Yashadamrita malahara vicharchika rs009_gdg
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The Preparation, Physico – chemical analysis of Yashadamrita Malahara and Sindhooradi Taila and Comparative clinical study on Vicharchika (ECZEMA)” - Dr. Mallikarjun Sobagin, Department of ...

The Preparation, Physico – chemical analysis of Yashadamrita Malahara and Sindhooradi Taila and Comparative clinical study on Vicharchika (ECZEMA)” - Dr. Mallikarjun Sobagin, Department of rasashastra, Post graduate studies and research center, Shri D. G. Melmalagi Ayurvedic Medical College, Gadag

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  • 1. “ THE PREPARATION, PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF YASHADAMRITA MALAHARA AND SINDHOORADI TAILA AND COMPARATIVE CLINICAL STUDY ON VICHARCHIKA (ECZEMA) ” By DR.SOBAGIN.M.V B.A.M.S DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, KARNATAKA, BANGALOREIN PARTIAL FULFILLMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF “DOCTOR OF MEDICINE” (AYURVEDA) In RASASHASTRA GUIDE CO-GUIDEDR.M.C.PATIL DR. GIRISH.N.DANAPPAGOUDAR M.D.(R.S) M.D(R.S)Prof. Head of the Department Lecturer. Departmentof Rasashastra. of Rasashastra. DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA, POST GRADUATE STUDIES & RESEARCH CENTER, D.G.M. AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE. GADAG –582103 FEBRUARY- 2006
  • 2. Department of Post Graduate Post Graduate cum Research Center,Studies in RASASHASTRA D.G.M.Ayurvedic Medical College Gadag –582103 J.S.V.V. SAMITE’S DECLARATION I here by declare that this dissertation entitled “ THE PREPARATION, PHYSICO- CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF YASHADAMRITA MALAHARA AND SINDHOORADI TAILA AND COMPARATIVE CLINICAL STUDY ON VICHARCHIKA (ECZEMA ” is a bonafide and genuine research work carried out by me under the guidance of Dr.M.C.Patil. Professor & HOD, Department of Post Graduate Studies in Rasashastra, Post Graduate cum Research Center, D. G. M Ayurvedic Medical College, Gadag –582103 Date: Dr. Sobagin.M.V P.G.Schalor, Place: Gadag. Dept. of Rasashastra, Post Graduate cum Research Center, D.G.M Ayurvedic Medical College Gadag –582103
  • 3. Department of Post graduate Post Graduate cum Research Center,Studies in RASASHASTRA D.G.M.Ayurvedic Medical College Gadag –582103 J.S.V.V. SAMITE’S CERTIFICATE I here by declare that this dissertation entitled “ THE PREPARATION, PHYSICO- CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF YASHADAMRITA MALAHARA AND SINDHOORADI TAILA AND COMPARATIVE CLINICAL STUDY ON VICHARCHIKA (ECZEMA ” is a bonafide and genuine research work done by Dr.Sobagin .M.V in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Ayurveda Vachaspati (M.D) in Rasashastra of Rajiv Gandhi University of Health sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka. Date: Guide Place: Gadag. Dr.M.C.Patil. M.D.(RS) Head of the department Rasashastra, Post Graduate cum Research Center D.G.M. Ayurvedic Medical College Gadag –582103
  • 4. Department of Post graduate D.G.M.Ayurvedic Medical College &Studies in RASASHASTRA Post Graduate cum Research Center Gadag –582103 Dist: Gadag J.S.V.V. SAMITE’S CERTIFICATEI here by declare that this dissertation entitled “ THE PREPARATION, PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF YASHADAMRITA MALAHARA AND SINDHOORADITAILA AND COMPARATIVE CLINICAL STUDY ON VICHARCHIKA (ECZEMA ”is a bonafide and genuine research work done by Dr.Sobagin.M.V in partialfulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Ayurveda Vachaspati (M.D) inRasashastra of Rajiv Gandhi University of Health sciences, Bangalore,Karnataka.Date: Co-GuidePlace: Gadag. Dr.Girish.N.Danappagoudar M.D.(RS). Lecturer Rasashastra Post Graduate cum Research Center D.G.M. Ayurvedic Medical College Gadag –582103
  • 5. ENDORSMENT BY THE HOD, PRINCIPAL / HEAD OF THE INSTITUTATION J.S.V.V. SAMITE’S ENDORSEMENTI here by declare that this dissertation entitled “ THE PREPARATION, PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF YASHADAMRITA MALAHARA AND SINDHOORADITAILA AND COMPARATIVE CLINICAL STUDY ON VICHARCHIKA (ECZEMA)” is a bonafide and genuine research work done by Dr.Sobagin.M.V under theguidence of Dr.M.C.Patil Professor, HOD Department of Post Graduate Studies& Dr.Girish.N.Danappagoudar Lecturer, Department of Rasashastra, PostGraduate Studies in D.G.M.Ayurvedic Medical College, Gadag.Seal & Signature of the HOD. Seal & Signature of theDate: Principal:Place: Gadag. Date: Place:
  • 6. COPYRIGHT I here by declare that the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences,Karnataka shall have the rights to preserve, use and disseminate this dissertation inprint or electronic format for academic / research purpose. Dr.Sobagin . M.VDate: P.G.Schalor, Dept. of Rasashastra, Post GraduatePlace: Gadag cum Research Center, D.G.M.Ayurvedic Medical College Gadag –582103© Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka
  • 7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT My father & mother is the only Inspiration. This work carries some sweatmemories to express & record about some distinguished personalities by whom I hadbeen inspired during the course of this thesis. I express my deep sense of gratitude to my respected guide Prof.Dr.M.C.Patil.MD(Ayu) Head of Dept. of RS, DGMAMC & PGSRC, Gadag. He has been very kind toguide me in the preparation of thesis & for who extraordinary efforts, tremendousencouragement & most valuable thought provoking critical suggestions, made me tocomplete this work. I am extremely greatful & obliged to my co-guide Dr.Girish .NDanappagoudar.MD(Ayu). Lecturer in Rasashastra, PG studies & Research centerDGMAMC, Gadag, for patiently going through the draft of thesis & correcting withprecious remarks which have been very useful. I am thankful to Dr.G.B.Patil principal, DGMAMC, PGSRC,Gadag,for providing all necessary facilities for this research work. I wish to convey thanks to my teacher Prof.Dr.R.K.GachchinamathHOD,Rasashastra dept,(UG) DGMAMC, Gadag, for being kind & affectionate throughhis valuable suggestions & advises. It gives me immense pleasure to express my gratitude to Dr. DilipkumarB. MD (Ayu). Asst. Prof. PGSRC for kind advise encouragement during the study.
  • 8. I am greatful for the support and advise given by Dr. S.H.DoddamaniMD (Ayu). Asst. Prof. PGSRC. DGMAMC, Gadag, during my clinical trail andencouraged me all the time during this work. I acknowledge the valuable help given to me by Dr.Jagadish Mitti MD(Ayu).Lecturer, Dr.Shashikant Nidagundi MD(Ayu) Lecturer, Dr.Mulkipatil M.D(Ayu)for their support during my PG study. I wish to convey thanks to all UG & PG lectures of DGMAMC, Gadag,for their timely help & constant co-operation during my PG work. I sincerely thank my beloved friend Dr. K.S.Santoji, and seniors Dr. P.Koteshwar Rao, Dr. V.S.Hiremath, Dr. R.B.Paattanashetti, Dr.Jaggal for their deep co-operation and involvement in the study. I sincerely thank my beloved classments Dr. Ghanti, Dr.Pradeep,Dr.Saswihalli.Dr.Hiremath, for their deep co-operation and involvement in the study. I am also thankful to scholars of PG Dept. of Rasashastra & other P.GDept who have directly or indirectly helps my thesis work. & Expected their co-operation& support during my PG work. I am glad to express my heartiest thanks to Dr. Chandur,.Dr.Suresh,Dr.D.N.Patil Medical pharma. J.T.College Gadag, having helped me in carrying outanalytical works, and for giving kind suggestions. I wish to convey my thanks to beloved librarian, Sri. V.M.Mundinamani,Asst. S.B.Sureban for providing many valuable references in the study. I am thankful toSri. B.S.Tippanagouda, Lab technician, who extended this co-operation in investigations.
  • 9. I tender my sincere thanks to Nandakumar, statistician for his help instatistical evaluation & results. I wish to thank the physicians , House surgeons, Hospital staff, nurses &non teaching staff for their timely assistance in completion of this work. Let me express my thanks to all patients, those were on trial for theirconsent for enrolling in this clinical study & obedience to advises. I am highly indebted to my beloved parents, sisters & other familymembers for their love & affection rendered through out my career. I express my thanks to all the persons who have helped me directly &indirectly with apologies for my ability to identify them individually. Lastly I prey my deep homage & tribute to my grand parents for thelove & affection rendered through out my career.GadagFebruary 2006 Dr: Sobagin.M.V
  • 10. ABBREVIATION1. R.T - Rasa Tarangini2. R.R.S - Rasa ratna Samuchchaya3. R.P.S - Rasa Prakasha Sudhakara.4 A.P - Ayurveda Prakash5. R.M - Rasamritam6. R.J - Rasa Jala Nidhi9. R.Chu - Rasendra Chudamani10. K.N - Kaideva Nighantu11. M.N - Madanapala Nighantu12. R.N - Raja Nighantu13. B.P - Bhava Prakasha Nighantu14. D.N - Dhanvantari Nighantu15. Ch.S - Charaka Samhita16. S.S - Sushruta Samhita17. A.S - Ashtanga Sangraha18. A.H - Ashtanga Hridaya19. B.S – Bela Samhita20. H.S – Harita Samhita21. K.S – Kashapa Samhita22. Y.R - Yogaratnakar23. B.T – Before treatment24. A.T – After treatment25. _ Not mentioned.26. + Mentioned
  • 11. LIST OF TABLESSl.N0. Topic Page. No.1. Synonyms of Yashada 272. Shodhana media according to various authorities. 303. Pharmacological properties 324. Indication of Yashada bhasma 335. Synonyms of Girirsindhoora 386. Guna of Girirsindhoora 397. Indications of Sindhuura 408. Synonyms of Sasyaka 429. Shodhana dravya according to different authorities 4310. Guna Karma and Rogaghnata 4411. Showing Aharaja Nidanas According to different authorities 5712. Showing Viharaja Nidanas According to different authorities 5813. Showing Daiva Apacharaja According to different authorities 5814. Showing Usage of Improperly Purified Rasoushadhi leading to Kushta utpatti 58 15. Showing Poorva Roopas common in Kushta According to Various authors 63 16. Showing the Roopas of Vicharchika according to various authors 65 17. Showing Sapeksha Nidana 66 18. Showing Ayurvedic tests of Yashada bhasma 87 19. Observation of patient based on Age 97 20. Observation of patient based on Sex 98
  • 12. 21. Observation of patient based on Education 9922. Observation of patient based on Marital rates 9923. Observation of patient based on Religion 10024. Observation of patient based on Occupation 10125. Observation of patient based on Economical Status 10226. Observation of patient based on Vicharchika lakshanas 10327. Showing grades of “Varna” before treatment in Group A & B 10428. Showing grades of “Varna” after treatment in Group A & B 10429. Showing grades of “Pidika” before treatment in Group A & B 10430. Showing grades of “Pidika” after treatment in Group A & B 10431. Showing grades of “Srava” before treatment in Group A & B 10532. Showing grades of “Srava” after treatment in Group A & B 10533. Showing grades of “Kandu” before treatment in Group A & B 10534. Showing grades of “Kandu” after treatment in Group A & B 10535. Showing grades of “Vedana ” before treatment in Group A & B 10636. Showing grades of “Vedana ” after treatment in Group A & B 10637. Assessment of Subjective parameters of Group-A 10738. Assessment of Subjective parameters of Group-B 10839. Assessment of Objective parameters of Group-A 10940. Assessment of Objective parameters of Group-B 11041. Statistical analysis of Subjective parameters (Group-A) 11142. Statistical analysis of Objective parameters (Group-A) 11143. Statistical analysis of Subjective parameters (Group-B) 112
  • 13. 44. Statistical analysis of Objective parameters (Group-B) 11245. Statistical analysis of comparative study of Group –A & B (After Treatment) 11346. Showing the Result of the study in Group-A 11547. Showing the Result of the study in Group-B 11648. Showing overall Result of the study 117
  • 14. LIST OF GRAPHSSl.N0. Topic Page. No. 1.Observation of patient based on Age 97 2.Observation of patient based on Sex 98 3.Observation of patient based on Religion 100 4.Observation of patient based on Occupation 101 5.Showing the Result of the study in Group-A 115 6.Showing the Result of the study in Group-B 116 7. Showing overall Result of the study 117 LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS 1. Raw drugs of the Yashadamrita Malahara and Sindhooradi taila 2. Patients photos with Trail drug.
  • 15. ABSTRACTBack ground: Kushta, skin disease is very common pathological condition. Among this,Vicharchika can be correlated to eczema, which is one type of the Kshudra Kushta asexplained in classics. In modern science there are number of drugs for Vicharchika (Eczema), but asuccessful remedy is yet to come out. Here Yashadamrita malahara and Sindhooradi tailaare utilized to find out their comparative efficacy in the management of Vicharchika.Objectives: a. Preparation of Yashadamrita malahara and Sindhooradi taila. b. Physico-chemical analysis of Yashadamrita malahara and Sindhooradi taila. c. Comparative clinical of Yashadamrita malahara and Sindhooradi taila on Vicharchika (Eczema)METHODS:Pharmaceutical study: a. Yashada shodhana and marana according to Rasatarangini 19 chapter shloka no b. Preparation of Yashadamrita malahara and Sindhooradi taila according to Rasatarangini 19 chapter shloka no 146-147 and 21 chapter shloka no 162-163Analytical study: Yashadamrita malahara is subjected to physico chemical analysis i.e. , Fineness of particle test, Flow rate, Ash value, Acid insoluble ash and for Sindhooradi taila Loss on drying at 1100c, Boiling point, Specific gravity, Refractive index, Acid value, Saponification value and including organoleptic character .
  • 16. Clinical study: 30 patients of Vicharchika with confirmed diagnose are taken from the OPD section of PGRCDGM Ayurvedic medical collage hospital Gadag.Results: Individually both groups showed highly significant in subjective as well asobjective parameters. Comparatively group B shows more significant than the group A.Interpretation & Conclusion: 1. The dravyas which are mentioned in the classical procedure of shodhana definitely induces the disease curing property 2. Modern physico-chemical analyses are proved that both yogas are slandered. 3. By clinical study and statistical value it is proved that Yashadamrita malahara is choice remedy in sravi Vicharchika and Sindhooradi taila in rooksha Vicharchika.Key words: Vicharchika, Eczema, Yashada, Sasyaka, Girisindhoora, Shodhana, Marana, Malaharakalpana, Taila kalpana, Physico-chemical analysis, Subjective & Objective criteria, Studyduration.
  • 17. CONTENTS Page Number.I. INTRODUCTION 1-2II. OBJECTIVES 3III. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 1. PROCEDURE REVIEW 5-25 2. DRUG REVIEW 26-52 3. DISEASE REVIEW 53-73IV. METHODOLOGY 1. PHARMACEUTICAL STUDY 74-86 2. ANALYTICAL STUDY 87-92 3. CLINICAL STUDY 93-95V. OBSERVATION & RESULTS 96-117VI. DISCUSSION 118-127VII. CONCLUSION 128-129VIII. SUMMARY 130-133 BIBLIOGRAPHYANNEXURE – 1 MASTER CHARTANNEXURE – 2 CASE SHEET
  • 18. Introduction INTRODUCTION Ayurveda is the most ancient system of medicine. Which is based on itsown fundamental principles theories or concepts. Which are deeply rooted into the oldestscriptures of Hindu veda i.e. “Atharvanaveda”. It is an encyclopedia of ancient eternalmedical wisdom in spite of its antiquity. (3,000 years old) it is being practicing today allover the world. Rasashastra, one of the branch of Ayurveda, which is well, developed byNagarjuna the pioneer of Rasashastra. He practiced Ayurveda by using Rasadravya’s i.emetals, minerals, gems etc, to achieve the aims of Rasashastra. i.e. Lohasiddhi andDehasiddhi. Now Rasashastra holds topmost place in Ayurveda due to its uniquepreparation’s – Rasabhasma’s, Kharaliya rasayana, Pottali rasayana, Parpati rasayana,Kupipakwa rasayana and their utility. Metal and minerals are also used in Bhaishajya Kalpana such as Malahara andTaila Kalpana, which are used for externally. Eg: Yashadamrita Malahara containingmetal like Yashada and Sindhooradi Taila containing minerals like Sindhoora andSasyaka. Both yogas are indicated in Kushta rogas. Skin has been defined as the mirror of the body. It reflects the Physical, mentaland psychological state of the individual. Skin is not only covering of the body tissuesand organs, but being composed of epithelial, mesenchymal, glandular andneuromuscular elements is part of the Curparate system. In addition to it being the largestorgan of the body. It is barrier protecting the underlying tissues from physical, chemicaland biological toxic agents. It also excretes some of the wastes of the body metabolism.In present day the life style of the human being become change. So sometime heknowingly or unknowingly expose to the certain influences, which causes the skindisorders. Kushta, skin disease is very common pathological condition. Among this,Vicharchika can be correlated to eczema, which is one type of the Kshudra Kushta asexplained in classics. 1
  • 19. Introduction It is difficult to determine the true incidence of a disease like eczema. In USA in asample population survey of persons aged 1 to 74 years conducted from 1971-74, theprevalence of eczema was 18.4 /1000 persons. A British study on Hospital attendancefrom 1977-1981 showed that 27.5% of patients had atopic dermatitis, 8.2% nummular,37% gravitational, 11.9% seborrhea and 9.2% exogenous eczemas. In oxford andGlasgow it is revealed the fact that 26-9% and 33.5% cases respectively were sufferingfrom eczemas, 63% of them exogenous. School surveys in India for skin disease in 1986-1990 demonstrated that 2.07%had lichen simplex chronicus, 0.2% had seborrhea dermatitis and 3% had seborrheacapotes and 2% dermatitis. Vicharchika is skin disease which posses a great problem in the skin. Thisdermatological problem is difficult to manage along with medicaments of variousprescriptions and methodologies have been tried out but a successful remedy is yet tocome out. Cases when treated by number of medicine have a high rate of relapse andhypersensitivity in due course. Hence we find no satisfactory remedies for Vicharchika incotemporary medical service. It is causing a peculiar dermatological manifestation, where the skin becomesdiscolored causing Shyava varna, surface being exudates and Pidikayukta, theseprominent signs are associated with Kandu. Eczema is non-contiguous inflammatory disease of the skin responses toendogenous or exogenous stimuli characterized by erythema, edema, vascularisation,oozing and crusting. Ayurveda claims number of therapy for Vicharchika has been explained. But localapplications are more beneficial than the other process. Because they are quickabsorbable, they protect the skin from external irritants and from sunlight, promotespercutaneous absorption of the incorporated drug, thus allowing an activepharmacological effect on the skin. 2
  • 20. Introduction According to Rasatarangini as indicated the Yashadamrita Malahara andSindhoora taila especially in Vicharchika. The present yogas are acts as a Kaphapittashamaka, Kandughna, Kushtaghna,Vrunashodhaka and rapaka action. Keeping in the view of the above facts it was felt toconduct a study to analysis the efficacy of Yashadamrita malahara and Sindhooradi tailain the management of Vicharchika with a view to find out therapeutically efficacious,safer and cost effective.The present work ……“PREPARATOION, PHYSICO-CHEMICAL STUDY OF YASHADAMRITAMALAHARA AND SINDHOORADI TAILA AND COMPARATIVE STUDY ONVICHARCHIKA ” 3
  • 21. OBJECTIVES1. Preparation of Yashadamrita Malahara and Sindhooradi taila.2. Physico-Chemical study of Yashadamrita Malahara and Sindhooradi taila3. Comparative clinical evaluation of Yashadamrita Malahara and Sindhooradi taila on Vicharchika
  • 22. Review of Literature. Malahara Kalpana PROCEDURE REVIEWI. MALAHARA KALPANA Malahara Kalpana is not explained in Samhita Period. Yogaratnakara adopted the term ‘Malahara’ from word ‘Malaharam’ – a unani preparation. As it mentioned in Ayurveda, the treatment is of two types. 1. Antaparimarjan 2. Bahiparimarjan The later one called Bahiparimarjana means, the medicine intended for external use only. Different forms of external applications are described for the convenience of treatment of different diseases like Lepa Kalpana, Upanaha, Malaharakalpana etc. In between Lepa Kalpana and Malaharakalpana there is no much difference regarding usage. But preparation of method is different.Differences. Lepa Malahara 1. Herbal & mineral drugs are used 1. Metal and Minerals 2. Without Agni samskara 2. With Agni samskara 3. Should be prepared fleshy and used 3. Used up to 2 year 4. It’s reference in Samhita kala 4. After 14th A.DSimilarities: 1. Both are used externally 2. Indications are also same. 5
  • 23. Review of Literature. Malahara KalpanaPreparation of malahara: - Dividing into 3 processes. 1. Poorvakarma 2. Pradhana karma 3. Paschat karma1. Poorva karma: a. Collection of equipments b. Collection of Raw drugs. c. Shodhana of main drugs. d. Marana of main drugs.2. Pradhana karma: a. Preparation of Sikta taila b. Mixing of churna / bhasma into sikta taila3. Paschat karma: - a. Storage c. Uses1. Poorva karma: - 1. Collection of equipments like a. Chullika b. Vessel c. Cloth d. Spoon 2. Collection of raw drugs like 1. Sikta 2. Tila taila 3. Main drugs 3. Shodhana: Shodhana of main drug, which is taken for Malahara preparation. In Yashadamrita Malahara – Yashada shodhana in Nirvapa in Taila, Takra, Gomutra, Kanjike, Kulattha kwatha for 7 times. 4. Marana: If necessary. Eg: Yashada Marana as per classics. 6
  • 24. Review of Literature. Malahara Kalpana2. Pradhana Karma:1. Preparation of Sikta taila. Sikta Taila is a mixture of bee’s wax and oil. It is soft, smooth ointment like substance, used as an emollient or as a base in the preparation of different ointments. Rasatarangini has described 2 methods of preparation of Sikta taila. Method 11 One part of pure bees wax and 6 parts of Tila taila are mixed and melted over mild fore. When the wax melts and becomes a homogenous liquid mix well and stop heating. After cooling it becomes a soft butter like paste. Method 22 Here, instead of 6 parts of oil, 5 parts of oil is said to be added to 1 part of bees wax, rest of the procedure is similar to that of first method. If any physical impurities are seen in the wax (after melting) it should be filtered through a cloth. The first method is said to be followed during winter season and the second one during summer season.2. Mixing of fine powder into Sikta taila: The base of the Malahara kalpana i.e. Sikta taila, to this, as per the formulation, add the fine powder of various ingredients and mix well. The fine powder may be of Tankana, Gandhaka, Kajjali, Mriddara shringa, Gairika, Girisindhoora, Manashila, Haratala etc. 7
  • 25. Review of Literature. Malahara Kalpana3. Paschat Karma: 1. Storage: Prepared malahara must be preserved in wide mouthed plastic or glass container having tight fitting. 2. Uses: Vruna Shodhaka and Ropaka Kushtaghna Varnya etc.Qualities of Sikta:3 Rasa – Madhura Guna – Snigdha, Picchila Karma – Sandhankar, Vrunaropaka Indications – Bhagna, Visarpa, kandu, Kushta etc. Self life – 1 year.Tila taila:4 Nomenclature:- Latin – Sesamum indicum. Family – Pedaliaceae English – Gingelly oil, Sesamum oil. Sanskrit – Snehapala, Pavitra, Jahla etc. Kannada – Yellu enni Tamil – Nallannai Hindi – Til Ka tail Properties: Rasa – Madhura, Tikta, Kashaya Veerya – Ushna Vipaka – Madhura Guna – Sukshma, Vyavayi, Vishada, Guru, Sara, Vikasi, Teekshna Himasparsha. 8
  • 26. Review of Literature. Malahara KalpanaActions:- Vataghna, aggravates pitta, does not aggravate kapha, deepana, pachana, balya, brimhana, balya, preenana, vrushya, lekhana, twachya, netrya, krimighna. In combination with different drugs, it is said to cure all diseases.Combination: Saturated fatty acids. Palmitic acid – 9.1% Stearic acid – 4.3% Aracidic acid – 0.8% Unsaturated fatty acids. Oleic acid – 45.4% Linoleic acid – 40.4% 9
