Information systems depend on software resources to help end users use computer hardware to transform data into information products. Software handles the input, processing, output, storage, and control activities of information systems. Computer software is typically classified into two major types of programs: Systems Software . These are programs that manage and support the resources and operations of a computer system. A. System Management Programs . These programs help run the hardware and communicate critical information throughout the IS. Examples are operating systems, operating environments (such as GUI interfaces), database management systems, and telecommunications monitors. B. System Development Programs . These programs are used to build new application programs or specific information systems applications. Examples include programming language translators, programming environments, and CASE packages. Applications Software . These are programs that direct the performance of a particular use, or application, of computers to develop specific information products by end users. A. General-Purpose Application Programs . These programs allow end users to create a great many different information products within a general knowledge category. Examples include word processing, spreadsheets, database managers, graphics, and integrated packages. B. Application-Specific Programs . These programs are dedicated to very specific functions within a knowledge area. Examples include programs for accounting, generating marketing plans, or handling financing.
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Transcript of "Management information systems"
<ul><li>Define the Software and Types of Software </li></ul><ul><li>Describe several important trends occurring in computer software. </li></ul><ul><li>Give examples of several major types of application and system software. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the purpose of several popular software packages for end user productivity and collaborative computing. </li></ul><ul><li>Outline the functions of an operating system. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the main uses of high-level, fourth-generation, object-oriented, and Web-oriented programming languages and tools. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Computer Instructions or data, anything that can be stored electronically is Software . </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware is one that is tangible. The storage devices (Hard disk, CD’s etc.,), mouse, keyboard CPU and display devices (Monitor) are Hardware . </li></ul><ul><li>For example: There is a problem in the Software implies – Problem with program or data </li></ul>
<ul><li>System Software includes the Operating System and all the utilities that enable the computer to function. </li></ul><ul><li>System software is a term referring to any computer software which manages and controls the hardware so that application software can perform a task. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Operating Systems, Compiler, Loader, Linker, Interpreter. </li></ul>
<ul><ul><li>Helps computer carry out its basic tasks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Operating systems (OS) - master control programs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BIOS (Basic Input/Output System)—see Rdg Handout! </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some utilities are built into OS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Translators (program language translators/compilers) </li></ul></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Application Software includes programs that do real work for user. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Payroll systems, Inventory Control, Manage student database, Word Processor, Spreadsheet and Database Management System etc., </li></ul>
<ul><li>Open source software (OSS) is computer software whose source code is available under a license that permits users to use, change, and improve the software, and to redistribute it in modified or unmodified form. </li></ul><ul><li>It is often developed in a public, collaborative manner. </li></ul><ul><li>Well-known OSS products are Linux, Netscape, Apache, etc., </li></ul>
<ul><li>Proprietary software (also called non-free software ) is software with restrictions on using, copying and modifying as enforced by the proprietor. Restrictions on use, modification and copying is achieved by either legal or technical means and sometimes both. </li></ul><ul><li>Proponents of proprietary software are Microsoft. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: CAD, Nortan Antivirus etc., </li></ul>
Integrated system of programs that… Provides support services as the computer executes application programs Manages the operations of the CPU Controls the input/out, storage resources, and activities of the computer system The operating system must be loaded and activated before other tasks can be accomplished
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