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Vatajakasa anupana ayu-ss-mys
 

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RAJESH M. BHAT, A STUDY ON ANUPANA W.S.R. TO THE ROLE OF GHRITA IN VATAJA KASA, DEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES IN AYURVEDA SIDDHANTA, GOVERNMENT AYURVEDA MEDICAL COLLEGE, MYSORE. 2009

RAJESH M. BHAT, A STUDY ON ANUPANA W.S.R. TO THE ROLE OF GHRITA IN VATAJA KASA, DEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES IN AYURVEDA SIDDHANTA, GOVERNMENT AYURVEDA MEDICAL COLLEGE, MYSORE. 2009

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    Vatajakasa anupana ayu-ss-mys Vatajakasa anupana ayu-ss-mys Document Transcript

    • i  “A STUDY ON ANUPANA W.S.R. TO THE ROLE OF GHRITA INVATAJA KASA”ByDr. RAJESH M. BHAT, B.A.M.S.,Dissertation submitted to theRajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, Bangalorein partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree ofDOCTOR OF MEDICINE (AYURVEDA)inAYURVEDA SIDDHANTAUnder the Guidance ofDr. K. NASEEMA AKHTAR, M.D. (Ayu)ProfessorDepartment of Post-Graduate Studies in Ayurveda SiddhantaG.A.M.C, Mysore.CO-GuideDr. VASUDEV A. CHATE, M.D. (Ayu)Lecturer,Department Of Post Graduate Studies in Ayurveda SiddhantaGOVERNMENT AYURVEDA MEDICAL COLLEGEMYSORE.2009
    • ii  RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, KARNATAKADEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES INAYURVEDA SIDDHANTAGOVERNMENT AYURVEDA MEDICAL COLLEGEMYSORE.DECLARATIONI hereby declare that this Dissertation “A STUDY ON ANUPANA W.S.R. TO THEROLE OF GHRITA IN VATAJA KASA” is a bonafide and genuine research workcarried out by me under the guidance of Dr. Naseema Akhtar, Professor, Department ofPost Graduate Studies in Ayurveda Siddhanta, Government Ayurveda Medical College,Mysore.Date : Signature of the CandidatePlace : Mysore Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat
    • iii  RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, KARNATAKADEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES INAYURVEDA SIDDHANTAGOVERNMENT AYURVEDA MEDICAL COLLEGEMYSORE.CERTIFICATE BY THE GUIDEThis is to certify that the dissertation entitled “A STUDY ON ANUPANA W.S.R. TOTHE ROLE OF GHRITA IN VATAJA KASA” is a bonafide research work done byDr. Rajesh M. Bhat in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Doctor ofMedicine (Ayurveda).Date : Signature of the GuidePlace : Mysore Dr. K. Naseema Akhtar, M.D. (Ayu)Professor,Department of P. G. Studiesin Ayurveda Siddhanta,Government Ayurveda MedicalCollege, Mysore.
    • iv  RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, KARNATAKADEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES INAYURVEDA SIDDHANTAGOVERNMENT AYURVEDA MEDICAL COLLEGEMYSORE.CERTIFICATE BY THE CO-GUIDEThis is to certify that the dissertation entitled “A STUDY ON ANUPANA W.S.R. TOTHE ROLE OF GHRITA IN VATAJA KASA” is a bonafide research work done byDr. Rajesh M. Bhat in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Doctor ofMedicine (Ayurveda).Date : Signature of the Co-GuidePlace : Mysore Dr. Vasudev A. Chate, M.D (Ayu)Lecturer,Department of P. G. Studiesin Ayurveda Siddhanta,Government Ayurveda MedicalCollege, Mysore.
