1.4.3 1.4.3 QUESTIONNAIRE QUESTIONNAIRE1.3 Develop and use a questionnaire and justify its design for a particular purpose
QUESTIONNAIRE?• The structured techniques for collecting primary data in a social science survey• commonly used to collect data on attitudes such as opinion, expectation, satisfaction and emotion.
DESIGNING QUESTIONNAIRE?• proper designing – success of collecting data• highly specialized job and requires a great deal of skill and experience• No hard and fast rules in designing the questionnaires - very much an art
ISSUES WHILE DEVELOPINGQUESTIONNAIRE1. What information will be sought?2. What type(s) of questionnaire will be required?3. How that questionnaire(s) will be administered?4. What the content of the individual question will be?
ISSUES WHILE DEVELOPINGQUESTIONNAIRE5. What the form of response of each question will be?6. How many questions will be used and how the individual questions will be sequenced?7. Whether the questionnaire shall be disguised or undisguised?8. Whether the questionnaire shall be structured or unstructured?
DESIGNING A QUESTIONNAIRE?1. Covering Letter • Introduction, state objectives, self-address envelope, promises, special inducement2. The number of question should be as few as possible.3. Questions should be logically arranged e.g: How much you earn every month? Are you working? Yes 1. 2. No
DESIGNING A QUESTIONNAIRE?4. Questions should be short and simple5. Questions of a sensitive nature should be avoided - may be willingly answered in writing or should be asked at the end of the interview. - e.g: sources of income6. Instructions to the informants - specify the time7. Footnotes
DESIGNING A QUESTIONNAIRE?8. Questions should be capable of objective answera. Dichotomous questions - only two alternatives are listed (Yes, No) - e.g: Have you ever been a patient in this hospital before? 1. Yes 2. No
DESIGNING A QUESTIONNAIRE?8. Questions should be capable of objective answerb. Multiple choice questions - All possible answers to a question are listed and the respondent - e.g: Classification: Highest Education Level 1. SRP/LCE/PMR 4. Bachelor Degree 2. SPM/STPM 5. Master Degree 3. Diploma 6. Doctoral Degree
DESIGNING A QUESTIONNAIRE? Multiple choice questions - e.g: Lists Please specify your main mode of transport to and from college. (You may tick more than one) 1. Car 2. Motorcycle 3. Bus 4. On foot 5. Others Please specify:………………..
DESIGNING A QUESTIONNAIRE? Multiple choice questions - e.g: Ranking Rank the following subjects in order of favourable (from 1 being most favourable to 4 being least favourable) 1. Marketing 3. QTB 2. OB 4. MFRD
DESIGNING A QUESTIONNAIRE? Multiple choice questions - e.g: Scale or Rating How likely are you to try this activity? Very likely 1 Quite likely 2 Neither likely nor unlikely 3 Quite unlikely 4 Very unlikely 5
DESIGNING A QUESTIONNAIRE? Multiple choice questions - e.g: Scale or Rating Respondents could be asked whether they agree or disagree with particular statements: Strongly Agree 1 Slightly Agree 2 Neutral 3 Slightly disagree 4 Strongly disagree 5
DESIGNING A QUESTIONNAIRE?9. Questions should be capable of objective answerc. Open-ended or free answer questions - e.g: The BBA students after completion of the course may be asked questions like: • What is your opinion of the quality of teaching?...................................................... • What do you feel about the facilities offered by the college?................................
