future which the programme is designed to deliver and provides a focus for the team throughout the life of the programme. This is particularly important due to the long term nature of programmes and means that even if the team membership changes, the vision statement will provide a constant focal point. The vision statement provides the link between the programme and the organization‘s strategies. 3. Stakeholder engagement and leadership Programmes attract a large number of stakeholders from a variety of backgrounds and with differing degrees of influence over the programme. The MSP framework ensures that the stakeholders are identified and engaged in an appropriate manner to allow the participation and involvement of those who have an interest in the outcomes. MSP recognizes the criticality of communication with the stakeholders and the link between this engagement and the leadership. There is recognition, within the framework, that engaging and communicating with stakeholders is essential to the success of the programme. 4. Blueprint design and delivery The blueprint is a document which translates the vision statement into a detailed description of the capability that is required to enable the outcomes. The blueprint defines the scope of the programme manager‘s authority by describing the current (or as is) state of the organization and the future capability which will be delivered through the projects dossier. The blueprint is not concerned with how to deliver the future state; subsequent documents contain that level of information. The delivery of the blueprint is achieved through these supporting documents and the management of the projects. 5. Benefits realization management Benefits are defined as ‗the measurable improvement resulting from an outcome which is perceived as an advantage by a stakeholder.‘ The rigour with which an MSP programme addresses the management of benefits is one of the distinguishing features between programmes and projects.
    • Unified Project Management Methodology (UPMM) CHAPTERONE 6. Planning and control Planning and control are fundamental to the success of the programme and should be seen as separate and complementary concepts. A programme plan is developed when the programme is defined (during the defining a programme process) and will contain many assumptions and estimates. These will be revised as progress is made and information becomes available. The preparation of the plan requires the analysis of large volumes of data and consultation with subject matter experts and stakeholders before the distillation of that information into a coherent plan. Programme control is exercised through a number of mechanisms which collate and present the information related to progress to the higher authorities. Supporting activities and processes will be applied to ensure that projects are commissioned on a timely basis and that the progress and transition activities are undertaken as scheduled. 7. Business case The business case provides the test of the viability of the programme and justifies the investment in the programme. Closely linked to the analysis of benefits, this document provides the SRO and the sponsoring group with the information required to support their investment decisions. The programme business case is maintained throughout the life of the programme to provide the sponsoring group and programme board with the confidence that the investment in the programme is worthwhile. 8. Risk and issue management Programmes are managed in an uncertain environment and risks will be identified throughout the duration of the programme. This governance theme covers the identification, management and escalation of risks and issues. The risk process is applied to both threats and opportunities. Threats have a negative impact on the programme outcomes, whilst opportunities have a positive or advantageous impact. From an organization‘s perspective, there are four types of risks: Strategic Programme Project Operational. Issue resolution is closely linked to change control and provides a formal approach to the treatment of changes. It is critical that a strategy is established to provide guidelines for the management of issues because it is impossible to plan a programme that will not be subject to change requests and issues. This
    • Unified Project Management Methodology (UPMM) CHAPTERONE governance theme highlights the need for pre-emptive guidelines and tools to allow the effective and efficient management of issues when they occur. 9. Quality Quality management, in relation to MSP, refers to the need to satisfy the stakeholders‘ requirements by meeting their expectations and offering the best opportunity to realize the planned benefits. 1.2.2.4 TRANSFORMATIONAL FLOW The term ‗transformational flow‘ is used to describe a series of six processes which guide the programme management team through the programme. Each process details the management activities that are required to be undertaken at each step of the programme. The transformational flow is designed to ensure that the team gathers information and makes decisions at the appropriate point in the programme‘s lifecycle. 1. Identifying a programme During this process the programme mandate is agreed by the stakeholders and developed into a more comprehensive document which outlines the purpose of the programme. The process is designed to engage with key stakeholders, who will (in most cases) form the sponsoring group, to ensure that there is a common understanding of the purpose and intent of the programme. 