11 first aid revised

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  • 1. First AidSafety And Health Officer Certificate Course Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 1
  • 2. Learning Objectives• To define what is first aid• To state the purpose of first aid at workplace• To describe 3 principles of first aid• To explain the requirement under the first aid guideline by DOSH• To explain 3 levels of first aid training Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 2
  • 3. Scope• Reasons for providing First-Aid• Planning for First-Aid• First-Aid facilities• Training Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 3
  • 4. What Is First-AidFirst aid is "the immediate andtemporary care of the victim of anaccident, with the aim of preventing orreducing an acute threat to the life orhealth of the victim". – International Labour Organisation Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 4
  • 5. The Aims of First-Aid are to:• Preserve life• Stop the condition becoming worse• Protect the unconscious• Promote recovery and• Relieve pain and suffering• Compliance with Factory and Machinery (Safety, Health and Welfare) Regulations 1970 (Reg. 38) and OSHA 1994 (Section 15(1) Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 5
  • 6. Who Needs First-AidA person who: – Requires immediate attention – Whose injury would not need treatment by a medical practitioner or nurse – Minor injuries who would otherwise receive no treatmentNote:All injuries however minor should be treated,otherwise it might lead to infections leading to losttime illnesses. Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 6
  • 7. First-Aid Response• Get help immediately. Speed is essential. Minutes can save lives• First-Aider assess situation without endangering self• Identify injury or injuries Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 7
  • 8. First-Aid Response• In cases of multiple casualties prioritise treatment• Keep records of treatments Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 8
  • 9. Principles Of First-AidIDENTIFICATION• What kind of injuries or diseases anticipated Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 9
  • 10. Principles Of First-AidASSESSMENT• The type of work being carried out and its level of hazard• Work away from the employers premises.• Consequences• Availability of other places of treatment (are there hospitals nearby?) Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 10
  • 11. Principles Of First-AidCONTROL• Provision of first aid facilities and services Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 11
  • 12. First-Aid Worker Exposure• The duties of first aiders should be analysed as part of the hazard management process• Identify hazards from – Manual handling – Infection control Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 12
  • 13. Level of Preparation – Depends On Risk• Planning is important for high risk places of work, such as: – Workplaces which use or manufacture hazardous substances – Workplaces where hazardous processes may be used (e.g.abrasive blasting); – Construction sites; – Where heat is used as part of any process (e.g. working in foundries or welding and cutting); and – Workplaces which require people to work in remote isolated areas (e.g. agricultural or transport industry). Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 13
  • 14. Level of Preparation – Depends On Risk• If has potential for mass casualties provide: – Safe place for evacuation – Equipment e.g. stretchers, wheelchairs, etc.• For hazardous substances and poisons – Procedures, training and PPE for handling• Antidotes in first-aid box, e.g. for cyanide and procedure for using it, if necessary – To be administered only by trained first aider Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 14
  • 15. A First-Aid Program• Properly trained and designated first-aid personnel on every shift,• First-aid kit, supplies and room,• A first-aid manual,• Posted instructions for calling a physician and notifying the hospital that the patient is reroute, Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 15
  • 16. A First-Aid Program• Posted method for transporting ill or injured employees and instructions for calling an ambulance or rescue squad and• An adequate first-aid record system Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 16
  • 17. First-Aid Consideration• For all workplaces – Communications – for quick response – Rescue and evacuation Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 17
  • 18. First-Aid Consideration• Plan first-aid in conjunction with the emergency response plan. (Especially for major hazard facilities (MHF)• If there are many employers in the same workplace, therefore the principal employer is responsible Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 18
  • 19. First-Aid ConsiderationMatters to be determined having identifiedhazards and assessed the risks at theworkplace are:• The number and location of first aid box• Their contents• The number of employees to be trained in first aid• The level of training• Possible need for a first aid room and equipment it should contain Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 19
  • 20. First-Aid Consideration• Number of first aider • The numbers of employees. • The distribution of employees • Number of shifts • The nature of the work (type of industry) • The size and location of the workplace • The distance from outside medical services Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 20
  • 21. First-Aid Consideration• Selection of first aiders• Appointment of a person in low risk situations (office) Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 21
  • 22. First-Aid Boxes• Sturdy, portable and readily accessible - mobile employees also to be considered• Names of First Aiders / emergency services on or near to box• CPR instructions in / or near box Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 22
  • 23. First-Aid Boxes• Place of work injury instructions in or near to box• Content is dependent on the type of services required• Headaches and colds medicine may not be included Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 23
  • 24. First-Aid Boxes• List content and its quantity to facilitate replenishment• Employer is responsible. First Aider to assist replenishing contents• There is often a difference of opinion regarding proper treatment, first-aid procedures – Should specify the type of medication, if any, to be used on minor injuries, such as cuts and burns Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 24
  • 25. First-Aid Equipment• In areas where chemicals are stored, handled, or used provide: – Emergency flood showers – Low pressure eye-wash fountains Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 25
  • 26. First-Aid Room• When more than 150 employees• Enough to place a couch and people to move around• Identified, private, well lit (including emergency lighting), ventilated and temperature controlled Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 26
  • 27. First-Aid Room• Access for wheelchair/stretcher• Easy access to work areas and toilets• Easy to clean Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 27
  • 28. Stretchers• Keep near places of serious hazards• Keep clean and ready for use at all times• Keep in cabinets that are clearly marked and properly located Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 28
  • 29. Stretchers• Protected against mechanical damage and destructive vapours or fumes, dust, etc.• Tested periodically if made of materials that will deteriorate Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 29
  • 30. Training For All Employees• Location of first aid boxes/rooms• Names, location, contact numbers of First Aiders• First aid procedures• Universal precautions Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 30
  • 31. First Aid TrainingLEVEL I – BASIC FIRST AID (emergency first aid procedures).LEVEL 2 – WORKPLACE FIRST AID (Level I plus treatment of injuries and illnesses, eg heart attack, fainting).LEVEL 3 – OCCUPATIONAL FIRST AID - (Level 2 plus broad understanding of hazards, emergency care & assessment)• Use approved training provider Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 31
  • 32. Summary• First-aid is for preserving life and preventing conditions of accident victims from worsening• Assess hazards in the workplace before first-aid services and programmes are identified Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 32
  • 33. Summary• First-aid programme consists of: – Identification of First Aiders and training of employees – Provision of first-aid boxes – First-aid room, stretchers, showers and eyewash if necessary Copyright@NIOSH 2005/1 33