  • 27. Review of Literature. Malahara Kalpana OINTMENTS IN MODERN VIEW 5 Ointments are semisolid preparations meant for external application to theskin or mucous membrane. They usually contain medicament or medicamentsdissolved, subended or emulsified in an ointment base. They may contain a suitableantimicrobial preservative. The ointments are mainly used as protective or emollient forthe skin. The absorption of medicaments by the tissues from the ointments, applied tothe skin depends upon different factors as follows. 1. Properties of the drugs incorporated. 2. Properties of the base, used in the formulation. 3. Condition of the patient skin 4. Site of application 5. Duration of application 6. Degree of friction, exerted while applying the ointment.Classification of Ointments: I. According to their therapeutic properties based on penetration 1.Epidermic Ointments These ointments are meant for action on epidermis and produce local effect. They are not absorbed. These types of ointments are mainly used as protective, antiseptics, local anti-infectices and parasiticides. 2. Endodermic ointments: These ointments are meant for action on deeper layers of coetaneous tissues. They are partially absorbed and act as emollients, stimulants and local irritants. 3. Daidermic ointments: These ointments are meant for deep penetration and release the medicaments that pass through the skin and produce systemic effects. 10
  • 28. Review of Literature. Malahara KalpanaII. According to their therapeutic uses: 1. Antibiotic ointments 2. Antifungal 3. Anti-inflammatory etc.Characteristics of an ideal ointment: - 1. It should be chemically and physically stable. 2. It should be smooth and free form grittiness. 3. It should melt or soften at body temperature and be easily applied. 4. The base should be non-irritating and should have no therapeutic action. 5. The medicament must be finely divided and uniform the distributed through the base. 6. It should not retard healing of the wound.Ointment bases:- The ointment base is that substance or part of an ointment, which serves as carries or vehicle for the medicament while selecting a suitable ointment base. The factors such as the action desire nature of the medicament to be incorporated and the stability of an ointment are to be considered. There are no single ointment bases, which possess all the qualities of an ideal ointment base. So it becomes necessary to use more than one ointment base in the preparation of ointments.Classification of ointment bases: - 1. Oleaginous bases 2. Absorption bases 3. Emulsion bases 4. Water soluble bases 11
  • 29. Review of Literature. Malahara Kalpana1. Oleaginous bases:- Their bases consist of water insoluble, hydrocarbons, vegetable oils, animal fats and waxes. The constituents of hydrocarbon basis are, Soft paraffin (petrolatum), Hard paraffin, and Liquid paraffin2. Absorption bases: - These bases are generally a hydrous substance, which have the property of absorbing (emulsifying) considerable quantities of water but still retaining their ointment like consistency. The Absorption bases are two types:- 1. Non-emulsified bases 2. Water in oil emulsions The non-emulsified bases absorb water and aqueous solutions producing w/o emulsions.Eg:- Wool fat, Wool alcohol, Bees wax, Cholesterol The water in oil emulsions is capable of absorbing more water and has the property of non-emulsified bases. Eg: Hydrous wool fat (Canolin)3. Emulsion bases: These bases are semisolid or have a cream like consistency both o/w and w/o emulsions are used as ointments base. The oil in water type of emulsions bases is more popular because there can be easily remove form the skin or cloths by washing with water. The w/o type of bases are greasy and sticky. The emulsifying ointment is prepared from emulsifying wax, white soft paraffin and liquid parathion.4. Water soluble bases:- These are commonly known as “Greaseless ointment bases”. The water- soluble bases consist of water-soluble ingredients. Such as polyethylene glycol polymers, which are popularly known, as “Carbo-waxes”. The carbo-waxes are water soluble, non-volatile and inert substances. 12
  • 30. Review of Literature. Malahara KalpanaSelection of Dermatological Vehicles:- There are large numbers of ointment bases, which are available in the market. These have already been discussed. But none of the above discuss ointment base, fulfills all the requirements of an ideal ointment base, following one the factors, which govern the selection of an ideal base for ointments – A. Dermatological factors B. Pharmaceutical factorsA. Dermatological factors:-1. Absorption and Penetration: Absorption means actually entry into blood stream. i.e. Systemic absorption where as “Penetration” indicates passage through the skin i.e. cuetaneous absorption. It is proved scientifically that animal fats and fixed oils penetrate more readily through the skin in comparison to mineral oils (paraffin). The substances, which are soluble both in oil and water, are most readily absorbed. The o/w emulsion bases release the medicament more readily than oleaginous bases or w/o emulsion bases.2. Effect on skin function: Greasy bases may interfere with the skin function like heat radiation and sweet excretion. More ever they are irritant to the skin. The water-soluble bases and o/w emulsion bases provides a cooling effect rather than the heating effect. These bases mix readily with skin secretions.3. Miscibility with skin secretions and Serum. Skin secretions are more rapidly miscible drug in more rapidly and completely released to the skin. Due to this reason lesser proportions of the medicament is needed when emulsion bases are used. 13
  • 31. Review of Literature. Malahara Kalpana4. Compatibility with skin secretion: Generally neutral ointment bases are preferable because they do not cause discomfort in use and are compatible with majority of medicaments.5. Freedom from irritant effect: The ointment bases used should be non-irritant Greasy bases cause irritation and may cause Edema. All bases used should be of high standard of purity.6. Emollient properties: Under normal conditions, continuous hydration occurs which keeps the skin sufficiently moist. Dryness and brittleness of the skin cause discomfort to the skin. Therefore the ointment bases used should possess emollient properties that should be able to keep the skin moist. Eg: Glycerin, propylene glycol. Wool fat, lard and paraffin.7. Ease of application and removal: The ointment bases used should be easily applicable and at the same time they should be easily removable. Stiff and sticky ointment bases are not suitable. Because they may cause damage to the newly formed tissues of the skin. Due to this the emulsion bases are preferable as they are softer and spread more readily over the area to which they are applied. The emulsions particularly o/w type are easily removable with water.B. Pharmaceutical factors. a. Stability: Fats and oils of animal and vegetable sources are more liable to undergo oxidation provided. They are preserved properly soft paraffin, liquid paraffin are comparatively more. 14
  • 32. Review of Literature. Malahara Kalpana b. Solvent properties: - Suitable solvents should be selected for the proper dispersement of the medicaments of an ointment. c. Emulsifying properties: Hydrocarbon bases can absorb only a small amount of aqueous substances where as some animal fats like wool fat can take up about 50% of the water. Therefore animal fats are used in the preparation of creams. d. Consistency: The ointments produced should be of suitable consistency. They should neither be too hard nor too soft. They should withstand the climatic condition.Preparation of Ointments: Ointments are prepared by following methods: 1. Triturating method 2. Fusion 3. Chemical reaction 4. EmulsificationTriturating method:- It is the most commonly used method for the preparation of ointments. The method is used when the base is soft and the medicament is insoluble in the base. The following procedure is used to get a uniform ointment. a. Finally powder the solid medicaments b. Weigh the required quality of an ointment base. Triturate the solid medicaments with a small amount of the base on an ointment slab with the help of stainless steel ointment spatula until a homogenous product is formed. c. Add remaining quantities of the base until the medicament is uniformly mixed with it. 15
  • 33. Review of Literature. Malahara KalpanaII. SNEHA KALPANA Sneha Kalpana is well known since Samhita period. In Charaka SamhitaKalpasthana 12th chapter, extraction of taila and taila paka including tests and standardof taila paka are mentioned in detail. Sushruta and Ashtanga hridaya have explainedsame as Charaka. In Sharangadhara Samhita Madhyama Khanda the definition of preparation,method of preparation, dose and various formulations have been described in detail. The nomenclature of Sneha Kalpana is sum of words Sneha and Kalpana, whereSneha means fat or fatty material and Kalpana stands for pharmaceutical process ofmedicaments. The substance, which is called Sneha Dravya, will have Guru, Sheeta, Sara,Snigdha, Manda, Sukshma, Mrudhu, Drava gunas. In Ayurveda Ghrita and Taila Kalpana are included is Sneha Kalpana.Advantages of Sneha Kalpana: 1. To extract the fat Soluble active principles of plants and minerals. 2. To obtain extra benefits of specific Taila or Ghrita used. 3. To preserve the drug or drugs for longer time. 4. To enhance the absorption of drugs, when used topically in fatty medias. 16
  • 34. Review of Literature. Malahara Kalpana Definition6:- The medicaments prepared by using 1 part of Kalka dravya, 4 parts of taila/ghrita and 16 parts of drava dravy as Snehakalpana. According to Charaka:- While preparing Sneha Kalpana, quantity of the water, sneha, aoushada dravya and Kalka is not mentioned, in such conditions one part of the aoushada, 4 parts of Sneha, 16 parts of water is advised.According to Sushruta: When there is no specifications of drava dravyas then water is advised, same way if there is no specifications of Kalka and Kwatha in such conditions mentioned dravadravya, Kalka, Kwatha can be prepared.According to Vagbhata: In Snehapaka preparation the quantity of water, Sneha, is not mentioned in such condition 1 part of dravadravya, ¼ part of Sneha, 1/16 part of kalka is advised.According to Navaparibhasha:- Murchit Sneha 1 prasta or ½ prasta, 4 parts of water and ¼ part of Sneha Kalka is added. Give mandagni and do stirring continuously with dravi upto Siddi lakshanas are attained.According to Vaidaka paribhasha pradeep. ¼ reduced Kwatha, ¼ of Kwatha Sneha, ¼ of Sneha Kwatha is advised for Snehapaka.According to Bhashajya ratnavali: Before doing Snehapaka, Sneha murchana should be done. Mentioned quantity of Kwatha and Swarasaare added, Paka should be done in Mandagni up to Snehasiddhi lakshanas are seen. 17
  • 35. Review of Literature. Malahara Kalpana Murchana7:- Sneha Kalpanas are widely used in Ayurvedic practice both internally andexternally. Such SnehaKalpans should be subjected to a primary process known asMurchana. It is a refining process of both Sneha (Oil and Ghee), before subjecting thedrug to Snehapaka. Better colour, odour, taste, results and efficacy of drug are expectedfrom Murchana. It increases solubility of active principles and absorbility to getmaximum property. There is no reference to Murchana either in Laghutraya or in brihatraya.Acharya Govinda das the author of Bhaishajya ratnavali is the first personto mentionabout this. The main aim of Snehamurchana is to remove the durgandha, amadosha andugrata etc bad characters of crude form of Sneha, by doing Murchana Samskara Snehadravya will appreciated with good smell and colour, apart from these becauses ofMurchana Sneha will get such capability to receive more principles while thepreparationof Snehapaka and also veerya of the Sneha is enhanced, because of MurchanaSamskara, Sneha will get the active principles of Murchana dravyas too.General Method of Preparation of Snehapaka: In generally Snehapaka vidhi can be divided into 3 stages. 1. Poorva karma 2. Pradhana karma 3. Paschat karma.1. Poorva karma:- a. Collection of equipments: Sneha patra, Darvi(stirrer), Sieve, Khalvayantra, Tula yantra, Koshti. b. Collection of drugs: 18
  • 36. Review of Literature. Malahara KalpanaClassically mentioned drugs, including mentioned Sneha and jala. 19
  • 37. Review of Literature. Malahara Kalpana c. Preparation of Kalka: The drugs from which Kalka is to be prepared if it is fresh or wet should be washed well and ground into a paste in a khalva yantra. If it is dry, do Yavakuta choorna of that and prepare paste by mardana with little quantity of water.2. Pradhana Karma: a. Systematic mixing of the ingredients: It is ghritapaka, first Murchita ghrita has to be collected and melted in a Snehapatra with gentle heat, then the pieces of kalka bolus are added little by little into the Sneha, stirred continuously with dravi, this is followed because to avoid over burning of the kalka and over the whole contents is maintained over Mandagni. In case of Taila, the kalka and drava dravya are mixed together the Sneha is then added, boiled and stirred continuously. So that the kalka is not allowed to adhere the vessel.b. Heating pattern8:- Always Taila paka should be prepared mrudu and madhyamagni only. The preparation like taila, Ghrita and Guda should be completed within a day to gain more potency by being prepared in more than a day. Time taken for the completion of Snehapaka varies according to nature of dravyas. Duration Dravadravya 1. 1 day Vrihi and Mamsa rasa 2. 2 days Dugdha 3. 3 days Swarasa 4. 5 days Takra and Aranal 20
  • 38. Review of Literature. Malahara Kalpanac. Factors to be known while preparing Sneha Kashaya. 1. If decoction is drava dravya, then padavashta Kashaya should be prepared from mrudu, madhyama and kathina dravyas by adding 4,8 and 16 parts of water respectively. Regarding the proportion of Kalka, Sneha and dravadravyas there is an identical opinion in Brihatrayas9-11. 2. When dravadravyas more than 5, then each drava dravya should be taken in the same quantity as that of Sneha. If drava dravyas are less than 5 then the total quantity of all the liquids should be 4 times to that of Sneha dravya12. 3. If dravadravyas are not mentioned in any of the Sneha preparations, then water to be used to replace the drava. It should be 4 times the quantity of oil used13. 4. If Kalka dravya is not mentioned in any Sneha preparations, then it must be prepared by using the dravya itself 14. 5. When flower is used as Kalka dravya, in any of the Sneha preparation then its quantity should be 1/8th of that of oil 15.d. Sneha Siddhi Lakshana16:- When Snehapaka Completes, the following confirmation tests can be observed. a. Snehakalpa becomes wick like (Varti) when rolled between two fingers. b. There should not be any sound when Sneha kalka is sprinkled over fire. c. Foam is observed when taila paka completes. On the contrary it subsides in ghee. d. Specific colour, odour and taste of the ingredients become marked when Snehapaka is over. 21
  • 39. Review of Literature. Malahara Kalpana e. Types of Snehapaka17:- Through Snehapakas are five in number; the most important once are only three. 1. Mrudu 2. Madhyama 3. Khara Remaining two are Ama and Dagdha paka Mrudu paka Sneha will have Kalka with little quantity of moisture Kalka of Madhyama paka Sneha will be soft, but avoid of moisture content. Kharapaka Sneha will have slightly hard. Dagdhapaka Sneha will have hard and brittle kalka. It causes burning sensation and is unfit for therapeutic use. Sneha with Amapaka will not have any potency and heavy for digestion. Paschat Karma:-a. Collection: In order to obtain optimum quantity of Sneha, the Kalka should be squeezed (after the paka) at hot stage only Gandha paka dravyas should be added gently with stirring, when the Sneha is in luke warm state. b. Preservation:- Ghrita can be preserved in glass or polythene containers and usually tailas are preserved in glass or plastic bottles. Usually glass jars (wide mouth) are used for packing purpose of Ghrita. Where as taila preservation narrow mouthed glass or plastic bottles are used.c. Expiry date18: a. According to Sharangadara expiry date of Snehakalpana is mentioned as 4 months. b. According to pharmacopia in Ayu, part-I Ghrita and taila preparations, maintains the potency for about 16 months. 22
  • 40. Review of Literature. Malahara KalpanaPrecautions should be taken for the preparation of Snehakalpa19: 1. Sneha should be pure, clear and without sturry. 2. Taila patra should be wide mouthed, because during the process, taila may come out if it is having narrow mouth. Depending upon the quantity of Sneha, the size of the Sneha patra should be selected. 3. During Snehapaka maintain the intensity of fire through the operation in order to get desirable grade of temperature. 4. Gentle boiling of Sneha is to be maintained continuously. Always Snehapaka should be prepared in mridu and madhyamagni only. 5. If taila is hot suddenly kwatha should not be poured, if it is poured taila may come out from the vessel. Hence while stirring only kwatha has to be added slowly. 6. The mixture is stirred constantly and carefully to ensure that the kalka does not stick to the bottom of the vessel resulting into a carbonization. 7. When all drava dravya have evaporated, the moisture in the kalka also becomes to evaporate, at this stage; it has to be stirred more often and carefully to ensure that the kalka does not stick to the bottom of the vessel. The kalka is taken out from the ladle and tested from time to time to know the condition and stage of the paka. 8. Sneha required preparing with Gomutra like kshara dravya combination Sneha may produce excessive phena. Thus Sneha may come out of the Snehapatra during pakavasta. 9. In particular Snehakalpana whatever the quantity of Sneha is prescribed that much quantity of Sneha only is supposed to be taken. Increasing or decreasing order should not alter the quantity. 10. If in particular formulation Sneha quantity is not mentioned then one seru Sneha has to be taken and on the bases of Sneha quantity, the kalka, drava dravya quantity also to estimated. 23
  • 41. Review of Literature. Malahara Kalpana Liquid dosage form20:- Liquid dosage forms commonly used in pharmacy are either monophasic orbiphasic. Monophasic liquid dosage form refers to liquid preparation in which there isonly one phase. It is represented by true solution. A true solution is a clearhomogenous mixture. That is prepared by dissolving a solid, liquid or gas in a liquid. Classification:- Classification into 2 groups. 1. Liquids meant for internal administration, for eg, mixtures, syrups and elixirs. 2. Liquids meant for external administrations. Eg: Gargles, mouth wastes, throat pains, douches, nasal drops, eye drops, eardrops, liniments and lotions. Monophasic Liquid dosage form Internal External 1.Mixture 1.1. 2. Syrup Application on skin used in Mouth Instilled into body 3. Elixir 1. Liniment 1. Gargles 1. Douche 4. Linctus 2. Lotion 2. Mouth wash 2. Ear drop 3. Throat paint 3. Nasal drop 4. Nasal spray 24
  • 42. Review of Literature. Malahara Kalpana Liquid to be applied to the skin:- 1. Liniments: The liniments are liquid or semi-liquid preparations meant for application to the skin. The liniments are usually applied to the skin with friction and rubbing of the skin. The liniments may be alcoholic or oily solutions or emulsions. In alcoholic liniment, alcohol helps in the penetration of medicament into the skin and also increases its counter irritant and rubefacient action. In oily liniments arachis oil is commonly used which spreads more easily on the skin. Soap is also included as on the ingredient in some of the liniments, which help, in easy application of liniment on the skin. Generally, liniments contain medicaments possessing analgesic, rubefacient, soothing and counter irritant or stimulating properties. A liniment should not be applied to the broken skin because it may cause excessive irritation.Container: -The liniment should be dispensed in coloured fluted bottles in order to distinguish it from preparations meant for internal use.Labeling: - The label must state “for external use only” and shake the bottle well before use. “The label should carry the warning. Not to be applied to open wound or broken skin.”Storage: - Liniment should be stored in tightly closed air tight containers in a cool place. 25
  • 43. Review of Literature. Malahara Kalpana2. Lotions:- Lotions are liquid preparations meant for external application without friction. They are applied direct to the skin with the help of some absorbent material, such as cotton wool or gauze soaked in it. Lotions may be used for local action as cooling, soothing or protective purposes. They are generally applied for antiseptic action. (Eg- Calamine lotion) Alcohol is sometimes included in aqueous lotions for its cooling and soothing effect Eg. -Salicylic acid lotion. Where as the addition of glycerin in a lotion keeps the skin moist for sufficient long time and does not allow the preparation to dry. Bacterial and molds grow in certain lotions is no preservative is added care must be taken to avoid contamination during preparation of the lotion.Containers:- Lotion should be dispensed in coloured fluted bottles in order to distinguish them from preparations meant for internal use.Labeling:- The containers should be labeled “ For external use only”. Some times on long standing lotion have a tendency to separate out. Therefore the container must be labeled “Shake well before use”Storage: - Lotion should be stored in well filled, well closed in an air tight container in a cool place. 26
  • 44. Review of Literature. Drug DRUG REVIEWYASHADA:Historical background: Yashada as ancient Indian chemists knew a metal from the 15th A.D as Madanapala the author of Madanapala Nighantu is the first scholar to mention it, as the 7th dhatu or metal in his text. Bhavamishra and others followed him in a later period. Through it was used for making an alloy known as Pittala (Brass) for long as a separate metallic element it was known much later. Before the 15th A.D it was used and known by the name of Rasaka or Kharpara satwa that is quite evident from the synonyms (Ritikrit, Ritihetu, Tamra, Ranjaka) attributed to Rasaka and Kharpara. As regards Rasaka and Kharapara, the minerals of Yashada they were known even in the Samhita period. In Rasashastra period following Rasa-texts are explained Yashada, 1. Ayurveda prakasha 2. Rasajalanidhi 3. Rasatarangini 4. Rasamrita 5. RasadarpanaVernacular names: Latin – Zincum Sanskrit – Yashada Hindi – Jasta English – Zinc Bengal – Dasta Gujarat – Jasad Tamil – Tulanagam Malayalam – Nagam Chinese - Tutenague 26
  • 45. Review of Literature. Drug Synonyms of Yashada 21-26 Sl.No Name M.N A.P R.T R.M R.D B.P.N 1 Yashada - + + - + - 2 Yasada - - + + - - 3 Jashada - - + - - - 4 Jasada + - + - + - 5 Ritihetu - + + + + - 6 Kharparaja - - + - + - 7 Rangasankamsh - + - - - - 8 Yashaka - - - - + - 9 Rangasadrasha + - - - - + 10 Ditihetu + - - - - + 11 Yashaja - - - - - + 12 Kharapara Satva - - - + - - Table No-1Prapti Sthana: Usually Yashada is not available in muktavasta (native form) but in the form of mineral like Zinc blende (ZnS), Oxide (Zno), Carbonate (ZnCO3) It is found in Canada, Russia, Australia, Peru, U.S.A, Mexico, China, Japan, Spain, and Sweden. In India Bihar, Rajasthan, Madras, Punjab, Kashmir.Description: ±dg®dPdaTdz§Sd £dd«T®da›da ¡d¯dQ±df±dI¶a | ¬ddîUµaŸdz£dy «d£dZ ±d§£dQd£d®ddye›deT±daªd®dZ || Ad.§d 3/2 According to ancient classics Yashada is one among the sapta dhatus and belongs to pootiloha group. It melts quickly on heating and produces bad smell (Loathsome) while being melted. 27