2. Defining a programme The detailed planning for the programme is undertaken at this stage. Once the sponsoring group refines and approves the vision statement, the programme board and supporting subject matter experts undertake a number of activities which culminate in the development of a programme plan (normally part of the larger and more comprehensive programme definition documentation) and the programme‘s business case. 3. Managing the tranches The process of managing the tranches implements the governance arrangements for the programme to each of the tranches. The activities contained within this process are applied in alignment with the previously defined strategies and plans which would be accepted towards the end of the defining a programme process. 4. Delivering the capability The programme manager is responsible for the coordination and management of the projects. This is achieved through the process known as delivering the capability. 5. Realizing the benefits
    • Unified Project Management Methodology (UPMM) CHAPTERONE The business change manager is responsible for integrating the outputs from the projects into the operational environment and thereby generating the expected benefits. 6. Closing the programme The purpose of each of the processes within the transformational flow is to ensure that each programme is approached from a management perspective in a consistent manner. The closing a programme process is applied at the end of the programme to ensure that the work of the programme is completed and that any follow-on support and actions are in place to ensure the ongoing realization of the benefits. 1.2.3 PROJECT MANAGEMENT – PRINCE2 AND PMBOK 1.2.3.1 COMBINING PRINCE2 AND PMBOK FOR A COMPLETE APPROACH TO PROJECT MANAGEMENT The Project Management Institute Guide to Project Management (PMBOK) is a widely accepted statement of the sum of knowledge within the profession of project management, and has been adopted by many organizations as the basis for their project management specialism. The PMBOK originates from the USA. PRINCE2 is leading project management methodology, aiming to provide mechanism for the setting up of a framework within which to run a project, the running of that project and its closure with handover to operational areas. PRINCE2 was developed for and is owned by the Office of Government Commerce (OGC), an agency of the Government of the United Kingdom. Note that the PMBOK is a standard, not a project management methodology. To successfully apply the PMBOK standard organizations need to manage projects using a robust methodology such as PRINCE2. These two project management approaches should not be seen as mutually exclusive; instead they can be seen to complement each other. There is a high level of compatibility between the two approaches to project management. Broadly speaking, PMBOK is specifying the detailed techniques which need to be addressed in project management, and as such identifying the processes and procedures which need to be put in place. PRINCE2, being a methodology, is offering the processes and procedures to control projects. The adoption of PRINCE2 enhances the implementation of the PMBOK standards by providing greater depth and structure to the establishment of project environments, and by providing a more rigorous approach to the setting up, running and closing down of individual projects. Also the adoption of the PMBOK to a PRINCE2 based organization will help to identify the additional areas which need to be addressed in order to give projects the best chance of success, such as soft skills and procurement. Both approaches should not be viewed as competing against each other but to
    • Unified Project Management Methodology (UPMM) CHAPTERONE complement the strengths and weaknesses of both knowledge and processes. Organizations may find the benefits to allow both methods to co-exist and apply them in a systematic yet creative ways. By using both PRINCE2 and PMBOK, the UPMM will be using the best project management approaches from both worlds. Main areas of PRINCE2 added value to a PMI environment: PRINCE2 offers a more complete approach to the business case for a project and the realization of business benefits PRINCE2 provides a process model which is better geared towards the setting- up and managing of a specific project. PRINCE2 has a fuller and more coherent approach to planning, including team and stage (phase) levels of plan, and to the setting-up and specification of the project in general. PRINCE2 adds significantly to the areas of issue management and change control, and to configuration management. PRINCE2 provides improved structure to the areas of plan execution, especially to managing the teams of people doing the work on the project. PRINCE2 provides a more detailed and comprehensive method of specifying and controlling quality at the component level. PRINCE2 offers a more structured and complete model for the management structures for a project. 1.2.3.2 PRINCE2 SUMMARY PRINCE2™ is made of seven principles themes, seven themes and seven processes. 1.2.3.2.1 The Seven PRINCE2 Principles are: 1. Continued business justification 2. Learn from experience 3. Defined roles and responsibilities 4. Manage by stages 5. Manage by exception 6. Focus on products 7. Tailor to suit the project environment 1.2.3.2.2 The Seven PRINCE2 Themes 1. Business Case It addresses how the idea is developed into a viable investment proposition for the organization and how project management maintains the focus on the organization‘s objectives throughout the project. 2. Organization It describes the roles and responsibilities in the temporary PRINCE2 project management team required to manage the project effectively.
