Open Annotation: Annotating High Energy Physics on the Web

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Presentation given at AAHEP5 (Cornell University) on Sept 22nd, 2011 about the use of Open Annotation.

Presentation given at AAHEP5 (Cornell University) on Sept 22nd, 2011 about the use of Open Annotation.

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  • 1. Open Annotation:Annotating Scholarly Communication on the Web Robert Sanderson rsanderson@lanl.gov Los Alamos National Laboratory @azaroth42 Herbert Van de Sompel herbertv@lanl.gov Los Alamos National Laboratory @hvdsomp http://www.openannotation.org/ This research is funded, in part, by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Open Annotation 1 AAHEP5, 22nd of September 2011, Ithaca, NY
  • 2. Overview•  Motivation•  Open Annotation Model •  Basics •  Segments •  Resources Changing over Time •  Machine Annotations•  Network Model•  Quick Demo Open Annotation 2 AAHEP5, 22nd of September 2011, Ithaca, NY
  • 3. Scholarly CommunicationScholarly Communication is increasingly: •  Online •  Open •  Distributed •  Collaborative •  Data-OrientedAnnotation is a scholarly primitive, spanning discipline and level.Need to ensure that Digital Annotations fall under these headings! •  Apply the standards and architecture of the World Wide Web to the Annotation use case. •  Even if scholar doesn’t share annotations with others, she will want to access them from different tools and environments. Open Annotation 3 AAHEP5, 22nd of September 2011, Ithaca, NY
  • 4. Open Annotation Collaboration http://www.openannotation.org/Focus on interoperable sharing of annotations •  Web-centric and open, not locked down silos •  Create, consume and interact in different environments •  Build from a simple model for simple cases, to more detailed for complex scholarly annotation requirementsThe Collaboration: •  Los Alamos National Laboratory •  University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign •  University of Queensland •  University of Maryland •  George Mason University •  … plus many adopters and partners Open Annotation 4 AAHEP5, 22nd of September 2011, Ithaca, NY
  • 5. Open Annotation Data ModelDesign Guidelines: •  Based on the Architecture of the World Wide Web •  … and on Linked Open Data •  Should be general enough for ease of adoption •  … and rich enough to cover scholarly use casesStatus: Beta, with 9 ongoing funded experiments to inform 1.0Hardest part: Define what an Annotation is! •  "Aboutness" is key to distinguish from general metadata A document that describes how one resource is about one or more other resources, or part(s) thereof. Open Annotation 5 AAHEP5, 22nd of September 2011, Ithaca, NY
  • 6. Basic ModelThe basic model has three resources: •  Annotation (an RDF document) •  Body (the ‘comment’ of the annotation) •  Target (the resource the Body is ‘about’) Open Annotation 6 AAHEP5, 22nd of September 2011, Ithaca, NY
  • 7. Basic Model Example Open Annotation 7AAHEP5, 22nd of September 2011, Ithaca, NY
  • 8. Additional Relationships and PropertiesAny of the resources can have additional information attached,such as creator, date of creation, title, etc. Open Annotation 8 AAHEP5, 22nd of September 2011, Ithaca, NY
  • 9. Additional Properties Example Open Annotation 9 AAHEP5, 22nd of September 2011, Ithaca, NY
  • 10. Annotation TypesThere can be further types of Annotation, such as a Reply.Example: Replies are Annotations on Annotations. Open Annotation 10 AAHEP5, 22nd of September 2011, Ithaca, NY
  • 11. Annotation Types Example Open Annotation 11 AAHEP5, 22nd of September 2011, Ithaca, NY
  • 12. Inline InformationIt is important to be able to have content contained within theAnnotation document for Client Autonomy: •  Clients may be unable to mint new URIs for every resource •  Clients may wish to transmit only a single document •  Third parties can generate new URIs if the client does notThe W3C has a Content in RDF specification: •  http://www.w3.org/TR/Content-in-RDF10/ Open Annotation 12 AAHEP5, 22nd of September 2011, Ithaca, NY