    • v  RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, KARNATAKADEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES INAYURVEDA SIDDHANTAGOVERNMENT AYURVEDA MEDICAL COLLEGEMYSORE.ENDORSEMENT BY THE HOD, PRINCIPAL/HEAD OF THE INSTITUTIONThis is to certify that the dissertation entitled “A STUDY ON ANUPANA W.S.R. TOTHE ROLE OF GHRITA IN VATAJA KASA” is a bonafide research work done byDr. Rajesh M. Bhat under the guidance of Dr. K. Naseema Akhtar M.D(Ayu), Professor,Department of Post Graduate Studies in Ayurveda Siddhanta, Government AyurvedaMedical College, Mysore.Seal & Signature of the HOD Seal & Signature of the PrincipalDate : Date :Place : Mysore Place : Mysore
    • vi  RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, KARNATAKADEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES INAYURVEDA SIDDHANTAGOVERNMENT AYURVEDA MEDICAL COLLEGEMYSORE.COPY RIGHTDeclaration by the CandidateI hereby declare that the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka shallhave the rights to preserve, use and disseminate this dissertation/thesis in print orelectronic format for academic/research purpose.Date : Signature of the CandidatePlace : Mysore Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat© Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka
    • vii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTAt this moment of submitting this dissertation in this Post Graduate study, my headbows down with great humility in the feet of almighty and my fatherShri Manjunath Ganesh Bhat, my mother Smt. Saraswati Manjunath Bhat and my dearmost elder brother Mr. Ganesh M. Bhat without whose inspiration, I would not have beenable to attain these stages in my life.I express my heartfelt and profound sense of gratitude to our beloved former H.O.D.,Dr. N. Anjaneya Murthy, Joint Director, Dept of AYUSH, Govt of Karnataka andDr. Shakuntala G. N. Professor and HOD, Department of PG Studies in AyurvedaSiddhanta, GAMC, Mysore, for their constant guidance, continuous supervision and help atevery stage of this study.Words cannot express the zeal of ecstasy while depicting my deep source of gratitudeto my proficient guide Dr. K. Naseema Akhtar. Her fruitful suggestions, optimistic view &motherly affection showered on me during this whole period & inspired me to accomplishthis work in all aspects.I would like to acknowledge with grateful thanks the help given to me by my Co-Guide Dr. Vasudev A. Chate, Lecturer, Department of PG studies in Ayurveda Siddhanta,GAMC, Mysore, for his constant support and encouragement during the course of this work.I am also thankful to Dr. Ashok D. Satpute, Principal, GAMC, Mysore, for hisguidance and support that he had provided during the period of my study.I wish to place my sincere gratitude to Dr. K. Venkat Shivudu Asst. Prof Dept. ofBasic principles J.S.S. Ayurveda Medical College, Mysore, Dr. Shantala Priyadarshini,Dr. Shrivatsa and Dr. Anand Katti for their inspiration and constant guidance, continuoussupervision and help at every stage of my study.I would like to place on record my deep sense of gratitude to my beloved teachers,Dr. T. D. Ksheersagar, Dr. Chandramouli, Dr. D. L. Balakrishna, Dr. V. Rajendra,Dr. Shantaram, Dr. G. Gopinath, Dr. R. C. Mythreyi and Dr. Adarsh for their inspirationand suggestions during my P.G. studies.
    • viii  I am happy to receive the blessings of my grandfather Shri S. D. Avadhani, mygrand mother Smt. Shanti Avadhani, my uncles Shri S. S. Avadhani, Dr. M. S. Avadhaniand my cousins Mr. Manjunath Pandit, Mr. Akshay Bhat, Dr. Raghavendra R. Bhat,Dr. Prasanna S. and Mr. Pramod Bhat.I would like express my deep sense of gratitude to my elder sister Smt. Deepa Bhatand younger sister Dr. A. Annapoorani for their support through out my study.I can’t forget to bow my head to Paramapoojya Dr. D. Virendra Heggadeji,Dr. Prasanna N. Rao, Dr. Yashoverma, and Dr. B. G. Gopinath for giving me energy tolearn this greatest science.I convey my special thanks to my UG Professors Dr. Prakash L. Hegde andDr. Shrinidhi Acharya, S. D. M. College of Ayurveda and Hospital, Hassan for theirsupport in my career.I am very much grateful to my U.G. teachers, Dr. Muralidhara