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Ectobal revitalization
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Ectobal revitalization

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    Ectobal revitalization Ectobal revitalization Document Transcript

    • ECTOBAL REVITALIZATION MATERIAL
    • NERVOUS SYSTEM FUNCTIONS Sensation Monitors changes/events occurring in and outside the body. Such changes are known as stimuli and the cells that monitor them are receptors. Integration The parallel processing and interpretation of sensory information to determine the appropriate response Reaction Motor output. The activation of muscles or glands (typically via the release of neurotransmitters (NTs) Nervous System can be divided into these main parts. The Central Nervous System The Peripheral Nervous System 2
    • CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Central Nervous System Central Nervous System consists of brain and spinal cord PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM The Peripheral Nervous System consists of the nerves, which leave brain and spinal cord There are two types of nerves in Peripheral Nervous System Cranial Nerves 12 pairs of cranial nerves emerging from the brain Spinal Nerves There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves emerging from the vertebral column 3
    • NEURONS •The functional and structural unit of the nervous system •Specialized to conduct information from one part of the body to another •There are many, many different types of neurons but most have certain structural and functional characteristics in common Neurons have three main parts •The cell body contains the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria etc. •Dendrites are short extensions of the cell body. They receive information, and transmit it to the cell body. Dendrites can be compared to the hearing part of a telephone-- the dendrite hears a message that is being sent from sensory receptors or another neuron. •The Axon is a thin tube that can be up to 3 feet long. This part of the neuron takes impulses away from the cell body. Following the same metaphor, the axon is like the telephone wire that transmits the message. 4
    • Axons are insulated by the myelin sheath that is the stacked membrane of Schwann cells. The myelin sheath creates a layer around the axon and helps to maintain the ionic charge of nerve impulses during electrical transmission of information (a good metaphor for this is a coat that keeps you insulated in the winter). The gap that separates the portions of the myelin sheath formed by two adjacent Schwann cells is called the Node of Ranvier. These nodes are the only regions along the axon where the axonal membrane is in direct contact with extra-cellular liquid. TYPES OF NEURONS Sensory neurons communicate information about the internal and external environment from sensory receptors to the central nervous system via interneurons. They are the only type of neuron whose dendrites do not receive information from other neurons Interneurons combine sensory input with motor output, and can only make connections with other neurons. Motor neurons bring impulses from the central nervous system to effector cells. Muscle or gland cells that perform the body’s responses to stimuli. They are the only type of neuron that does not communicate with other neurons, and their dendrites are therefore shorter than that of the other two types of neurons. ENDONEURIUM 5
    • A connective tissue wrapping enveloping individual axons Nervous System PERINEURIUM A connective tissue wrapping bundles or fascicles of axons EPINEURIUM A connective tissue sheath enveloping the nerve as a whole These connective tissue sheaths help to give peripheral nerves a certain toughness and resistance to tearing 6
    • NEUROPATHY The term Neuropathy is used in referring to any degenerative or inflammatory changes in peripheral nerves. Sometimes, the term neuritis is used. When many nerves are involved, the condition is described as polyneuropathy or polineuritis, if one nerve is involved, as mononeuropathy or mononeuritis Peripheral nerves respond to injury in only a small number of ways. Three classic patterns of nerve injury are discussed — Wallerian degeneration — Axonal degeneration and — Segmental demyelination Wallerian degeneration When an axon is abruptly cut (as by trauma, inflammation, surgical mishap, etc. The myelin sheath, in turn, rapidly disintegrates, forming oval fragments of myelin and cellular debris Axonal degeneration Axonal degeneration differs from wallerian degeneration in pace. Axonal degeneration typically occurs slowly This pattern is common in some hereditary neuropathies and is the predominant pattern in adult onset diabetes mellitus Nervous System 7
    • Segmental demyelination When the myelin sheath or the normal function of Schwann cells are disturbed, demyelination results With subsequent re-myelination, the distance between nodes of Ranvier become irregular and the thickness of myelin coats are noticeably decreased Symptoms of nerve damage depend on the type of nerve(s) affected One or more types of nerve may be damaged — Paresis (partial paralysis) — Paralysis (complete loss of voluntary muscle function in the part of the body.) — Hypotonia (changes in muscle tone) — Sensitivity Disturbances: — Anesthesia (loss of sensation) — Analgesia (loss of ability to feel pain) — Hyperesthesia — Hyperpathia (painful sensations abnormally severe and modified) — Paresthesia (spontaneously occurring abnormal sensation e.g. numbness etc) — Pain 8
    • ECTOBAL Mode Of Action: Mecobalamine (Ectobal) acts as co-enzyme of methionine synthetase, which gives one molecule of methyl group to homocysteine and converts homocysteine to methionine. Then methionine through its ECTOBAL transmethylation process produce one component of thymine In addition to methionine, tetrahydrofolate is also formed and then formation of thymidylic acid and purine nucleotides occurs Methionine is a precursor of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe). SAMe is the principal transmethylating agent and is involved in, among many other things, Ectobal the synthesis of myelin basic protein. 9
    • ECTOBAL is necessary for the synthesis of thymidylate, which is the characteristic base of DNA. ECTOBAL plays a biochemical role in the maintenance of myelin in the nervous system. Homocysteine Levels between 5 and 15 micromoles per liter (µmol/L) are considered normal. Abnormal concentrations are classified as — Moderate (16-30), — Intermediate (31-100), and — Severe (greater than 100 µmol/l) 10
    • Indications •Peripheral Neuropathy •Drug Induced Neuropathy •Diabetic Neuropathy •Hyperthesia •Peripheral Facial Palsy •Megaloblastic Anemia •Paresthesia •Tingling •Numbness •Lumbago •Low Back Pain •Sciatic Pain 11