    • Unified Project Management Methodology (UPMM) CHAPTERONE 3. Quality It explains how the outline is developed so that all participants understand the quality attributes of the products to be delivered. 4. Plans It complements the Quality theme by describing the steps required to develop plans and the PRINCE2 techniques that should be applied. 5. Risk It addresses how project management manages the uncertainties in its plans and in the wider project management. 6. Change It describes how project management assesses and acts upon issues which have a potential impact on any of the business aspects of the project. 7. Progress It explains the decision-making process for approving plans, the monitoring of actual performance and the escalation process if events do not go according to plan. 1.2.3.2.3 The Seven PRINCE2 Processes 1. Starting up a Project The purpose of the Starting up a Project process is to ensure that the prerequisites for initiating a viable and worthwhile Project are in place. 2. Directing a Project The purpose of the Directing a Project process is to enable the Project Board to be accountable for the project‘s success by making key decisions and exercising overall control while delegating day-to-day management of the project to the Project Manager. 3. Initiating a Project The purpose of the Initiating a Project process is to establish solid foundations for the project, enabling the organization to understand the work that needs to be done to deliver the project‘s products before committing to a significant spend. 4. Controlling a Stage The purpose of the Controlling a Stage process is to assign work to be done, monitor such work, deal with issues, report progress to the Project Board, and take corrective actions to ensure that the stage remains within tolerance. 5. Managing Product Delivery The purpose of the Managing Product Delivery process is to control the link between the Project Manager and Team Manager(s), by placing formal requirements on accepting, executing and delivering project work.
    • Unified Project Management Methodology (UPMM) CHAPTERONE 6. Managing a Stage Boundary The purpose of the Managing a Stage Boundary process is to enable the Project Board to be provided with sufficient information by the Project Manager so that it can review the success of the current stage, approve the next Stage Plan, review the updated Project Plan, an confirm continued business justification and acceptability of the risks. 7. Closing a Project The purpose of the Closing a Project process is to provide a fixed point at which acceptance for the project product is confirmed, and to recognize that objectives set out in the original Project Initiation Documentation have been achieved (or approved changes to the objectives have been achieved), or that the project has nothing more to contribute. PRINCE2 acts as a bridge between all of customers, users and suppliers, bringing these parties together on the Project Board through common project management language. 1.2.3.3 PMBOK OVERVIEW PMBOK® stands for Project Management Body of Knowledge and is owned by Project Management Institute (PMI). PMI was founded in 1969 as people started to recognize project management was a unique set of management skills and discipline. There are five Project Management Process Groups illustrated in PMBOK: 1. Initiating Process Group 2. Planning Process Group 3. Execution Process Group 4. Monitoring & Controlling Process Group 5. Closing Process Group The five Project Management Process Groups are required for any project and they are not project phases. In large scale or complex projects, the process groups could be repeated for each phase. It is similar to the Stage concept in PRINCE2. In total, there are 42 project management processes mapped into the 5 main Project Management Process Groups. There are nine knowledge areas of Project Management in PMBOK: 1. Project Integration Management 2. Project Scope Management 3. Project Time Management 4. Project Cost Management
    • Unified Project Management Methodology (UPMM) CHAPTERONE 5. Project Quality Management 6. Project Human Resource Management 7. Project Communications Management 8. Project Risk Management 9. Project Procurement Management According to PMBOK, project management knowledge areas are the identified areas of project management defined by their knowledge requirements and described in terms of their component processes, practices, inputs, outputs, tools, and techniques. Although not exactly matched, they are similar to the PRINCE2 themes. 1.2.3.4 THE COMPLEMENT OF BOTH APPROACHES The underlying difference between the PMBOK and PRINCE2 is that the PMBOK is a knowledge based project management standard covering wide proven practices and areas while PRINCE2 provides a more prescriptive or process oriented approach for the project manager or team manager to apply to the projects. In general, PMBOK is more comprehensive while PRINCE2 is more pragmatic in nature. PRINCE2 addresses the ―Why‖ and ―What‖ in project management while PMBOK tells the ―How‖ in project management. The advantage of PMBOK is that it has very concise project management knowledge areas and easy to understand the concepts behind the theory. The nine knowledge areas covered are full of useful processes, tools and techniques in project management. The five project management process groups symbolize a typical phase or a life cycle in a project. However, PMBOK does not tell you how to apply to the project as it only stated what are required. For example, it tells you that a Project Charter is required but the recommended template is not covered. The PRINCE2 approach has the advantage that it is very prescriptive and provides the necessary techniques and templates for project manager to apply. There is also project management Health Check listed in PRINCE2 manual that can be used at various points in the project to assess the health of the project. However, some may find that the very detailed process-oriented project management approach may be bureaucratic and hinder the creativity of the project manager. A good Project Manager must learn how to streamline the processes according to the complexity and environment of the project. PRINCE2 recognize this issue and created a new principle ―Tailoring PRINCE2 to the project environment‖. PRINCE2 is not a ―one size fits all‖ approach but flexible to be tailored to the complexity of the project. To combine both project management approaches and complements them with the strengths from both sides. For instance, PRINCE2 is strong in process and documentation but lack the focus on Communications, Human Resource Management and Procurement Management; which PMBOK is able to complement them. On the other hand, the business case approach of PRINCE2 strengthens the