  • 46. Review of Literature. DrugBhoutika gunas of Yashada: - Varna (colour) – Shweta Sparsha (Touch) – Mrudu, snigdha Apekshita gurutwa – 7.1 Melting point – 4290C Boiling point – 9800CGrahya Yashada Lakshana:- According to Rasatarangini the Yashada, which is having followingcharacters, is best one. i.e. Yashada must be bright and shining on cutting, snigdha,mrudu, nirmala, dhrutadrava (easily melting) and guru in nature.CONCEPT OF SHODHANA AND MARANA Invention of metal brought a great change in the life style of early man. As hewent on investing various metals, he understood their uses and utilized them for variouspurposes. When observed medicinal values in metals he started using them as medicine. During Samhita period metals were used only in the form of raja (churna) butafter the 8th century a scientific study of metals was carried out for their therapeuticvalues. Till last century even in western medical sciences, metals were used fortherapeutic purposes but after observing some of their toxic effects, the usage of somemetals was ceased. Rasavaidyas too had the knowledge of toxic effects of metals and minerals butwere using Rasoushadhies, which are free from adverse effects by virtue of uniqueprocedures (Shodhana and Marana) adopted by them in detoxifying the metals, theseprocedures not only make a mineral or metal free from the toxic effects but also makethem to absorbable and therapeutically effective with a minimum dose for a maximumand quick result. Hence Rasoushadhies are widely used by Ayurvedic physicians withoutthe fear of adverse effects. A¬§d «ddÎddî§dSddye›d£®dd£dŠ AèŸdyT§d‚±da›d£ddZ | e´d§d‚«ddTdy›SdQdSd£®dd£dŠ Adz°d¥dªãdye¥dI¶TdyT±dZ || T.±dd.±da 28
  • 47. Review of Literature. Drug While preparing medicine, Ayurvedic acharyas were of opinion that when amedicine is administered in a particular disease it should only cure that disease but shouldnot cause any other diseases or adverse effect. Keeping the above in consideration various Shodhana and Marana procedure areexplained in Rasashastra classics.Merits: - 1. These procedures involve physico-chemical action in order to activate the inorganic substances (may be from nireendriya state to sendriya state). 2. These procedures not only remove the toxic effects of a drug but also the various herbs used to act on metals, so as to enhance the pharmacological action of a drug.Shodhana28: - DeÔÝzTdz°d¥dzZ ±ddØa e¸¶Sd£dy §dy°d¦ddeQI¶a | «d¬de®deŸJµ¦£d¤dy Sdd£dg ¯ddy¥d¦da £deQUµdyŸŸSd£dy || T.£d-2/52 µ Shodhana is a process by which impurities are removed from a substance by implementing prescribed methods like Mardana etc. This indicates by shodhana, impurities and toxic qualities are removed from the drug and to induce certain qualities, which are essential for further procedures.Classification: - Shodhana has been divided into two. 1. Samanya shodhana 2. Vishesha shodhana. Yashada has an explosive tendency, while pouring in shodhana dravya it may cause injury, to avoid this, one special apparatus is designed and this is known as Pithara yantra.Pithara yantra: - It contains mainly one metal (loha) bhanda and is covered with iron or mud lid having 2 cms hole at its center. 29
  • 48. Review of Literature. Drug1.Samanya shodhana of Yashada29: - The common procedure for group of dravya or metal is called Samany shodhana. £dz¬dy £d¸y¶ ›d®dd«dgÎdy UµT¦dd¬dy Ig¶¬d£¤dŠ¡dy | ¸¶«dde¦d°dyŸSd£d§£da Q„d®dy Q„d®dy £dg ±d§£d¥dd || ±®dPdd‰eQ¬ddyUµ§dÎddPdda ¯dgeÔTy°dda §d‚¯d±Sd£dy || T.T.±d 5/13 In this Yashada is melted and poured in medias like Tila taila (Sesame oil), Takra (Butter milk), Gomootra (Cow’s urine), Aranala/kanjika (Weak organic acid), Kulaththa (Horse gram decoction), 7 times in each media.2. Vishesha shodhana30-34: - Generally samanya shodhana is planted to remove certain impurities but Vishesha shodhana is a plan to induce certain therapeutic values in particular drug. In rasagranthas explained vishesha shodhana by nirvapana in different shodhana media mentioned below, each time fresh drava dravya is to be taken. Shodhana media according to different authorities. Sl.No Drug RT AP RJ RD RM Duration 1 Godugdha + - + + + 21 times 2 Kadalimula swarasa - - + - - 7 times 3 Sudhajala + - - - - 7 times 4 Nirgundi swarasa + - - - - 7 times 5 Snuhi dugdha + - - - - 7 times 6 Arka dugdha + - - - 7 times Table No-2 30
  • 49. Review of Literature. DrugMarana: Marana means “Killing” and converting a metal into non-reversible and final form i.e. bhasma.Definition: The process by which metals, minerals or any hard substance is subjected to soaking, drying and ignition to convert bhasma is known as Marana. This Marana process converts into fine state of smaller molecules and makes the light as to be highly absorbable and assimilated after administration. 1. Marana is process by which metal looses its original state still retains its originality. 2. Marana converts process drug into a biological acceptable form.Marana of Yashada: As the melting point of Yashada is low, it melts easily when subjected to puta after shodhana. So does not reduce to bhasma. This is convenience can be rectified adopt another procedure known as Jarana. By this molten metal is converted into a powder form.Pootiloha marana generally consists of following steps. 1. Jarana 2. Bhavana 3. Formation of Chakrika 4. Arranging the chakrikas in Sharava. 5. Sealing of Sharava 6. Puta (heatings) But Rasatarangini has explained a different method for the Yashada marana in 4th method 35 . In this method shodhita Yashada put into loha patra and subjected to Agni. After melting the Yashada, stirred it carefully with loha shalaka till Yashada completely converts into powder form. Then filtered through the cloth when cooling 31
  • 50. Review of Literature. Drug and again remaining part of Yashada is subjected to Agni, repeat the process till whole Yashada is converted completely into bhasma form. In Rasamrita also explained, research work has been done on this metal and on that basis this metal needs 7000C temperature maintained for 1 hour for its marana and to make its bhasma completely free from the presence of free metal content. Further 7 to 10 heating at the above-mentioned temperature range was found necessary for its complete marana. Pharmacological Properties36-41Sl.No Name of classics Kashaya Tikta Katu Sheeta Sheeta veerya KP hara 1 R.T + + + + + + 2 A.P + + - + + + 3 R.J + + - + + + 4 R.M + + - + + + 5 B.N + + - + + + 6 M.N + + + + + + Table No. 3 By observing the above table Yashada bhasma is having the following properties. Rasa – Kashayatikta Guna – Sheeta Veerya – Sheeta Doshaghnata – Kaphapittashamaka 32
  • 51. Review of Literature. DrugTherapeutic Uses: Yashada bhasma was chiefly used for external application in some disease. In Rasagranthas and Nighantu Yashada bhasma is used in various disease listed as below.Indication of Yashada bhasma40-47. Sl.No Disease RT AP RJ RM B.N M.N 1 Prameha + + + + + + 2 Pandu + + + + + + 3 Shwasa + + + + + + 4 Vruna and Vrunasrava + - - - - - 5 Rajasrara + - - - - - 6 Netraroga + + + + - - Table No-4Indication of yashadamrita Malahara48: 1. Vruna 2. Vicharchika 3. Agnidagda Vruna 33
  • 52. Review of Literature. DrugMODERN DESCRIPTION OF ZINC 49: Zinc is a metal, which resembles tin in many respects and is used for makingalloys. Now a day it is used mostly for coating for coating iron vessels to prevent themfrom roasting. In addition it is also one of the constituents of dry cell batteries. Zincminerals are generally found associated with lead and Copper-minerals.Occurrence: Zinc is not found in native forms rather it is obtained almost from minerals. It isusually found in native in the form of 1. Sulphide – ZnS (Zinc blends) 2. Oxide –ZnO (Zinc cite) 3. Carbonate –ZnCO 3 (Calamine) 4. Zinc Silicate – ZnSiO4 The major producers of Zinc are Canada, Russia, Australia, Peru, USA, Mexico,China, Japan, China, Spain, and Sweden. In India found in Rajasthan. A belt of Zinc covers an area of about 30 squaremeters in the Zawar and Udaipur region of Rajasthan. It has also been located in certainparts of Kashmir.Extraction: An extensive community followed by floatation is directed at separating Zincfrom lead, copper and as far as possible from Iron. The process involves the followingoperations. 1. Concentration. 2. Roasting 3. Smelting and Distillation 4. Refining 34
  • 53. Review of Literature. Drug Roasting to ZnO is essential for all-purpose. Further, the heating at hightemperature with Coal converts them into Zinc. The chemical reactions in the process areas under. 2 ZnS+3O2 2 ZnO+2SO2 ZnCO3 ZnO+CO2 ZnO+C Zn+COOutline of extraction of Zinc metal. Ore Zinc blende Concentrated Ore Roasting Zinc Oxide Refining Pure Zinc Crude Zinc DistillationProperties: 1. Zinc is shiny, bluish, white brittle metal. 2. Zinc possesses a crystalline structure. 3. Zinc melts at 419.58 0C 4. It has specific gravity at about 7.15 gm/ cubic centimeter at 200C 5. Zinc may be rolled out into sheets or drawn into wire between 1000C and 1500C, but it reverts to a brittle condition and may be readily powdered under the hammer. 6. It is unaffected by dry air, but becomes superficially tarnished in moist air. 7. It is highly acted upon by acids and alkalis. 8. It is soluble in dilute acids. 9. At high temperature it burns in air producing a greenish white flame. 35
  • 54. Review of Literature. DrugZINC OXIDE (Yashada bhasma) It is prepared by burning Zinc in air or by igniting Zinc carbonate. The whitefumes of Zinc oxide are condensed and collected. 2 Zn+O2 2ZnO ZnCO3 ZnO+CO2Properties: 1. It is a white powder it is known as Philosopher’s wool. It is attached by acids to form corresponding salts ZnO+H2SO4 ZnSO4+H2O It is attached by acids to form soluble alkali Zincates ZnO+2NaOH Na2 ZnO2+H2OTherapeutic properties: Absorption: Zinc salts are absorbed from GI tract and stored in liver, spleen and kidney. Elimination: Through stool, small amount by bile and urine. Uses50: 1. Good antiseptic, Astringent, Mild soothing local sedative. 2. Emetic like copper. 3. Relieves chronic inflammation like gonorrhea, leucorrhoea, otitis and even eye disorders. 4. It checks the bleeding and secretion from the broken skin by precipitating the secretion and providing soothing and protective effects. So it is used in most of the skin disease and varicose ulcer 5. Even zinc enhances the insulin binding capacity so used in Diabetic mellitus. 6. It acts as nervine tonic, sedative, antispasmodic and astringent. 36
  • 55. Review of Literature. DrugGIRISINDHOORA51: Girisindhoora is well known in ancient days, most of Rasagranthas mentioned asa Sadharana rasa. But Bhavaprakasha, Rasataranginikara included in Upadhatu. Someauthors are called it is a red oxide of mercury. But Rasataranginikara clearly mentionedthat it is lead oxide and addition to it by seeing the synonyms it is originated from Naga.And also it is prepared from the Mriddarshringa (PbO) by heating 400 to 450C itbecomes red colour called Sindhoora. Now a day what type of Sindhoora available inmarket is chemically lead proxide.Vernacular name: Sans - Raktanga, Sindhoora, Nagasambhava etc. Eng - Read lead, Red oxide of lead. Arab - Isrenj Bengali Gujarat Sindhoora Kannada Marathi Tamilu - Sagappusindhooram Telagu - Yerrasindhooram Malayalam - Chinturam Persi - Suraj-Sang Hindi - Inglur 37
  • 56. Review of Literature. DrugSynonyms of Girisindhoora51-58:Sl.No Synonyms RT RRS RM RJ BP KN MN RD 1 Sindhoora + + + 2 Nagaja + 3 Nagagarbhaja + + + + + 4 Nagarenuka + 5 Mangalya + 6 Bhalasoubhagya + 7 Ganeshabhoosham + 8 Shringarabhooshana + + 9 Rakarenu + + + + + + 10 Sisaka + 11 Sisaja + 12 Rasagarbha + + 13 Rasasindhoora + + 14 Nagaja + 15 Nagarakta + 16 Sriman + + 17 Vasantamangal + + 18 Raktaraja + + 19 Vanapishta + Table No-5Occurrence: It is found in the form of mineral. In India found in Kashmir, Punjab, Rajasthan.This is found in small quantities inside rocks in big mountains. It is dry red. This iscompound of lead and other things.Grahya lakshana59: Sukshma kanayukta, Snigdha, Guru, Bright in colour, Mrudu, Clear. 38
  • 57. Review of Literature. DrugShodhana and Marana: Most of Authorities are not mentioned Shodhana and Marana because it is inoxide form. Few authors are mentioned about Shodhana, subjected to bhavana withGodugdha60 and Amladravya61.Guna62-66: No were mentioned internal administration, but can be used external only. Rasa – Katu, Tikta Veerya – Ushna Guna – Ushna Doshaghnata – Tridosha shamaka Guna of Girisindhoora Sl.No Text Katu Tikta Ushna Ushna Dosha rasa rasa Guna Veerya Shamaka 1 RRS + + + + Tridosha 2 DN + - - + - 3 BP - - + + - 4 RN + + - + - 5 RC - - + - - Table No-6 39
  • 58. Review of Literature. DrugRogaghnata67-74 Indications of Sindhoora. Sl.No Disease RRS RT RC BP MN MN KN DN 1 Netra + + 2 Kushta + + 3 Kandu + + + 4 Vruna shodana, ropana + + + + + 5 Bhagna sandhana + + + 6 Visha + + + + + + + 7 Kshudra kushta + 8 Pama,Sidma Vicharchika + 9 Visarpa + + + + + Table No-7Description75 : Sindhoora is prepared from lead. For this lead is kept in crucible or iron pan andheated in an open atmosphere, to get it reached with oxygen and form a red colourcovering on the external surface of lead. This is known as Sindhoora. While collectingthe material initial and last portions should be discarded and remaining portion is thenwashed with water and dried. The Sindhoora, which is red, heavy, fine and smooth, isconsidered best. 40
  • 59. Review of Literature. DrugMODERN DESCRIPTION OF RED LEAD 76: (PB 3O4 ) It is prepared by heating lead monoxide in a reverberate furnace to a temperature 0of 450 C 2 Pb O+O2 2Pb 3O4Properties: 1. It is a mixed oxide and is regarded to be a mixture of lead monoxide and lead dioxide -2 PbO.PbO2 2. It is bright, orange, red, granular, crystalline powder. 3. On heating it turns violet & then black but regains its original colour on cooling. 4. It is insoluble in water. 5. On heating to 600 C it decomposes to give lead monoxide. 2 Pb 3O4+O2 6Pb O+O2 6. It is reduced to metallic lead on heating to carbon, carbon monoxide or hydrogen. Pb 3O4+4C 3Pb+4CO Pb 3O4+4CO 3Pb+4CO. Therapeutic properties77: Absorption: Lead salts are absorbed in the blood from GIT tract, skin and stored in central nervous system, kidneys, liver and bone. In the blood 90% is present in RBC’s. Elimination: Slowly by the urine, sweat and stool. Uses: 1. Have feeble action on the broken skin. 2. Good astringent, antiphlogistic, local sedative and stimulant, Allays itching and control excessive discharge. 3. Used as ointment or liniment in eruptive skin disease as eczema, pustular eruption etc, to promote maturities of boils and abscesses and the healing processes in all kinds of ulcers and wounds. 4. An ointment made of Sindhoora and Pippali powder with Navaneeta is applied in chronic eczema. 41
  • 60. Review of Literature. DrugSASYAKA: Sasyaka is well known drug from ancient time. In Charaka and Sushruta in the name of Tuttha and Amrutasanga used in various places. By the evidence of Charaka Samhita from 3200 years used as medicine and most of Rasagranthas are explained Sasyaka as a Maharasa. Vernacular names: - Hindi – Nilottha, Tuttiya Marati – Moracute Gujarathi – Morathuthu Telagu – Mailututham Eng – Copper Sulphate, Blue vitriol Latin – Cupri Sulphus.Synonyms of Sasyaka 78-84: Sl.No Paryaya RM RT RD RN BN DN MN 1 Tuttha + + + + + + + 2 Tutthaka - + + + - - - 3 Tuttyanjana - + + - - - - 4 Mayuraka - + + - + - - 5 Mayurtutthka - + - + - - - 6 Shitthagriva + + - + + + + 7 Tamragarbha - + - + - - - 8 Amritasanga + + - - - + + 9 Vitunnaka - - - - + - - 10 Amritodbhava - - - + - - - 11 Neelashmaja - - - + - - - 12 Shilakantha - - - + - + + 13 Haritashma - - - + - - - Table No-8 42
  • 61. Review of Literature. DrugOrigin85: - The Garuda consumed Harital visha after drinking the Amrita. Hence hevomited the poison mixed with the Amrita on Niligiri Mountain. Later it solidified andturned into Sasyaka.Praptisthana:- It is occurs in the form of native & artificial. Germany, Sweden, Spain,France, England. In India Bihar and Rajasthan.Grahyalakshanas86:- That which looks like the colour of Mayurakantha , snigdha and guru.. That which occurs in nature is called Swabhavaja and that which is madeartificially is called Tuttha. Both yield copper as their Satwa.Shodhana87-91:- Shodhana dravya according to different authorities Sl.No Dravya/Method RRS RT RSS RJ RM 1 Raktavargadravya bhavana + + + + 2 Snehadravya sinchana + + 3 Nimbuswarasa bhavana + + 4 Gomutra swedhana + + Table No-9 43
  • 62. Review of Literature. DrugGuna Karma of Sasyaka 92-102 Katu rasa chakshusy Madhura Rasayana Bhedana Kashaya Lekhana Vamaka Grantha Ushana Kshara veerya veerya Sheeta Kapha LaghuSl.No Stula pitta1 RT + + + + + + + +2 RRS + +3 AP + + + + + + + + + +4 RM + + + + + + + + + +5 RD + + + + + + + + + +6 RJ + + + + + + + + + +7 R.Cu + +8 RN + + + + +9 DN + +10 BN + + + + + + + +11 MN + Table No-10Rogaghnata 103-113:- Indications of Sasyaka Sl.No Disease RT RRS RM RJ RD RC AP RN DM BN MN 1 Krimi + + + + 2 Shula + + 3 Kushta + + + + + + + + + 4 Switra + + + + + + + 5 Amlapitta + + 6 Ashmari + 7 Kandu + + + + + + 8 Arsha + + + + + 9 Vruna + + + 10 Visha + + + + + + + + + + Table No-11 44
  • 63. Review of Literature. DrugMODERN DESCRIPTION OF COPPER SULPHATE 114(CUSO4. 5H2O) It is a blue coloured crystalline copper mineral, which is availableoccasionally in nature form also. Now a day it is prepared artificially by combiningCopper with Sulphuric acid.Laboratory preparation: It is prepared by the action of cupric oxide, Carbonate or hydroxide in diluteSulphuric acid followed by evaporation & crystallization. CuO+H2SO4 CuSo4+H2O CuCO3+ H2SO4 CuSo4+H2O+CO2 Cu (OH) 2+ H2SO4 CuSo4+2.H2OManufacture: On a large scale Copper Sulphate is obtained by boiling copper tailings withConc. H2SO4. Blue solution of Copper Sulphate is formed. Cu+ 2H2SO4 CuSo4+SO4+2H2O.Treating copper scrapping in hot dilute. Sulphuric acid in presence of air also obtains it. 2Cu+2H2SO4+O2 2CuSo4+2H2O. In another process, the mineral Copper Pyrites (Cu2S, Fe2 S3) is roasted inair, Iron oxide and Copper Sulphate is formed. The roasted mass is treated with water,copper sulphate dissolves and is separated by filtration. On crystals of CuSO4.5H2O. isformed. 45
  • 64. Review of Literature. DrugProperties: 1. Specific gravity 2.1 to 2.3 Hardness – 2.5 2. It is bluish green in colour. 3. Synthetic form is only bluish in colour and opaque. 4. It is easily soluble in water. 5. It looses all the water of crystallization when heated up to 250 C & forms white amorphous powder. CuSO4. 5H2O CuSO4 +5H2O It becomes blue when few drops of water added to it. 6. On electrophoresis, Copper gets separated from its solution. 7. Its solution is acidic; hence blue litmus turns red, when dipped in its solution.Chemical Composition:- Mineral form of Blue vitriol has chemical composition Cu2 FeSO4. It contains 50-70% Copper, 15-16% iron and sulphur.Synthetic form is- CuSO4. 5H2O– CuO – 31.8% SO3 – 32.1% H2O – 36.1%Therapeutic properties:Absorption: Copper Sulphate absorbed with difficulty in minute quantities either when given by mouth or from wounds and other mucous surfaces. And stored in liver, spleen and kidneys.Elimination: Through stool, urine, bile, saliva and sweat.Uses115: 1. It is powerful astringent, antiseptic, stimulant, styptic and mild caustic. 2. It is applied indolent ulcers, exuberant granulations, sinuses and fistula in ano, eczema, impetigo and eye disorders. 3. As emetic. 46
  • 65. Review of Literature. DrugARKA116: Gana – Bhedaneeya, Swedopaga Family – Asclepiaceac Kula – Arka Kula Latin – Calotropis English – Madar Sanskrit – Red calotropis - Toolaphala, Ksheeraparna, Shwetarka, Mandur, Vasuka, Alarka, Raktarka, Arkaparna, Arkanama White calotropis - Shuklarka, Japan, Supushpa, VrittamallikaVarities:- There are two varieties depending on the colour of the flowers. 1. White 2. Bluish red.According to Rajanighantu- 1. Arka 2. Rajarka 3. Shuklarka 4. Shweta mandarHabitat: - All over India in dry & pungent soil, Srilanka, Iron, Africa.Chemical composition: Small amount of yeast, madar alban, madar fluabil, resin & rubber. Some plants have sugarika gum, Trypsin, Catorropin.Properties: Guna - Laghu, Rooksha, Teekshna Vipaka – Katu Rasa – Katu, Tikta Veerya – Ushna Dosha – Kaphapitta shamaka.Uses:- Externaly – Vedana sthapana, Shothahara, Vrunashodhana, Kushtaghna, Jantughna Internally – Deepaka, Pachaka, Raktashodhaka etc.Modern:117 1. It is laxative and is beneficial in skin diseases and ulcers. 2. Research works reported the presence of a powerful bacteriocytic and vermicidal action. 3. Anti-Inflammatory, antihelmentic and Procoagulant activity. 4. It is showing healing potential on dermal wound. 47
  • 66. Review of Literature. DrugHARIDRA118: - Gana – Kushtaghna, Kandughna, Vishaghna Kula – Haridra Kula Family – Scitaminae Latin – Curcuma longa English – Turmeric Sanskrit – Haridra, Harita, Jayanti, Kanchani, Nisha, KrumighnaHabitat – All over India, In Maharashtra, Sangli is an important marketing center.Chemical Composition:- 1% Volatile oil, Curcumin is responsible for its colour. Turmeric oil has a peculiar odour & taste.Properties:- Guna – Ruksha, Laghu Veerya – Ushna Rasa – Tikta, Katu Vipaka – Katu Dosha – KaphavatashamakaUses:- External use – Shothahara, Vedanasthapana, Varnya, Kushtagna, Vrunashodhana and Ropana, Krimighna. Internal – Raktaprasadana, Raktashodhaka, Deepana, Jantughna.Modern:119 1. It is used in disorders of blood, liver and certain skin disorders. 2. It is applied in pains and as an antiparacytic for many skin affections. 3. Showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in both exudative and proliferative inflammation. 4. Another work reported that the alcohol extract and essential oil from curcuma longa showed bactericidal activity. 48
  • 67. Review of Literature. DrugSARSHAPA TAILA 120:- Kula – Rajika Family – Crucifereae Latin – Brassica alba Sanskrit – Sarshapa, Katuka, Sneha, Tantubha, Kadambak, Siddhartha.Verities:- 1. Shweta - Superior 2. RaktaHabitat:- All over India.Chemical Composition:- Glycocides of arachidic (0.5%), behenic(2-3%), eicosenoic (7-8%), erusic(40-60%), legnoceric(1-2%), linoleic(14-18%), oleic (20-22%), myristic(0.5-10%)acids.Properties: Guna - Snigdha, Laghu Rasa - Katu, Tikta Veerya - Ushna Vipaka - Katu Dosha - VatakaphashamakaUses:- Raktashodhaka, Kandughna, Kothaghna, Krimighna, Kushtaghna.Modern:121 Research works shows 1. Highly successful in promoting the absorption of scar tissue. 2. Powerful disinfect or antiseptic. 3. Improved epidermal barrier function. 4. Vasodilatation by stimulation of afferent A beta fibers. 5. Antihistamine and anti pruratic. 49
  • 68. Review of Literature. DrugDescription of drugs used for Shodhana:-1. Tila taila 122 Rasa – Madhura, Tikta, Kashaya Guna – Ushna, Teekshna, Sukshma, Vishada, Vyavayi Vipaka – Madhura Veerya – Ushna Doshakarma – Kaphavata Shamaka Karma – Vrishya, Amapachaka2. Takra 123 Rasa – Madhura, Amla, Kashaya Guna – Laghu, Ushna Dosha – Kaphavata shamaka Karma – Deepana, Shotha, Udara, Grahini, Arsha, Mootraroga, Aruchi, Gulma, Pleeha, Panduroga nashaka3. Gomutra124 :- Guna – Laghu, Teekshna, Ushna, Kshariya Karma – Deepana, Medhya. According to Indian matria medica, Gomutra contains ammonia in concentrated form it is used in both internal and external medication. It also has a laxative & purgative nature. So it is used in various medicinal preparations like Punarnava mandoor, Marichadi taila. It is good bioavailability enhancing drug.4. Kanji 125 :- Kanji prepared with the manda of half boiled kulmash dhanya is khanji. Guna - Teekshna, Laghu Rasa - Amla Dosha - Kaphavatashamaka Karma - Rechana, Pachana When applied externally it cures Daha and Jwara. 50
  • 69. Review of Literature. Drug5. Kulattha 126 :- Guna – Ushna Rasa – Kashaya Vipaka – Katu Dosha – Kaphavata shamaka Karma – Gulma, Grahim, penasa, Kasahara6. Nirgundi 127 :- Latin name - Vites nigundo Family - Verbinaceae Sanskrit - Sephalika English - Five leaved chaste French tree Kan - Bili yakki Useful part – Root, fruit, flower & leaves Properties:- Rasa - Tikta, Kashaya and Katu Guna - Rooksha Dosha - Kaphavata shamaka Veerya - Ushna Vipaka - Katu Chemical composition: - Leaves contain a colourless essential oil of the odour of drug and a resin, fruit contain an acid, traces of alkaloid & a colouring matter. Action:- Leaves are externally used as a ant parasitic and powerful discutient, Internally expectorant, nerving. 51
  • 70. Review of Literature. Drug7. Nimbuka128 Kula - Jambur Family - Rutaceae English - Lime Latin name - Citrus acid Sanskrit - Nimbuka, Amlajambeera, Vahni, Deepana, Shodhana, Vahnibeja, Amlasara, Rochana, Jantunmari, Rajnimbuka Habitat - All over India, specially in Himalaya pradesh, Bengal, Assam, Maharashtra. Chemical composition:- 7-10% Citric acid, phosphoric acid, malic acid, citrate, sugar, mucin and alkaloids. Properties:- Guna – Laghu Rasa – Amla Veerya – Anushna Vipaka – Madhura Dosha – Kaphavatashamaka Karma – Deepaka, Virechaka, Raktastambhaka, Kasa Chardihara. 52
