Bab 3 fire safety


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Bab 3 fire safety

  2. 2. INTRODUCTIONIncidence of fire may occur in workplaces where there are:a) Ongoing work processes such as welding, cutting, spray painting and grinding works.b) Confined spaces where there are flammable chemicals or oxygen content of over 23.5 %c) Faulty equipmentd) Storage areas/ warehouse where there are flammable materials or where the process of oxidising occurs. 2
  3. 3. Causes of FIREa) Short circuitb) Equipment failure such as valves and safety devicesc) Welding activities, cutting of metals, grinding worksd) Overflow/ leakages of flammable liquid or gasese) Overheatingf) Contact with hot surfacesg) Leakage or failure of pipesh) Human factor such as intentional burning. 3
  4. 4. Factors contribute to the incident of FIREa) System failure such as fire sprinkler, smoke detectorb) Insufficient water supply for the spraying systemc) No spraying systemd) Operator/ human errore) Existence of flammable materialsf) Breakage/ explosion of containers containing flammable materials 4
  5. 5. Basic of FIREFire can be defined as:“ A chemical reaction that occurs when a flammable material andoxygen comes into contact with a heat source or ignition”What the means???? 5
  6. 6. FIRE TriangleHeat 6
  7. 7. Oxygen• Fire requires oxygen in its initiation, occurrence andcontinuation• Source of oxygen is the air- Combination of 78 %Nitrogen, 21 % Oxygen and1% other gasses such ascarbon dioxide and argon.• Also come from various chemicals that may encourage fire• These chemicals called agents of oxidisation . Eghydrogen peroxide. 7
  8. 8. Heat :•Usually known as the source of ignition.• Form of energy that upon contact with oxygen and flammablewill start a fire. 8
  9. 9. Burning process•The occurrence of fire releases a form of energy that providesthe source of energy for it to continue burning and release heat.•Vapour or gas may ignite due to sparks or small flames whilesolid and liquids require 2-5 % more heat and oxygen.•To reach the self ignition temperature that may cause fire, aflammable material requires only a small flame. 9
  10. 10. CLASSES OF FIREFire Class Material Type Example Agent A Normal flammable Wood, paper, Water, dry fabric, plastic chemical, foam B Flammable liquid and Gasoline, oil, CO2, foam, dry gas grease, LPG chemical, halon C Working electrical item Electric motor CO2, dry chemical, halon D Metal flammable Magnesium, Dry chemical sodium, pottasium powder 10
  11. 11. FIRE HAZARD CONTROLSFire hazard may be controlled by:a) Fire prevention i) Avoiding surge of flammables into the atmosphere ii) Releasing of heat iii) Controlling of heat sources ( Fire triangle )b) Fire protection i) Releasing of heat ii) Enclosing or stopping supply of flammable iii) Enclosing or stopping supply of oxygen 11
  12. 12. Employer has to first formulate a safety plan as follow:a) Hazard identification through:i) HAZOP – Hazards and Operability studiesii) Hazard checklistiii) Fire and explosion indexiv) Chemical exposure indexb) Safety plan such as:Selection of safe technology: Safe materials, equipments,machineries, and processes includes user- friendly workplace,environmentally safe technology and safe storage system 12
  13. 13. c) Safety prevention systemi) Prevention of initial incident: detection and monitoring system, safe handling procedure and engineering controls.ii) Stop/ control the source of hazard a soon as the incident happens: Extinguishing of fire, reducing supply of flammable, dilution, emulsion, reducing oxygen content, disrupting the burning process and reactions.d) Safety protection system: Provides protection during fire occurrence by stopping spread of fire.i) Fire wall/ barrier to air flowii) Fire resistance isolator- isolate fireiii) Trap fire to prevent explosioniv) Layout of tank and equipments 13
  14. 14. e) Emergency response plani) Hazard identification and risk assessmentii) Control methodiii) Communication – Incident Command System ( ICS )iv) Announce and update emergencyv) Cooperation of external partiesvi) Public relationsf) Medical treatmenti) Medical surveillance and treatment system includig- Sending victims to medical center if exposed to :• Toxic materials from fire• Heatii) Ensure procedures for:- Transportation of victims- Appointment of officer in charge 14
  15. 15. Safe Storage Fire wall Storage tank Hump Slope to hole Fire hole 15
  16. 16. Safe Storage Storage tank Hump Hump 16
  17. 17. SAFETY PLAN Selection of Safe Technology Characteristic User-friendlySubstitution of CHEMICALS Avoid fireWeakening of HAZARDOUS De-fridgerate atmosphericCHEMICALS temperature DilutionDesign of EQUIPMENT Reaction may be handled and control Strong and suitablePlant LAYOUT Break spread of fire and isolate between equipments. 17
  18. 18. SAFETY PLAN Administrative and Engineering Controls Administrative Controls Engineering ControlsOn the job training programme Better equipmentInstruction and written procedures Improved layout to minimised work hazardSignages Location of valve, switch and instrumentsLabelling of equipment Design of equipment – user friendlySuitability of person to job Better manual handling methodTesting Decentralised computer controlClassroom teaching Design of equipment- able to prevent/ control mistakeWarning Online analysisIncentive and punishment Online parameter assessmentPersuasion method to promote safe workPracticesInspectionReview 18
  19. 19. The end 19