N., Dr. HemanthToshikane, Dr. Ashwinikumar M., Dr. Annapoorna, Dr. Shilpa Shekhar, Dr. KishorPatavardhan, Dr. Sanjay Das, Mr. M. N. Panduranga, late Dr. N. V. Mallikarjun,Dr. G. V. Ramana, Dr. Sajjitha K., Dr. Sangitha T., Dr. Mallika K. J.,Dr. Ashwinikumar Bharati, Dr. Geethesh R. R., Dr. Mona, Dr. Bhaskar Rao,Dr. Parameshwarappa S. Byadgi, Dr. Muralidhar Pujar, Dr. B. Shrinivas Prasad,Dr. T. D. Tripathi, Dr. Narayana Prakash, Dr. Byresh A., Dr. Santosh Bhatted,Dr. Meera Dr. Suhas Shetty, Dr. P. Hemanthkumar, Dr. Shekhar Namburi,Dr. Kavitha M. B., Dr. Gayathri Bhat, Dr. Vishwesh, Dr. Shailaja Rao, Dr. DurgaPrasad Das, Dr. Dingari Lakshmanachar, Dr. M. V. Subrahmanya, Dr. Ashwini M. J.and all other teaching staff of S. D. M. College of Ayurveda and Hospital, Hassan for makingme to come for higher studies.I express my immense thanks to Mr. Shekhar B. S. and Smt. Mangala for theirextreme support throughout my stay at Mysore.I convey my thanks to Dr. Ramachandra Nayak, Dr. Anuradha Nadkarni,Dr. Bharati Rajendra, Dr. Nagesh, R.M.O., and Dr. Madhumati and all the hospital stafffor their support during the course of the study.
    • ix  I thank my friends Dr. Vishwanatha M. Sharma, Dr. Manjunath D. Shet for theirhelp throughout my both UG and PG study.I would like to thank all my colleagues Dr. Aparna K, Dr. Kavita S., Dr. PankajPathak, Dr. Shivanand Pyati, Dr. Sidram Guled, Dr. Mahesh Hiremath,Dr. Chitralatha, Dr. Triveni and Dr. Akarshini who made my stay in college very joyfuland educative.I convey my thanks to my junior PG Colleagues of Ayurveda Siddhanta andKayachikitsa for their overall help.I extend my regards to our dept employee Annaiachar and librarians Mr. VenkataSubbaiah, Smt. Varalakshmi, Mr. Somasundar, Mr. Basavaraju and Mr. VaradarajuGAMC, Mysore, library faculties of S. D. M. College of Ayurveda and Hospital, Hassan andJ. S. S. Ayurveda Medical College, Mysore for their generous help during the course of mywork.I am very much thankful to Vidwan Gangadhar V. Bhat, Asst Prof. NyaayaVibhaaga, Maharaja Sanskrit College, Mysore, who has given Sanskrit grammaticalcorrections for the present study.I thank Dr. Lancy D’Souza for helping in statistical analysis and interpretation.I also thank the doctors and faculties of Kannan diagnostic center.Last but not the least I must sincerely thank Mr. Mahesh C., Mr. Shrikanth andMr. Raju, Manish Enterprises for bringing out a marvelous printout of my dissertation.I pay my heart full homage to my all relatives whose blessings and kind supportenabled me to complete this work successfully.I acknowledge thanks to all persons who have helped me directly or indirectly withapology for my inability to identify them individually.Date :Place : Mysore Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat
    • x  CONTENTSContents Page No.Acknowledgement viiList of Tables xiiiList of illustrations xviiiList of flow charts xixAnnexure list xixAbbreviations xxKey to Transliterate xxiAbstract xxii INTRODUCTION 1-2 OBJECTIVES 3 REVIEW OF LITERATUREI. Review on Anupana And Sahapana1. Introduction to the chapter Anupana2. Historical review3. Derivation4. Definition5. Lakshana6. Synonyms7. Types8. Maatraa9. Anupana kaala10. Guna karma11. Different Anupana dravyaas12. Different Anupana dravya for different dosha4-69449101111121616172130
    • xi  13. Different Anupana dravya for different rogaas14. Different Anupana dravya for different dhaatu15. Different Anupana dravya for different upadhatu16. Different Anupana dravya for different sthaavara visha17. Different Anupana dravya for different jaangama visha18. Importance of Anupana in chikitsaa19. Factors to be considered during Anupana sevana20. Indications of Anupana21. Contraindications for jala and Ushna jala as Anupana22. Adverse effects of Anupana23. Anupananantara nishiddha karma24. Disadvantage of not taking Anupana25. Single formulation or drug with different Anupana26. Sahapana27. Concept of Anupana and Sahapana in other systems ofmedicine3234343637393940404343444447-4849-69Review on KasaII. Review on Vataja Kasa1. Introduction2. Derivation3. Definition4. Nidaana5. Poorwaroopa6. Roopa/Lakshana7. Sampraapti8. Upashaya9. Anupashaya70-8181-97828282838383868686