  • 71. Review of Literature. Disease VICHARCHIKA Vicharchika is one of the most commonly encountered skin diseases, whichcomes under Kshudra Kushta. The affected individual undergoes severe discomfort anddisfigurement.Historical Review The historical aspects of the disease Vicharchika in terms of Kushta can be tracedfrom Vedic period itself.Vedic Period (2500BC-100BC) The earliest knowledge of Ayurveda is derived from the Vedas, especially fromAthrvaveda. In Athrvaveda the disease Kushta is explained and mentioned that Pama is avariety of Kushta. In Amarakosha129 Pama, Kacchu, Vicharchika are quoted assynonyms. In Vishnupurana, Vayupurana, Markandeya Purana the description of Kushtaand its Chikitsa are available. In Panineeyakala, while naming the Rogas the particular style was adopted, byadding NUL Pratyaya and making the names to be similar as Prachardika, Pravahika andVicharchika. In Brihat Samhita. Vicharchika is explained as variety of Kushta.Samhita Kala (1000BC-100AD) Maximum contribution towards Ayurveda was given during this period. Theexplanation and treatment of Vicharchika is available in Nidana Sthana 5th chapter and inChikitsa Sthana 7th chapter of Charaka Samhita. Sushrutha Samhita deals with Vicharchika, its Symptomatology and its Chikitsain Nindana Sthana 5th chapter and Chikitsa Sthana 9th chapter. Astanga Hrudaya also deals Vicharchika as a variety of Kshudra Kushta and fewYogas have been indicated for the treatment of Vicharchika in Nidana Sthana 14th andChikitsa Sthana 19th chapter. 53
  • 72. Review of Literature. Disease Bhela Samhita, Hareetha Samhita, Kashyapa Samhita all has dealt Vicharchika asa variety of Kshudra Kushta and separate Yogas have been explained under its context.Nighantu Kala (800AD – 1700AD) In Madhava Nidana, description on Vicharchika, its Symptomatology is available.Sharagadhara deals only the varieties of Kushta under which Vicharachika are alsomentioned. Bhavaprakasha, Yogaratnakara, Vangasena, Gadanigraha, Basavarajeeyam,Kalyanakaraka, Vrindavaidyaka, and Chakradatta in all these books the description ofVicharchika and its treatment is available.Adhunika Kala (1700 AD onwards) Books like Bhaishajya Ratnavali, Vaidya Vinoda, Ayurveda Prakasha,Siddhaprayoga Latika, Sidda Bheshaja Manimala, Rasayoga Sagara, Brihat YogaTarangini etc., were written in this period. These books include chiefly the Chikitsaaspect where the particular Chikitsa for Vicharchika is also available.Nirukti According to Monier Williams Sanskrit – English dictionary, the wordVicharchika comprises of root word "Charcha" with "Vi" Upasarga, which means thatcutaneous eruption with, itch and scab.Paribhasha The term Vicharchika is defined as one of the variety of Ekadasha Kushta, inwhich the main clinical manifestations are Kandu, Pidaka, Shyava Varna and Srava. ±d I¶¦Ngµ §dfdNµI¶, ¯Sdd®d, ©dUgµàd®d, e®dŸddeŸd‰I¶d¶’ 130. Acharya Charaka, Vagbhata, Bhavamishra, Yogaratnakara, Kashyapa, andMadhavakara give same opinion. 54
  • 73. Review of Literature. DiseaseWhere as Acharya Sushruta defines Vicharchika as "T¡Sddyíe£d I¶¦Ngµ®díe£d è¡ddZ ±d é´d: ªd®de¦£d ›dÎdyd°dgg e®dŸddeŸd‰I¶dSd«dŠ "131 i.e. a skin disorder associated with Atikandu, Atiruja and Rookshata of the Twacha.Bhedas The Bhedas of Vicharchika can be made on the basis of guna and doshicpredominance. On the basis of Guna - Rooksha Vicharchika Sravi Vicharchika On the basis of Doshic predominance - Pitta Pradhana Kapha PradhanaNidana Specific Nidanas for each variety of Kushta are not described in Ayurvedicclassic. As Vicharchika is one among the different types of Kushta, the Samanya Nidanasdescribed in the context of Kushta holds good for Vicharchika also. The various causative factors responsible for Kushta can be categorized as follows • Aharaja. • Viharaja. • Daiva Apacharaja. • Oushadhi Kritha. • Panchakarma Apacharaja.Aharaja, Viharaja and Daiva Apacharaja Nidanas according to different authorsshown in table No 11,12 and 13 respectively. 55
  • 74. Review of Literature. DiseaseOushadhikritha Some of the Rasadravyas when used in impure state though being KushtaghnaDravyas, may result in Kushta. In table No.14 different Oushadhikrita Nidanas areshown.Panchakarma Apacharaja The Panchakarma procedures are adopted to eliminate the Aggravated Doshas,but by improper application of Panchakarma measures, there will be residual Doshas inthe body, which again aggravates and accumulated in the Shakadi Marga. Suchaccumulation results in Shithilata of Dhatus leading to manifestation of Kushta. 56
  • 75. Review of Literature. Disease Showing Aharaja Nidanas According to Different Authors.SL Type of Ahara Ch.S Su.S B.S. A.H. H.S.No.1. Viruddahara + + + + +2. Ajeerna, Adhyashana + + + - -3. Matsya + + + - -4. Dugdati Sevana + + - - +5. Amlati Sevana + - - - +6. Guru Ahara + - - - +7. Gramya Udaka with Anupamamsa - + + - - Sevana8. Sneha + - + - -9. Dadhi Sevana + - + - -10. Lakucha & Kakamachi + - + - -11. Matsya and Payasa + - + - -12. Ahitashana - + - - -13. Drava Snigdha Ahara + - - - -14. Navanna, Kulattha, Yavaka + - - - -15. Lavana, Atasi + - - - -16. Moolaka, Satata Madhu Sevana + - - - -17. Tila, Pista, Guda + - - - -18. Chilichima with Milk + - - - -19. Madya Amla Dravya with Milk - - + - -20. Guda with Milk - - + - -21. Matsya Nimba with Milk - - + - -22. Mamsa with Madhu - - + - -23. Papodaka - - - - +24. Vidagdha Ahara Sevana - - + - -25. Guda with Mulaka - - + - -26. Havi Prashana + - - - - Table No-11 57
  • 76. Review of Literature. Disease Showing Viharaja Nidanas According to Different Authors.Sl.No Type of Ahara Ch.Su Su.Su B.S. A.H. H.S. . 1. Chardi Nigraha, + + - + - 2. Vegavarodha + + - + - 3. Sheetambu Snana after Atapa Sevana + - + - 4. Diva Swapna + - - + + 5. Mithya Vihara - + + - - 6. Vyavaya, Atisantapa + - - - - 7. Shrama. Bhaya. Sheetambu Sevana + - - - - 8. Ratri Jagarana - - - - + 9. Ajeernepi Vyayamam + - - - - 10. Vyavaya after Vidahi Ahara Sevana - - - + - 11. Gramya Dharma Sevana - + - - - Table No-12 Showing Daiva Apacharaja Nidanas According to Different Authors.Sl.No. Types of Daiva Apacharaja Nidanas Ch.S Su.S AH B.S H.S. 1. Papakarma + + + - - 2. Vipran Gurun Garshayatan + + + - - 3. Poorvakruta Karma + + + - - 4. Gohatya - - - - + 5. Use of money acquired by theft. - + + - - 6. Sadhu Ninda and Vadha + + + - - Table No-13 Showing Usage of Improperly Purified Rasaushadhi Leading to Kushta Utpatti.Sl. No. Rasa Oushdhi Nidanas Kushta Utpatti Reference 1. Parada Kushta Utpatti AP.19, RT5/8 2. Abhraka Kushta Utpatti AP. 2/103 3. Roupya Makshika Mandala Utpatti AP 4/11 4. Gandhaka Kushta Utpadaka AP. 2/18 5. Haratala Sphota Utpadaka R.R S 3/69 6. Vanga Kilasa Kushta R.T. 28/7 7. Vaikranta Kilasa Kushta A.P 5/160 8. Loha Kushta Utpadaka A.P 3/224 Table No-14 58
  • 77. Review of Literature. DiseaseTwacha Shareera Vivechana Twacha is considered one among the sapta dravya responsible for themanifestation of Kushta. So the knowledge of twacha and kriya is important. Accordingto charaka and Vagbhata Twacha is divided into six layers, whereas Sushrutha describes7 layers. Twak is considered as Upadhatu of Mamsa Dhatu and one among the PanchaJnanendriya, Vayu and Akasha are the Indriya Dravyas present in Twacha, Sparsha isIndriyartha, and Sparshagnana is Indriya buddhi. It is the seat of Bhrajaka Pitta. Duringthe process of Parinama of Shukra and Shonita and after the formation of Garbha Twakand all other Dhatus begin to form just as the cream of milk being formed during boilingof milk. Vagbhatacharya mentioned that all types Kushta occurs in fourth layer. As the adhisthana of Vicharchika is not mentioned by any Acharyas andconsidering Vagbhata’s opinion that fourth layer of Twacha is the Adhishtana of varioustypes of Kushta. The Adhishtana of Vicharchika can be inferred as the fourth layer.Rakta Vivechana Rakta is one among the Kushtakaraka sapta drayas. While describing RaktaPradoshaja Vyadhis, Charaka mentions Kushta one among them. He also mentions somespecific varieties of Kushta like Dadru, Charmadala, Switra etc., but has not includedVicharchika. Vicharchika being a variety of Kushta can be considered as RaktaPradoshaja Vyadhi.Mamsa Vivechana Mamsa, one among the Sapta Dravyas causing Kushta. Twacha is the Sarabhagaof Mamsa Dhatu. The maintenance of healthy skin depends on the state of Mamsa Dhatu.Meda Pusti and Mala Pusti are the functions of Mamsa Dhatu. When Mamsa Dhatu isinvolved in the pathogenesis of skin disorders it may manifest as Vicharchika. 59
  • 78. Review of Literature. DiseaseLaseeka It is a kind of Udakamsha and is included among the Dravyas resulting in Kushta.It is a Mala of Rasadhatu and stays in Twak.Samprapti All the classical textbooks of Ayurveda have explained common Samprapti ofKushta. Even though Kushta is classified into Maha Kushta and Kshudra Kushta. Thereis no separate Samprapti emphasized by any author. So that the Kushta SamanyaSamprapti should be considered for Vicharchika also.Kushta Samprapti According to Different AcharyasAccording to Charakacharya The vitiated Sapta Dravyas are considered as Sannikrusta Hetus for Kushta. Thevitiated Doshas vitiate Twacha, Rakta, Mamsa and Ambu and combination of these SaptaDravyas will be localized in between Twak and Mamsa and produce different varieties oflesion at different sites over the skin. They are named differently based on the site andnature of skin. ‘®d|£ddQSd±ÎdSddy QgÝ£®d›d‚™£d «dda±dda©dg Ÿd Qdy°dSde¦£d ±dd Ig¶Ýd¦ddaa ±d§£dI¶dy Q„®Sd ±da›dUµ‚’ 132.According to Sushruta The deranged Vata along with Pitta and Kapha enters into the Siras, which aretransversely spread over the surface of the body. Thus the vitiated Vata deposits Pitta andKapha on the skin through the medium of their channels and spread them over the surfaceof the body. The areas of the skin in which the morbid Doshas are deposited becomemarked with Mandalas or skin patches. If these vitiated Doshas are not brought intonormalcy, they enter into deeper and deeper Dhatus.133 60
  • 79. Review of Literature. DiseaseAccording to Vagbhatacharya Due to Nidana Sevana the Doshas gets vitiated and spread to Tiryakgata Siras andvitiates Twacha, Laseeka and Asruk. This produces Shithilikarana and Vaivarnya. Thedisease Kushta manifests wherever the morbid Doshas get lodged.134 Madhavakara , Bhavapraksha and Yogaratnakara explains Samprapti similar tothat of Charaka . After going through the Samanya Samprapti of Kushta Vicharchika Sampraptican explained as follows. "By Nidana Sevana Agnimandya takes place leading to vitiation of three Doshaswith the predominance of Pitta and Kapha. Mainly Pitta and Kaphakara Nidanas result inthe vitiation of Kleda initiating the process of Pathogenesis. These vitiated Doshas withDhatus, i.e., Rakta, Mamsa and Ambu enter the Tiryakgata Siras and lodges in theTwacha". Kleda plays an important role in the pathogenesis because both Pitta and Kaphabeing Drava Dhatus are considered as Kleda karaka Sannikrishta Nidanas. Kapha Doshadue to Sneha, Sheeta and Pichchila Guna and Pitta by Sneha, Drava and Ushna Gunaleads to accumulation of Kleda. Along with Kleda vitiated doshas takes Ashraya inTwacha leading to the clinical manifestation of Vicharchika. 61
  • 80. Review of Literature. Disease Schematic Presentation of Samprapti Nidana Sevana Dosha Prakopa Doshas moves in Tiryakgata Siras Srotodusti (Sanga and Atipravrutti) Doshas lodges in Twacha Vitiation of Twacha, Rakta ,Mamsa and Ambu Vicharchika ( Kandu, Pidaka, Shyavata, Sravata, / Rookshta)Samprapti Ghatakas Of VicharchikaDosha : Pitta pradhana Tridosha/ Kapha pradhana TridoshaDooshya : Twak, Rakta, Mamsa and AmbuAgni : Jataragni, DhatwagniAma : Jataragni mandyajanya, Dhatwagni mandyajanya.Srotas : Rasavaha, Raktavaha, SwedovahaSrotodusti : Sanga and AtipravruttiUdbhava sthana : Amashaya and PakwashayaSanchara Sthana : Tiryakgata siraAdishtana : 4th layers of TwachaVyakta sthana : TwachaRogamarga : BahyaSwabhava : ChirakariPurva Roopa The common purvaroopas are mentioned in the context of Kushta. Which areapplicable to all eighteen varieties of Kushta. The same also applies to Vicharchika. Different Purva Roopas common in Kushta according to different authors isshown in table No.15. 62
  • 81. Review of Literature. Disease Showing Purva Roopas Common in Kushta According to Various Authors.Sl. Purvaroopas Ch.S Su.S AH KaSNo. 1. Asweda + + + - 2. Atisweda + + + + 3. Parushya + + - - 4. Atislakshnata + - + + 5. Vaivarnya + - + + 6. Kandu + + + - 7. Nistoda + - + - 8. Suptata + + + - 9. Paridaha + + + - 10. Ushmayana + - - - 11. Gourava + - - - 12. Shwayathu + + - - 13. Visarpagamana + + - - 14. Shrama + - + - 15. Kota + - + - 16. Rookshatwa - - + - 17. Pipasa - - - + 18. Raga - - - + 19. Dourbalya - + - + 20. Pariharsha + - - - 21. Pidaka - - - + 22. Ativedana - - - + Table No. 15 63
  • 82. Review of Literature. DiseaseRoopa In our classics the specific lakshanas of Vicharchika are mentioned. Acharya Charaka, Bhavaprakasha and Yogaratnakara describes Vicharchika as ±d I¶¦Ngµ §dfdNµI¶, ¯Sdd®d, ©dUgµàd®d, e®dŸddeŸd‰I¶d¶’ 135. According to Charaka it is a kapha pradhana vyadhi ( Kapha praya Vicharchika). According to Sushruta, Vicharchika is pitta pradhana vyadhi "T¡Sddyíe£d I¶¦Ngµ®díe£d è¡ddZ ±d é´d: ªd®de¦£d ›dÎdyd°dgg e®dŸddeŸd‰I¶dSd«dŠ " 136According to Vagbhata "±d I¶¦Ngµ §dfdNµI¶, ¯Sdd®d, ¬de±dI¶dQSd e®dŸddeŸd‰I¶d¶ "137 Acharya Vagbhata instead of Srava, he used the word Laseeka. So each lakshanas can be analyzed as follows:Kandu Kandu is one among the Kapha Vruddhi Lakshana, here Karmataha Vruddhi ofKapha. Acharya Kashyapa mentions that Kandu is due to Ambu. Kandu is also VruddhiLakshana of Sweda.Shyavata Shayava Varna could be due to the vitiation of Rakta by Dosha. AcharyaVagbhata has mentioned that Rakta becomes blackish colour in Purvaroopavastha as PittaPradhana Tridosha vitiates it. Pitta Dushti leads to Krishna Varna.Pidakas Pidakas are the characteristic feature of Vicharchika, when the vitiated Pitta,localise in twacha and Rakta, the Pidakas manifest.Srava It occurs because of Dravyataha Vruddhi of Pitta. 64
  • 83. Review of Literature. DiseaseRaji The fissure formed at the affected part of Twacha is called Raji. It is due toGunataha Vruddhi of Vata.Atiruja Acharya Sushruta tells Ruja attributed to Vedana. This symptom is due to VikrutaVata Dosha. When the lesion of Vicharchika are extensive , Vedana may be felt.Rookshata As Acharya Sushruta has mentioned that the Vicharchika is a Rooksha variety,the aggravated Vata Dosha may play a predominant role. Showing the Roopas of Vicharchika According to Various Authors. Sl. Lakshanas Cha.S Su.S AH B.S K.S B.P Y.R No. 1. Kandu + + + - - + + 2. Pidaka + - + + - + + 3. Shyava varna + + + + + + + 4. Srava + - + + + + + 5. Atiruja - + - - - - - 6. Rookshata - + - - - - - 7. Raji - + - - - - - 8. Praklinnata - - - + - - - 9. Paka - - - - + - - 10. Rakta Varna - - - + + - - Table No. 16Upashaya Anupashaya After investigating a disease with the help of Nidana, Samprapti, Purvaroopa andRoopa, one may be still doubt in diagnosing the disease and also to adopt the proper lineof treatment. In such case Upashaya and Anupashaya will help us to some extent. 65
  • 84. Review of Literature. Disease The Oushadhas, Ahar, Viharas which is comfortable or gives relief either byacting directly the cause of the disease or the disease itself or to both, are calledAnupashaya138. The opposite of Upashaya i.e., if the patient feels discomfort by the use ofOushadha, Ahara and Vihara is called Anupashaya. In our classics, the Pratyatma Lakshanas can make the Upashaya Anupashaya ofVicharchika and which relieves such Symptom are considered as Upashaya. However, the causative factors themselves may be taken as Anupashaya, as thesemay also act as the aggravating factors of the presenting symptoms.Sapeksha Nidana Certain diseases though they are different from Vicharchika but exhibits somesimilar signs and symptoms. So it is necessary to rule out such possible disease to obtainright diagnosis. Showing the Sapeksha Nidana Sl. Name Dosha Vedana Varna Pidaka Sthanas No. Pitta , Ustanna, - 1. Dadru Kandu Tamra Kapha Mandalavata Kandu, Sphik, Pitta, Shweta, Sravayukta 2. Pama Ruja, Pani, Kapha Aruna Bahu Daha Koorpara Neela, Sthoolamoola Parva Pitta, Daha, Lohita, Bahu Srava 3. Shataru Kapha Arati Peeta, Bahupidaka Asita Teevra - Sphik, 4. Kachchu Pitta - Daha Pani, Pada Table No.17 66
  • 85. Review of Literature. DiseaseSadhyasadhyata Various authors mentioned, on the basis of involvement of Doshas, Dooshya andsigns and symptoms have explained Sadhyasadhyata of Kushta. According to CharakaEkadoshaja and Vata Kaphaja Kushta are Sadhya, Kapha Pittaja and Vata Pittaja Kashtaare Kashta Sadhya. Kushta having all signs and symptoms with Bala Kshaya, Trishna,Daha, Agnimandya and Krimi is Asadhya.139 According to Sushruta, the patient who has got full control over his sense organsand the disease pathogenesis is affecting only twak. Rakta and Mamsa are Sadhya. If thedisease pathogenesis reaches to the Medodhatu it is Yapya. If it proceeds to furtherDhatus it becomes Asadhya. Madhavakara has accepted the Sushrutas explanation but he has considered thosevarieties of Kushta in which Meda, Asthi and Majja Dhatu are involved as Yapya. Acharya Vagbhata gives the same opinion like that of Charaka and Sushruta.Along with this he adds, Raktaja and Mamasagata Kushta is Kashta Sadhya andTwakstha Kushta is Sadhya. By looking at the above explanations Vicharchika that is Pitta and KaphaPradhana Vyadhi with the involvement of Twak, Rakta Mamsa can be considered asKashta Sadhya Vyadhi.Chikitsa The general line of treatment explained for Kushta is applicable to Vicharchikaalso. As per Charka, according to the Doshic predominance Shodhana has to be adopted.In Vata Pradhana Kushta Sarpi Pana should be done, in Kapha Pradhana Kushta Vamanashould be done and in Pitta Pradhana Kushta Virechana and Raktamokshana should bedone140. 67
  • 86. Review of Literature. Disease A specific periodicity for conducting Shodhana karma is mentioned by Sushrutawhich is supported by most of the scholars of Ayurveda. Vamana karma has to be carriedout once in a fort night, Virechana once in a month, Nasyakarma has to be carried out onevery third day and Raktamokshana is advocated biannually141. Sushruta further explains Chikitsa of Kushta based on the involvement of Dhatus.If Kushta lodges in Twak : Samshodhana. Rakta : Samshodhana, Lepana, Kashayapana and Shonita Avasechana. Mamsa : along with Raktagata line of treatment Arishta, Mantha should be administered. When it involves Medo Dhatu the disease is considered as Yapya. But dependingon the patient’s condition Samshodhana and Raktavasechana should be done and theDravyas like Bhallataka, Shilajatu, etc., must be administered142 Acharya Vagbhata opines that, the Kushta must be treated with Snehapanaprimarily. In Vata Pradhana Kushta the Taila or Ghrita prepared by Dashamoola,Erandadi Dravyas must be administered. In Pitta Pradhana Kushta Ghrita prepared out ofPatola, Nimbadi Dravyas must be administered and in Kapha Pradhana Kushta Saptahva,Chitraka Siddha Ghrita must be administered143. So after attaining Koshta Shuddi by repeated Vamana and Virechana andundergoing Raktamokshana, the usage of Lepa and other Shamanoushadhi will definitelyrelieve Vicharchika. 68
  • 87. Review of Literature. Disease The most commonly used palliative medicines and external applications are asfollows 144 : Madhusnuhi Rasayana Siva Gutika Patola Muladi Kwatha Churna Brhat Manjishtadi Kwatha Churna Nimbadi Churna Nalapamaradi taila Kushtarakshasa taila Tamra Bhasma Swarna Makshika Bhasma Haratala Bhasma Arogya Vardhini Gutika Gandhaka Rasayana Manjishtadi Taila Chitrakadi Taila etc.Pathyapathya Our Acharyas have not dealt with precise Pathya Apathya of VicharchikaSeparately. So the Pathya Apathya explained under Kushta can be considered here.Pathya. Ahara Shookadhanya Varga : Purana Shali, Shastika Shali, Godhuma, Shyamaka Shamidhanya Varga : Mudga, Masoora, Adaka and Bakuchi. Mamsa Varga : Jangala Pashu Pakshi Shaka Varga : Patola, Nimba, Chitraka, Hingu, Punarnava, Kakamachi and Brihati, Lashuna, Khadira and Chakramarda. Phala Varga : Triphala, Sarshapa and Agaru Mootra varga : Gomutra, Ustra and Ashwa.Apathya Rasa : Amla, Lavana Shamidhanya Varga : Masha, Tila and Kulattha Shookadhanya Varga : Navanna Mamsa Varga : Mamsa, Matsya and Anoopamamsa Ahara Yoni Varga : Tila taila Ikshu Varga : Guda, Ikshurasotpanna Varga Gorasa Varga : Dugdha, Dadhi Madya Varga : MadyasVihara: Divaswapna, Vyavaya, Vyayama, Soorya Tapa, Swedana, Papakarma, Guruninda and Guru Gharshana. 69
  • 88. Review of Literature. Disease ECZEEMA (ALLERGIC DERMATITIS) With a background of comprehensive descriptions on Vicharchika by AyurvedicClassics, let us now Review the explanations on Allergic Dermatitis. The term Allergy was introduced in 1906 by von parquet to designate‘uncommitted’ biologic response, which may lead either to immunity or allergic diseases,but over a period of time the term allergy is taken to mean IgE Mediated allergicdisease145. Allergic Dermatitis is inflammation of the skin due to hypersensitivity.Dermatitis 146-148 The term Eczema and Dermatitis are being used Synonymously and referred todistinctive patterns of the skin which can be either acute or chronic due to number ofcauses including Allergy. It is thus synonymous with dermatitis. However, according tosome only those dermatitis, which have allergy at the background should be calledeczema and others should be termed dermatitis. Both these terms applied to variety of skin diseases with the specifichistopathological changes though originally applied to large number of skin diseases ofunknown origin now a day the term is more restrictive since many diseases have beenidentified and classified. It has been seen almost all the cases of dermatitis are due tohypersensitivity to various allergens that are, absorbed or in close proximity with the skinor other wise due to peculiar Idiosyncrasies.Allergy or hypersensitivity 149,150. Allergy is the term applied to the natural or spontaneous manifestations ofhypersensitiveness in man, which include asthma, hay fever, eczema, urticaria andmigraine. A person who is overly reactive to a substance that is tolerated by other people issaid to be hypersensitive. 70
  • 89. Review of Literature. Disease A hyper sensitive person starts secreting IgE antibodies those bind to allergensforming IgE–allergen complex. In response the mast cells and basophiles secretehistamines, which initiate allergic inflammatory manifestations like skin or lungs. Oncesensitized the individual remains hyper sensitive to that particular antigen. Whenever theallergen gets into the system the body reacts immediately through inflammation thesereactions can be systemic or local.Common allergens includei) Food : Milk, Peanuts, Egg, Fish, Corn, Soya, Wheat etc.ii) Drugs : Almost all drugs are capable of inducing allergy. Popular drugs include penicillin, anti hypertensives, and other antibiotic.iii) Vaccines : Pertusis, Typhoid.iv) Venoms : Honybee, Wasp, Snakev) Cosmetics : Hairdye, Nail polish, Perfumes, Deodorant.vi) Chemical in plants : Poison ivy, Pollen, Dust.vii) Microbes : Salmonella typhi.viii) Substances : Leather, Clothing, Plants, Vegetables, Detergents, Chemicals,etcCardinal clinical features 151 of Allergic Dermatitis The vesicle is a constant primary lesion. In some instances a vesicle is so minutehas not to be obvious. The first sign is the patch of erythema, accompanied by itching andburning; this is soon covered with numerous tiny vesicles. These enlarge and oftencoalesce. Later a rupture either spontaneously or by scratching and a clear serous fluidexudes. Exudation continues once the surface of the skin has been broken and the exudedserum then dries to form crusts, the more acute dermatitis, the greater degree ofenythema, pruritis or itching and vesiculation. As the disease subsides there is lesserythema and vesicle formation later papules and scales begin to form. In mild cases theinflammation subsides rapidly, at much more frequently fresh crop of vesicles start uparound the edge of earlier patches while new lesions formed in other parts, some timesnearly whole skin is involved. 71
