Published on

Published in: Education
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. Chandrayaan - I A small step by India, a giant leap for the entire Space community. Ayush Saxena
  2. 2. Outline of the presentation <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment on Board </li></ul><ul><li>Chronology of Events </li></ul><ul><li>Achievements </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Questions Answered – Economic Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Questions Answered – Political Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Future Lunar Missions </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction – General Information <ul><li>Pioneered by Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), Launched on 22 nd October 2008 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre, in Sriharikota, India. </li></ul><ul><li>The Mission was launched by Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) series of carriers. </li></ul><ul><li>Chandrayaan-I is India’s first Unmanned Mission to the moon, which has placed India in an Elite club of Space Faring Nations like US, Russia, Japan and China. </li></ul><ul><li>The weight of the Moon Impact Probe (MIP) is 1380 Kg, much lesser than those launched by NASA, and the price is half of NASA’s moon mission. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction - Why I chose the Topic ? <ul><li>I chose this topic because it highlights the Achievements of India in Space Technology and its “Indigenous” Space Programme which was completed in spite of the Sanctions imposed on India by US. </li></ul><ul><li>This presentation answers some of the questions on the Low cost of the mission, Political and Economic Factors linked to the project. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Introduction – Why Moon ? <ul><li>One of the Basic reasons for the mission was that, much about the moon is still largely Unknown. </li></ul><ul><li>Apart from scientific interest, the Moon could have economic benefits to mankind and could be of strategic importance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moon’s surface has about one million tonnes of Helium-3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moon contains 10 times more energy in Helium-3 than all the fossil fuels on Earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helium-3 is believed to be fuel of the future </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moon could be an outpost for further planetary explorations and possible human settlements. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Objectives <ul><li>To design, develop, launch and orbit a spacecraft around the Moon using an Indian-made launch vehicle. </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct scientific experiments using instruments on-board the spacecraft which will yield the following results: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparation of a High Resolution 3-D atlas of the Lunar Surface. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical and mineralogical mapping of the entire lunar surface at high resolution, mapping particularly the chemical elements Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Fe, Ti, Ra, U, & Th. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The impact of a sub-satellite (Moon Impact Probe — MIP) on the surface on the Moon as a fore-runner to future soft-landing missions. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Equipment on Board - Indian <ul><li>The lunar mission carries five ISRO payloads and six payloads from other International space agencies like NASA, ESA, and the Bulgarian Aerospace Agency (All Free of cost). </li></ul><ul><li>ISRO Payloads: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TMC or the Terrain Mapping Camera is a CCD camera with 5 m resolution, it will be used to produce a high-resolution map of the Moon. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HySI or Hyper Spectral Imager will perform mineralogical mapping of the lunar surface, with a resolution of 15 nm. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LLRI or Lunar Laser Ranging Instrument will determine the surface topography by sending pulses of infrared laser light towards the lunar surface and detecting the reflected portion of that light. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Equipment on Board - Indian <ul><ul><li>C1XS or X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, will map the abundance of Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, and Fe at the surface. This payload is collaboration between Rutherford Appleton laboratory, U.K, ESA and ISRO. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HEX is a High Energy X-ray Spectrometer with ground resolution of 40 km, the HEX will measure U, Th, 210 Pb, 222 Rn degassing, and other radioactive elements. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MIP or the Moon Impact Probe developed by the ISRO, is an impact probe which will measure the altitude of the probe and measuring the constituents of the lunar atmosphere. It carried with it a picture of the Indian flag. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Equipment on Board - Foreign <ul><li>Payload from Other countries: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SARA, The Sub-keV Atom Reflecting Analyser from the ESA will map composition using low energy neutral atoms sputtered from the surface. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>M 3 , the Moon Mineralogy Mapper from by NASA is an imaging spectrometer designed to map the surface mineral composition. