Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Cultural Heritage

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Presentation given at UC Berkeley on 18th of April, 2014. Describes the benefits of Linked Data for Cultural Heritage, along with the details of IIIF and Open Annotation frameworks.

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Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Cultural Heritage

  1. 1. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 1 Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Robert Sanderson azaroth42@gmail.com azaroth@stanford.edu t: @azaroth42 Digital Library Systems and Services Stanford University http://iiif.io/ This research was primarily funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation
  2. 2. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 2 Linked Data Linked data is the super-structure over which content is stretched and experiences flow. We can move beyond classifying content using just hierarchies and start describing the real world richness that connects our content together. “ ” -- Dan Ramsden, BBC http://www.bbc.co.uk/academy/technology/article/art20130720153136618
  3. 3. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 3 Linked Data
  4. 4. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 4 Linked Data
  5. 5. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 5 Linked Data
  6. 6. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 6 Everything Needs an Identifier Imagine the reader’s / listener’s surprise to have these two confused... Audre Lorde 1934-1992 Civil Rights Activist Lorde 2012- Kiwi Solo Artist
  7. 7. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 7 Everything Needs an Identifier Or these two. Lordi 1992- Finnish Heavy Metal Lorde 2012- Kiwi Solo Artist
  8. 8. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 8 Identifiers: Building Blocks of Linked Data
  9. 9. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 9 Building Blocks of Linked Data The ability to bring resources together, regardless of where they are on the web, is crucial for cultural heritage
  10. 10. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 10 Building Blocks of Linked Data We can re-use blocks from different sets together making new applications from existing data
  11. 11. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 11 Linked Data for Cultural Heritage Dublin Core FOAF RDF/S OAI-ORE Europeana Data Model Digital Manuscripts to Europeana DPLA Data Model
  12. 12. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 12 Linked Data for Cultural Heritage Dublin Core FOAF RDF/S OAI-ORE Europeana Data Model Digital Manuscripts to Europeana DPLA Data Model
  13. 13. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 13 Europeana
  14. 14. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 14 Europeana -> Manuscriptorium
  15. 15. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 15 Manuscriptorium
  16. 16. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 16 Linked Data for Cultural Heritage Dublin Core FOAF RDF/S OAI-ORE Europeana Data Model Digital Manuscripts to Europeana DPLA Data Model
  17. 17. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 17 DPLA
  18. 18. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 18 DPLA -> Harvard
  19. 19. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 19 Harvard
  20. 20. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 20 DPLA
  21. 21. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 21 DPLA -> South Carolina
  22. 22. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 22 Meet Otto and Ben Otto Ege, 20th c. Biblioclast Ben Albritton 21st c. Manuscript Scholar
  23. 23. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 23 Meet Otto and Ben Otto Ege, 20th c. Biblioclast Ben Albritton 21st c. Manuscript Scholar
  24. 24. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 24 Otto Ege MS 1, as of 1940
  25. 25. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 25 Remnants of Otto Ege MS 1, as of 2014
  26. 26. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 26 Remnants of Otto Ege MS 1, as of 2014
  27. 27. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 27 Stanford’s Leaves of Ege MS 1
  28. 28. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 28 Welcome to Silo-ville Grain elevators, Caldwell, Idaho, by Lee Russell, 1941. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/fsac.1a34206/
  29. 29. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 29 Welcome to Silo-ville Grain elevators, Caldwell, Idaho, by Lee Russell, 1941. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/fsac.1a34206/ ?
  30. 30. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 30 Welcome to Silo-ville •  Every repository a silo à no interoperability •  Every app a one-off à massive overheads •  Every user forced to cope à much frustration Parker Data Store Parker App Rose Data Store Rose App BnF Data Store Gallica St. Gall Data Store St. Gall App X Data Store App X
  31. 31. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 31 Enter: IIIF International Image Interoperability Framework A global framework by which image-based resources …from any participating institution can be delivered in a standard way …via any compatible image server …for display, manipulation and annotation in any application, …to any user on the Web, …in any combination of elements.
  32. 32. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 32 International Image Interoperability Framework •  ARTstor •  Bibliothèque Nationale de France •  Bodleian Libraries, Oxford University •  British Library •  Cambridge University •  Cornell University •  DPLA •  Europeana •  e-codices •  Harvard University •  Johns Hopkins University •  le Louvre •  National Library of Denmark •  National Library of New Zealand •  National Library of Norway •  National Library of Wales •  Princeton University •  St. Louis University, TPEN •  Stanford University •  Wellcome Trust •  UK National Archives •  Yale University
  33. 33. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 33 International Image Interoperability Framework •  ARTstor •  Bibliothèque Nationale de France •  Bodleian Libraries, Oxford University •  British Library •  Cambridge University •  Cornell University •  DPLA •  Europeana •  e-codices •  Harvard University •  Johns Hopkins University •  le Louvre •  National Library of Denmark •  National Library of New Zealand •  National Library of Norway •  National Library of Wales •  Princeton University •  St. Louis University, TPEN •  Stanford University •  Wellcome Trust •  UK National Archives •  Yale University •  Bancroft Library, UC Berkeley?