    • Unified Project Management Methodology (UPMM) CHAPTERONE business direction and strategy aspects of project management which PMBOK is weak in. Another important concept of PRINCE2 is the Project Board which PMBOK generally refer to the Project Sponsor who is supporting the project. PRINCE2 is more specific and has defined the role of Project Board more dynamically. With combination of PMBOK s Work Breakdown Structure and PRINCE2 s Product Breakdown Structure or Product-based planning, the deliverables of the project will be clearer and more robust. If both Project Management approaches could get combined together, they could provide the best approach adopting the best practices from both worlds to manage the day- to-day projects in the organization. Thus, the combined approaches could deliver customer focused and high quality products or services while satisfying the business needs or business case of the organization. At the end of the day, the objective of the project is to deliver high quality products or services to the customers while satisfying the business needs of the organization. 1.2.4 AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS (AIA) The American Institute of Architects (AIA) is a professional organization for architects in the United States. The AIA offers education, government advocacy, community redevelopment, and public outreach to support the architecture profession and improve its public image. The AIA also works with other members of the design and construction team to help coordinate the building industry. AIA Best Practices represent the collective wisdom of AIA members and related professionals. As a group, they are: A compendium of relevant knowledge gained from experience Immediately applicable to a task at hand Distilled to their essentials Usable information Linked to related resources Kept relevant and up-to-date by inviting feedback from practicing professionals 1.2.4.1 AIA KEY PHASES FOR MANAGING ENGINEERING PROJECTS 1.2.4.1.1 Schematic Design Phase. Schematic design establishes the general scope, conceptual design, and scale and relationships among the conceptual design, and scale and relationships among the components of a project. The primary objective is to arrive at a clearly defined, feasible concept and to present it in a form that achieves client understanding and acceptance. The secondary objectives are to clarify the project program, explore the most promising alternative design solutions, and provide a reasonable basis for analyzing the cost of the project. 1.2.4.1.2 Design Development Phase During design development, the design team works out a clear, coordinated description of all aspects of the design.
    • Unified Project Management Methodology (UPMM) CHAPTERONE 1.2.4.1.3 Construction Documentation Phase. The development of the construction documentation is an extension of the design process. The project documents typically consist of the project manual and the project drawings. The drawings include architectural, structural, mechanical, electrical, civil, landscape, interior design, and other specialty drawings. 1.2.4.1.4 Bidding or Negotiation Phase In the bidding/negotiation phase, the architect assists the client in obtaining competent construction bids or negotiating the construction bids or negotiating the construction contract. 1.2.5 CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS INSTITUTE OVERVIEW The Construction Specifications Institute (CSI) is an organization that maintains and advances the standardization of construction language as pertains to building specifications. CSI authored MasterFormat, which is an indexing system for organizing construction data, particularly construction specifications. In November 2004, MasterFormat was expanded to 50 Divisions, reflecting the growing complexity of the construction industry, as well as the need to incorporate facility life cycle and maintenance information into the building knowledge base. In this way, MasterFormat will eventually help facilitate Building Information Modeling (BIM) to contain project specifications. MasterFormat helps architects, engineers, owners, contractors, and manufacturers classify how various products are typically used. 1.2.5.1 CSI AND THE ‘FACILITY LIFE CYCLE’ CSI best practice is built around a facility life cycle. The life cycle runs from conception of an idea to the eventual deconstruction/demolition of the facility and subsequent reuse of the site. 1.2.5.1.1 Project Conception An owner identifies a need and completes planning activities to verify feasibility, secure financial resources, develop a facility program, and identify a site. 1.2.5.1.2 Design The project team evaluates preliminary studies, collected data, program requirements, and the budget and schedule to seek issues and form design solutions. Typically the design process occurs in a series of phases (schematic design, design development). 1.2.5.1.3 Construction Documents The A/E team prepares the graphic and written documents needed to define the project for pricing, regulatory approvals, and construction purposes. 1.2.5.1.4 Procurement (Bidding/Negotiating/Purchasing) The project price is determined. Project price may be determined prior to, in conjunction with, or following development of construction documents, depending on the project delivery method selected.
