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British Library Seminar: Shared Canvas (September 2011)

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A detailed introduction to the technology behind Shared Canvas, and the data model for digital facsimiles of medeival manuscripts.

A detailed introduction to the technology behind Shared Canvas, and the data model for digital facsimiles of medeival manuscripts.

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  • 1. Introduction to SharedCanvas:Linked Data for Facsimile Display and Annotation Robert Sanderson rsanderson@lanl.gov Los Alamos National Laboratory Benjamin Albritton blalbrit@stanford.edu Stanford University http://www.shared-canvas.org/ This research is funded, in part, by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Introduction to SharedCanvas 1 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 2. Overview•  Quick Motivation•  Technology Background: •  RDF and Linked Data •  Object Reuse and Exchange (OAI-ORE) •  Open Annotation (OAC)•  SharedCanvas: •  Requirements •  Model by Example•  Making it Real: •  DMS Tech Group •  Implementations and Demos Introduction to SharedCanvas 2 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 3. MotivationDigital surrogates enable remote research•  Improve preservation of original, and digital preservation of surrogate•  Promotes collaboration via shared annotations and descriptionsA collaborative future:•  Rich landscape of interconnected repositories, with seamless user interfaces•  Improve efficiency and usability through open, shared development BNF f.fr 113, folio 1 recto Introduction to SharedCanvas 3 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 4. RequirementsTo Realize this Future:•  Need a standardized input format to digital facsimile presentation systems, to allow interoperability between and across repositoriesArchitectural Requirements:•  Ability to model primarily textual items, where the individual physical instance is an important cultural object•  Alignment of multiple Images, Texts, Commentary and other Content resources per folio•  The Content, and Services that act upon it, are distributed between institutions, and around the web Introduction to SharedCanvas 4 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 5. Naïve Approach: Transcribe Images DirectlyBut how to align multiple images, pages without images, fragments… ?! Introduction to SharedCanvas 5 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 6. Canvas ParadigmA Canvas is an empty space in which to build up a display •  HTML5, SVG, PDF, … even Powerpoint! •  Can "paint" many different resources, including text, images and audio, on to a CanvasWe can use a Canvas to represent a folio of a manuscript.Distributed nature is fundamental in the requirements •  Painting resources, commentary and collaboration •  Idea: Use Annotations to do all of those •  Annotations can target the Canvas instead of individual Images Introduction to SharedCanvas 6 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 7. Annotations to Paint Text/Image to Canvas Introduction to SharedCanvas 7 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 8. Technology: RDF and Linked DataCurrent technology of choice: XML •  XML files cant be built in a distributed, collaborative way. •  XMLs tree structure insufficientRDF (Resource Description Framework) is a Graph model •  W3C Standard: http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-primer/ •  A single, global graph of interconnected resources •  More Powerful … like the web •  More Complex … like the webLinked Data is RDF with some constraints •  More web friendly •  Much support from Industry, Academia and Government sectors •  "Semantic Web" done right! Introduction to SharedCanvas 8 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 9. Technology: RDF and Linked DataPrimitives: •  Resource Something of Interest •  Predicate Typed, directed Relationship •  Literal Data (string, integer, etc) •  Triple ( Resource, Predicate, Literal/Resource )Resource: •  Can be digital, physical or conceptual •  eg: An image file, an elephant, or "redness"Predicate: •  Can be Resource to Resource (relationship) •  X isPartOf Y •  Or Resource to Literal (property) •  X title "Froissarts Chronicles" Introduction to SharedCanvas 9 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 10. Technology: RDF SkittlesCircle = Resource, Arrow = Predicate, Oval = Literal, Rectangle = Class Introduction to SharedCanvas 10 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 11. Technology: RDF and Linked DataNamespaces: •  Interoperability comes from reusing Ontologies (namespaces) of predicates and resources •  eg Dublin Core, Open Annotation, SharedCanvas…Can define (multiple) Classes for resources •  Person, Image, Annotation, Canvas, … •  Class is just another resource referenced with rdf:type predicate •  X rdf:type ClassAll Resources and Predicates are identified by URIs •  Linked Data recommends resolvable HTTP URIsAll statements are globally true, not just within the current document Introduction to SharedCanvas 11 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 12. Technology: RDF and Linked DataSerializations: •  XML ugly (though recommended as default) •  Turtle much easier to read, but needs special parser •  JSON many competing formats, no standard yetXML:<dms:TranscriptionAnnotation rdf:about="urn:uuid:e7db526a…">! <oac:hasBody rdf:resource="http://anno.lanl.gov/m804/Line-f1r-37"/>! <oac:hasTarget ! rdf:resource="http://anno.lanl.gov/m804/View-f1r#xywh=696,1319,565,44"/>!