  34. 34. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 34 Linked Data for Cultural Heritage Dublin Core FOAF RDF/S OAI-ORE Europeana Data Model Digital Manuscripts to Europeana Open Annotation EXIF IIIF Image Shared Canvas IIIF Presentation API
  35. 35. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 35 Linked Data for Cultural Heritage Dublin Core FOAF RDF/S OAI-ORE Europeana Data Model Digital Manuscripts to Europeana Shared Canvas IIIF Presentation API Open Annotation EXIF IIIF Image
  36. 36. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 36 Shared Canvas / IIIF Presentation API Just enough metadata to support a client presenting the digital Cultural Heritage Object for the user to understand what she is interacting with Why “Presentation API”? •  NOT a[nother] full semantic, bibliographic metadata “standard” •  NOT (necessarily) an internal format: transform into it •  Linked Open Data (RDF) •  Rationalization of (abstract) Shared Canvas data model •  Full support for annotation via Open Annotation •  http://iiif.io/api/metadata/1.0/
  37. 37. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 37 Shared Canvas • A Canvas is an empty space in which to build up a display
  38. 38. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 38 Shared Canvas • A Canvas is an empty space in which to build up a display • A SharedCanvas's top left and bottom right corners correspond to the equivalent corners of a page
  39. 39. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 39 Shared Canvas / Open Annotation •  Annotation links Image with Canvas
  40. 40. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 40 Shared Canvas / Open Annotation •  Annotation links Text with Canvas
  41. 41. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 41 Shared Canvas / Open Annotation
  42. 42. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 42 Benefits of Canvas Notion Multiple Images of same page •  Multi-spectral imaging, multiple digitizations, … Archimedes Palimpsest Multi-Spectral Images http://www.archimedespalimpsest.org/
  43. 43. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 43 Benefits of Canvas Notion No image of the page •  Hypothetical, lost, too fragile to digitize, … This page intentionally, but unfortunately, left blank Countless manuscripts, all around the world!
  44. 44. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 44 Benefits of Canvas Notion Partial images •  Fragments of page, details in high resolution, …
  45. 45. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 45 Benefits of Canvas Notion Non Image and External content •  Text – transcription, translation, edition, … •  Non-text transcription: diagrams, music •  Non text performance: audio, video
  46. 46. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 46 Benefits of Canvas Notion Content for a single canvas can come from multiple “repositories” •  Actually, all around the web…
  47. 47. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 47 Benefits of Canvas Notion Content for a single canvas can come from multiple “repositories” •  Actually, all around the web…
  48. 48. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 48 Shared Canvas: Primary Resources
  49. 49. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 49 Shared Canvas: Metadata
  50. 50. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 50 Shared Canvas: All Resources
  51. 51. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 51 IIIF Presentation API: URI Structure Base URL: {scheme}://{host}{/prefix}/{identifier}! ! Resources: {base}/manifest.json! {base}/sequence/{name}.json! {base}/canvas/{name}.json! {base}/annotation/{name}.json !
  52. 52. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 52 IIIF Presentation API: Response Syntax: JSON-LD! { // Canvas example! "@context":"http://www.shared-canvas.org/ns/context.json",! "@id":"http://www.example.org/iiif/book1/canvas/p1.json",! "@type":"sc:Canvas”,! "label":"p. 1”,! "height":1000,! "width":750,! "images": [! {"@type":"oa:Annotation”,! // annotation linking image to canvas …! }],! "otherContent": [! {"@type":"sc:AnnotationList",! // reference to list of non-image annotations …! }]! } ! ! !
  53. 53. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 53 Rant: RDF Serialization “RDF/XML was the Semantic Web’s 3 Mile Island incident” -- Manu Sporny, http://manu.sporny.org/2012/nuclear-rdf/ Or … RDF – Not in my back yard! •  Serializing a graph is, admittedly, hard •  RDF/XML is terrible, and too many others •  Web currently uses JSON as convenient transfer syntax •  JSON-LD allows transfer of RDF in syntax that does not require full RDF stack, just a JSON implementation •  … as available in every web browser •  Conclusion: Require JSON-LD •  http://json-ld.org/
  54. 54. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 54 JSON-LD Context Magic { // Canvas example! "@context":"http://www.shared-canvas.org/ns/context.json",! ! ! @context provides mapping for JSON keys into RDF. ! "sc":"http://www.shared-canvas.org/ns/",! "oa":"http://www.w3.org/ns/oa#",! "service":{! "@type":"@id", ! "@id":"sc:hasRelatedService"},! "height":{! "@type":"xsd:integer", ! "@id":"exif:height"},! "sequences":{! "@type":"@id",! "@id":"sc:hasSequences",! "@container":"@list"} !