    • Unified Project Management Methodology (UPMM) CHAPTERONE 1.2.5.1.5 Construction The project is constructed in accordance with the contract documents and regulatory requirements. 1.2.5.1.6 Facility Management The completed facility is placed in service. This includes operations and maintenance procedures. 1.2.5.1.7 Project Conception (full cycle) The facility evaluation may identify needs that lead to expansion, remodeling, renovation, or restoration of an existing facility to accommodate growth or changes in function, or may result in abandonment, deconstruction, sale, or adaptive reuse of an existing facility. Typical project stages from the CSI perspective include: Documents produced Stages Activities Owner A/E ContractorProject Feasibility study Programme Reports, analysis,conception Programming Site Budget recommendation Analysis site Schedule selectionDesign Schematic design Survey and Schematic drawings geotechnical data Sketches Renderings Diagrams Conceptual Plans Elevations Sections Preliminary project description Cost projections Design Development Drawings Plans Elevations Sections Typical details Engineering Design criteria Equipment layouts Outline specifications Revised cost projectionsConstruction Construction Solicitation Detailed drawingsdocumentation documents – final instructions for Plans design procurement Elevations Bid/proposal form Sections General conditions Typical details Supplementary Schedules conditions Specifications Bidding requirements
    • Unified Project Management Methodology (UPMM) CHAPTERONE Revised cost projectionsBidding/Negotiati Competitive bidding Request for Addenda Bidng/Purchasing or contract proposal Bid security negotiations Purchase orders Direct purchasing of goods and suppliesConstruction Mobilization Payment Modifications Permits Construction certificates Schedules Contract Shop drawings administration Certificates Project closeout Records documents Warranties Operational and maintenance dataFacility Occupancy Maintenance Post occupancy reports Warrantymanagement Operations/ records and analysis service records maintenance Evaluations Repairs 1.2.6 MANAGING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE Change Management as a best practice should not be seen as prescriptive. A ‘one- size-fits all‘ approach to managing change is ineffective, as each organization is different, with its own structure, history, culture and needs, and each change event is different. The characteristics of each change (type, breadth, size, origin etc.) also influence the way change is planned and effectively managed. Despite the range of approaches to change management, some common factors for delivering successful change exist. These factors apply across all large and complex organizations. 1.2.6.1 IMPORTANCE OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT AS A PRACTICE Change can be a time of exciting opportunity for some and a time of loss, disruption or threat for others. How such responses to change are managed can be the difference between surviving and thriving in a work or business environment. Change is an inherent characteristic of any organization and like it or not, all organizations whether in the public or private sector must change to remain relevant. All change whether from internal or external sources, large or small, involves adopting new mindsets, processes, policies, practices and behavior. Irrespective of the way the change originates, change management is the process of taking a planned and structured approach to help align an organization with the change.
    • Unified Project Management Methodology (UPMM) CHAPTERONE In its most simple and effective form, change management involves working with an organization‘s stakeholder groups to help them understand what the change means for them, helping them make and sustain the transition and working to overcome any challenges involved. From a management perspective it involves the organizational and behavioral adjustments that need to be made to accommodate and sustain change. Fundamentally, the basic goal of all change management is to secure buy-in to the change, and to align individual behavior and skills with the change. Meeting milestones is not the primary determinant of the success of a change project. Successful change also involves ensuring employees‘ capacity to adapt to and work effectively and efficiently in the new environment. The underlying basis of change management is that people‘s capacity to change can be influenced by how change is presented to them. Their capacity to adapt to change can shrink if they misunderstand or resist the change, causing barriers and ongoing issues. The rationale is that if people understand the benefits of change, they are more likely to participate in the change and see that it is successfully carried out, which in turn means minimal disruption to the organization. There are five key factors common to success in managing organizational change. While each organization needs to consider the best way to approach change based on their particular cultural and stakeholder perspectives, factors common to successful change management involve: 1. Planning: developing and documenting the objectives to be achieved by the change and the means to achieve it. 2. Defined governance: establishing appropriate organizational structures, roles, and responsibilities for the change that engage stakeholders and support the change effort. 3. Committed leadership: ongoing commitment at the top and across the organization to guide organizational behavior, and lead by example. 4. Informed stakeholders: encouraging stakeholder participation and commitment to the change, by employing open and consultative communication approaches to create awareness and understanding of the change throughout the organization. 5. Aligned workforce: identifying the human impacts of the change, and developing plans to align the workforce to support the changing organization. The extent to which each of these five factors is exhibited in successful change projects will vary depending on the nature of the change involved. Further, while particular initiatives and projects have a finite timeframe, change is