  • 90. Review of Literature. Disease If the disease becomes chronic patches of Lichenification due to long scratchingare formed. Thus the cardinal features of Allergic dermatitis what ever the type orwhatever the cause are erythema, pruritis, vesicle formation, rupture of vesicles, crusting,scale formation, healing and Lichenification. Itching is a constant symptom and variesmore with the temperament of individual than the stage of disease.Classification 142,153.I. Histologicali) Acute - Characterized by considerable spongiosis (intercellular oedema) leading toformation of intraepidermal vesicles or bullas, these are permeated by acute inflammatorycells. The upper dermis shows congested blood vessels and mononuclear inflammatorycell infiltrates or eosinophil especially or around small capillaries.ii) Subacute – Many follow acute stage, here spongiosis and vesicles are smaller andepidermis shows moderate acanthuses, varying degree of paracaratosis in the horny layerand formation of surface crusts containing degenerated leucocytes, bacteria and fibrin.Here dermis contains perivascular nuclear infiltrate or eosinophil.iii) Chronic – Shows hyper caratosis, acanthuses, paracaratosis, elongation of Retieridges and broadened dermal papillae, vesicles are absent but slight spongiosus may bepresent. The upper dermis shows perivascular chronic infiltrate fibrosis.II. Based on Etiology.i) Endogenous – Here the dermatitis is as a result of endogenous cause where thepathology is dominated by hypersensitivity reactions or atopy without an external cause.Ex : Atopic dermatitis, Seborrhoeic eczema, Infectious eczematous dermatitis, Nummulardermatitis. 72
  • 91. Review of Literature. Diseaseii) Exogenous – As the name implies is inflammation of the skin from an external sourceit may either be localized to a small area of skin or general in its distribution. Dependingon the intensity of the irritating factor it can be acute, sub-acute or chronic. There areliterally hundreds of Substances that can be produce dermatitis and they may act by directirritation or by effected individual having become sensitized to them or due to a personalidiosyncrasy. Ex : Allergic contact dermatitis, Irritant Contact dermatitis, phyto and photodermatitis, drug allergy.iii) Occupation – Usually is a result of continuous exposure to skin irritants in manyoccupations.Ex : Strong cleaning agents or soaps, in laundry work, wet works, solvents, detergents,vegetable juices, plants, weeds insecticides different dyes, chemicals etc.Investigations 154Patch testing to allergies This is used in suspected cases of allergic contact dermatitis. Patch testing toirritants (Which cause reactions in everybody) is not advised.Prick testing This is used for few patients with stubborn atopic dermatitis if found or inhalantallergens are suspected an exacerbating factor. Radio allergosorbent Test (RAST) is donefor the levels of allergen specific IgE.Routine blood test A specific type of blood cell called an eosinophil is elevated in allergicconditions.Management 155, It includes • Explanation, reassurance and encouragement. • Avoidance of contact with allergens / irritants. • Anti inflammatory like cortisone, Antihistamines and Antibiotics. 73
  • 92. Methodology – Pharmaceutical study METHODOLOGY PHARMACEUTICAL STUDYCollection of drugs used in the preparation of Yashada bhasma: All the raw drugs needed for the preparation for the compound are collected from local market and some drugs are collected from college garden as well as pharmacy section of DGMAMC GADAG. Every drug was identified according to Ayurvedic standards.Practical study: The things, which are mentioned in Ayurveda, are better understood by getting the knowledge in two ways i.e. Theoretical study and Practical. Because as saying, as doing is very difficult task. This theory is especially applicable to Rasashastra, because the drugs, which are mentioned in Rasashastra, are considered as visha or they have visha guna, but after processing some processes those drugs become ‘Amruta’. So this denotes the importance of practical knowledge. The processes, which are mentioned in the Rasagranthas, seem to be very easy, but they will prove difficult during the practical. A detailed description of the steps taken to prepare the trial formulations includes different processes like Shodhana, Jarana and Marana, Malahara and Taila kalpana. 74
  • 93. Methodology – Pharmaceutical studyPractical no.1:1. Name of the preparation: Yashada samanya shodhana in Tila taila for 7 times. Date of commencement : 10 – 03 -- 2005 Date of completion : 10 – 03 - 2005 Reference : R.R.S - 5/ 132. Equipments: Small iron pan with long handle, cloth. Iron vessel with lid having hole about 2-cm.at center (pithara yantra), Burner.3. Drugs: 1. Raw Yashada - 500 gms 2. Tila taila - 2.5 lt 3. Water - Q.S4. Procedure: a. Sufficient quantity of taila to immerse the metal was taken in Pithara yantra. b. Raw Yashada about ½ kg was heated in iron pan till it melts. c. Molten Yashada was immediately poured into Pitharayantra and allowed for self- cooling which took about 15 to 20 minutes. d. Cooled metal was taken out, washed with hot water to remove the oiliness and wiped with cotton and cloth. e. Dried metal was once again subjected to above said procedure for 6 more times, each time fresh taila was taken for the procedure. f. Second process onwards during melting, scum with oil was observed on the surface of molten Yashada, which has been removed by iron spoon.5. Observations: 1. Time taken for melting was 13 – 15 minutes on medium flame. 2. When molten Yashada was poured in Tila taila it produced crackling sound. 3. Second process onwards scum with oil was observed on the surface of molten metal. 4. Colour of the oil becomes slightly blackish. 5. After the above procedure the metal was golden colour coating, but the shining is decreased slightly. 75
  • 94. Methodology – Pharmaceutical study6. Precaution: 1. Melting should be done on medium flame.7. Result: Initial weight of the metal – 500 gms Final weight of the metal – 490 gms Weight loss – 10 gmsPractical no. 21. Name of the preparation: Samanya shodhana of Yashada in Takra for 7 times. Date of commencement : - 11 – 3 – 05 Date of completion : - 11 – 3 – 05 Reference : – R.R.S 5 / I32. Equipmnts: - Small iron pan with long handle, Cloth Iron vessel with lid having hole of 2 cm.diameter at the center ( Pithara yantra ), Burner3. Drugs: - a.Taila shodita Yashada - 490 gms b.Takra - 5 ltr c. Water - q.s4.Procedure: a. Sufficient quantity of Takra was taken in Pithara yantra. b. Taila shodhita Yashada was heated in iron pan till it melts. c. Molten Yashada was poured immediately to the Pithara yantra and allowed for self-cooling. d. Cooled metal was taken out washed with hot water & wiped with cotton cloth. e. Dried metal was once again subjected to above said procedure for 6 more times each time fresh Takra was taken for the procedure.5. Observation: a. Time taken for melting was 13 - 15 minutes on medium flame. b. When molten Yashada was poured in Takra crackling sound was heard. 76
  • 95. Methodology – Pharmaceutical study c. Second time onwards while melting the crackling sound was heard due to presence of water molecules and scum was observed on the surface of molten Yashada d. The colour of Takra turned to yellowish and maximum quantity of Takra reduced due to evaporation. e. After the above procedure the metal became brittle rough disintegrated surfaced, the shining of metal was increased.6. Precaution: a. Medium flame should be maintained. b. Care should be taken while pouring into Takra to avoid explosion.7. Result: Initial weight of metal – 490 gms Final weight of the metal – 480 gms Weight Loss – 010 gmsPractical no. 31. Name of the preparation: - Samanya shodhana of Yashada in Gomutra for 7 times. Date of commencement : - 12 – 3 – 05 Date of completion : - 12 – 3 – 05 Reference :– R.R.S 5 / I32. Equipments: - Small iron pan with long handle, Cloth Iron vessel with lid having holed about 2cm.at center (Pithara yantra), Burner3. Drugs: - a. Takra shodhita Yashada - 480 gms b. Gomutra - 6 ltr c. Water - q.s4. Procedure: a. Sufficient quantity of Gomutra was taken in Pithara yantra. b. Takra shodhita Yashada was heated in iron pan till it melts. c. Molten Yashada was poured immediately to the Pithara yantra & allowed for self-cooling. 77
  • 96. Methodology – Pharmaceutical study d. Cooled metal was taken out washed with hot water & wiped with cotton cloth. e. Dried metal was once again subjected to above said procedure for 6 more times each time fresh Gomutra was taken for the procedure. f. Scum formation on the surface of molten Yashada was removed by iron spoon.5. Observation: a. Yashada melts within 13-15 minutes producing crackling sound. b. Explosive sound was heard when molten Yashada poured in Gomutra. c. Scum was formed on the surface of molten Yashada d. The colour of Gomutra turned in to blackish and quantity was reduced. e. After the above procedure the metal became brittle, the shining of metal was reduced.6. Precaution: a. Medium flame should be maintained. b. To avoid explosion the lid of the Pithara yantra should be sealed properly7. Result Initial weight of metal – 480 gms Final weight of the metal – 470 gms Weight loss – 10 gmsPractical no.41. Name of the preparation :- Samanya shodhana of Yashada in Kanji for 7 times. Date of commencement : - 13 – 3 – 05 Date of completion :- 13 – 3 –05 Reference :– R.R.S 5/ I32. Equipments :- Small iron pan with long handle, Cloth Iron vessel with lid having hole of 2 cm.diameter at the center (pithara yantra), Burner 78
  • 97. Methodology – Pharmaceutical study3. Drugs :- a.Gomootra shodita Yashada – 470 gms b.Kanji - 3 ltr c.Water - q.s4. Procedure: a. Sufficient quantity of Kanji was taken in Pithara yantra. b. Gomutra shodhita Yashada was heated in iron pan till it melts. c. Molten Yashada was poured immediately to the Pithara yantra and allowed for self-cooling. d. Cooled metal was taken out washed with hot water & wiped with cotton cloth. g. Dried metal was once again subjected to above said procedure for 6 more times each time fresh Kanji was taken for the procedure. f. Scum formation on the surface of molten Yashada was removed by iron spoon.6. Observation: a. Explosive sound was heard when molten Yashada poured in Gomutra. b. Second time onwards scum was formed on the surface of molten Yashada and was removed by iron spoon. c. The colour of kanji became dark & more quantity was evaporated. e. After the above procedure the metal turned to a shining big granule.7. Precaution: a. Medium flame should be maintained.8. Result: Initial weight of metal – 470 gms Final weight of the metal – 455 gms Weight loss – 15 gmsPractical no.51. Name of the preparation :-Samanya shodhana of Yashada in Kulattha kwatha for 7 times. Date of commencement :- 14 – 3 – 05 Date of completion :- 14 – 3 –05 79
  • 98. Methodology – Pharmaceutical study Reference :– R.R.S 5 / I32. Equipments :- Small iron pan with long handle, Cloth, Burner and Pithara yantra3. Drugs :- a. Kanji shodhita Yashada - 455 gms b. Kulattha kwatha - 8 ltr c. Water - Q.S4. Preparatory procedure: 1part of yavakuta churna of Kulattha was boiled with 16 parts of water in earthen pot over a mrudu agni till liquid is reduced to ¼ of the original quantity.5. Procedure: a. Sufficient quantity of Kulaththa kwatha was taken in Pithara yantra. b. Kanji shodhita Yashada is melted in iron pan on medium flame. c. Molten Yashada was poured immediately to the Pithara yantra & allowed for self-cooling. d. Cooled metal was taken out washed with hot water & wiped with cotton cloth. f. Dried metal was once again subjected to above said procedure for 6 more times, each time fresh Kulaththa kwatha was taken for the procedure.6. Observation: a. Yashada melts within 13 - 15 minutes producing crackling sound. b. When molten Yashada was poured in Pithara yantra explosive sound was heard. c. The colour of Kwatha turned in to dark & much quantity was evaporated. d. After the above procedure some part of the Yashada became powder form.7. Precaution: Explosive chances are avoided by sealing the lid of Pithara yantra.8. Result Initial weight of metal – 455 gms Final weight of the metal – 435 gms Weight Loss – 20 gmsPractical No. 61. Name of the preparation :- Vishesha shodhana of Yashada in Haridrayukta Nirgundi swarasa for 3 times. 80
  • 99. Methodology – Pharmaceutical study Date of commencement : - 15 – 3 – 05 Date of completion :- 15 – 3 –05 Reference :– .R.R.S 5/1562. Equipments: - Small iron pan with long handle, Cloth, Burner Iron vessel with lid having hole of 2 cm diameter at the center (Pithara yantra), Burner3. Drugs :- a. Samanya shodhita Yashada – 435 gms b. Nirgundi swarasa - 1.5liters c. Haridra churna - 30 grams d. Water - Q.S4. Preparatory procedure: Nirgundi swarasa preparation. Fresh Nirgundi leaves were taken and subjected to mardana till it became fine kalka, later putapakwa vidhi was followed to obtain swarasa.5. Procedure: a. Half liter of Nirgundi swarasa was mixed with 10 gms of Haridra churna and was taken in Pithara yantra. b. Samanya shodhita Yashada is melted in iron pan on medium flame. c. Molten Yashada was poured immediately to the Pithara yantra and allowed for self-cooling. d. Cooled metal was taken out washed with hot water up to removal of yellowish tinge of metal and wiped with cotton cloth. e. Dried Yashada was once again subjected to above said procedure for two more times. Each time fresh Nirgundi swarasa with Haridra churna was taken.6. Observation: a. Yashada melts within 13 - 15 minutes producing crackling sound. b. When molted Yashada was poured in Pithara yantra more explosive sound was heard. c. Scum formation on the surface of molten Yashada was removed by iron spoon. 81
  • 100. Methodology – Pharmaceutical study d. The colour of swarasa turned in to dark green and much quantity was reduced. e. After this procedure the Yashada became thorny, brittle and most of it became powder.7. Precautions: Because of throny surface proper care should be taken while removing the metal from shodhana media.8. Result: Initial weight of metal - 435 gms Final weight of the metal - 415 gms Weight Loss - 20 gmsPractical No.71.Name of the preparation :- Marana of Yashada Date of commencement : - 18 – 3 – 05 Date of completion :- 23 – 3 –05 Reference :– RT 19/116-1192. Equipments :- Big iron pan with long handle, Cloth, Burner, Chalani.3. Drug :- a..Shodhita Yashada - 415gms4. Procedure: a. Vishesha shodhita Yashada about 415gms was taken in big iron pan and melted on medium flame. b. After complete melting of Yashada, the process is continued with stirred through chalani until complete Yashada is converted into powder. (At 7500 c) c. Then the heat was stopped and allowed to self-cooling, and then collecting the fine powder by sieving through the cloth. d. Remaining part of course powder of Yashada was once again subjected to above said procedure continued until complete Yashada was converted into fine powder.5. Observations: a. Yashada starts became into powder form within 1hour (7500c). It is completely converted into bhasma form at the end of 8th hour. b. The colour of Yashada turned into Grayish. 82
  • 101. Methodology – Pharmaceutical study6. Precautions: a. Care should be taken while stirring with chalani for avoided hot Yashada course powder damaged to skin or cloth. b. Medium flame should be maintained.7. Result Initial weight of Yashada – 415 gms Final weight of the metal – 320 gms Weight loss – 95gmsPractical No.81.Name of the preparation :- Shodhana of Girisindhoora in Nimbu swarasa for 3 times. Date of commencement : - 25 -3 -05 Date of completion :- 26-3 -05 Reference :– RJ -32. Equipments :-Khalvayantra, spoon3. Drugs :- a. Girisindhoora – 200 gms b. Nimbu swarasa –100ml4. Procedure: a. Girisindhoora was taken in the Khalva yantra. b. Nimbuswarasa was added in the Khalva yantra. c. Initially Mardana was done slowly to avoid the spillage of material. d. When it attained semisolid consistency the mardana was carried out continuously until it becomes powder form. e. Girisindhoora was once again subjected above said procedure for 2 more times.5. Observations:- a. After 1 hour material was become semisolid consistency. b. Girisindhoora completely turned into fine powder form after six hours. c. The colour of Girisindhoora turned into bright red.6. Precaution:- a. Care should be taken while doing the Mardana for avoids the wastage. 83
  • 102. Methodology – Pharmaceutical study7. Result: Initial weight of Girisindhoora – 200 gms. Final weight - 230 gms Weight gained - 30 gms.Practical No.91.Name of the preparation :- Shodhana of Sasyaka in Nimbu swarasa Date of commencement : - 27-3-05 Date of completion :- 27-3-05 Reference :– RT 21/1122. Equipments :- Khalva yantra3. Drugs :- a. Sasyaka – 20gms b. Nimbusarasa – 10 ml4. Procedure: a. Sasyaka was taken in the Khalva yantra. b. Nimbu swarasa added into the Sasyaka. c. Initially mardana was done slowly to avoid the spillage of material. d. When it attained semisolid consistency the mardana was carried out continuously until it became powder form. e. Sasyaka was once again subjected above said procedure for 2 more times.5. Observation: a. After 20 minutes was became semisolid consistency. b. Sasyaka completely turned into powder form after 1 hour. c. The colour of Sasyaka turned into green colour.6. Precaution: a. Care should be taken while doing the mardana for avoided the wastage.7. Result: Initial weight of Sasyaka – 20 gms. Final weight - 25 gms Weight gained - 5 gms. 84
  • 103. Methodology – Pharmaceutical studyPractical No.101. Name of the preparation :- Preparation of Yashadamrita malahara Date of commencement : - 28-3-05 Date of completion :- 28-3-05 Reference :– RT 19/146-1472. Equipments :- Khalva yantra,Vessel, Cloth, Spoon, Burner3. Drugs :- a. Sikta – 150gms b. Tila taila – 750 gms c. Yashada bhasma.- 300 gms4. Procedure: a. Above-mentioned quantity of Sikta and Tila taila was taken into vessel. b. This vessel was subjected over mild fire. c. Yashada bhasma was added into Sikta taila after melting and stirred well. d. Then vessel was removed from the agni and allowed for self cooling.5. Observation: d. Sikta was melts in Tila taila within few seconds. e. After cooling it becomes a soft butter like paste.6. Precaution: a. Care should be taken while doing the mardana for avoided the wastage of the material.7. Result: Final product – 1180 gms. 85
  • 104. Methodology – Pharmaceutical studyPractical No.111.Name of the preparation :- Preparation of Sindhooradi Taila Date of commencement : - 29 -3 -05 Date of completion :- 30 –3 -05 Reference :– RT – 21/162-1632. Equipments :- Ulukula yantra, Vessel, Cloth, Spoon, Burner3. Drugs :- a. Shodhita Sindhoora – 200 gms b. Shodhita Sasyaka - 2 gms c. Sarshapa taila - 2 lts d. Arka - 480gms e. Haridra - 480gms f. Jala - 16 lts4. Procedure: a. Arka patra and Haridra was taken in Khalva yantra and prepared kalka. b. Shodhita Sindhoora and Sasyaka were added into kalka. c. The whole kalka and dravadravya are mixed together. d. Sarshapa taila was then added, boiled and stirred continuosly. e. After getting the Snehasiddi lakshana, Sneha was filtered at hot stage through the cloth.5. Observation: a. Foam was observed when taila paka completed. b. The colour of taila was become into green colour. c. Taila paka was completed in two days.6. Precaution: a. During Sneha paka stirring was done continuosly for avoided kalka is adhere the vessel. b. Taila paka should be prepared madhyamagni only. c. Kalka should be squeezed at hot stage.7. Result: Final weight of product – 1900 ml 86
  • 105. Methodology – Analytical Study ANALYTICAL STUDY The metallic and mineral preparation of Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia should beanalyzed for physical and chemical properties to confirm the genuinely & safety beforeadministration to the patients. Hence it is essential to adopt modern analyticalmethodology for better understanding and interpretation of physico - chemical changesoccurred during the process. Organoleptic characters and Physico chemical analysis done J.T Pharmacy collegeGadag, like Finess of particle test, Flow rate, Ash value, Acid insoluble ash of Yashadabhasma and Boiling point, Specific gravity, Refractive index, Loss on drying at 1100cAcid value and Saponification value of Sindhooradi Taila. Yashada bhasma also assessed according to the Ayurvedic parameters also. Showing Ayurvedic tests of Yashada bhasma Name of the sample Varitaratwa Rekhapurnatwa Shlakshnatwa Nischandra Yashada bhasma + + + + Table No-181. The Finess of particle test: It can be possible to use the ordinary microscope for particle size measuring in the range of 0.2 micrometer to about 100 micrometer. According to microscope method the fine powder was sprinkled on the slide covered with covering slip & placed on a mechanical stage. In initially standardization of minometer was carried out by coinciding the lines of both oculo minometer style minometer and standardized by using the formula SM -------- X 10 = m OM In the next step, the style minometer was removed & the mounted slide was placed on a mechanical stage & focused. The particles are measured alops an orbitarily chosen fixed lines covered by the particles using the oculominometers. The size of the particle was calculated using the standard value. 87
  • 106. Methodology – Analytical Study2. Flow property: Yashada bhasma is very fine powder so to maintain the actual dose and for better dispensing, bhasma is subjected to flow property test i.e. “ Angle of repose ” by which we can analyze either the powder having very good flow property, good property or a bad flow property. Angle of repose (θ): - It is the maximum angle that can be obtained between the free standing surface of a powder heap & the horizontal plane i.e. tan θ = 2h / D Where D is the diameter of the circle & ‘h’ is the height of the powder heap This test involves the hollow cylinder half is filled with Yashada bhasma with one end sealed by transparent plate. The cylinder is rotated about its horizontal axis until the powder surface cascades. The curved wall is lined with sand paper to prevent preferential slip at this surface. If the value comes between 200– 400 indicates reasonable flow potential.3. Flow rates: A simple indication of the ease with which a material can be induced to flow is given by application of a compressibility index “ I ” I= [1 – V ] x 100 Vo Where ‘ v ‘ is the volume occupied by sample of the powder after being subjected to a standardized tapping procedure. Vo = volume before tapping procedure In this procedure one measuring cylinder is taken and is filled with Yashada bhasma. The level of the Yashada bhasma should be noted. Then at a height of 2 cm continuous 10 tapping should be done, after that the level of the Yashada bhasma in the cylinder is once again noted & the value ‘I ’ is calculated with respect to the Vo & V value. If the value ‘ I ’ is below 15% usually having good flow rates. 88
  • 107. Methodology – Analytical Study4. Determination of Ash: Method: Incinerate about 2 to 3 g, accurately weighed, of the prepared sample in a tarred platinum or silica dish at low temperature until free from carbon, cool and weigh. If a carbon free ash cannot be obtained in this way, extract the charred mass with hot water, collect the residue on an ashless filter paper, incinerate the residue and filter paper add the filtrate, evaporate to dryness and ignite to constant weight at a low temperature. Calculate the percentage of ash with reference to the moisture free drug.5. Acid insoluble ash: Boil the ash for 5 minutes with 25ml of dilute hydrochloric acid, collect the insoluble matter in a Gooch crucible, or on an ashless filter paper, wash with hot water and ignite to constant weight at a low temperature. Calculate the percentage of acid insoluble ash with reference to the moisture free drug.6. Boiling point: An organic liquid boils at a fixed temperature, which is characteristic of that substance. The presence of impurities raises its boiling point. Method: Capillary tube method. A few drops of the liquid are placed in a thin walled small test tube. A capillary tube sealed at about 1 cm from one end, is dropped into it. The glass tube containing the liquid and capillary is then tied along side a thermometer so the liquid stands just near the bulb. The thermometer is then lowered in a beaker containing water or Sulphuric acid. The beaker is heated and the bath liquid stirred continuously with a ring stirrer. When the boiling point is reached, bubbles issue in a rapid stream from the lower end of the capillary. The thermometer is read when the evaluation of bubbles just stops. The experiment is repeated with a fresh liquid in a new capillary and the boiling point recorded as before. The mean of the two readings is taken to be correct boiling point of the liquid under examination. 89