DESIGNING A QUESTIONNAIRE?10. Answers to questions should not require calculations11. Pre-testing the questionnaire - pre-tested with a group (pilot test)10. Cross-checks11. Incentives to respondents - e.g: of gift coupons, a sample of a product
PRE-TESTING QUESTIONNAIRE (PILOT TEST)• A researcher should not except the first draft of his/her efforts that will result in a usable questionnaire• same role as test marketing• pre-test provides the real test of the questionnaire and the mode of administration
PRE-TESTING QUESTIONNAIREAdvantages:• find out what are the shortcomings. Even the best-designed questionnaire may have some problems.• the extent of the non-response• Greater co-operation of the informants significant revision pre-test (suggests no new revisions) final questionnaire
QUESTIONNAIRE RESEARCH FLOW CHARTQuestionnaire research design proceeds in anorderly and specific manner Design Methodology Determine Feasibility Develop Instruments Select Sample Conduct Pilot Test Revise Instruments Conduct Research Analyze Data Prepare Report
ROLE OF INTERVIEWERS• not all persons who collect data are interviewers• Skills quality of dataSomeone is employed to collect data they mayneed:1. good communication skills2. a confident and professional appearance; and3. use of a car and telephone
DISCUSSION:The following questionnaire has been designed to findout some information about the users of National PublicLibrary. There are some errors in this questionnaire.Read through and see how many you can find. 1. How often do you use the services offered by the library? 2. How many books or publications have you borrowed from the library? 0___ 50–100___ 5–10 ___ 10–15 ___ 20–50 ___ 1–5 ___
DISCUSSION (ANSWER):Introduction:• There is no introduction telling the respondent what the purpose of the survey is and what will be done with the results. - In this type of survey, it is important to receive accurate results in order to "screen out" those respondents who are not library users.• name and telephone number would not be asked- for open and honest results. - People like to know that the information they provide is confidential and will be kept that way.
DISCUSSION:Question 1:• This question is open and may be better worded as a closed question in order to be able to compare the responses of the people questioned.• This question does not address over what period of time (i.e., in the last 12 months, the last month, the last week, etc.) the library was visited.
DISCUSSION:Question 2:• The question asks about borrowing books or publications. What if you borrowed both?• What response would you select if you had borrowed five books and publications? Would you select 1–5 or 5–10?• The other issue with this question is the reference period. Has the borrowing taken place over the last year, the last 10 years or the last month?
DISCUSSION:Question 3:• As a closed question, respondents are only given the option of four answers to choose from. However, there may be other reasons for going to the library. - An "Other" category with a "please specify" space, or a longer list to choose from, such as social activity or book signing could also be added. - As well, it might prove useful to add an instruction to this question that states "mark all that apply". This way the respondent can choose several options instead of one.
DISCUSSION:Question 4:• The question as asked is fine, but does not go far enough in getting the details. The library likely needs to know why the respondents needs were not satisfied. - This question should include a second part that asks the respondent to describe why his or her needs were not satisfied.
DISCUSSION:Question 5:• This is a double-barreled question. The first problem is that you are asking the respondent two different things in one question. (services and attitude)• The second problem consists of the response categories provided. - There are no instructions as to how to grade the responses. Do respondents rank the response? If so, what does 1 represent? Does 5 stand for poor or excellent?
DISCUSSION:Question 6:• This is an open question, which makes the various possible responses difficult to code and tabulate. - If a list of answers (including a final "Other" choice with a space to specify the response) were provided, it would be a lot easier for respondents to answer and data analysers to tabulate the results.
DISCUSSION:Question 7:This question asks for a "Yes" or "No" response,however, the respondent may not know, or may haveno opinion regarding any improvements to the library.
DISCUSSION:Questions 8, 9 and 10:• The first problem with these questions is that Question 9 ("Are you aware of these proposals?") should come before Question 8 ("Do you approve of disapprove of the recent proposals...?") since Question 9 is only relevant to Question 8 if the answer is "Yes".• Question 9 could be improved by instructing respondents to select the appropriate "Yes" or "No" category.
DISCUSSION:Questions 8, 9 and 10:• In Question 8, the respondents are asked whether they approve or disapprove with the entire set of proposals. - What if the respondent was not aware of the proposals? - What if the respondent agreed with some of the proposals and disagreed with others?The available responses may not give you a truemeasure of the proposals. The wording of Question 8should be changed in order to avoid bias in theresponse.
DISCUSSION:Questions 8, 9 and 10:The "Go to" part of Question 8 also contains aproblem. It sends the respondent to Question 11,therefore respondents who answered "disapprove" toQuestion 8 would not be given the opportunity torespond to Questions 9 or 10. The instruction shouldread "(Go to Question 10)".
DISCUSSION:Question 11:• This question is worded in a way that presents the reader with a double negative. Because it is not entirely clear what the question is asking, some respondents could interpret it in different ways. A simple solution would be to reword it to say: "Are you in favour of the library extending the hours of operation?" Include a list of responses such as "__Yes __No __ Dont care".
DISCUSSION:Question 12:• This particular question is a sensitive one and one respondents may not feel inclined to answer or answer truthfully. It may be best to delete this question.• If, however, the level of education is relevant to the information being collected and needs to be asked, then a closed question would allow for better quantitative analysis.