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SIR-2, A near infrared spectrometer from ESA, will also map the mineral composition using an infrared grating spectrometer. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Equipment on Board - Foreign <ul><ul><li>miniSAR by NASA, is the active Synthetic Aperture Radar system to search for lunar polar ice. The instrument will transmit right polarised radiation with a frequency of 2.5 GHz and will monitor the scattered left and right polarised radiation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RADOM-7, Radiation Dose Monitor Experiment from the Bulgarian Space Agency, maps the radiation environment around the Moon. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Sun Moon at Launch ETO GTO Lunar Transfer Trajectory Lunar Insertion Manoeuvre Mid Course Correction Trans Lunar Injection Initial Orbit ~ 1000 km Final Orbit 100 km Polar Path of Chandrayaan – I GTO – Geosynchronous Orbit ETO – Earth To Orbit Chronology of Events
  12. 12. Achievements <ul><li>India’s First Indigenous Mission to the Moon, without Technological assistance from US or Russia. India becomes self-relient in Space Technology. </li></ul><ul><li>MIP places Indian Flag on the moon, India becomes the fourth nation to place a flag on the Moon after the Soviet Union, United States and Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated cost of the project is $80 million, a fraction of those sent by NASA, ESA or Russia. Giving India a cost advantage for commercial deals. </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrates the capability of Indian Scientist, in planning complex tasks such as Moon Missions. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Achievements <ul><li>India establishes itself as a Space Faring nation, giving tough competition to the US, Russia, Japan and China. </li></ul><ul><li>The data of the moon mission will be shared with other nations, which establishes India’s Technical Superiority in the field. </li></ul><ul><li>Gets India a stake in the land and minerals of the Moon. </li></ul><ul><li>The success of the mission gives India a platform to launch a manned mission to the moon, in a time of 5-6 years. </li></ul><ul><li>A recent study on the Objectives of Chandrayaan 1 shows that, it has already met with more than 95% of the Objectives and has beamed back 40,000 images in the span of 75 days. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Critical Questions Answered – Economic Factors <ul><li>Chandrayaan I had a typical shoe-string budget. The Entire Chandrayaan I campaign costed about $80 Million. </li></ul><ul><li>Out of this Amount, $20 Million was used for the building of reusable components like Launching Towers, Data Centers and Monitoring Stations. </li></ul><ul><li>This is about 1/5 th of the cost borne by NASA or ESA for a similar mission, of equal technological expertise. </li></ul><ul><li>This was done by “Optimization”. The number of repeats for a test were cut down by half. </li></ul><ul><li>Labor Cost’s were 1/8 th of that of the US or Europe. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Critical Questions Answered – Economic Factors <ul><li>Instead of using costly equipment, the Indian Scientist used Indigenous Products which were as strong and effective as their American Counterparts. </li></ul><ul><li>ISRO has recently setup its commercial arm “ANTRIX”, to cash on to the boom of Low Cost Space Programs for other nations. </li></ul><ul><li>India’s total budget on space research is $1 Billion, almost 1/10 th of that of US; and the costs of Chandrayaan were 0.5% of the National Budget. </li></ul><ul><li>A recent study by Madras School of Economics shows that, India gets a return of $2 on every $1 that it invests in its Space Program. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Critical Questions Answered – Political Factors <ul><li>The Chandrayaan Mission came up in the Background of impeding sanctions on India by the US and Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>The US refused to give GE Engines to India, which were crucial for its Space Program. </li></ul><ul><li>This lead India to manufacture its own engines, in turn promoting Indigenous Technology and Production of essential items. </li></ul><ul><li>Although India now Faces a greater threat to its security from China and Pakistan, who not too keen on India’s growth due to their Half a century old Political Rivalry. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Future Lunar missions <ul><li>Indian mission “Chandrayaan-II”, Stage-2 of India’s Mission to the Moon scheduled in 2012. This will be an Un-manned mission as well, which will contain a Land Rover to analyze Lunar Soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Russian Mission Luna-Glob 1 Scheduled for 2010, and Luna-Glob-2 scheduled for 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>US mission’s GRAIL and LADEE scheduled for late 2011. ILN Node 1 and ILN Node 2 scheduled for 2013 -14. </li></ul><ul><li>Chang’e 2 of China scheduled for 2011, followed by chang’e 3 and in 2013. . </li></ul><ul><li>SELENE-2 of Japan scheduled for 2013. </li></ul>
  18. 18. References <ul><li>Wikipedia - . </li></ul><ul><li>ISRO - , , </li></ul><ul><li> . </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese Opinion (  ) - </li></ul><ul><li>Zee News - </li></ul>
  19. 19. References <ul><li>Multimedia - , </li></ul><ul><li> , </li></ul><ul><li> , </li></ul><ul><li> . </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  20. 20. References <ul><li>Economic and Political Factors - , </li></ul><ul><li> , </li></ul><ul><li> , , </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>