Linked Data: Building Standards and Communities
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Linked Data: Building Standards and Communities

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    Linked Data: Building Standards and Communities Linked Data: Building Standards and Communities Presentation Transcript

    • Linked Data in Practice: Building Standards, Building Communities rsanderson@lanl.gov Robert Sanderson // azaroth42@gmail.com // @azaroth42 Linked Data in Practice: Building Standards and Communities Yale Digital Collections Center, Nov 19 2013, New Haven CT, USA 1
    • Overview •  Standards •  Linked Data: Advantages and Challenges •  Graph Structure •  Open World •  Ontologies and Identities •  Serialization Formats •  Communities WARNING: Packaged in a Factory Containing Controversy Linked Data in Practice: Building Standards and Communities Yale Digital Collections Center, Nov 19 2013, New Haven CT, USA 2
    • Standards Standards are essential: Infrastructure like Electricity Like Electricity, there can be more than one but having the adapters is always a pain Or Standards like USB... Linked Data in Practice: Building Standards and Communities Yale Digital Collections Center, Nov 19 2013, New Haven CT, USA 3
    • Building Standards Standards are about agreement. Technical side is easy compared to getting community engagement and support. (Much like herding cats) Linked Data in Practice: Building Standards and Communities Yale Digital Collections Center, Nov 19 2013, New Haven CT, USA 4
    • Building Web Standards The web has revolutionized communication, especially scholarly communication. Any modern communication standard needs to be a web standard Web Standards are about linking things together. Web Standards are about data. Linked Data is done using a Graph, expressed in a technical framework called RDF Linked Data in Practice: Building Standards and Communities Yale Digital Collections Center, Nov 19 2013, New Haven CT, USA 5
    • Graphs ü  Graphs are very powerful for modeling reality ü  Tree (like XML) is just a simple Graph ü  Don’t end up in semantic/syntactic hell (like XML) Linked Data in Practice: Building Standards and Communities Yale Digital Collections Center, Nov 19 2013, New Haven CT, USA 6
    • Graphs: Structure and Data Ø  Working with graphs must take structure into account Graph: Structure and Data important, but data currently treated as second class citizen Other: Only Data important, so easier to work with •  Can’t think about “documents” as all nodes/edges are stored together Linked Data in Practice: Building Standards and Communities Yale Digital Collections Center, Nov 19 2013, New Haven CT, USA 7
    • Graphs: Structure and Data Ø  Visualization is difficult to get right Ø  … and hard to know when it is right Ø  Documents “easy” to visualize Ø  Graph visualization almost universally terrible … because has to take structure into account Linked Data in Practice: Building Standards and Communities Yale Digital Collections Center, Nov 19 2013, New Haven CT, USA 8
    • Visualization Done Right http://www.facebook.com/note.php?note_id=469716398919 Linked Data in Practice: Building Standards and Communities Yale Digital Collections Center, Nov 19 2013, New Haven CT, USA 9
    • Not So Right Linked Data in Practice: Building Standards and Communities Yale Digital Collections Center, Nov 19 2013, New Haven CT, USA 10
    • Graphs Other structures don’t get as complicated because they lack the expressiveness of a graph Linked Data in Practice: Building Standards and Communities Yale Digital Collections Center, Nov 19 2013, New Haven CT, USA 11
    • The Open World ü  A Single Global Graph that everyone contributes to ü  ü  ü  ü  ü  Great for data re-use Global identities Richness of data from multiple sources Distributed: Can incrementally add to others descriptions Fits with the WWW: The Data Web Technically: If a statement is not asserted, then its truth-value is unknown, rather than false. Data: Painting has X’s signature Question: Does the painting have Y’s signature? Closed World: No Open World: I Don’t Know Linked Data in Practice: Building Standards and Communities Yale Digital Collections Center, Nov 19 2013, New Haven CT, USA 12
    • The Open World: Global Identities Jon publishes an Annotation about part of a web page. Linked Data in Practice: Building Standards and Communities Yale Digital Collections Center, Nov 19 2013, New Haven CT, USA 13
    • The Open World: Global Identities Brewster archives the page … and says where it is. ü  Without modifying the annotation at all! Linked Data in Practice: Building Standards and Communities Yale Digital Collections Center, Nov 19 2013, New Haven CT, USA 14
