100 years war
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100 years war

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  • Cannons - Long tubular piece of artillery that uses gunpowder to launch a projectile.

100 years war 100 years war Presentation Transcript

  • The Hundred Years' War (1337-1453)
  • The Hundred Years War
    • The term "Hundred Years War" was a historical term used by historians to describe a series of events in the 14 th and 15 th centuries.
    • The conflict was between France and England lasting 116 years, though there were long periods between bat t les.
    • It was fought primarily over claims by the English kings to the French throne.
  • The Hundred Years War
    • The war gave motion to ideas of both French and English nationality.
    • Militarily, it saw the introduction of new weapons and tactics, which eroded the older systems of feudal armies dominated by cavalry.
    • The first standing armies in Western Europe since the time of the Western Roman Empire were introduced for the war, thus changing the role of the peasantry.
    • For all this, as well as for its long duration, it is often viewed as one of the most significant conflicts in the history of medieval warfare.
  • Causes of the 100 Years' War
  • The Norman Conquest
    • The causes for the Hundred Years War can go as far back as the Norman Conquest in 1066 AD.
    • William the Conqueror (aka William of Normandy) invaded England and in the Battle of Hastings, he defeats his rival and claims himself King of England.
    • Although William is the King of England, he also controls lands in France.
    • From here on out, it is English rulers’ goal to control lands in both England and France.
    • Some English kings even marry into the French nobility and gain more lands through marriage.
    • King Henry II does this and therefore he is king of England and a vassal in France.
  • Controversy Over Succession King Philip IV Charles of Valois Philip of Valois Isabella of France Edward II of England Edward III King of France
    • Following the death of King Philip IV in 1314, the French nobility selected Philip of Valois , a nephew of the last king through the male line to become the new king.
      • He was chosen in preference to King Edward III of England , whose mother was the daughter of the late king.
    • In 1340, Edward III claimed the title “King of France.” and the war starts…
    Controversy Over Succession
  • A Struggle for National Identity
    • France was NOT a united country before the war began.
    • The French king only controlled about half of the country.
  • The War Itself
  • Military Characteristics
    • The War was a series of short raids and expeditions punctuated by a few major battles, marked off by truces or ineffective treaties.
      • The relative strengths of each country dictated the sporadic nature of the struggle.
  • French Advantages
    • Population of about 16,000,000.
    • Far richer and more populous than England.
    • At one point, the French fielded an army of over 50,000  at most, Britain mustered only 32,000.
  • British Advantages
    • Weapons Technologies.
    • In almost every engagement, the English were outnumbered.
      • Britain ’s most successful strategies:
        • Avoid pitched battles.
        • Engage in quick, profitable raids
          • Steal what you can.
          • Destroy everything else.
          • Capture enemy knights to hold for ransom.
  • Early English Victories
    • The beginning of the end of classic chivalry.
    • French knights were exhausted from riding all day to the battle field, only to have to then storm up a hill while being cut down by English archers.
    • The battle also saw the first use of cannons on a European battlefield.
    • The outnumbered English completely decimated the larger French army. The French suffered over 15,000 casualties compared to just a few hundred English.
    • Many French nobles are captured and held for ransom following the battle.
    The Battle of Crecy, 1346
  • The Battle of Poitiers, 1356
    • Edwards the III son, Edward IV (known as the “Black Prince of Whales” due to his choice of armor) invaded France from Gascony.
    • The Black Prince’s army soundly defeated the French army due to a new technology, the longbow.
    • The Black Prince was also able to capture the new king of France, John II, and force him to sign a treaty that gave French lands to the English.
    • Without a king, France plunges into chaos.
    The Battle of Poitiers, 1356
  • King Henry V of England
    • Renewed his family’s claim to the French throne.
    • At Agincourt in 1415, the English, led by Henry himself, goaded a larger French army into attacking a fortified English position.
      • With the aid of the dukes of Burgundy , Henry gained control over Normandy, Paris, and much of northern France!
  • A Burgundian Presence
  • Treaty of Troyes (1420)
    • Charles VI’s son [the future Charles VII], was declared illegitimate and disinherited.
    • Henry V married Catherine, the daughter of Charles VI.
      • Henry was declared the legitimate heir to the French throne!
    • A final English victory seemed assured, but both Charles VI and Henry V died in 1422.
    • This left Henry’s infant son, Henry VI [r. 1422-1461], to inherit BOTH thrones.
    Charles VI Charles VII Henry V Catherine
  • The French “Reconquest”
    • The two kings’ deaths ushered in the final stage of the 100 Years’ War [1422-1453].
      • Even though in 1428 the military and political power seemed firmly in British hands, the French reversed the situation.
    • In 1429, with the aid of the mysterious Joan of Arc , the French king, Charles VII , was able to raise the English siege of Orleans .
      • This began the reconquest of the north of France.
  • Joan of Arc (1412 - 1432)
    • The daughter of prosperous peasants from an area of Burgundy that had suffered under the English.
    • Like many medieval mystics, she reported regular visions of divine revelation.
      • Her “voices” told her to go to the king and assist him in driving out the English.
    • She dressed like a man and was Charles’ most charismatic and feared military leader!
  • Siege of Orleans: The Turning Point
    • Joan of Arc leads the siege against the English stronghold.
    • Joan is wounded during the battle but her faith and charisma help lead the French to a victory.
    • The first major French success to follow the crushing defeat at Agincourt in 1415.
  • Cannons Used at Orleans
  • Joan Announces the Capture of Orleans to the King
  • Joan of Arc (1412 - 1432)
    • She brought inspiration and a sense of national identity and self-confidence.
    • With her aid, the king was crowned at Reims [ending the “disinheritance”].
    • She was captured during an attack on Paris and fell into English hands.
      • Because of her “unnatural dress” and claim to divine guidance, she was condemned and burned as a heretic in 1432.
      • She instantly became a symbol of French resistance.
  • The End of the War
    • Despite Joan’s capture, the French advance continued.
    • By 1450 the English had lost all their major centers except Calais .
    • In 1453 the French armies captured an English-held fortress at Castillon.
      • This was the last battle of the war.
    • There was not treaty, only a cessation of hostilities.
  • Consequences of the War
  • The Hundred Years War
    • Gives strong national identities to both England and France.
    • Saw the introduction of new weapons such as the longbow and the cannon. Military tactics would in turn be changed. (No more knights in heavy armor on horseback).
    • Both countries see the weakening of feudal lords and the rise of peasantry which would eventually lead to a middle class.
    • Along with the war, plague and famine would lead people to look for answers that the Church could not provide. This shifted people’s thinking and paved the way for the Reformation.
  • France Becomes a Unified Nation! France in 1453