  • 108. Methodology – Analytical Study7. Specific gravity: The specific gravity of a liquid is the weight of a given volume of the liquid at the specific temperature compared with the weight of an equal volume of water at the same temperature, all weighing being taken in air. Procedure: A pycnometer of 25 ml. Capacity is cleaned, dried and weighed. It is filled up to the mark of water at the required temperature and weighed. The pycnometer is next filled up to the mark with the sample, filtered with necessary, at the same temperature and weighed. The specific gravity is determined by dividing the weight of the sample expressed in grams.8. Refractive Index: The Refractive index (n) of a substance is the ratio of the velocity of light in a vacuum to its velocity in the substance. It varies with the wavelength of the light used in the measurement. It may also be defined as the ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence to the since of angle of refraction. Refractive indices are started in terms of sodium light of wavelength 9893A at a temperature of 200 unless otherwise specified. Refractometers: Commercial instruments are normally constructed for use with white light but are calibrated to give the refractive index in terms of the sodium D wavelength. The maker’s instructions relating to a suitable light source should be followed. Temperature control: A suitable device should be used for circulating water at the required temperature through the Refractometer. The sample is filtered through a dry filter. Procedure:- Circulate water through the instrument at the required temperature. Place a drop of the liquid between the prisms, and take the reading after half a minute. 90
  • 109. Methodology – Analytical Study9. Loss on drying at1100: One gram of Yashada bhasma accurately weighed, heated on electric oven up to 1100 c and again weighed. The difference in weighed was calculated & the result is attached.10. Acid Value: The Acid value of an oil or fat is defined, as the number of milligrams of Potassium hydroxide required neutralizing the free acid in one gram of the sample. Method : Mix 25ml Ether with 25ml alcohol (95%) and 1ml of 1% phenolphthalein solution and neutralize with N/10 alkali (few drops). Dissolve about 5gm of the fat or oil. Accurately weighed, in the mixed neutral solvent, and titrate with N/10 Potassium hydroxide, and shaking constantly until a pink colour which persists for 15seconds is obtained. The titration should preferably not exceed about 10ml. No. of ml of N/10 alkali used X 5.61 Acid value = Weight of sample in gm. The free fatty acid content is also express as FFA, calculated as oleic acid% (1ml. N/10) alkali = 0.028 gm oleic acid. 91
  • 110. Methodology – Analytical Study11. Saponification value: The saponification value of an oil or fat is defined as the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide required to neutralize the fatty resulting acids from the complete hydrolysis of 1 gram of the sample. Alcoholic solution of potassium hydroxide: Dissolve 35-40 g. potassium hydroxide in 20 ml of water and dilute to one liter with alcohol (95%) Allow standing overnight and decanting off the pure liquid. Method: Weight 2g. of the oil or fat into a conical flask and add exactly 25ml of the alcoholic potassium hydroxide solution. Attack a reflux condenser and heat the flask in boiling water for one hour, shaking frequently. Add 1 ml of phenolphthalein (1%) solution and titration the excess alkali with N/2 hydrochloric acid (titration=a ml) carry out a blank at the same time (titration=b ml). (b-a) x 56.1 Saponification value = Wt. In g. of sample 92
  • 111. Methodology – Clinical Study CLINICAL STUDY This clinical study was conducted after proper understanding of classicalexplanations, observations and management of Vicharchika. For this clinical studyclinical symptoms and the management of Vicharchika are taken into consideration.Objectives of the study: 1. Preparation of Yashadamrita Malahara and Sindhooradi taila 2. Physico- chemical analysis of Yashadamrita Malahara and Sindhooradi taila 3. Clinical- evaluation of Yashadamrita Malahara and Sindhooradi taila on Vicharchika.The materials are studied as under: 1. Literary aspect of the study regarding the drug was collected from the Rasatarangini, Rasamrita, Rasaratna samuchchaya etc Rasagranthas and modern inorganic chemistry and processed in pharmacy section of P.G.R.C.DGM Ayurvedic medical collage according to the classical methods. 2. Literary aspect of disease was collected from the various Ayurvedic classics, magazines and journals. The information regarding the disease is updated from Internet search. 3. Patients: The patients with confirmed diagnosis of Vicharchika (Eczema) were selected from the O.P.D. Section of P.G.R.C.D.G.M. Ayurvedic medical college hospital Gadag.Methods of collection of data:a. Inclusive criteria: 1. The patients of Vicharchika will be diagnosed according classical features and dermatological studies. 2. Irrespective of sex, patients will be selected between the age of 16 years to 60 years. 93
  • 112. Methodology – Clinical Studyb. Exclusive criteria: The patients who are suffering from any other systematic disorder will be excluded.c. Study design: Patients of Vicharchika with confirmed diagnosis selected as for simple random sampling method with pretest and post test design all patients will be assigned to a two group.d. Sample size: A minimum of 30 patients are selected and 15 in each group randomly selected. The grouping is as follows: Group A – Yashadamrita malahara Group B – Sindhooradi tailae. Posology: For external application, as required.f. Duration of treatment: 21days.g. Follow up: 15 days.h. Assessment of result: Results of the treatment were assessed on the basis of difference between the baseline data and assessment data of the subjective and objective parameters. These differences are subjected for the statistical analysis by applying paired and unpaired ‘t’test and nonparametric test (if necessary) if ‘p’ value is less than 0.05 the test is highly significant.Subjective parameters: As designated in texts 1. Varna 2. Pidaka 3. Srava 4. Kandu 5. Vedana vishesha 94
  • 113. Methodology – Clinical StudyObjective parameters: 1. Hemoglobin 2. Total count 3. Differential count 4. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate 5. Absolute eosinophile countGrades of subjective Parameters: 1. Varna: 0 - Normal 1- Mild 2 – Moderate 3 - Severe 2. Kandu: 0 - Normal 1- Mild 2 – Moderate 3 - Severe 3. Pidika: 0 - Normal 1- Mild 2 – Moderate 3 - Severe 4. Srava: 0 - Normal 1- Mild 2 – Moderate 3 - Severe 5. Vedana vishesha: 0 - Normal 1- Mild 2 – Moderate 3 - Severe As the objective parameters are not suggesting any role in the assessment of results in this study, so here assessment of results is made only with subjective parameters. Over all Assessment of results: The overall assessments of results in the present study were grouped into the following categories. Cured : Complete subsidence of all the subjective symptoms. Much responded : Complete subsidence of 3 or 4 subjective symptoms. Moderately responded : Reduction of 2 subjective symptoms. Responded : Reduction of only one subjective symptom. Not responded : No reduction of subjective symptoms. 95
  • 114. Discussion DISCUSSION The study entitled “ The Preparation, physico chemical study of Yashadamritamalahara and Sindhooradi taila and comparative clinical study on Vicharchika” ispresented in 4 parts for both preparations. 1. Literary study 2. Pharmaceutical study 3. Analytical study 4. Clinical study YASHADAMRITA MALAHARA1. Literary study: Literary study explained under two headings.i.e Drug review and Disease review. In drug review Yashada is discussed according to ayurvedic as well as modern concept. a. Yashada might knew to the ancient Ayurvedic scholars, because its alloys are already mentioned before 15 AD and only its medicine value may be detected later. So in 15th AD it is mentioned by Madanapala and next by Bhavamisra. b. When Arabians comes to India for business, then this metal became popular by name the “Jashada” due to its multidimensional pharmacological property and they used it for preparing ornaments. c. Even modern science believed that zinc is a one of the trace elements of the body. Many times they used it as a nutritive, antioxidant etc. d. Yogaratnakara was the first person who mentioned Malahara kalpana and Rasataranginikara was the only one person who mentioned Yashadamrita malahara. Under disease review Ayurvedic concept of Vicharchika and modern concept of Eczema (allergic dermatitis) is discussed. 118
  • 115. Discussion Vicharchika is said to be exist since Vedic period. Our Acharyas like Charaka, Sushruta and Vagbhata described Vicharchika as a variety of Kshudra Kushta. For the present study Yashadamrita malahara and Sindhooradi taila are selected due to their Vicharchikahara property. Although Vicharchika is Tridoshaja Vyadhi it is Pitta and Kapha pradhana Vyadhi. The lakshana of Vicharchika are Varna, Kandu, Pidika, Srava and Vedana vishesha According to modern science the Eczema and dermatitis are being used synonymously and referred to distinctive pattern of the skin which can be either acute or chronic due to number of causes including allergy. Allergy is the term applied to the natural or spontaneous manifestations of hypersensitiveness in man, which includes Asthma, Hay fever and Eczema, Urticaria and Migraine. The clinical features of allergy are erythema, itching, burning, oozing etc.2.Pharmaceutical study. Shodhana: Shodhana not only intended to remove the impurities or toxic material, but also makes the metal suitable for further procedure & enhances its potency. In present study samanya shodhana was carried out by doing nirvapana in Tila taila, Takra, Gomutra, Kanji, Kulaththa kwatha for 7 times in each. and Vishesha shodhana with nirvapana in Haridrayukta Nirgundi swarasa for 3 times. In the above said medias Tila taila is neutral where as other medias contain several acidic compounds, hence some of them are acidic in nature. During processing with these drugs the organic acids act slowly on metal and help in attainment of brittleness. 119
  • 116. DiscussionScum was observed in molten surface, this is because of high temperature molten Zincreacts with external air (steam) and liberates hydrogen forming Zinc oxide (scum). Explosive sound is produced because Melting & pouring Zn ZnO2 + H2 In shodhana media (Aqueous in nature) When molten metal was poured in shodhana media, it breaks the watermolecules & releases hydrogen gas immediately this produces explosive sounds. Theintensity of sound depends upon the concentration of hydrogen gas released at thattime. At the same time oxygen is reacts with the metal forms Zinc oxide i.e. ZnO. Weight loss after shodhana might be due to scum formation on molten surfacethat is removed. Vishesha shodhana is intended to bring diseases specification to drug. InYashada vishesha shodhana, Nirgundi & Haridra are used where Nirgundi is bestKapha vata shamaka & Raktashodhaka. Haridra used for shodhana not only convertsYashada into shodhita form but also helpful in Vicharchika, as it has a kapha shamaka,Raktashodhaka, kushtaghna, krimighna, varnya etc. properties. Hence Nirgundi andHaridra are selected for this procedure.Marana: For pootilohas one intermediate procedure is mentioned prior to prepare thebhasma. Several jarana methods mentioned for Yashada, but in this study I have takenagnijarita yashada bhasma preparation. In this procedure Yashada is heated in an ironpan for a long duration i.e. more than 7500c. Due to continuous heat specific gravity ofa metal may decrease, and mass volume increases. Hence metal looses its metallicbonds. Rubbing with iron ladle vigorously create a pressure on brittle elementsconverting into powder form i.e.bhasma form. This is irreversible phenomenon. 120
  • 117. Discussion Weight loss of bhasma after marana due to oxidation process, the elements are definitely looses their atomic weight.Preparation of Yashadamrita Malahara. Here sikta taila is used as a base and the main ingredient is Yashada bhasma. Tila taila is best kapha shamaka, lekhana, krimighna, and twachya, where as sikta is sandhanakara, vrunaropaka, kandughna and kushtanashaka. That’s why sikta taila is taken as base for the Yashadamrita Malahara. So it not only acts as a base it also helps in the curing disease.3. Analytical study: 1. The end product is subjected for organoleptic characters it is inert, smooth, free from greasy. So it is easily applicable and does not produce irritation or sensitization of the skin. 2. This malahara contain Yashada bhasma so to confirm the standared and completion of oxidation of Yashada. Agnijarita Yashada bhasma is subjected to “Total ash and Acid insoluble ash test”, the values are Total ash 100% and Acid insoluble ash 29% so it is proved that bhasma prepared by Agnijarita method is genuine one and it is completely converted into Vijatiya to Sajatiya i.e. completely oxide form. 3. This compound is only indicated externally so to know either the bhasma is absorbable through normal skin orifices or not. To confirm the particle size of the Yashada bhasma, sample is subjected for “Fineness of particle test”. This test was done in microscope it is evident that the particle sizes of Yashada bhasma Arithmetic mean is 5.4 micrometer. Mean volume surface diameter is 1.57 micrometer. So by this it is know that Yashada bhasma particles are very fine in nature, which definitely absorbs through normal skin orifices. 121
  • 118. Discussion4. Clinical study: In this clinical study out of 30 patients 15 patients were selected for the treatment of Yashadamrita Malahara in the management of Vicharchika. The demographic data shows that most of the patients comes under middle age group (73.33%) and male patients (73.33%), which suggests that it was seen more in middle age and males. All the 15 patients presented with subjective symptoms like Varna, Kandu and Pidika. Out of 15 patients, 6 patients have srava and 7 patients have Vedana vishesha of varying degree before and after the treatment. Yashadamrita malahara was found highly significant with P<0.001 in Varna with 33.33% of the patients completely relieved from Varna, 40% were relieved from Pidaka and 40% were relieved from Kandu and 93.33% in Srava(P<0.02). In this group out of 15 patients 5 patients (33.33%) have been cured, 5 patients (33.33%) have been much responded, 3 patients (20%) have been moderately responded, 2 patients (13.33%) have responded and no patients were found unresponded. In objective parameters variations are not more, which are found in normal range comparing to before and after treatment.Probable mode of action of Yashadamrita Malahara. In the present study an effect has been made to discuss the probable mode of action of Yashadamrita malahara on Vicharchika.The pharmacodynamic properties of Yashada bhasma is Rasa – Kashaya, Tikta Guna – Sheeta Veerya – Sheeta Doshaghnata – Kapha pitta shamaka Karma – Vrunaropaka, Vrunashamaka Tila taila, Rasa – Madhura, Kashaya, Tikta Veerya – Ushna Guna – Sukshma, Vyavayi, Vikasi, Sara, Guru, Teekshna, Vishada. Karma – Lekhana, Twachchya, Krimighna 122
  • 119. Discussion Sikta, Rasa - Madhura Guna – Snigdha, Pichchala Karma – Sandhanakara, Vrunaropaka, Kandughna, Kushtaghna. The drugs used in the shodhana also induce the kapha pitta property in the Yashada bhasma. Even in modern science also, it is expected to be zinc has a good antiseptic, astringent, local sedative action, it reduces the chronic inflammation it checks the bleeding and secretion from broken skin by precipitating the secretions, it provides soothing and protective effect to skin. So by this yoga main dominated doshas i.e. Kapha pitta in sravi Vicharchika. So it is best in srava, kandu, pidikayukta Vicharchika. SINDHOORADI TAILA1. Literary study: In drug review ingredients of Sindhooradi taila are discussed according to Ayurvedic as well as modern concept. a. Girisindhoora is well known to ancients and they included it in sadharanarasa, where as Bhavaprakasha and Rasataranginikara consider it as a upadhatu. By this it may be argued that Girisindhoora might be the derivative of the metal and even chemical analysis also proved that it is lead pro oxide. b. Sindhoora found in mineral form, but most of the authorities not mentioned shodhana and Marana. But some authorities mention bhavana with godugdha or amlavarga dravya. It may be due to its external limitation. c. Sasyaka is well known ancient Ayurvedic authorities and it is used in various pathological conditions. Many times Sasyaka and Tutthya used synonymsly but both are different. Because grahyalakshana of sasyaka do not correlate with the tutthya, that means tutthya is artificial form of copper sulphate. Where as sasyaka is natural, both are used internal as well as external followed by shodhana, marana, amritikarana n various pathological condition. 123
  • 120. Discussion d. Arka, Haridra and Sarshapa are used as a traditional medicine in various pathological conditions. Disease review is done in last chapter.2. Pharmaceutical study. a. Various types of Taila kalpanas mentioned in the classics. In Sindhooradi taila Rasataranginikara used sarshapa taila because it mitigates the vata and kapha, it is best Raktashodhaka, Kandughna, Kushtaghna, Kothaghna and Krimighna. b. Girisindhoora is Tridoshashamaka, Kushtaghna, Kandughna, Vrunaropana and shodhana. Even modern science also used in various ointments and liniments, which are indicated in eczema, eruptive skin disease, ulcers etc. c. Sasyaka has Kaphapittashamaka, Krimihara, Kushtaghna, Kandughna, and Vrunaropaka karma. Even modern science also used as local astringent on broken Skin, antiseptic, it can kill the bacteria fungi and protozoa, it is used to destroy excerbent granulations, ulcers, eczema, trachoma, as a lotion. Even it can be used internally. d. Arka and Haridra, these two drugs used as a kalka dravya along with Sindhoora and Sasyaka in the preparation Sindhooradi taila. Arka has Kapha pitta shamaka, Vedanashamaka, Shothahara, Vrunashodhaka and Kushtaghna. Haridra has Kaphavatashamaka, Vedanashamaka, Shothahara, Vrunashodhana and ropana, Krimighna and Kushtaghna. The intention is the preparation of taila of the above combination might be to store the active principle of compound drug and make it suitable for application. e. Girisindhoora is red in colour, but the colour of Sindhooradi taila was changed might be due to chemical reaction with organic matter and also quantity of Sindhoora is less than kalka dravya. 124
  • 121. Discussion3. Analytical study. 1. To know the concentration of saturated or unsaturated fatty acid, compound is subjected to “Acid value test and Saponification test”, and then it is comes to know that the compound has Acid value 5.865 i.e. unsaturated fatty acid concentrations and Saponification value 200 that is saturated fatty acid. So this taila only indicated externally then also it will not produces any free radicals by the absorption. There by it is confirmed that classically prepared this taila is samyak siddha taila, because by this procedure unsaturated taila is converted into saturated fatty acid. 2. To confirm either taila is highly viscid or the clear solution, compound is subjected to “Refractive index test”, the value of this test is 1.608 and “Specific gravity test”, value is 0.86. By this it is confirmed that taila is very clear and not viscid, their by is absorbed very quickly. 3. When the compound is subject to the test “Loss on 1100c”, the value of this test is 0.86% w/ w and boiling point is 1200c to 1250c. So it is confirmed that taila is free from water molecule and no chance of microorganism growth.4. Clinical study. In this clinical study out of 30 patients 15 patients were selected for the treatment of Sindhooradi taila in the management of Vicharchika. The demographic data shows that most of the patients come under middle age group (93.33%) and male patients (73.33%), which suggests that it was seen more in middle age and males. All the 15 patients presented with subjective symptoms like Varna, Kandu and Pidika. Out of 15 patients, 3 patients have srava and 9 patients have vedana vishesha of varying degree before and after the treatment. Sindhooradi taila was found highly significant with P<0.001 in Varna with 46.66% of the patients completely relieved from Varna, 80% were relieved from Pidaka and 80% were relieved from Kandu and not significant with P>0.05 in Srava. 125
  • 122. Discussion In this group out of 15 patients 7 patients (46.66%) have been cured, 6 patients (40%) have been much responded, 2 patients (13.33%) have been moderately responded, and no patients were found doesn’t responded. In objective parameters variations are not more, which are found in normal range comparing to before and after treatment.Probable mode of action of Sindhooradi taila. In the present study an effect has been made to discuss the probable mode of action of Sindhooradi taila on Vicharchika.The pharmacodynamic properties of Girisindhoora is Rasa – Katu, Tikta Guna – Ushna Veerya – Ushna Doshaghnata – Tridosha shamaka Karma – Vrunaropaka & shodhaka, Kushtaghna, Kandughna etc It is a local stimulant and indicated in eczema, eruptive skin disease, ulcers etc Sasyaka Rasa – Kashaya, kshara Guna – Laghu, Sheeta Veerya – Sheeta Doshaghnata – Kaphapitta shamaka Karma – Vrunaropaka, Kushtaghna, Kandughna, Krimighna etc Act as local astringent on broken skin, antiseptic, destroy excerbent granulations, ulcers, eczema, Arka Guna: Laghu, ruksha, teekshan Vipaka – Katu Rasa – Katu, Tikta Veerya – Ushna Doshaghnata – Kaphapitta shamaka. Karma - Vedana sthapana, Shothahara, Vrunashodhana, Kushtaghna, Jantughna Haridra: Guna – Ruksha, Laghu Vipaka – Katu Rasa – Tikta, Katu Veerya – Ushna Doshaghnata – Kaphavatashamaka Karma- Shothahara, Vedanasthapana, Varnya, Kushtagna, Vrunashodhana & Ropana. 126
  • 123. Discussion Sarshapa: Guna –Snigdha laghu(oil) Veerya – Ushna Rasa- Katu, Tikta Vipaka – katu Doshaghnata – Vatakaphashamaka Karma - Raktashodhaka, Kandu & Kothaghna, Krimighna, Kushtaghna. By observing these properties all drugs are having kapha shamaka and Kushta, Kandu and shothahara etc properties. So this yoga is best in the Vicharchika, which is Kapha pradhana Kushta vyadhi. DISCUSSION ON COMPARATIVE CLINICAL STUDY This study is conducted as a comparative clinical study on Vicharchika byobserving above all data and by statistical result. It is proved that, both the formulationsare having similar significant value for Kandu. But group A (Yashadamrita malahara) ishighly significant for Sravi Vicharchika and group B (Sindhooradi taila) is significant forRooksha Vicharchika. 127
  • 124. Conclusion CONCLUSION1. As Rasaushadies are mainly meant for asadhya vyadhis, and it is proved by these two formulation containing Rasadravya on Vicharchika.2. The drugs used in shodhana definitely modify the drug suitable for further procedure and induce the disease curing property.3. Agnijarita Yashada bhasma mainly indicated in external use. But by physico – chemical analysis it is proved that even agnijarita Yashada bhasma as it passes all the bhasma pariksha same as Yashada bhasma which is prepared by following Jarana as a intermediate procedure.1. By physico – chemical analysis it is proved that Sindhooradi taila is very clear and not viscid, their by is absorbed very quickly without producing any free radical and is free from water molecule, so no chance of microorganism growth.2. These two formulations quoted by Rasataranginikara in Vicharchika, but by statistical value it is proved that Yashadamrita malahara is choice remedy in Sravi Vicharchika and Sindhooradi taila in Rooksha Vicharchika 128