</dms:TranscriptionAnnotation>!Turtle: <urn:uuid:e7db526a…> a dms:TranscriptionAnnotation;! ! oac:hasBody ex:Line-f1r-37;! ! oac:hasTarget ex:View-f1r#xywh=696,1319,565,44 .! Introduction to SharedCanvas 12 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 13. ORE: Aggregations of Web Resourceshttp://www.openarchives.org/ore/Aggregation: An abstract collection of resources, with an identityResource Map: A document that describes the Aggregation in RDFAR-1 and AR-2 can be any web resource Introduction to SharedCanvas 13 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 14. ORE: AggregationsAggregations may aggregate other Aggregations, but each must have its own Resource Map Introduction to SharedCanvas 14 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 15. ORE: AggregationsAggregations do not have a default order for the Aggregated ResourcesOrder can be imposed by RDF Lists Introduction to SharedCanvas 15 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 16. List/Aggregations•  How do those next linksactually work using anrdf:List?•  Verbose in full, butserializations have shortcutsto make this less ugly! Introduction to SharedCanvas 16 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 17. Technology: Open Annotation•  http://www.openannotation.org/•  Focus on interoperable sharing of annotations •  Web-centric and open, not locked down silos •  Create, consume and interact in different environments •  Build from a simple model for simple cases, to more detailed for complex scholarly annotation requirements•  Status: Beta, with 9 ongoing funded experiments to inform 1.0•  Hardest part: Define what an Annotation is! •  "Aboutness" is key to distinguish from general metadata A document that describes how one resource is about one or more other resources, or part thereof. Introduction to SharedCanvas 17 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 18. Basic ModelThe basic model has three resources: •  Annotation (an RDF document) •  Default: RDF/XML but others via Content Negotiation •  Body (the ‘comment’ of the annotation) •  Target (the resource the Body is ‘about’) Introduction to SharedCanvas 18 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 19. Basic Model Example Introduction to SharedCanvas 19British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 20. Additional Relationships and PropertiesAny of the resources can have additional information attached,such as creator, date of creation, title, etc. Introduction to SharedCanvas 20 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 21. Additional Properties Example Introduction to SharedCanvas 21British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 22. Annotation TypesThere can be further types of Annotation, such as a Reply.Example: Replies are Annotations on Annotations. Introduction to SharedCanvas 22 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 23. Annotation Types Example Introduction to SharedCanvas 23British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 24. Inline InformationIt is important to be able to have content contained within theAnnotation document for Client Autonomy: •  Clients may be unable to mint new URIs for every resource •  Clients may wish to transmit only a single document •  Third parties can generate new URIs if the client does notThe W3C has a Content in RDF specification: •  http://www.w3.org/TR/Content-in-RDF10/ Introduction to SharedCanvas 24 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 25. Inline Information: Body•  We introduce a resource identified by a non resolvable URI, suchas a UUID URN, as the Body.•  We then embed the data within the Annotation document usingthe chars property from the Content in RDF ontology. Introduction to SharedCanvas 25 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 26. Inline Body Example Introduction to SharedCanvas 26British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 27. Multiple TargetsThere are many use cases for multiple targets for an Annotation: •  Comparison of two or more resources •  Making a statement that applies to all of the resources •  Making a statement about multiple parts of a resourceThe OAC Data Model allows for multiple targets by simply havingmore than one hasTarget relationship. Introduction to SharedCanvas 27 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 28. Multiple Targets Example Introduction to SharedCanvas 28British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 29. Segments of ResourcesMost annotations are about part of a resourceDifferent segments for different media types: •  Text: paragraph, arbitrary span of words •  Image: rectangular or arbitrary shaped area •  Audio: start and end time points, track name/number •  Video: area and time points •  Other: slice of a data set, volume in a 3d object, … Introduction to SharedCanvas 29 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 30. Segments of ResourcesWeb Architecture Segmentation: •  A URI with a Fragment identifies part of the resource •  Media-specific fragment identifiers; eg XPointer for XML •  W3C Media Fragments URI specification for simple