    • xii  10. Saadhyaasaadhyataa11. Chikitsaa vivechana12. Some of the yogaas for Vataja Kasa13. Pathya for Vataja Kasa14. Vataja Kasa in western system of medicine8687888990-97III.Drug review1. Ingredients of Vidangadi churna2. Ghrita3. Ushna jala98-11498107112 MATERIALS AND METHODS 115-124 OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS 125-164 DISCUSSION 165-185 CONCLUSION 186 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY 187 SUMMARY 188-189 BIBLIOGRAPHY 190-198
    • xiii  List of tablesSl.No. List of tables Page No.1. Showing references of Anupana in different puraana 52. Showing synonyms of Anupana in different classics 113. Showing classification of Anupana based on rasa 154. Showing classification of Anupana based on guna/veerya 155. Showing maatraa of Anupana for doshaas in pala pramaana 166. Showing gunakarma of Anupana 177. Showing indication mahendra jala as Anupana 228. Showing indication Ushna jala as Anupana 229. Showing indication sheeta jala as Anupana 2210. Showing indication dadhi as Anupana 2311. Showing indication ksheera as Anupana 2312. Showing indication maamsa rasa as Anupana 2413. Showing indication sura as Anupana 2414. Showing indication madhoodaka as Anupana 2515. Showing indication madya as Anupana 2516. Showing indication ikshu rasa as Anupana 2517. Showing indication arkaasava as Anupana 2618. Showing indication shelu aasava as Anupana 2619. Showing indication shireeshaasava as Anupana 2620. Showing indication kaanjikaadi aamla as Anupana 2621. Showing indication sharkarodaka as Anupana 2622. Showing indication triphalodaka with kshoudra as Anupana 2723. Showing Ushna jala as Anupana for aahaara dravya 2724. Showing sheeta jala as Anupana for different aahaara dravya 2725. Showing sukhoshna jala as Anupana for aahaara dravya 28
    • xiv  26. Showing ksheera as Anupana for different aahaara dravya 2827. Showing maamsa rasa as Anupana for different aahaara dravya 2828. Showing yoosha as Anupana for different aahaara dravya 2929. Showing dadhi mastu as Anupana for different aahaara dravya 2930. Showing takra as Anupana for different aahaara dravya 2931. Showing aamla kaanjikaa as Anupana for different aahaara dravya 2932. Showing ashwagandha kashaaya as Anupana for different oushadhadravya3033. Showing different Anupana for Vata dosha 3034. Showing different Anupana for Pitta dosha 3135. Showing different Anupana for Kapha dosha 3136. Showing different Anupana dravya for different Roga 3237. Showing different Anupana dravya for different dhaatu 3438. Showing different Anupana dravya for different upadhaatu 3439. Showing different Anupana dravya for different sthaavara visha 3640. Showing different Anupana dravya for different jaangama visha 3741. Showing contraindications of jala as Anupana 4242. Showing different Anupana dravya for Gudoochi 4443. Showing different Anupana dravya for Hareetaki in different rutu 4544. Showing different Anupana dravya for Yogaraaja Guggulu 4545. Showing different Anupana dravya for Naaraayana choorna 4546. Showing different Anupana dravya for Rasa Sindhoora 4647. Showing contraindications of vehicle for different drugs 6248. Showing the examples for fluids as Anupana for different diseases inPrakruti chikitsaa6449. Showing aahaaraja nidaana of Kasa in different classics 7250. Showing vihaaraja nidaana of Kasa in different classics 7351. Showing vishesha aahaaraja nidaana of Kasa 73
    • xv  52. Showing vishesha vihaaraja nidaana of Kasa 7453. Showing poorwaroopa of Kasa in different classics 7454. Showing Pittaja Kasa lakshanas in different classics 7755. Showing Kaphaja Kasa lakshanas in different classics 7856. Showing Vataja Kasa lakshanaas in different classics 8357. Showing some of the Yogaas for Vataja Kasa 8758. Showing Pathyaas for Vataja Kasa 8959. Showing ingredients and quantities of Vidangadi churna 9860. Showing gana vargeekaraa of Vidanga 9861. Showing gana vargeekaraa of Naagara 10062. Showing gana vargeekaraa of Pippalee 10263. Showing gana vargeekaraa of Hingu 10364. Showing gana vargeekaraa of Saindhava lavana 10465. Showing gana vargeekaraa of Bhaarangi 10566. Showing ingredient of Vidangadi churna and its properties 10667. Showing synonyms of Ghrita 10868. Showing gana