Figure 87-16 Diabetic macular edema. Color fundus photograph (left) of a 63-year-old man with diabetic macular edema and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy. Retinal edema is appreciated along with numerous exudates adjacent to the foveal center. Horizontal optical coherence tomography scan (right) through the fovea shows diffuse intraretinal cystic thickening with loss of the normal foveal depression. Intraretinal hyperreflective foci with posterior optical shadowing correspond to areas of retinal exudates seen clinically. A focal area of shallow subretinal fluid is noted centrally .
- caused by capillary occlusion in the retinal nerve fibre layer.
The interruption of axoplasmic flow caused by the ischaemia, and subsequent build-up of transported material within the nerve axons, is responsible for the white and opaque appearance of these lesions.
9. Dense cataract associated with vitreous haemorrhage .
Follow up Suggested follow-up Retinal Finding Annually Normal Every 9 months Mild NPDR Every 6 months Moderate NPDR Every 4 months Sever NPDR Every 2- 4 months CSME Every 6 months CNSME Every 2-3 months PDR