  • 13. Inline Information: Body•  We introduce a resource identified by a non resolvable URI, such as a UUID URN, as the Body.•  We then embed the data within the Annotation document using chars’ from Content in RDF. Open Annotation 13 AAHEP5, 22nd of September 2011, Ithaca, NY
  • 14. Inline Body Example Open Annotation 14AAHEP5, 22nd of September 2011, Ithaca, NY
  • 15. Multiple TargetsThere are many use cases for multiple targets for an Annotation: •  Comparison of two or more resources •  Making a statement that applies to all of the resources •  Making a statement about multiple parts of a resourceThe OAC Data Model allows for multiple targets by simply havingmore than one hasTarget relationship. Open Annotation 15 AAHEP5, 22nd of September 2011, Ithaca, NY
  • 16. Multiple Targets Example Open Annotation 16 AAHEP5, 22nd of September 2011, Ithaca, NY
  • 17. Segments of ResourcesMost annotations are about part of a resourceDifferent segments for different media types: •  Text: paragraph, arbitrary span of words •  Image: rectangular or arbitrary shaped area •  Audio: start and end time points, track name/number •  Video: area and time points •  Other: slice of a data set, volume in a 3d object, … Open Annotation 17 AAHEP5, 22nd of September 2011, Ithaca, NY
  • 18. Segments of ResourcesWeb Architecture Segmentation: •  A URI with a Fragment identifies part of the resource: •  IETF Mime-type fragment identifiers; eg xpointer •  W3C Media Fragments URI specification for simple segments of media: http://www.w3.org/TR/media-frags/We introduce a method of constraining resources: •  Introduce an approach for arbitrarily complex segments that cannot be expressed using Fragments •  Can be applied to Body or Target resource Open Annotation 18 AAHEP5, 22nd of September 2011, Ithaca, NY
  • 19. Segments of Resources: IETF Fragment URIsURI Fragments are a syntax for creating subsidiary URIs thatidentify part of the main resourceThe syntax is defined per media type: •  X/HTML: The named anchor or identified element •  XML: An XPointer to the element(s) •  PDF: Many options, especially page and viewrect •  Plain Text: Either by character position or line position Open Annotation 19 AAHEP5, 22nd of September 2011, Ithaca, NY
  • 20. Segments of Resources: W3C Media FragmentsMedia Fragments allow anyone to create URIs that identify part ofan image, audio or video resource.The most common case is for rectangular areas of images: •  http://www.example.org/image.jpg#xywh=50,100,640,480Link to the full resource as well, for all Fragment URIs Open Annotation 20 AAHEP5, 22nd of September 2011, Ithaca, NY
  • 21. Media Fragments Example Open Annotation 21 AAHEP5, 22nd of September 2011, Ithaca, NY
  • 22. Complex ConstraintsFragment URIs are not always possible •  Introduce a Constraint that describes the segment of interest •  And a ConstrainedTarget that identifies the segment of interest •  Constraints are entire resources, so can be more expressive •  Constraints may also describe contextual information Open Annotation 22 AAHEP5, 22nd of September 2011, Ithaca, NY
  • 23. Constraint Example Open Annotation 23AAHEP5, 22nd of September 2011, Ithaca, NY
  • 24. Constrained BodyThe Body may also be constrained in the same way as Targets Open Annotation 24 AAHEP5, 22nd of September 2011, Ithaca, NY
  • 25. Web-Centric Annotation: No PersistenceGoogle Sidewiki Annotation on http://news.bbc.co.uk/ as of 2010-06-14 Open Annotation 25 2 AAHEP5, 22nd of September 2011, Ithaca, NY
  • 26. Web-Centric Annotation: No Annotations Archived page from:http://www.dracos.co.uk/work/bbc-news-archive/2010/03/08/07.05.html Open Annotation 26 2 AAHEP5, 22nd of September 2011, Ithaca, NY
  • 27. Web-Centric Annotation: Desired Cross-Linking Open Annotation 27 2 AAHEP5, 22nd of September 2011, Ithaca, NY
  • 28. Annotations and TimeThere are three different types of Annotation with respect to Time: •  Timeless Annotations •  These are always relevant, regardless of the current state of the resources. This is the base model. •  Uniform Annotations •  There is a single timestamp at which all of the resources should be considered. •  Varied Annotations •  Each of the resources (Body, Targets) should be considered at a different time. Open Annotation 28 2 AAHEP5, 22nd of September 2011, Ithaca, NY