segments of media: http://www.w3.org/TR/media-frags/We introduce a method of constraining resources: •  Introduce an approach for arbitrarily complex segments that cannot be expressed using Fragments •  Can be applied to Body or Target resource Introduction to SharedCanvas 30 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 31. Segments of Resources: Fragment URIsURI Fragments are a syntax for creating subsidiary URIs thatidentify part of the main resourceThe syntax is defined per media type •  X/HTML: The named anchor or identified element •  http://www.example.net/foo.html#namedSection •  XML: An XPointer to the element(s) •  http://www.example.net/foo.xml#xpointer(/a/b/c) •  PDF: Many options, most relevant two operations: •  http://www.example.net/foo.pdf#page=2&viewrect=20,80,50,60 •  Plain Text: Either by character position or line position: •  http://www.example.net/foo.txt#char=0,10 •  http://www.example.net/foo.txt#line=1,5 Introduction to SharedCanvas 31 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England• :
  • 32. Segments of Resources: Media FragmentsMedia Fragments allow anyone to create URIs that identify part ofan image, audio or video resource.The most common case is for rectangular areas of images: •  http://www.example.org/image.jpg#xywh=50,100,640,480Link to the full resource as well, for all Fragment URIs Introduction to SharedCanvas 32 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 33. Media Fragments Example Introduction to SharedCanvas 33British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 34. Complex ConstraintsFragment URIs are not always possible •  Introduce a Constraint that describes the segment of interest •  And a ConstrainedTarget that identifies the segment of interest •  Constraints are entire resources, so can be more expressive •  Constraints may also describe contextual information Introduction to SharedCanvas 34 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 35. Constraint Example Introduction to SharedCanvas 35British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 36. RDF ConstraintsInstead of having the information in an external document, it could bewithin the RDF of the Annotation document.•  We can attach informationto the Constraint node•  Or use the Content in RDFspecification to include whatwould have been in theexternal document Introduction to SharedCanvas 36 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 37. RDF Constraint Example Introduction to SharedCanvas 37British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 38. Constrained BodyThe Body may also be constrained in the same way as Targets Introduction to SharedCanvas 38 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 39. Annotation ProtocolsUnlike previous systems, OpenAnnotation does not mandate aprotocol.No reliance on a client/servercombination gives the clientautonomy.Instead we promote a publish/subscribe methodology, whereannotations may be stored andconsumed from anywhere. Protocol: publish, subscribe, consume linked Introduction to SharedCanvas 39 3 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 40. Publish/Subscribe Methodpublish subscribe consume Introduction to SharedCanvas 40 4 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 41. Publish/Subscribe Methodpublish subscribe consume Introduction to SharedCanvas 41 4 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 42. Publish/Subscribe Methodpublish subscribe consume Introduction to SharedCanvas 42 4 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 43. Other Open Annotation TopicsSome other aspects of Open Annotation: •  Dealing with resources that change over time •  http://arxiv.org/abs/1003.2643 •  http://www.slideshare.net/azaroth42/ making-web-annotations-persistent-over-time •  Precedence when using multiple Constraints: •  http://www.openannotation.org/spec/beta/precedence.html •  Machine Annotations, when the body is structured data intended for machine consumption •  In the beta spec directly: http://www.openannotation.org/spec/beta/#DM_Structured Introduction to SharedCanvas 43 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 44. BREAK (Funny?) (Medieval) Picture of a Cat from the Web!http://romantoes.blogspot.com/2009/05/medievalist-cat-came-back.html Introduction to SharedCanvas 44 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 45. Motivating QuestionsMany implicit assumptions: •  What is a Manuscript? •  What is its relation to a facsimile? •  What is the relation of a transcription of a facsimile to the original object?What does this mean for digital tools?•  How do we rethink digital facsimiles in a shared, distributed, global space?