  • 125. Conclusion SCOPE OF THE FURTHER STUDY1. Agnijarita Yashada bhasma mainly indicated in external use. As it passes all the bhasma pariksha same as Yashada bhasma which is prepared by following Jarana as a intermediate procedure. So it needs animal experiment for its toxicity study.2. In Kushtaroga repeated shodhana followed by shamanoshadhi is mentioned. But by rasadravyayukta yogas disease is subsided. So in this view a comparative clinical study with big size sample with long duration can be carried out. 129
  • 126. Observation and Results OBSERVATION AND RESULTS The present comparative clinical study was meant for evaluation of efficacy ofYashadamrita malahara and Sindhooradi taila in the management of Vicharchika. Total30 patients were taken randomly selected for the above mentioned study. The entirepatients were assessed before and after treatment. Both subjective and objective changeswere recorded according to the performa of case sheet. The collective data is groupedinto 8 categories. 1. Observation based on age. 2. Observation based on sex. 3. Observation based on education. 4. Observation based on marital status. 5. Observation based on religion. 6. Observation based on occupation. 7. Observation based on economical status. 8. Observation based on Vicharchika lakshanas 96
  • 127. Observation and Results Observations of patients based on Age. Age No.of patients No.of patients in years Group A % Group B % Total % 16-20 02 13.33 00 00.00 02 06.66 21-30 01 06.66 04 26.66 05 16.66 31-40 05 33.33 03 20.00 08 26.66 41-50 05 33.33 07 46.66 02 40.00 51-60 02 13.33 01 06.66 03 10.00 Total 15 99.98 15 99.98 30 99.98 Table No.19 In the present observation from both groups maximum number of patients 8(26.66 %) belongs to the age group 31- 40, 5 patients belongs to 21-30, 3 patients belongsto 51-60, and 2 patients comes under 16-20 and 41-50 age group 45 40 40 Percentage 35 26.66 30 25 16.66 % 20 15 10 10 6.66 5 0 16-20 21-30 31-40 41-50 51-60 Age Graph-1 97
  • 128. Observation and Results Observations of patients based on Sex Sex No.of patients % No.of patients % Total % Group A Group B Male 11 73.33 11 73.33 22 73.33 Female 04 26.66 04 26.66 08 26.66 Total 15 99.99 15 99.99 30 99.99 Table No.-20 From the both groups a total of 22 male (73.33%) and 8 females (26.66%) arereported. This shows that the exposure for the disease Vicharchika is more in malesbecause they work outside exposing to different Nidana. 80 73.33 70 Percentage 60 50 % 40 26.66 30 20 10 0 Male Female Sex Graph-2 98
  • 129. Observation and Results Observations of patients based on Education Education No.of patients % No.of patients % Total % Group A Group B Educated 10 66.66 09 60 19 63.33 Un-Educated 05 33.33 06 40 11 36.66 Total 15 99.99 15 100 30 99.99 Table No.-21 Even though there is no specific relation to the disease, but awareness to theAyurvedic treatment and faith is observed in this study. It explains that educated 19patients (63.33) and uneducated 11 patients (36.66) from both groups are reported. Observations of patients based on marital rates: Marriage No.of patients % No.of patients % Total % Group A Group B Married 12 80 10 66.66 22 73.33 Un-Married 03 20 05 33.33 08 26.66 Total 15 100 15 99.99 30 99.99 Table No.-22 In this study many are married i.e.22 patients (73.33) and unmarried are rest of 8patients from both groups. 99
  • 130. Observation and Results Observations of patients based on Religion Religion No.of patients % No.of patients % Total % Group A Group B Hindu 13 86.66 12 80 25 83.33 Muslim 02 13.33 03 20 05 16.66 Others 00 00.00 00 00 00 00.00 Total 15 99.99 15 100 30 99.99 Table No.-23 Present study explains Hindu, Muslim are reported with problem of Vicharchika.It does not mean that others are not having this problem. The area in which studyundertook has 2 groups of populations. Out of 30 patients 25 patients (83.33%) belongsto Hindu religion and 5 patients (16.66 %) belong to Muslim religion. 90 83.33 80 70 Percentage 60 50 % 40 30 16.66 20 10 0 0 Hindu Muslim Others Religion Graph-3 100
  • 131. Observation and Results Observations of patients based on Occupation Occupation No.of patients % No.of patients % Total % Group A Group B Agriculture 04 26.66 03 20.00 07 23.33 Student 03 20.00 01 06.66 04 13.33 Housewife 04 26.66 04 26.66 08 26.66 Employee 03 20.00 02 13.33 05 16.66 Business 01 06.66 05 33.33 06 20.00 Total 15 99.98 15 99.98 30 99.98 Table No.-24 In this study we consider the 5 categories of occupation for the convenience ofstudies. Out of 30 patients 8 patients (26,66 %) belongs to the housewife, 7 patients(23.33%) belongs to the agriculture, 6 patients (20%) belongs to business, 5 patientsbelongs to the employee 4 patients (13.33) belongs to the student. 30 26.66 23.33 25 20 20 16.66 13.33 Percentage 15 % 10 5 0 t en ss e re i fe ye ud ne ltu w o se St u si pl ric Bu ou Em Ag H Occupation Graph - 4 101
  • 132. Observation and Results Observations of patients based on Economical status Status No.of patients % No.of patients % Total % Group A Group B Pour 50 33.33 20 13.33 07 23.33 Middle class 10 66.66 13 86.66 23 76.66 Higher class 00 00.00 00 00.00 00 00.00 Total 15 99.99 15 99.99 30 99.99 Table No.-25 It refers to the physical and psychological status of an individual patient. Out of30 patients 23 patients (76.66%) belong to middle class, 7 Patients (23.33%) belong topoor class and no patients belong to higher class. 90 76.66 80 Percentage 70 60 50 % 40 23.33 30 20 10 0 0 Pour Middle class Higher class Status Graph - 5 102
  • 133. Observation and Results Observations based on Vicharchika lakshanasSymptoms Group A Group B B % A % B % A % Varna 15 100 10 66.66 15 100 7 46.66 Pidika 15 100 09 60.00 15 100 3 20.00 Srava 06 040 01 06.66 03 020 1 06.66 Kandu 15 100 09 60.00 15 100 3 20.00 Vedana 07 46.66 01 06.66 06 040 0 00.00 Table No.-26 The above table shows the number percentage of the patients complaining theVicharchika lakshana before & after the treatment. Before the treatment 15 patients havethe complaint Varna, Pidika, Kandu in both groups. After the treatment 10 and 7 patientshave Varna, 9 and 3 patients have Pidika and Kandu in group A and group Brespectively. Before the treatment 6 patients have the complaint Srava in-group A and 3patients in group B. After treatment 1 patient in-group A and I patient in-group B has thesame complaint. Before the treatment 7 patients have the complaint Vedana in group A and 6patients in-group B. After the treatment 1 patient complaint in-group A and no patientshave same complaint in-group B. 103
  • 134. Observation and Results Observation related to response to the treatment Showing the grades of “Varna” Before treatment in group A & BNo.of patients Group Grade 0 % 1 % 2 % 3 % 15 A - - 3 20.00 6 40 06 40.00 15 B - - 2 13.33 3 20 10 66.66 Table No.-27 Showing the grades of “Varna” After treatment in group A & BNo.of patients Group Grade 0 % 1 % 2 % 3 % 15 A 5 33.33 7 46.66 3 20 - - 15 B 7 46.66 7 46.66 1 6.66 - - Table No.-28 Showing the grades of Pidika before treatment in Group A & Group B.No. of patients Group Grade 0 % 1 % 2 % 3 % 15 A - - 4 26.66 8 53.22 3 20 15 B - - 2 13.33 7 46.66 6 40 Table No.-29 Showing the grades of Pidika After treatment in group A & BNo. of patients Group Grade 0 % 1 % 2 % 3 % 15 A 6 40 9 60 - - - - 15 B 12 80 3 20 - - - - Table No.-30 0 – Normal 1 – Mild 2 – Moderate 3 - Severe 104
  • 135. Observation and Results Showing the grades of Srava before treatment in Group A & Group B.No. of patients Group Grade 0 % 1 % 2 % 3 % 15 A 9 60 4 26.66 2 13.33 - - 15 B 12 80 1 06.66 2 13.33 - - Table No.-31 Showing the grades of Srava after treatment in Group A & Group B.No. of patients Group Grade 0 % 1 % 2 % 3 % 15 A 14 93.33 1 6.6 - - - - 15 B 14 93.33 1 6.6 - - - - Table No.-32 Showing the grades of Kandu before treatment in Group A & Group B.No. Of patients Group Grade 0 % 1 % 2 % 3 % 15 A 2 13.33 5 33.33 8 53.22 15 B 1 6.66 2 13.33 12 80 Table No.-33 Showing the grades of Kandu after treatment in Group A & Group B.No. Of patients Group Grade 0 % 1 % 2 % 3 % 15 A 06 40 8 53.22 1 6.66 - - 15 B 12 80 3 20.00 - - - - Table No.-34 0 – Normal 1 – Mild 2 – Moderate 3 - Severe 105
  • 136. Observation and Results Showing the grades of Vedana before treatment in Group A & Group B.No. Of patients Group Grade 0 % 1 % 2 % 3 % 15 A 8 53.22 7 46.66 - - - - 15 B 6 40.00 9 60.00 - - - - Table No.-35 Showing the grades of Vedana after treatment in Group A & Group B.No. Of patients Group Grade 0 % 1 % 2 % 3 % 15 A 14 93.33 1 6.66 - - - - 15 B 15 100.0 - - - - - - Table No.-36 0 – Normal 1 – Mild 2 – Moderate 3 - Severe 106
  • 137. Observation and ResultsRESULTS 30 patients were studied in two groups with 15 patients in each. Group Apatients treated with Yashadamrita Malahara and group B patients were treated withSindhooradi taila. The results obtained in the two groups were assessed on the basis ofVarna, Kandu, Pidika, Srava and Vedana vishesha. and Hb%, TC, DC, ESR and AEC Assessment Of Subjective Parameters Of Group A (Yashadamrita Malahara)Sl.No OPD Varna Pidika Srava Kandu Vedana Vishesha BT AT BT AT BT AT BT AT BT AT 1 1154 3 2 3 1 0 0 3 1 1 0 2 1198 2 1 2 0 1 0 3 2 1 0 3 2351 2 2 3 1 2 1 3 1 1 1 4 2490 3 1 2 1 0 0 3 1 0 0 5 2553 3 0 3 1 0 0 3 0 0 0 6 2600 1 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 7 2948 3 1 2 1 1 0 3 1 1 0 8 3153 2 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 9 3432 2 1 2 1 1 0 2 1 1 0 10 3908 1 0 2 1 0 0 2 1 0 0 11 3922 3 2 2 1 0 0 3 1 0 0 12 3985 2 1 2 0 2 0 2 0 1 0 13 4115 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 14 4051 3 1 2 1 0 0 3 1 0 0 15 4118 2 1 1 0 1 0 2 0 1 0 Table No.-37 BT-Before Treatment, AT-After Treatment 0 – Normal, 1 – Mild, 2 – Moderate, 3 - Severe 107
  • 138. Observation and Results Assessment of Subjective Parameters of Group B (Sindhooradi taila)Sl.No OPD Varna Pidika Srava Kandu Vedana Vishesha BT AT BT AT BT AT BT AT BT AT 1 1102 3 2 3 1 0 0 3 1 1 0 2 1179 3 1 2 0 1 0 3 2 1 0 3 2320 2 2 3 1 2 1 3 1 1 0 4 2484 3 1 2 1 0 0 3 1 0 0 5 2545 1 0 3 1 0 0 3 0 0 0 6 2557 3 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 7 2837 2 1 2 1 1 0 3 1 1 0 8 3103 3 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 9 3430 3 1 2 1 1 0 2 1 1 0 10 3635 3 0 2 1 0 0 2 1 0 0 11 3436 1 2 2 1 0 0 3 1 0 0 12 3439 3 1 2 0 2 0 2 0 1 0 13 4043 3 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 14 4068 2 1 2 1 0 0 3 1 0 0 15 4132 3 1 1 0 1 0 2 0 1 0 Table No.-38 BT-Before Treatment, AT-After Treatment 0 – Normal, 1 – Mild, 2 – Moderate, 3 - Severe 108
  • 139. Observation and Results Assessment of Objective Parameters of Group A (Yashadamrita Malahara)Sl.No OPD AEC Hb% ESR TC DC (E) BT AT BT AT BT AT BT AT BT AT 1 1154 580 560 12 11.8 12 11 5300 5100 1 22 2 1198 520 530 11.5 12 14 13 6200 6300 5 4 3 2351 480 460 10 10 13 14 4800 5000 3 3 4 2490 550 560 10.5 10 18 16 6200 6400 4 4 5 2553 600 580 11 10.8 20 18 5400 5200 6 5 6 2600 450 440 9.8 10 12 13 5200 5300 2 2 7 2948 500 490 10.2 10.4 10 11 6800 7000 3 2 8 3153 400 430 13 12.8 08 10 7200 7100 4 4 9 3432 450 460 12 13 09 10 9800 9600 1 2 10 3908 480 460 11.5 12 07 08 4500 4600 5 4 11 3922 540 520 12.4 12 06 06 5400 5500 3 2 12 3985 450 410 10.4 10 11 12 8800 9000 3 2 13 4115 240 250 12 11 15 14 8500 8200 2 3 14 4051 360 320 13 13.2 13 14 7900 8000 2 2 15 4118 390 410 12.5 13 12 12 6300 6400 1 2 Table No.-39 BT-Before Treatment, AT-After Treatment 0 – Normal, 1 – Mild, 2 – Moderate, 3 - Severe 109
  • 140. Observation and Results Assessment of objective parameters of Group B (Sindhooradi taila)Sl.No OPD AEC Hb% ESR TC DC (E) BT AT BT AT BT AT BT AT BT AT 1 1102 600 590 10 102 16 12 4000 4200 5 4 2 1179 602 600 12 12.4 20 18 6700 6500 4 4 3 2320 500 480 10.5 11 14 14 5000 5200 4 3 4 2484 525 510 11 11 12 12 5500 5300 6 6 5 2545 450 438 10.8 10.5 10 12 6400 6500 2 3 6 2557 475 468 10 10.2 14 12 6600 6400 3 5 7 2837 430 418 11.5 12 8 06 6800 6700 4 3 8 3103 498 470 12.4 12.5 10 08 6300 6400 5 4 9 3430 503 494 13 13 12 10 3500 4000 3 3 10 3635 550 536 12 12.4 14 12 3800 4000 6 5 11 3436 302 295 10 10.2 6 04 7000 6800 1 2 12 3439 465 460 10.5 10 14 12 8500 8200 2 2 13 4043 256 248 9.8 10 08 06 9200 9000 3 4 14 4068 230 225 10 10.5 12 12 7100 7200 1 3 15 4132 403 328 11 11.4 10 10 5400 5500 4 6 Table No.-40 BT-Before Treatment, AT-After Treatment 0 – Normal, 1 – Mild, 2 – Moderate, 3 - Severe 110
  • 141. Observation and Results Statistical analysis of Subjective parameters (Group-A) Parameters Mean S.D S.E T.Value P.Value Remarks Varna 1.333 0.723 0.186 7.166 < 0.001 H.S Pidika 1.333 0.487 0.125 10.664 < 0.001 H.S Srava 0.466 0.639 0.165 2.824 < 0.02 H.S Kandu 1.733 0.593 0.153 11.32 < 0.001 H.S Vedana vishesha 0.4 0.507 0.130 3.076 < 0.01 H.S Table No.-41Subjective parameters in Group – A statistical analysis showed highly significant Statistical analysis of Objective parameters (Group-A) Parameters Mean S.D S.E T.Value P.Value Remarks AEC 20.66 10.32 2.666 7.751 < 0.001 H.S Hb% 0.4 0.287 0.074 5.45 < 0.001 H.S ESR 1.113 0.639 0.165 6.866 < 0.02 H.S TC 173.33 70.37 18.17 9.53 < 0.001 H.S DC 0.733 0.457 0.118 6.211 < 0.001 H.S Table No.-42Objective parameters in Group – A statistical analysis showed highly significant. 111
  • 142. Observation and Results Statistical analysis of Subjective parameters (Group-B) Parameters Mean S.D S.E T.Value P.Value Remarks Varna 1.933 0.703 0.181 10.67 < 0.001 H.S Pidika 2.06 0.593 0.153 13.46 < 0.001 H.S Srava 0.266 0.593 0.153 1.738 > 0.05 H.S Kandu 2.533 0.639 0.165 15.35 < 0.001 H.S Vedana vishesha 0.4 0.507 0.130 3.07 < 0.05 H.S Table No.-43Subjective parameters in Group – B statistical analysis showed highly significant Statistical analysis of Objective parameters (Group-B) Parameters Mean S.D S.E T.Value P.Value Remarks Varna 15.26 17.76 4.587 3.326 < 0.001 H.S Pidica 0.293 0.179 0.046 6.36 < 0.001 H.S Srava 1.6 1.121 0.289 5.536 > 0.05 H.S Kandu 206.66 103.27 26.66 7.75 < 0.001 H.S Vedana vishesha 0.933 0.703 0.181 5.154 < 0.05 H.S Table No.-44Objective parameters in Group – B statistical analysis showed highly significant 112
  • 143. Observation and Results Statistical analysis of comparative study of Group-A & B (After Treatment)Parameters Group Mean S.D S.E P.S.E t.value p.value Ramarks A 0.866 0.743 0.191Varna 0.251 1.05 >0.05 N.S B 0.6 0,632 0.163 A 0.6 0.507 0.130Pidika 0.22 1.22 >0.05 N.S B 0.333 0.723 0.186 A 0.066 0.258 0.06Srava 0.084 B 0.066 0.258 0.06 A 0.666 0.617 0.159 Kandu 0.191 2.439 < 0.05 H.S B 0.2 0.414 0.106 A 0.066 0.258 0.066 Vedana 0.066 1.00 > 0.05 N.S Vishesha B 0.00 0.00 00.00 A 458.66 90.14 23.27 AEC 37.76 0.564 > 0.05 N.S B 437.33 115.21 29.74 A 11.466 12.20 0.315 0.414 0.763 > 0.05 N.S Hb% B 11.15 1.048 0.27 A 12.133 3.020 0.779 ESR 1.196 1.231 > 0.05 N.S B 10.133 3.518 0.908 A 10.666 1547.44 399.54 TC 548.29 0.826 > 0.05 N.S B 6580.0 1454.28 375.49 A 6126.66 1.06 0.273 DC 0.425 2.197 < 0.05 H.S B 2.866 1.264 0.326 Table No.-45 113
  • 144. Observation and Results When compare the mean effects of two groups after the treatment, except theparameter Kandu all other parameters shows not significant. The Kandu shows highlysignificant (P < 0.05). The mean effect of the parameter Srava is same in both the groups. Individually both groups show highly significant, but over all group Bperformance is better than group A in all the parameters except Srava. In subjective parameters (as P< 0.01 by comparing t - value), the parameterVarna, Kandu, Pidika shows more highly significant in-group B than group A before andafter the treatment. The parameter Vedana vishesha shows same effect in both the groups.(By comparing t – value, p – value, mean and SD) In objective parameters in both groups show highly significant.Comparative overall Assessment of therapeutic response of Group A & group B“ Evaluation of efficacy of Yashadamrita Malahara and Sindhooradi taila in themanagement of Vicharchika” has the following data of result assessed on the basis ofsubjective and objective parameters. Statistical evaluation is done carefully. The finalresult in the study is declared. For the declaration it is classified as a. Cured b. Much responded c. Moderately responded d. Responded e. Not responded 114
  • 145. Observation and Results Showing the result of the study in Group-A Result Patients % Cured 5 33.33 Much responded 5 33.33 Moderate 3 20.33 Responded 2 13.33 Not responded 0 00.00 Total 15 99.00 Table No.-46 In-group A there is no patient who doesn’t not responded. 5 (33.33%) patientshave cured. Much responded in the schedule are 5 (33.33%) patients. Moderateresponded in the schedule are 3 (20%) patients and responded 2 (13.33%) patientsshowed significant improvement. 33.33 33.33 35 30 Percentage 25 20.33 20 13.33 15 % 10 5 0 0 ed e d ed d at re e d nd nd er Cu on od o o sp sp sp M re Re re h ot uc N M Result Graph-5 115
  • 146. Observation and Results Showing the result of the study in Group-B. Result Patients % Cured 7 46.66 Much responded 6 40.00 Moderate responded 2 13.33 Responded 0 00.00 Not responded 0 00.00 Total 15 99.99 Table No.-47 In-group B there is no patient who doesn’t respond. 7 (46.66%) patients havecured. Much responded in the schedule are 6 (40%) patients. Moderate responded in theschedule are 2 (13.33%) patients showed significant improvement. 46.66 50 40 Percentage 40 30 % 20 13.33 10 0 0 0 Cured Much Moderate Responded Not responded responded responded Result Graph-6 116
  • 147. Observation and Results Showing overall result of the study Result Patients. % Patients % Total % Group. A Group. B Cured 5 33.33 7 46.66 12 40.00Much responded 5 33.33 6 40.00 11 36.66 Moderate 3 13.33 2 13.33 05 16.66 Responded 2 00.00 0 00.00 02 06.66 Not responded 0 00.00 0 00.00 - - Total 15 99.99 15 99.99 30 99.98 Table No.-48 In this study there is no patient who comes under not responded. 12 (40%)patients have cured. Much responded in the schedule are 11 (36.66%) patients andModerate responded in the schedule are 5 (16.66%) and 2 (6.66%) patients showsignificant improvement and fall under responded. 50 40 36.66 40 Percentage 30 16.66 20 6.66 10 0 0 Cured Much Moderate Responded Not responded responded % Result Graph-7 117
  • 148. Observation and Results 118
  • 149. Observation and Results 119
  • 150. Observation and Results 120
  • 151. Observation and Results 121
  • 152. Summary SUMMARY The present study entitled “The preparation of physico-chemical analysis of Yashadamrita malahara and Sindhooradi taila and comparative clinical study on Vicharchika.” In this study an attempt was made to prepare genuine Yashadamrita malahara and Sindhooradi taila by following the classical procedures, its genuinity was confirmed by physico-chemical analysis, and its clinical efficacy was evaluated checked by clinical study.1. In the introduction Aims & objectives of the Rasashastra, importance of Malahara and Taila kalpanas, description of Vicharchika & necessity for the assortment of this research work is explained in brief.2. Aims & Objectives of the present study are mentioned in the Objective chapter.3. Review of Literature is dealt in two main headings i.e. Drug review and Disease review and Procedure review. a) The chapter Drug review deals about the ingredients of the Malahara and Tailakalpana both in ayurveda & modern view, i.e about the first reference, its first material, occurrence, synonyms according to different authorities, grahya & agrahy lakshana, classification, pharmacological properties and pharmaceutical processes according to different acharyas i.e shodhana, and marana, including its indication in different diseases explained in detail. b) Disease review deals about etomology, definition of Vicharchika, direct and indirect references including its historical background, nidana, roopa, samprapti and line of treatment according to various authorities. c) In the same chapter next part deals about the modern concept of Vicharchika i.e. Eczema starting from definition, causative factors, signs & symptoms and treatment. 130
  • 153. Summary4. METHODOLOGY:- It deals about pharmaceutical, analytical & clinical study. a. In pharmaceutical study detail explanation about Yashada shodhana, Agnijarita Marana, Girisindhoora and Sasyaka shodhana, preparation of Yashadamrita malahara and Sindhooradi taila is explained. b. The analytical study deals about chemical analysis of Yashada bhasma, Yashadamrita malahara and Sindhooradi taila carried out in Sri JT pharmacy collage Gadag c. In clinical study, repeated special camps were conducted by postgraduate department of Rasashastra. D.G.M.A.M.C and Hospital Gadag. The patients of Vicharchika after the complete diagnose were selected. The clinical study was done application of the Yashadamrita malahara and Sindhooradi taila in two groups for 21 days and the patients were accessed for the same.5. Results: Patients were observed on the basis of various angle i.e. demographic and various disease relevant points. The patients were assessed according to the subjective & objective criteria and results are given with the help of statistical values P & S.D etc.6. Discussion: First drug & disease discussion has been done in both the view i.e ayurvedic as well as modern aspect. In the part of pharmaceutical discussion, rationalities behind shodhana, marana, malahara and taila kalpana were discussed appropriately. In analytical discussion role of physico-chemical analysis of Yashada bhasma, malahara and taila kalpana is discussed and in clinical discussion, discussion about the Vicharchika patients as well as probable mode of action of Yashadamrita malahara and Sindhooradi taila in Vicharchika is explained.7. Conclusion: The essence of the research work has been reported. 131
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  • 159. Bibilography71. Nrupaadanapala Madanapala nighantu 4th chapter shloka 36, Khemraj Krishnadas, Mumbai; Sarvadhika prakashana; page 103.72. Jadavaji Trikamaji Rasamritam 18th chapter shloka 109, Dr Damodara Joshi 1st edition, Varanasi; Chawkhambha samskrit bhavan; 1998 pp-77.73. Kaidevacharya Kaideva nighantu 2nd chapter shloka 67-68, Prof. P.V.Sharma 1st edition, Varanasi; Choukumba orientalia; 1979 pp-284.74. Shri Dhanvantari Dhanvantari nighantu 3rd chapter shloka 98, Dr. P.V.Sharma 1st edition, Varanasi; Choukumba orintalia; 1982 pp-108.75. Jadavaji Trikamaji Rasamritam 18th chapter, Dr Damodara joshi 1st edition, Varanasi; Chawkhambha samskrit bhavan; 1998 pp-77.76. B.S.Bowl and G.D.Sharma Modern approach alimentary inorganic chemistry chapter 2nd edition, New delhi;S.Chand and company;1980 pp-293-9477. R.Ghosh’s Pharmacology Materia medica and therapeutics 5th chapter, S.S.Senagupta 23rd edition, Culcutta;Hilton and company;1976 pp-889.78. Jadavaji Trikamaji Rasamritam 22nd chapter shloka 72, Dr Damodara Joshi 1st edition, Varanasi; Chawkhambha samskrit bhavan; 1998 pp-57.79. Shri Sadhanandha sharma Rasatarangini 21st chapter shloka 71, Kashinath shastri 11th edition, Varanasi; Motilal Bhanarasidas; 2000 pp-533.80. Bajandas swami Dadupant Rasadarpana voll 1st 4th chapter, 3rd edition, Rohatak; Nath pustak bhandar; pp-196.81. Narahari Rajnighantu 13th chapter shloka 101, Indradev tripati 2nd edition, Varanasi; chawkhambha Sanskrit series; 1998 pp 448.82. Sri Bhavamishra Bhavaprakasha Nighantu 7th chapter shloka 66, Sri Brahmashankar mishra 6th edition, Varanasi; chawkhambha Sanskrit samsthana ; 1984 pp 610.83. Shri Dhanvantari Dhanvantari nighantu 3rd chapter shloka 130, Dr. P.V.Sharma 1st edition, Varanasi; Choukumba orintalia; 1982 pp-114.84. Nrupaadanapala Madanapala nighantu 4th chapter shloka 30, Khemraj Krishnadas, Mumbai; Sarvadhika prakashana; page 102.85. Rasa vagabhata Rasa ratna Samuchchaya 2rd chapter shloka 119, Pandit Dharmanandha Sharma 2nd edition, Varanasi; Motilal Banarasidas; 1996 pp-21.