    • Unified Project Management Methodology (UPMM) CHAPTERONE an ongoing process, so it can be hard to identify successful change. Moreover change programs that are initially perceived as a success can later be declared problematic as commitment wanes and people revert to old practices. In the final analysis, change is successful when it becomes institutionalized and part of "the way we do things around here," and like other processes, benefits from ongoing monitoring to ensure continuous improvement and relevance. 1.2.6.2 MANAGING CHANGES – THE KEY FACTORS 1.2.6.2.1 Planning Set a clear vision Identify the case for change Develop a change plan and measures Document your plan 1.2.6.2.2 Defined Governance Establish appropriate organizational structures, roles and responsibilities for the change, that encourage stakeholders and support the change effort Ensure these roles and structures are well understood 1.2.6.2.3 Committed Leadership Change starts at the top Leaders must visibly support the change Ensure continuous engagement regarding the change Assess readiness for the change and make adjustments accordingly Take action to resolve issues 1.2.6.2.4 Informed Stakeholders Poor Communication = Poor change Communication should be integral to the change plan – not an afterthought Know your stakeholders Communicate the vision, benefits and impacts Communicate frequently, actively and across multiple channels Monitor the responses 1.2.6.2.5 Aligned Workforce Understand the human impacts Conduct proper workforce planning, involving: o Needs assessment based upon the change o Workforce development that aligns with the change 1.2.7 GIS (GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS) A geographic information system (GIS) integrates hardware, software, and data for capturing, managing, analyzing, and displaying all forms of geographically referenced information. Implementing a GIS allows us to view, understand, question, interpret, and visualize data in many ways that reveal relationships, patterns, and trends in the form of maps, globes, reports, and charts.
    • Unified Project Management Methodology (UPMM) CHAPTERONE A GIS helps answer questions and solve problems by looking at data in a way that is quickly understood and easily shared. GIS benefits organizations of all sizes and in almost every industry. There is a growing awareness of the economic and strategic value of GIS. 1.2.7.1 BENEFITS OF GIS The benefits of GIS generally fall into five basic categories: Cost Savings and Increased Efficiency Better Decision Making Improved Communication Better Recordkeeping Managing Geographically 1.2.7.1.1 Cost Savings and Increased Efficiency GIS is widely used to optimize maintenance schedules and daily fleet movements. Typical implementations can result in a savings of 10 to 30 percent in operational expenses through reduction in fuel use and staff time, improved customer service, and more efficient scheduling. 1.2.7.1.2 Better Decision Making GIS is the go-to technology for making better decisions about location. Common examples include real estate site selection, route/corridor selection, evacuation planning, conservation, natural resource extraction, etc. Making correct decisions about location is critical to the success of an organization. 1.2.7.1.3 Improved Communication GIS-based maps and visualizations greatly assist in understanding situations and in storytelling. They are a type of language that improves communication between different teams, departments, disciplines, professional fields, organizations, and the public. 1.2.7.1.4 Better Recordkeeping Many organizations have a primary responsibility of maintaining authoritative records about the status and change of geography. GIS provides a strong framework for managing these types of records with full transaction support and reporting tools. 1.2.7.1.5 Managing Geographically GIS is becoming essential to understanding what is happening—and what will happen—in geographic space. Once we understand, we can prescribe action. This new approach to management—managing geographically—is transforming the way that organizations operate. As part of the required technology, the UPMM will build a virtual environment to document, and spatially map all components of the University Campus facilities and infrastructure to facilitate the operation & maintenance, space planning, security management, among other things. It is envisaged that the system will be based on an enterprise GIS database, and utilize different GIS tools to efficiently manipulate the spatial data to perform their day-to-day tasks efficiently.