  • 29. Uniform AnnotationsIf the same time is applicable to all resources, we attach it to theAnnotation using the oac:when predicate. Open Annotation 29 2 AAHEP5, 22nd of September 2011, Ithaca, NY
  • 30. Uniform Annotation Example Open Annotation 30 3 AAHEP5, 22nd of September 2011, Ithaca, NY
  • 31. Varied AnnotationsIf different timestamps are required for each resource, we useoac:when from an oac:WebTimeConstraint. Open Annotation 31 3 AAHEP5, 22nd of September 2011, Ithaca, NY
  • 32. Varied Annotation Example Open Annotation 32 3 AAHEP5, 22nd of September 2011, Ithaca, NY
  • 33. Finding Archived Resources with Memento Open Annotation 33 3 AAHEP5, 22nd of September 2011, Ithaca, NY
  • 34. Annotations for/by Machines?•  The Body consists of one or more Statements •  Human understandable: Text, Image, Video, Symbols, … •  Machine understandable: Data•  Humans can infer relationships and context, Machines cannot •  Need to be as explicit as possible •  Need structured information•  When would we do this? •  Attaching data to another resource •  Nano-Publications: publication of data for further processing •  Semantic Annotations Open Annotation 34 3 AAHEP5, 22nd of September 2011, Ithaca, NY
  • 35. Semantic Annotation: Single Named Entity Open Annotation 35 3 AAHEP5, 22nd of September 2011, Ithaca, NY
  • 36. Semantic Annotation: Entity Relationships Open Annotation 36 3 AAHEP5, 22nd of September 2011, Ithaca, NY
  • 37. Advantages of this Approach•  Only uses existing OAC constructions •  No new ‘isTopicOf’ or similar shortcut relationships •  Creator of Body is not confused with Creator of Annotation!•  Aligns very closely with human annotation practices•  Consistent model that scales from resource to part of resource •  Can annotate data extracted at most appropriate level •  Could extract from sentence/paragraph/section/entire text•  Consistent model that allows association of any amount of data: •  From Single Entity •  To scholarly discourse extraction from entire document Open Annotation 37 3 AAHEP5, 22nd of September 2011, Ithaca, NY
  • 38. Annotation ProtocolsUnlike previous systems, OpenAnnotation does not mandate aprotocol.No reliance on a client/servercombination gives the clientautonomy.Instead we promote a publish/subscribe methodology, whereannotations may be stored andconsumed from anywhere. Protocol: publish, subscribe, consume tied together Open Annotation 38 AAHEP5, 22nd of September 2011, Ithaca, NY
  • 39. Publish/Subscribe Method We don’t specify how this transfer should occurpublish Open Annotation 39 3 AAHEP5, 22nd of September 2011, Ithaca, NY
  • 40. Publish/Subscribe Method Nor this.publish subscribe Open Annotation 40 4 AAHEP5, 22nd of September 2011, Ithaca, NY
  • 41. Publish/Subscribe Method Nor this.publish subscribe consume Open Annotation 41 4 AAHEP5, 22nd of September 2011, Ithaca, NY
  • 42. Publish/Subscribe Advantages•  Client can use most appropriate method for transferring annotation to storage service •  May already be specified in certain domains •  Can use existing services without requiring direct adoption•  Annotations are web resources in their own right •  Can be protected for limited access using existing technology •  Have their own URIs by necessity, not good-will of service•  Promotes a market-place of services •  Archiving Annotations and resources for preservation •  Enriching with additional metadata and information •  Aggregation and curation to provide trusted annotation feeds Open Annotation 42 4 AAHEP5, 22nd of September 2011, Ithaca, NY
  • 43. Demo! http://www.shared-canvas.org/impl/demo3/•  Took the PDF of Dirac’s thesis on Quantum Mechanics and split into individual page images•  Allow transcription by annotation, and commentary by annotation•  Allows storage at different services, both public and private Open Annotation 43 4 AAHEP5, 22nd of September 2011, Ithaca, NY
  • 44. Thank You Robert Sanderson rsanderson@lanl.gov azaroth42@gmail.com @azaroth42 Web: http://www.openannotation.org/ Paper: http://arxiv.org/abs/1003.2643 Slides: http://slidesha.re/qolpwI Open Annotation 44AAHEP5, 22nd of September 2011, Ithaca, NY