•  How do we enable collaboration and encourage engagement? Ms MurF: 10.5076/e-codices-kba-0003 Introduction to SharedCanvas 45 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 46. MotivationDigital surrogates enable remote research•  Improve preservation of original, and digital preservation of surrogate•  Promotes collaboration via shared annotations and descriptionsA collaborative future:•  Rich landscape of interconnected repositories, with seamless user interfaces•  Improve efficiency and usability through open, shared development BNF f.fr 113, folio 1 recto Introduction to SharedCanvas 46 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 47. Baseline RequirementsTo Realize this Future:•  Need a standardized input format to digital facsimile presentation systems, to allow interoperability between and across repositoriesArchitectural Requirements:•  Ability to model primarily textual items, where the individual physical instance is an important cultural object•  Alignment of multiple Images, Texts, Commentary and other Content resources per folio•  The Content, and Services that act upon it, are distributed between institutions, and around the web Introduction to SharedCanvas 47 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 48. Domain RequirementsWorking at physical item level provides unique challenges!1. Only parts of pages may be digitized•  Only illuminations digitized•  Fragments of pages•  Multiple fragments per image Cod. Sang. 1394: 10.5076/e-codices-csg-1394 Introduction to SharedCanvas 48 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 49. Domain Requirements2. Page may not be digitized at all•  Not "interesting" enough This page intentionally,•  Digitization destructive but unfortunately, left blank•  Page no longer exists•  Page only hypothetical Introduction to SharedCanvas 49 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 50. Domain Requirements3. Non-rectangular pages•  Fashionable heart shaped manuscripts•  Fragments•  Pages with foldouts Facsimile of BNF Rothschild 2973 http://www.omifacsimiles.com/brochures/montchen.html Introduction to SharedCanvas 50 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 51. Domain Requirements4. Alignment of multiple images of same object•  Multi-spectral imaging•  Multiple resolutions•  Image tiling•  Microfilm vs photograph•  Multiple digitizations Archimedes Palimpsest Multi-Spectral Images http://www.archimedespalimpsest.org/ Introduction to SharedCanvas 51 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 52. Domain Requirements5. Multiple page orders over time•  Rebinding•  Scholarly disagreement on reconstruction6. Different pages of the manuscript held by different institutions Cod Sang 730: 10.5706/e-codices-csg-0730a Introduction to SharedCanvas 52 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 53. Domain Requirements7. Transcription of: •  Text •  Music •  Musical Notation •  Performance •  Diagrams Reusing existing resources, such as TEI, where possible8. Transcriptions both created and stored in a distributed way, with competing versions Parker CCC 008, f1r Introduction to SharedCanvas 53 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 54. Naïve Approach: Transcribe Images DirectlyBut how to align multiple images, pages without images, fragments… ?! Introduction to SharedCanvas 54 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 55. Canvas ParadigmA Canvas is an empty space in which to build up a display •  HTML5, SVG, PDF, … even Powerpoint! •  Can "paint" many different resources, including text, images and audio, on to a CanvasWe can use a Canvas to represent a folio of a manuscript.Distributed nature is fundamental in the requirements •  Painting resources, commentary and collaboration •  Idea: Use Annotations to do all of those •  Annotations can target the Canvas instead of individual Images Introduction to SharedCanvas 55 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 56. Canvas to Page RelationshipThe Canvass top left and bottom right corners correspond to the corners of a rectangular box around the folio Introduction to SharedCanvas 56 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 57. OAC Annotations to Paint ImagesWe can paint the canvas by annotating it with resources. Introduction to SharedCanvas 57 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 58. OAC Annotations to Paint Text Introduction to SharedCanvas 58British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 59. Transcription: Morgan 804 Introduction to SharedCanvas 59British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 60. Transcription: Morgan 804 Introduction to SharedCanvas 60British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 61. Fragments: Cod Sang 1394 Introduction to SharedCanvas 61British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 62. Musical Manuscripts: Parker CCC 008 Introduction to SharedCanvas 62 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 63. Missing Pages: Parker CCC 286 Introduction to SharedCanvas 63British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 64. Repeated Zones: Frauenfeld Y 112 Introduction to SharedCanvas 64British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 65. List/Aggregations for Ordering Introduction to SharedCanvas 65British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 66. Rebinding: BNF f.fr. 113-116 Introduction to SharedCanvas 66British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 67. Discovery: AggregationsThose Annotations could be anywhere on the web! •  Need to be able to discover them!Introduce a discovery layer of sets of Annotations. •  Currently by type of Annotation, and then by Folio eg: All ImageAnnotations, All text annotations for f1r •  Other divisions possible, just for discovery!Need a meta discovery layer to find the lists! •  Introduce a "Manifest" resource: •  List of all of the resources known for the facsimile Introduction to SharedCanvas 67 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 68. SharedCanvas: Data Model Introduction to