    • Unified Project Management Methodology (UPMM) CHAPTERONE 1.2.8 BUILDING INFORMATION MODELLING (BIM) One of the key technologies within the UPMM is the establishment of the ‗Building Information Modelling‘ (BIM). Building information modeling (BIM) is a process involving the generation and management of digital representations of physical and functional characteristics of a facility. The UPMM can use the resulting building information models as a shared knowledge resources to support decision-making about a facility from earliest conceptual stages, through design and construction, through its operational life and eventual demolition. Definition Building Information Modeling (BIM) is a digital representation of physical and functional characteristics of a facility. A BIM is a shared knowledge resource for information about a facility forming a reliable basis for decisions during its life-cycle; defined as existing from earliest conception to demolition. Traditional building design has largely been reliant upon two-dimensional drawings (plans, elevations, sections, etc.). Building information modeling extends this beyond 3-D, augmenting the three primary spatial dimensions (width, height and depth - X, Y and Z) with time as the fourth dimension and cost as the fifth. BIM design tools allow extraction of different views from a building model for drawing production and other uses. BIM software also defines objects parametrically; that is, the objects are defined as parameters and relations to other objects, so that if a related object is amended, dependent ones will automatically also change. For the consultant within the UPMM BIM enables a virtual information model to be handed from the design team (architects, surveyors, civil, structural and building services engineers, etc.) to the main contractor and subcontractors and then on to the owner/operator; each professional adds discipline-specific data to the single shared model. This reduces information losses that traditionally occurred when a new team takes ownership of the project, and provides more extensive information to owners of complex structures. 1.2.8.1 BIM THROUGHOUT THE PROJECT LIFE-CYCLE Use of BIM goes beyond the planning and design phase of the project, extending throughout the building life cycle, supporting processes including cost management, construction management, project management and facility operation. 1.2.8.2 BIM IN CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Participants in the building process are constantly challenged to deliver successful projects despite tight budgets, limited manpower, accelerated schedules, and limited or conflicting information. The BIM concept envisages virtual construction of a facility prior to its actual physical construction, in order to reduce uncertainty, improve safety, work out problems, and simulate and analyze potential impacts. Sub-contractors from every trade can input critical information into the model before beginning construction, with opportunities to pre-fabricate or pre-assemble
    • Unified Project Management Methodology (UPMM) CHAPTERONE some systems off-site. Waste can be minimized on-site and products delivered on a just-in-time basis rather than being stock-piled on-site. Quantities and shared properties of materials can be extracted easily. Scopes of work can be isolated and defined. Systems, assemblies and sequences can be shown in a relative scale with the entire facility or group of facilities. BIM also prevents errors by enabling conflict or clash detection whereby the computer model visually highlights to the team where parts of the building (e.g.: structural frame and building services pipes or ducts) may wrongly intersect. 1.2.8.3 BIM IN FACILITY OPERATION BIM can bridge the information loss associated with handing a project from design team, to construction team and to building owner/operator, by allowing each group to add to and reference back to all information they acquire during their period of contribution to the BIM model. This can yield benefits to the facility owner and operator. For example, if the facility operator finds evidence of a leak in a building, rather than exploring the physical building, it is possible to turn to the model and see that a water valve is located in the suspect location. It is also possible to include in the model the specific valve size, manufacturer, part number, and any other information ever researched in the past, pending adequate computing power. To achieve the stated aims, the BIM will achieve the following high-level objectives for the UPMM: Improved visualization Improved productivity due to easy retrieval of information Increased coordination of construction documents Embedding and linking of vital information such as vendors for specific materials, location of details and quantities required for estimation and tendering Increased speed of delivery Reduced costs BIM can be used as a database throughout the life of the building Spatial conflicts in a building model can be checked automatically. Because of this capability, at both the design and shop drawing levels, errors and change orders due to internal errors are greatly reduced 1.2.9 SERVICE MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK (SMF) The SMF is the overarching management best-practice framework that provides the foundation for the UPMM. The SMF provides a set of processes and procedures that are efficient, reliable and adaptable to meet the needs of the full project lifecycle through strategy (portfolio and programme management), tactical (project management) and operational levels (facility management, maintenance and service delivery). In the modern world the concept of having a strategy to drive a business forward with adequate planning and design transitioning into day-to-day operation is compelling. In this ever-changing world the provision of a clear and precise