vargeekarana of Ghrita 10969. Showing different gunakarmaas of Ghrita in different classics 10970. Showing indications of Ghrita for different rogaas 11071. Showing actions of Ghrita over different Dhaatus 11172. Showing gana vargeekarana of Ushna jala 11273. Showing the qualities of Ushna jala by different aachaaryaas 11374. Showing the ingredients of Vidangadi churna with quantities 11675. Showing age wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa 12576. Showing age wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa (Descriptives) 12677. Showing age wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa (Independentsamples t test)12678. Showing sex wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa 126
    • xvi  79. Showing sex wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa (GroupStatistics)12780. Showing marital status wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa 12781. Showing religion wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa 12882. Showing educational status wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa 12883. Showing occupation status wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa 12984. Showing socio economic status wise distribution of 30 patients in VatajaKasa13085. Showing location wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa 13086. Showing fresh and treated wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa 13087. Showing mode of onset wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa 13188. Showing course wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa 13189. Showing periodicity wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa 13190. Showing occurrence wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa 13291. Showing severity wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa 13292. Showing koshta wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa 13293. Showing agni wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa 13394. Showing nidraa wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa 13395. Showing coffee intake wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa 13396. Showing tea intake wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa 13497. Showing tobacco intake wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa 13498. Showing smoking wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa 13499. Showing alcohol intake wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa 135100. Showing diet wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa 135101. Showing naadi wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa 135102. Showing prakruti wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa 136103. Showing rogi bala wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa 136104. Showing results of Kasa vega 146
    • xvii  105. Showing Symmetric Measures in Kasa vega 146106. Showing results of Hrut shoola 148107. Showing Symmetric Measures in hrut shoola 148108. Showing results of Parshwa shoola 149109. Showing Symmetric Measures in Parshwa shoola 149110. Showing results of Shira shoola 150111. Showing Symmetric Measures in Shira shoola 150112. Showing results of Shankha shoola 151113. Showing Symmetric Measures in Shankha shoola 151114. Showing results of Udara shoola 152115. Showing Symmetric Measures in Udara shoola 152116. Showing results of Absolute Eosinophil Count (AEC) 153117. Showing Symmetric Measures in AEC 153118. Showing the results in Kapha shushkataa, alpa kaphataa and kaphakrucchrataa154119. Showing Symmetric Measures in Kapha shushkataa, alpa kaphataa andkapha krucchrataa154120. Showing the results in Shushka ura, Shushka kanta and Shushka vaktra 155121. Showing Symmetric Measures in Shushka ura, Shushka kanta and Shushkavaktra155122. Showing the results in Nirghosha 156123. Showing Symmetric Measures in Nirghosha 156124. Showing the results in Swarabheda 157125. Showing Symmetric Measures in Swarabheda 157126. Showing the results in Lomaharsha 158127. Showing Symmetric Measures in Lomaharsha 158128. Showing the results in Deenataa 159129. Showing Symmetric Measures in Deenataa 159130. Showing the results in Dourbalya 160