  • 160. Bibilography86. Shri Sadhanandha sharma Rasatarangini 21st chapter shloka 72, Kashinath shastri 11th edition, Varanasi; Motilal Bhanarasidas; 2000 pp-534.87. Rasa vagabhata Rasa ratna Samuchchaya 2rd chapter shloka 123, Pandit Dharmanandha Sharma 2nd edition, Varanasi; Motilal Banarasidas; 1996 pp-22.88. Shri Sadhanandha sharma Rasatarangini 21st chapter shloka 106-112, Kashinath shastri 11th edition, Varanasi; Motilal Bhanarasidas; 2000 pp-541.89. Acharya somadheva Rasendra chudamani 10th chapter shloka 75, Dr Siddinandan mishra 2nd edition, Varanasi; Chawkhambha orientalia; 1999 pp-152.90. Budheva mukharji Rasajala nidhi vol 2. 1st chapter, Siddhinandana mishra 2nd edition, Varanasi; Chawkhambha Samskrita bhavana; 1998 pp-111.91. Jadavaji Trikamaji Rasamritam 22nd chapter shloka 74, Dr Damodara Joshi 1st edition, Varanasi; Chawkhambha samskrit bhavan; 1998 pp-58.92. Shri Sadhanandha sharma Rasatarangini 21st chapter shloka 127-129, Kashinath shastri 11th edition, Varanasi; Motilal Bhanarasidas; 2000 pp-543.93. Rasa vagabhata Rasa ratna Samuchchaya 2rd chapter shloka 122, Pandit Dharmanandha Sharma 2nd edition, Varanasi; Motilal Banarasidas; 1996 pp-22.94. Shri Madavachrya Ayurveda prakash 4rd chapter shloka 38, Shri Gulraj Sharma mishra 1st edition, Varanasi; Chawkhambha samscrit bharati academy; 1999 pp-417.95. Jadavaji Trikamaji Rasamritam 22nd chapter shloka 73, Dr Damodara Joshi 1st edition, Varanasi; Chawkhambha samskrit bhavan; 1998 pp-58.96. Bajandas swami Dadupant Rasadarpana voll 1st 4th chapter, 3rd edition, Rohatak; Nath pustak bhandar; pp-198.97. Budheva mukharji Rasajala nidhi vol 2. 1st chapter, Siddhinandana mishra 2nd edition, Varanasi; Chawkhambha Samskrita bhavana; 1998 pp-111.98. Acharya somadheva Rasendra chudamani 10th chapter shloka 74, Dr Siddinandan mishra 2nd edition, Varanasi; Chawkhambha orientalia; 1999 pp-152.99. Narahari Rajnighantu 13th chapter shloka 102, Indradev tripati 2nd edition, Varanasi; chawkhambha Sanskrit series; 1998 pp 448.100. Shri Dhanvantari Dhanvantari nighantu 3rd chapter shloka 131-132, Dr. P.V.Sharma 1st edition, Varanasi; Choukumba orintalia; 1982 pp-114.
  • 161. Bibilography101. Shri Bhavamishra Bhavaprakasha Nighantu 7th chapter shloka 67-68, Sri Brahmashankar mishra 6th edition, Varanasi; Chawkhambha Sanskrit samsthana; 1984 pp 611.102. Nrupaadanapala Madanapala nighantu 4th chapter shloka 31, Khemraj Krishnadas, Mumbai; Sarvadhika prakashana; page 102.103. Shri Sadhanandha sharma Rasatarangini 21st chapter shloka 129, Kashinath shastri 11th edition, Varanasi; Motilal Bhanarasidas; 2000 pp-543.104. Rasa vagabhata Rasa ratna Samuchchaya 2rd chapter shloka 122, Pandit Dharmanandha Sharma 2nd edition, Varanasi; Motilal Banarasidas; 1996 pp-22.105. Jadavaji Trikamaji Rasamritam 22nd chapter shloka 73, Dr Damodara Joshi 1st edition, Varanasi; Chawkhambha samskrit bhavan; 1998 pp-58.106. Budheva mukharji Rasajala nidhi vol 2. 1st chapter, Siddhinandana mishra 2nd edition, Varanasi; Chawkhambha Samskrita bhavana; 1998 pp-111.107. Bajandas swami Dadupant Rasadarpana voll 1st 4th chapter, 3rd edition, Rohatak; Nath pustak bhandar; pp-198.108. Acharya somadheva Rasendra chudamani 10th chapter shloka 74, Dr Siddinandan mishra 2nd edition, Varanasi; Chawkhambha orientalia; 1999 pp-152.109. Shri Madavachrya Ayurveda prakash 4rd chapter shloka 39, Shri Gulraj Sharma mishra 1st edition, Varanasi; Chawkhambha samscrit bharati academy; 1999 pp- 417.110. Narahari Rajnighantu 13th chapter shloka 102, Indradev tripati 2nd edition, Varanasi; chawkhambha Sanskrit series; 1998 pp 448.111. Shri Dhanvantari Dhanvantari nighantu 3rd chapter shloka 131-132, Dr. P.V.Sharma 1st edition, Varanasi; Choukumba orintalia; 1982 pp-114.112. Sri Bhavamishra Bhavaprakasha Nighantu 7th chapter shloka 67-68, Sri Brahmashankar mishra 6th edition, Varanasi; chawkhambha Sanskrit samsthana; 1984 pp 611.113. Nrupaadanapala Madanapala nighantu 4th chapter shloka 31, Khemraj Krishnadas, Mumbai; Sarvadhika prakashana; page 102.114. B.S.Bowl and G.D.Sharma Modern approach alimentary inorganic chemistry chapter 2nd edition, New delhi;S.Chand and company;1980 pp-326-327.
  • 162. Bibilography115. R.Ghosh’s Pharmacology Materia medica and therapeutics 5th chapter, S.S.Senagupta 23rd edition, Culcutta;Hilton and company;1976 pp-897-898.116. Vaidya V.M.Gogate Ayurvedic pharmacology and therapeutic uses of medicinal plants, Shri Ramakrishnan 1st edition, Mumbai;Bharatiya vaidya bhavana; 2000 pp- 296.117. Internet PMID, 16192673, 16085379, 10624886 (indexed for medicine)118. Vaidya V.M.Gogate Ayurvedic pharmacology and therapeutic uses of medicinal plants, Shri Ramakrishnan 1st edition, Mumbai;Bharatiya vaidya bhavana; 2000 pp- 524.119. K Raghunath and Miss Rama mitra Pharmacognacy of indigenous drugs voll II, Ist edition, New Delhi; central council for reference in Ayurveda and sidda; 1982 pp- 389.120. Vaidya V.M.Gogate Ayurvedic pharmacology and therapeutic uses of medicinal plants, Shri Ramakrishnan 1st edition, Mumbai;Bharatiya vaidya bhavana; 2000 pp- 736.121. Internet PMID,12113324, 11731065, 6526069 ( indexed for medicine)122. Shri Sadhanandha sharma Rasatarangini 18th chapter shloka 47 to 67, Kashinath shastri 11th edition, Varanasi; Motilal Bhanarasidas; 2000 pp- 446 to 449.123. Sushruta Acharya Sushruta samhita suthra 46th chapter shloka 39 to 40, Abikadatta shastri 12th edition, Varanasi; Chawkahmbha samskrita bhavana; 2001 pp-178.124. Vagabhatacharya Astanga sangraha 6th chapter shloka 69 to 70, Dr Ravidatta tripati 3rd edition, New delhi; Chawkhambha samskrita pratisthana; 2001 pp- 101 to 102.125. Sushruta Acharya Sushruta samhita suthra 46th chapter shloka 128, Abikadatta shastri 12th edition, Varanasi; Chawkahmbha samskrita bhavana; 2001 pp-186.126. Bhavamishra Bhavaprakash 21st chapter shloka 2 , Shri Bhramha shankara shastri 5th edition, Varanasi; Chawkhambha samskrit series; 1969 pp-783.127. Sushruta Acharya Sushruta samhita suthra 46th chapter shloka 37, Abikadatta shastri 12th edition, Varanasi; Chawkahmbha samskrita bhavana; 2001 pp-191.128. Vaidya V.M.Gogate Ayurvedic pharmacology and therapeutic uses of medicinal plants, Shri Ramakrishnan 1st edition, Mumbai;Bharatiya vaidya bhavana;2000 pp-412.
  • 163. Bibilography129. Amarasimha, Amarakosha, Varanasi, Chaukhamba Sanskrit series, 1970, 2-6-53.130. Agnivesha, Charaka Samhita Part-II, Chikitsa Sthana 7th chapter Sloka 13 &26, Ganga Sahaya Pandya ed,Varanasi; Chaukhamba Sanskrit Samsthana; 1994 pp- 250-252.131. Acharya Sushruta Sushruta Samhita Part-I, Nidana Sthana 5th chapter, Sloka13 Ambikadatta Sastry 11th edition, Varanasi; Chaukhamba Sanskrit Samsthan; 1997 pp- 247-248.132. Agnivesha Charka Samhita Redacted by Charaka and Dridabala with Ayurveda Dipika Commentary by Chakrapanidatta, Chikitsa Sthana 7th chapter 9th Sloka, Y.T. Acharya ed, Varanasi; Chaukhamba Surabharati Prakashana; 2000 pp-450.133. Acharya Sushruta Sushruta Samhita Nibanda Sangraha Commentary by Dalhanacharya, Chikitsa Sthana, 5th chapter, 3rd Sloka, Y.T. Achary ed, Varanasi; Krishnadas Academy; 1998 pp424.134. Vagbhata Ashtanga Hrudaya Commentaries of Arunadatta Hemadri Nidana Sthana 14th chapter 3rd Sloka, Sadashiva Shastry ed, Varanasi; Chaukhamba Surabharati Prakashana;2002 pp 524.135. Agnivesha Charaka Samhita Part-II Chikitsa Sthana 7th chapter 26th Sloka, Ganga Sahaya Pandya ed, Varanasi; Chaukhamba Sanskrit Samsthana; 1994 pp-252.136. Acharya Sushruta Sushruta Samhita Part-I Nidana Sthana 5th chapter 13th Sloka, Ambikadatta Shastry 11th edition, Varanasi; Chaukhamba Sanskrit Samsthan; 1997 pp-248.137. Vagbhata Ashtanga Hrudaya Commentaries of Arunadatta Hemadri Nidana Sthana 14th chapter 18th Sloka, Sadashiva Shastry ed, Varanasi; Chaukhamba Surabharati Prakashana;2002 pp 525.138. Agnivesha Charka Samhita Redacted by Charaka and Dridabala with Ayurveda Dipika Commentary by Chakrapanidatta, Chikitsa Sthana 1st chapter 10th Sloka, Y.T. Acharya ed, Varanasi; Chaukhamba Surabharati Prakashana; 2000 pp-195.139. Ibid 7th chapter, 37-38 Slokas, pp-452.140. Ibid 7th chapter, 39th Sloka, pp-452.141. Acharya Sushruta Sushruta Samhita Nibanda Sangraha Commentary by Dalhanacharya, Chikitsa Sthana 9th chapter 43rd Sloka, Y.T. Achary ed, Varanasi; Krishnadas Academy; 1998 pp-446.142. Ibid 6th Sloka, pp-442p.
  • 164. Bibilography143. Vagbhata Ashtanga Hrudaya Commentaries of Arunadatta Hemadri Nidana sthana 19th chapter 1-3 Sloka, Sadashiva Shastry ed, Varanasi; Chaukhamba Surabharati Prakashana;2002 pp-711.144. Department of Health, The Ayurvedic Formulary of India Part-I, 1st edition, Delhi; Controller of publications; 1978 pp-300.145. API Text book of Medicine, Siddartha N. Shah, 7th edition, Published by physicians of India, Mumbai; pp-187.146. Practice of Dermatology by P.N. Behl, 7th edition, CBS Publishers and distributors, New Delhi; pp-129.147. David Sons Principles and Practice of Medicine, Christopher Haslett, Edvin R Chilvers, John A.A. Hunter, Churchil living stone, 19th ed, Edinburgh; pp-1072.148. Ibid149. Recent Advances in Allergy, George W. Bray, 2nd ed, London; J and A Churchill Ltd., 1934 pp-5.150. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, Gerard J. Tortora, Bonnie Roesch ed, Johnwiley and sons Inc, New York; 2001 pp-798.151. Frenchs index of Differential Diagnosis 11th edition, F.Dudley Heart ed, Great Briton, Bristol, John right and Sons Ltd; 1979 pp-821.152. Text book of Pathology, Harshmohan, Jaypee brothers Medical Publisher Pvt. Ltd, 5th ed, New Delhi; 2005 pp-796.153. Frenchs index of Differential Diagnosis, F.Dudley Heart 11th edition, Great Briton, Bristol, John right and Sons Ltd; 1979 pp-821-822.154. David Sons Principles and Practice of Medicine, Christopher Haslett Edvin R Chilvers, John A.A. Hunter,19th edition, Churchil living stone Edinburgh; pp-896, 1055,1056.155. Ibid pp-1074.
  • 165. Bibilography
  • 166. Special clinical trial proforma for Vicharchika Post graduate and research center (Rasashastra) Shri D.G.M. Ayurvedic Medical College,Gadag.Guide : Dr.M.C.Patil Dr. Sobagin.M.V M.D(Ayu) P.G.ScholarCo guide: Dr.G.N.Danappagoudar M.D.(Ayu) Sl.No.1.Name of the patient: O.P.D. No.2.Father’s Name/ Husband’s Name: D.O.I. D.O.C3.Age:4. Sex: Male Female5. Religion: Hindu Muslim Christian Others6. Occupation Student House wife Agriculture Others7.Educational status:8.Economical status: Poor Middle Higher9.Marital status: Married Unmarried10.Address: Tel-11. Result: Well responded Responded Not responded12.Concent: I -------- -------- Son / Daughter / Wife of----------- Exercise my free will in the said study, I have been informed to my satisfaction by attending the purpose of the clinical evaluation and nature of drug treatment. I am also aware of my right to quit at any time during the schedule. Investigator’s signature Patient’s signature
  • 167. A) Pradhana Vedana Sl.No. Complaints P/A Duaration 1 Varna 2 Pidika 4 Srava 5 Kandu 6 Vedana visheshaB) Anubandhi Vedana (Savadhi).C) Vedana Vrittanta. Specific enquires in following headings: Mode of onset: Sudden Gradual Insidious Course: Episodic Continous Initially episodic Duration: Periodicity: Seasonal Irregular Aggravating Trauma Climate Infections Drugs Others Factors:D) Poorva Vyadhi Vrittanta.E) Chikitsa Vrittanta:F) Koutumbika Vrittanta:
  • 168. G) Vayaktika vrittanta: 1) Ahara: Vegetarian Mixed diet Dominant Rasa in food 2) Vihara: Tea Coffee Tobacco Alcohol 3) Vyasana: Smoking Gutaka Others 4) Jataragni bala: Pravara Madhyama Avara Sama 5)Rajaha: Regular Irregular MenopauseH) Rogi pareeksha: Samanya pareeksha: Pulse rate bpm Blood Pressure mm of Hg Pulse rhythm Heart rate /min Respiration rate /min Skin(hard/smooth) o Temparature F Skin colourAshtasthana pareeksha: Sl.No. Sl.No. 1 Nadi 5 Shabdha 2 Mala 6 Sparsha 3 Mootra 7 Drika 4 Jivha 8 Akruti
  • 169. Dashavidha Pareeksha: 1) Shareera prakriti: V P K VP KP VK VPK 2) Manasa prakriti: V P K VP KP VK VPK 3) Sara: Pravara Madhyma Avara 4) Samhanana: Pravara Madhyma Avara 5) Satmya: Pravara Madhyma Avara 6) Satwa: Pravara Madhyma Avara 7) Vyayama shakti: Pravara Madhyma Avara 8) Vaya: Bala Youvana Vrudda 9) Desha: Jangala Anupa Sadharana 10) Akriti:Vikrititaha pareeksha: 1) Nidana: 2) Poorva Roopam: 3) Roopa: 4) Samprapti: Dosha Dushya Adhistana Srotas Srotodusti Rogamarga 5) Upashaya & Anupashaya: Upashaya Anupashaya
  • 170. 6. Upadrava: Jwara Hrillasa Kshaya Arochaka Swarabheda 7. Arista Lakshanas: 8. Sadhyasadhyata:I) Special examination of Vicharchika Treatment shedule Before After th st 7 day 21 day Fallow up VARNA Shyava Shyvalohita Rakta Tamra PIDIKA Swabhava Sankhya Sthana Akara Varna SRAVA Varna Gandha Pramana Swaroopa KANDU Adhishtana Avadhi Prakopaka kala VEDANA VISHESHA Adhishtana Avadhi Prakopaka kala
  • 171. J) Lab Investigations: Before After DC Before After Hb % gm % gm % N % % ESR mm/h mm/h E % % RBS mg/dl mg/dl B % % TC % % M % % AEC Cells/Cumm Cells/Cumm L % %K) Chikithsa: Yoga : Yashdamrita Malahara & Sindhooradi taila Posology : Required quantity Duration of treatment: 21 days . Follow Up -15 daysL) Pathya:M) Apathya:N) Investigators Note:Signature of Guide Signature of Scholar
  • 172. MASTER CHART-I Demographic Data of GROUP-A MaritalOPD Age Sex Education status Religion Occupation Economical Status M F Ed UEd M Un M H M O A ST HW E Bu PC MC HC1154 42 + - + + - + - - - - - + - - + -1198 35 + - + - + - + - - + - - - - + - -2351 55 + - - + + - + - - + - - - - - + -2490 45 + - + - + - + - - - - - - + - + -2553 38 - + - + + - + - - - - + - - + - -2600 37 + - - + + - + - - + - - - - - + -2948 22 + - + - - + + - - - + - - - - + -3153 44 - + - + + - + - - - - + - - - + -3432 45 + - + - + - + - - - - - + - - + -3908 60 - + - + + - + - - - - + - - + - -3922 40 + - + + - + - - - - - + - - + -3985 17 + - + - - + + - - - + - - - + - -4051 40 + - + - + - + - - + - - - - - + -4115 18 + - + - - + + - - - + - - - - + -4118 48 - + + - + - - + - - - + - - + - - M=Male, F=Female, Ed=Education, UEd=Uneducated, M=Muslim, H=Hindu, O=Others, HW=House Wife, E=Employee, Bu=Business, PC=Poor Class, MC=Middle Class, HC=High Class, A=Agriculture, ST=Student, SE=Secondary Education
  • 173. MASTER CHART-II Demographic Data of GROUP-B. Age Sex Education Marital status Religion Occupation Economical StatusOPD M F Ed UEd M Un M H M O A ST HW E Bu PC MC HC1102 27 + + - - + - - + - - - - + - + -1179 50 + + - + - + - - - - - + - - + -2320 60 + - + - + - + - - - - - - + - + -2484 38 + - - + + - + - - + - - - - - + -2545 25 + - - + - + + - - - - - + - + - -2557 45 - + - + + - + - - - - + - - - + -2837 32 + - + - + - + - - + - - - - + - -3103 41 + - - + + - - + - - - - - + - + -3430 22 + - + - - + + - - - + - - - - + -3635 48 - + + - - + + - - - - + - - - + -3436 50 - + - + + - + - - - - + - - - + -3439 25 + - + - - + - + - - - - - + - + -4043 50 + - + - + - - + - - - - - + - + -4068 37 + - + - + - + - - + - - - - - + -4132 44 - + - + + - + - - - - + - - - + - M=Male, F=Female, Ed=Education, UEd=Uneducated, M=Muslim, H=Hindu, O=Others, HW=House Wife, E=Employee, Bu=Business, PC=Poor Class, MC=Middle Class, HC=High Class, A=Agriculture, ST=Student, SE=Secondary Education UnM= Un Married
  • 174. SHLOKAPreparation of Yashadamrita malahara: eÎdI¶°d‰a e±d™¤d£dz¬d¦£dg §dj®dd£de®de¥d±dde¥d£d«dŠ | £ddy¬dIz¶I¶e«d£da QØd£dŠ Sd¯dQa ®de²¦d¡ddeT£d«dŠ || šd¬®dyíe£d«d±dmPddy ´dgQy„ «dQ‰SdyQe£dSd£¦d£dZ | ±d«ddšSdd£ddy «d¬ddUµTdy Sd¯dQd«dm£d ±daëdI¶Z || RT 19/146-147Preparation of Sindhooradi taila £dz¬da ±d°d‰§d±daªdj£da ¯dgªda Q¯d§d¬ddye¦«d£d«dŠ | e¦d¯ddI‰¶§dÎdI¶¬I¶¦£dg QS¥ddeÙa¯de£d£ddy¬dI¶«dŠ || §d¬ddye¦«d£da¢Ÿd e±daQjTa £dg£Sda Te™£dŸd£dgÝSd«dŠ | £dz¬d§ddI¶e®d¥dd¦dy¦d §ddŸdSdyÏdz¬d§ddI¶e®d£dŠ || e±daQjTd¥Sde«dQa £dz¬da eªd°de›ªdZ §deTI¶fe£d‰£d«dŠ | §dd«dde®dŸdeŸd‰I¶|±R¶dyLµ´d£dI¶PNjµe£dI¶d§dUµ«dŠ || RT- 21/162-164