  55. 55. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 55 Linked Data for Cultural Heritage Dublin Core FOAF RDF/S OAI-ORE Europeana Data Model Digital Manuscripts to Europeana Open Annotation EXIF IIIF Image Shared Canvas IIIF Presentation API
  56. 56. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 56 Open Annotation: Community Group Established W3C Community Group in 2011 Now 4th Largest of 174 groups: 125 participants W3C in the process of starting an Annotation Working Group http://www.w3.org/community/openannotation/ Interoperability between Annotation systems and platforms, by …following the Architecture of the Web …reusing existing web standards …providing a single, coherent model to implement …which is orthogonal to the domain of interest …without requiring adoption of specific platforms …while maintaining low implementation costs Mission:
  57. 57. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 57 Open Annotation: Basic Data Model http://www.openannotation.org/spec/core/
  58. 58. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 58 Open Annotation: Basic Data Model
  59. 59. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 59 Open Annotation: Specific Resources Specific Body and Specific Target resources identify the region of interest, and/or the state of the resource. Need to be able to describe the state of the resource, the segment of interest, and potentially styling hints for how to render it. We introduce: State Describes how to retrieve representation Selector Describes how to select segment Style Describes how to render/process segment Scope Describes context of the resource
  60. 60. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 60 Open Annotation: Specific Resources
  61. 61. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 61 Linked Data for Cultural Heritage Dublin Core FOAF RDF/S OAI-ORE Europeana Data Model Digital Manuscripts to Europeana Open Annotation EXIF IIIF Image Shared Canvas IIIF Presentation API
  62. 62. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 62 IIIF Image API Base URL: {scheme}://{host}{/prefix}/{identifier}! Image Resource: {base}/{region}/{size}/{rotation}/{quality}.{format}! !
  63. 63. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 63 IIIF Image API: Region Image Resource: {base}/{region}/{size}/{rotation}/{quality}.{format}! ! ! •  Full Image: {base}/full/full/0/native.jpg! ! •  Area by Pixels: {base}/100,100,640,480/full/0/native.jpg! ! •  Area by Percentage: {base}/pct:50,50,33,33/full/0/native.jpg!
  64. 64. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 64 IIIF Image API: Size Image Resource: {base}/{region}/{size}/{rotation}/{quality}.{format}! ! •  Full Image: {base}/full/full/0/native.jpg! •  Size by Pixels, forced aspect: {base}/full/640,480/0/native.jpg! •  Size by Pixels, aspect preserved: {base}/full/!640,480/0/native.jpg! •  Size by Percentage: {base}/full/pct:50/0/native.jpg! •  Size by Width, or by Height: ! {base}/full/,480/0/native.jpg! {base}/full/640,/0/native.jpg !
  65. 65. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 65 IIIF Image API: Rotation Image Resource: {base}/{region}/{size}/{rotation}/{quality}.{format}! ! •  Full Image: {base}/full/full/0/native.jpg! ! •  90 degree Rotation: {base}/full/full/90/native.jpg! {base}/full/full/180/native.jpg! {base}/full/full/270/native.jpg! ! •  Arbitrary Rotation: {base}/full/full/27.6/native.jpg! ! ! !
  66. 66. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 66 IIIF Image API: Quality Image Resource: {base}/{region}/{size}/{rotation}/{quality}.{format}! ! •  Full Image: {base}/full/full/0/native.jpg! ! •  Explicit Option: {base}/full/full/0/color.jpg! {base}/full/full/0/grey.jpg! {base}/full/full/0/bitonal.jpg! ! !
  67. 67. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 67 IIIF Image API: Format Image Resource: {base}/{region}/{size}/{rotation}/{quality}.{format}! ! •  Full Image: {base}/full/full/0/native.jpg! ! •  Other Options: {base}/full/full/0/native.png! {base}/full/full/0/native.tif! {base}/full/full/0/native.gif! {base}/full/full/0/native.jp2! {base}/full/full/0/native.pdf! ! !
  68. 68. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 68 IIIF Image API: Technical Info Information Resource, in JSON-LD: {base}/info.json! ! ! ! ! ! {! "@context":"http://library.stanford.edu/iiif/image-api/1.1/context.json",! "@id":"http://www.example.org/iiif/book1-p1",! "height": 6000,! "width": 4000,! "scale_factors": [ 1, 2, 4, 8 ],! "tile_height": 512,! "tile_width": 512,! "formats": ["jpg", "png", "gif" ],! "qualities": ["native", "color", "grey", "bitonal"],! "profile": "http://library.stanford.edu/iiif/image-api/1.1/
 compliance.html#level1"! } ! ! !
  69. 69. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 69 IIIF Application: Mise-en-Page
  70. 70. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 70 IIIF Application: Mirador
  71. 71. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 71 IIIF Application: Mirador (MeP fork)
  72. 72. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 72 Remnants of Otto Ege MS 1, as of 2014
  73. 73. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 73 Otto Ege MS 1, Reconstructed, in 2014
  74. 74. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 74 Otto Ege MS 1, Reconstructed, in 2014
  75. 75. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 75 Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Cultural Heritage
  76. 76. Linked Data and Images: Building Blocks for Digital Cultural Heritage Information Access Seminar, UC Berkeley, 18th of April 2014 76 Thank You Robert Sanderson azaroth42@gmail.com azaroth@stanford.edu @azaroth42 Web: http://iiif.io/ http://www.shared-canvas.org/ http://www.openannotation.org/ Slides: http://slidesha.re/xxxyyy Apologies for unattributed images!

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