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An introduction to FACTS
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An introduction to FACTS

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  • 1. An Introduction to FACTS Presented by T.S.L.V.Ayyarao Assistant Pofessor GMRIT
  • 2. Why do we need Transmission Interconnections? Delivery of Electrical Power To minimize the total power generation capacity and Fuel cost. To supply electricity to the loads at minimum cost with a required reliability. Transmission is an alternative to a new generation resource. Economic energy or reserve sharing is constrained by transmission capacity
  • 3. Why do we need Transmission Interconnections?Can we use the full potential of Transmission interconnections? As power transfers grow, the system becomes more complex to operate. The power systems of today are mechanically controlledIf so what? Switching devices are mechanical and there is little high speed Mechanical devices cannot be initiated frequently.
  • 4. Why do we need Transmission Interconnections? Mechanical devices wear out quickly. In view point of both dynamic and steady state operation, the system is really uncontrolled. In recent years, power demand increases day by day. Increased demand and absence of long term planning leads to less security and reduced quality of supply.
  • 5. Opportunities for FACTSFACTS technology opens up opportunities to control power and enhance the usage capability of lineFACTS controller uses Control the current through the line at reasonable cost. Enables the power to flow under normal and contingency conditions To control the interrelated parameters (series impedance, shunt impedance, current, voltage, phase angle)
  • 6. Opportunities for FACTS To damp oscillations at various frequencies below rated frequency. Enable a line to carry power closer to its thermal rating. Mechanical switching replaced with power electronics
  • 7. Power Flow in an AC System In ac system, the electrical generation and load must balance at all times. The electrical system is self-regulating. If generation is less than load, voltage and frequency drop. Active power flows from surplus generation areas to deficit areas.
  • 8. Power Flow in Parallel Paths
  • 9. Power Flow in a Meshed System
  • 10. Power Flow in a Meshed System A adjustable series capacitor controls the power flow Mechanically switched series capacitor is limited by wear and tear. A series capacitor in a line may lead to subsynchronous resonance. This occurs when mechanical resonance frequencies of the shaft of a multiple turbine generator unit coincides with 50hz minus the electrical frequency of the line.
  • 11. Power Flow in a Meshed SystemIf series capacitor is thyristor controlled It can be varied as often as required Rapidly damp any sub-synchronous resonance conditions Damp low frequency oscillations in the power flow Avoid risk of damage to generator shaft and system collapse Greatly enhance stability of the network.
  • 12. Limitations of loading capability For best use of transmission asset and to maximize the loading capability, what are the limitations?There are three kinds of limitations Thermal Dielectric Stability
  • 13. Limitations of loading capability ThermalFor overhead line, thermal capability is a function of ambient temperature, wind conditions, conditions of conductor, and ground clearance. The FACTS technology can help in making an effective used of newfound line capability. DielectricBeing designed very conservatively, most lines can increase operation voltage by 10% or even higher. FACTS technology could be used to ensure acceptable over- voltage and power flow conditions.
  • 14. Limitations of loading capability StabilityThe stability issues that limit the transmission capability include: 1. Transient stability, dynamic stability, steady-state stability, frequency collapse. Voltage collapse, and sub-synchronous resonance. 2. The FACTS technology can certainly be used to overcome any of the stability limits.

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