SharedCanvas 68British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 69. Digital Manuscript Interoperability for Tools and RepositoriesOverview:  Andrew W. Mellon Foundation funded numerous manuscript digitization projects over several decades  All had in common:   Inability to share data across silos to satisfy scholarly use   Inability to leverage existing infrastructure   No sustainability model for data or access  Goal:   Interoperability between repositories and tools Introduction to SharedCanvas 69 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 70. Defining Interoperability•  Break down silos•  Separate data from applications•  Share data models and programming interfaces•  Enable interactions at the tool and repository level Introduction to SharedCanvas 70 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 71. Designing Modular Repositories and Tools3rd-Party Image Image Transcription Annotation Discovery Tool X? Analysis Viewer ToolsRepository User Image Viewer Discovery Interface Metadata (Canonical)Repository Image Data (Canonical) Introduction to SharedCanvas 71 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 72. Designing Modular Repositories and Tools 3rd-Party Annotation Image Image Discovery Tool X? Transcription Tools Analysis Viewer Repository User Image Viewer Discovery Interface Metadata (Canonical)Repository Image Data (Canonical) Introduction to SharedCanvas 72 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 73. Designing Modular Repositories and Tools Image Transcr Image Annotation Analysi Discovery Tool X? iption Viewer s Image Viewer Discovery Metadata (Canonical) Image Data (Canonical) Introduction to SharedCanvas 73 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 74. Service-based Discovery and Delivery Interactions•  Four primitives currently supported: o  Discovery -  New Name? -  http://dms-dev.stanford.edu/ o  Image Viewing -  Independent zpr viewer o  Annotation -  Digital Mappaemundi o  Transcription -  T-PEN Introduction to SharedCanvas 74 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 75. Rendering ImplementationRendering: •  Design considerations: •  Easy to reuse and extend, no* server side code •  Consume model directly from RDF •  Use existing, well-understood, documented libraries •  Pure Javascript (Rob) •  JQuery •  RDF extension for JQuery •  Audio Player extension •  iOS Touch support extension •  RaphaelJS for SVG (JQuery SVG not as easy, common)* Except one minimal reflection script to avoid XSS/CORS issues Introduction to SharedCanvas 75 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 76. Rendering ImplementationProcess: •  Fetch Manifest, Sequence, plus Lists of Annotations, via AJAX •  Populate menus from Manifest and Sequence •  Fetch any further resources needed, (TEI and SVG) •  Generate one or more canvases based on browser size •  Turn Annotation RDF/XML or n3 into JSON object for ease •  Process XPointer, Media Fragments into local structures •  Render annotations using HTML, or SVG if required, once all needed resources have been obtained •  Retrieve commentary annotations, both public (pastebin) and personal (blogger), and render Introduction to SharedCanvas 76 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 77. Rendering ImplementationDemos! •  Morgan 804 (transcription as string, detail images) •  http://www.shared-canvas.org/impl/demo1/ •  Worldes Blisce (audio, TEI transcription) •  http://www.shared-canvas.org/impl/demo2/ •  Selected Walters Museum Manuscripts (ranges, pan/zoom) •  http://www.shared-canvas.org/impl/demo4/ •  Archimedes Palimpsest (multi images, rotation, TEI transcription) •  http://www.shared-canvas.org/impl/demo5/ Introduction to SharedCanvas 77 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 78. Future Work•  Refine model based on community feedback, please!•  Improve implementations: •  Ease of creation for new canvases and sequences •  Improve User Interfaces (integrate zoom/pan, persistence) •  High end technical aspects (zones) •  Annotation filtering (spam will be an issue)•  Increase the community and adoption!•  Non Manuscript Use Cases: •  Scientific Papers, Theses/Dissertations •  http://www.shared-canvas.org/impl/demo3/ & …/demo3b/ •  Digitized Newspapers •  … Introduction to SharedCanvas 78 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 79. SummaryDistributed Canvas paradigm provides a coherent solution to modelingthe layout of medieval manuscripts •  Annotation, and Collaboration, at the heart of the model •  Distribution across repositories for images, text, commentary •  Granular accuracy, from full resource to non-rectangular segment •  Multiple page orders and Discovery via Aggregations SharedCanvas brings the humanists primary research objects to their desktop in a powerful, extensible and interoperable fashion Introduction to SharedCanvas 79 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England
  • 80. Thank You Robert Sanderson rsanderson@lanl.gov azaroth42@gmail.com @azaroth42 Ben Albritton blalbrit@stanford.edu Web: http://www.shared-canvas.org/ Paper: http://arxiv.org/abs/1104.2925 Slides: http://slidesha.re/XXXXX AcknowledgementsDMSTech Group: http://dmstech.group.stanford.edu/Open Annotation Collaboration: http://www.openannotation.org/ Introduction to SharedCanvas 80 British Library, 7th of September 2011, London, England