    • Unified Project Management Methodology (UPMM) CHAPTERONE strategy that aligns the business requirements with the service provider, ensuring that the service provider becomes a strategic partner, has never been more important. The principles contained within SMF have been proven countless times in the real world and are based on international best practice in service provision. The practice of continual service improvement is one of the cornerstones of the SMF. 1.2.9.1 STRATEGIC LEVEL The strategic level of the SMF is concerned with value creation and begins with understanding organizational objectives and customer needs. It is at this level that the SMF supports the UPMM‘s Portfolio Management and Programme Management methodologies. The strategic level of the SMF provides guidance on how to view service management not only as an organizational capability but as a strategic asset. It describes the principles underpinning the practice of service management which are useful for developing service management policies, guidelines and processes all levels of the SMF. This level of the SMF is about ensuring that any business is in a position to handle the costs and risks associated with their portfolio, and are set up not just for operational effectiveness but for distinctive performance. This level will assist the business to stop and think about why something is to be done before thinking of how. The diagram below shows the processes within the strategy lifecycle of the SMF. Strategy Processes ( UPMM) Con nual Improvement Strategy Opera ons & Maintenance FM DM Chartered Service Financial Demand Management Management SM Commissioned Strategy Management Service BRM SPM Design Business Build Service Por olio Rela onship Management 10/9/2012 ( UPMM ) – Eng. Sulaiman Saleh Al-Freidi 32 1.2.9.2 TACTICAL LEVEL The tactical level of the SMF describes best practice for designing and transitioning (building) services into supported environments. This level of the SMF has a direct
    • Unified Project Management Methodology (UPMM) CHAPTERONE relationship with the UPMM project delivery. For services to provide true value to the business, they must be designed with the business objectives in mind. The tactical level of the SMF turns the service strategy into a plan for delivering the business objectives. The tactical level provides guidance for the design and development of services and service management practices. It covers design principles and methods for converting strategic objectives into portfolios of services and service assets. The tactical level also provides guidance for the development and improvement of capabilities for introducing new and changed services into supported environments while providing guidance on managing the complexity related to changes to services and service management processes, preventing undesired consequences while allowing for innovation. This level also introduces the knowledge management system, which can support organizational learning and help to improve the overall efficiency and effectiveness of programme and project delivery as well as operations and maintenance. This will enable people to benefit from the knowledge and experience of others, support informed decision-making, and improve the management of services. The diagram below shows the processes within the design lifecycle of the SMF. Design Processes ( UPMM) Con nual Improvement Design DC BCM Opera ons & Maintenance Design Business Chartered Service Coordina on Con nuity SM Management Security Management SLM CM Commissioned Service Level Capacity Service Management Management SM Supplier Management Strategy SCM AM Service Catalog Build Availability Management Management 10/9/2012 ( UPMM ) – Eng. Sulaiman Saleh Al-Freidi 33 The diagram below shows the processes within the build lifecycle of the SMF.
    • Unified Project Management Methodology (UPMM) CHAPTERONE Build Processes ( UPMM) Con nual Improvement Build Opera ons & Maintenance SVT KM Service Knowledge Chartered Service Valida on Management and Tes ng TPS ChM CE Commissioned Transi on Change Change Planning and Service Management Evalua on Support Strategy ACM RDM Design Assets and Release and Configura on Deployment Management Management 10/9/2012 ( UPMM ) – Eng. Sulaiman Saleh Al-Freidi 34 1.2.9.3 OPERATIONAL LEVEL The Operational level of the SMF describes best practice for managing services in supported environments. It includes guidance on achieving effectiveness and efficiency in the delivery and support of services to ensure value for the customer, the users and the service provider. Strategic objectives are ultimately realized through service operation, therefore making it a critical capability for any service provider. The Operations level provides guidance on how to maintain stability in service operation, allowing for changes in design, scale, scope and service levels. The UPMM will provide detailed process guidelines, methods and tools for use in two major control perspectives: reactive and proactive. This will allow the service provider within the UPMM with knowledge allowing them to make better decisions in areas such as managing the availability of services, controlling demand, optimizing capacity utilization, scheduling of operations, and avoiding or resolving service incidents and managing problems. The diagram below shows the processes within the operations lifecycle of the SMF.
    • Unified Project Management Methodology (UPMM) CHAPTERONE Operations Processes ( UPMM) ) UMI-EPM Con nual Improvement Opera ons & Maintenance PM AccM Problem Access Chartered Service Management Management IM Commissioned Incident Service Management Strategy EM RF Design Event Request Build Management Fullfilm ent l 10/9/2012 ( UPMM ) – Eng. Sulaiman Saleh Al-Freidi 35