    • The Open World: Local Complexity Ø  Every assertion is considered true in all contexts Q: How do we say that Canvas 2 comes after Canvas 1, and Canvas 3 comes after Canvas 2? Linked Data in Practice: Building Standards and Communities Yale Digital Collections Center, Nov 19 2013, New Haven CT, USA 15
    • The Open World: Ordering Did you think this? Remember anyone can say anything, and it’s global… Linked Data in Practice: Building Standards and Communities Yale Digital Collections Center, Nov 19 2013, New Haven CT, USA 16
    • The Open World: Ordering Jane Freya Now there are two next links from Canvas 1, and our list is … a graph. Use Case: Manuscript has different page order at different times Linked Data in Practice: Building Standards and Communities Yale Digital Collections Center, Nov 19 2013, New Haven CT, USA 17
    • The Open World: Ordering ORE introduces proxy nodes, as not just order is local. Eg may wish to cite a resource in the context of a set of resources. Linked Data in Practice: Building Standards and Communities Yale Digital Collections Center, Nov 19 2013, New Haven CT, USA 18
    • The Open World: Ordering Shared Canvas uses multiple classes and the rdf:List construction. Serializations hide the list’s anonymous nodes. Linked Data in Practice: Building Standards and Communities Yale Digital Collections Center, Nov 19 2013, New Haven CT, USA 19
    • The Open World Local identity for local context is good practice! Think Globally Identify Locally Linked Data in Practice: Building Standards and Communities Yale Digital Collections Center, Nov 19 2013, New Haven CT, USA 20
    • Ontologies and Identities ü  Shared relationships increase interoperability ü  dc:title is ‘name’ or ‘label’, not property title or Dr. ü  Re-use of semantics makes it easier to build applications ü  Communities can develop own ontologies of relationships independently ü  Shared Identity makes it possible for graph to merge serendipitously ü  Everyone can mint own IDs using http URIs ü  By reusing ids, graphs will merge, creating new knowledge Linked Data in Practice: Building Standards and Communities Yale Digital Collections Center, Nov 19 2013, New Haven CT, USA 21
    • Ontologies and Identities Ø  “The nice thing about … Ontologies … is that there’s so many to choose from” Ø  Too many to choose from, hard to find the right one Ø  If almost right, do you reuse and hope for the best, or specialize and create yet another ontology? http://xkcd.com/927/ Linked Data in Practice: Building Standards and Communities Yale Digital Collections Center, Nov 19 2013, New Haven CT, USA 22
    • Ontologies and Identities Ø  “The nice thing about … Identities … is that there’s so many to choose from” Ø  Far far too many to choose from, hard to find the right one Ø  As anyone can create identity for anything, they do Ø  Identity can have a contextual component – does LANL’s identifier for Oppenheimer differ from DBPedia’s? Linked Data in Practice: Building Standards and Communities Yale Digital Collections Center, Nov 19 2013, New Haven CT, USA 23
    • Ontologies and Identities Standards! Communities! House of Representatives from Huffington Post http://www.flickr.com/photos/clydeorama/6693882429/ Linked Data in Practice: Building Standards and Communities Yale Digital Collections Center, Nov 19 2013, New Haven CT, USA 24
    • Serializations ü  The new JSON-LD format is pretty good {! "@context": "http://www.w3.org/ns/oa.json", ! "@id": "http://example.org/anno1", ! "@type": "oa:Annotation", ! "annotatedAt": "2012-11-10T09:08:07", ! "annotatedBy": {! "@id": "http://public.lanl.gov/rsanderson#me", ! "@type": "foaf:Person", ! "name": "Rob Sanderson"! }, ! “hasBody": {"chars": "This... is CNN.”}, ! “hasTarget": “http://www.cnn.com/”! }! Linked Data in Practice: Building Standards and Communities Yale Digital Collections Center, Nov 19 2013, New Haven CT, USA 25
    • Serializations Ø  The recommended RDF/XML is absolutely terrible Ø  “RDF/XML was the Semantic Web’s 3 Mile Island incident” -- Manu Sporny, http://manu.sporny.org/2012/nuclear-rdf/ Linked Data in Practice: Building Standards and Communities Yale Digital Collections Center, Nov 19 2013, New Haven CT, USA 26
    • Communities Building Community is hard! •  W3C Community Groups •  Funding •  Engagement not Argument •  Early Embedding •  Merge when possible Path may be longer together, but it’s better Linked Data in Practice: Building Standards and Communities Yale Digital Collections Center, Nov 19 2013, New Haven CT, USA 27
    • Thank You! Slides: http://www.slideshare.net/azaroth42/ xxx-yyy Open Annotation: http://www.openannotation.org/ http://www.w3.org/community/openannotation/ Shared Canvas: http://www.shared-canvas.org/ http://iiif.io/ Rob Sanderson: rsanderson@lanl.gov // azaroth42@gmail.com @azaroth42 // http://public.lanl.gov/rsanderson/ Linked Data in Practice: Building Standards and Communities Yale Digital Collections Center, Nov 19 2013, New Haven CT, USA 28