    • xviii  131. Showing Symmetric Measures in Dourbalya 160132. Showing the results in Mahaa vega 161133. Showing Symmetric Measures in Mahaa vega 161134. Showing the comparison of Vataja Kasa with Eosinophilia 176List of illustrationsSl.No List of illustrations Page No.1. Showing age wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa 1372. Showing sex wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa 1373. Showing marital status wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa 1374. Showing religion wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa 1385. Showing occupation wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa 1386. Showing socio economic status wise distribution of 30 patients in VatajaKasa1387. Showing locality wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa 1398. Showing fresh and treated wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa 1399. Showing mode of onset wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa 13910. Showing course wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa 14011. Showing periodicity wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa 14012. Showing occurrence wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa 14013. Showing severity wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa 14114. Showing koshta wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa 14115. Showing agni wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa 14116. Showing nidraa wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa 14217. Showing diet wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa 14218. Showing naadi wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa 14219. Showing prakruti wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa 14320. Showing results of Kasa vega 162
    • xix  21. Showing results of Hrut shoola 16222. Showing results of Parshwa shoola 16323. Showing results of Shira shoola 16324. Showing results of Shankha shoola 16325. Showing results of Udara shoola 16426. Showing results of Absolute Eosinophil Count (AEC) 16427. Showing results of Kapha shushkataa, alpa Kaphataa and Kaphakrucchrataa164List of flow charts :-Sl.No List of flow charts Page No.1. Showing classifications of Anupana 122. Showing Kasa bheda according to different Aachaaryaas 763. Showing Physiology of cough reflex 91Annexure ListsSl.No Annexure Page No.1. Proforma of case sheet I2. Master charts XIII3. References of Anupana and Sahapana XVIII4. References of Ghrita XXVII5. References of Ushna jala XXXI6. References of Kasa and Vataja Kasa XXXII7. List of Photographs Showing Ingredients Of Vidangadi Churna XXXVIII
    • xx  AbbreviationsSl.No Abbreviations Long form1. Sl.No Serial Number2. Vol Volume3. C.S Charaka Samhitaa4. S.S SushrutaSamhitaa5. A.Hr AshtaangaHrudaya6. A.S AshtaangaSangraha7. B.S Bhela Samhitaa8. K.S KaashyapaSamhitaa9. H.S HaareetaSamhitaa10. Y.R Yoga Ratnaakara11. B.P Bhaava Prakaasha12. Sha.S ShaarangadharaSamhitaa13. M.N MaadhavaNidaana14. D.G.S Dravya GunaSangraha15. M.V Madana Vinoda16. G.N Gada Nigraha17. V.S Vanga Sena18. M.D.G Maadhava DravyaGuna19. K.D.N KaiyyadevaNighantu20. D.N DhanwantariNighantu21. R.N Raja Nighantu22. B.P.N Bhaava PrakaashaNighantu23. D.G.H Dravya GunaHastaamalaka24. M.P.N MadanapaalaNighantu25. A.K Aananda Kanda26. A.D Anupana Darpana27. A.M Anupana Manjari28. A.P AyurvedaPrakaasha29. A.Ko Amara Kosha30. S.K.D Shabda KalpaDruma31. Vacha Vaachaspatyam32. V.S.S Vaidyaka ShabdaSindhu33. S.K ShbdaarthaKoustubha34. C.C.V.K ChoukambhaChikitsa VijnanaKosha35. S.Ou.S.Sa ShaaligraamaOushadha ShabdaSaagara36. B.R BhaishajyaRatnaavali
    • xxi  Abbreviations for Sanskrit wordscÉ – CharakaxÉÑ – SushrutaA.xÉÇ. – Ashtaanga SangrahaA.WØû. – Ashtaanga HrudayapÉå – BhelaMüÉ – KaashyapaWûÉ – HaareetarÉÉå.U. – Yoga RatnaakarapÉÉ.mÉë. – Bhaava PrakaashazÉÉ – ShaarangadharaqÉÉ.ÌlÉ. – Maadhava NidaanapÉæ.U. – Bhaishajya RatnaavalizÉ.MüÉæ. – Shabdaartha KoustubhazÉ.Mü.SØ. – Shabda Kalpa DrumaUxÉ.iÉUÇ. – Rasa TaranginiqÉÉ.Sì.aÉÑ. – Maadhava Dravya GunaUÉ.ÌlÉ. – Raja NighantuSì.aÉÑ.xÉÇ. – Dravya Guna SangrahaqÉ.ÌuÉ. – Madana VinodaMæü.ÌlÉ. – Kaiyadeva NighantuAÉ. mÉë. – Ayurveda PrakaashapÉÉ.mÉë.ÌlÉ.- Bhaava Prakaasha NighantuuÉÇ.xÉå.- Vanga SenaxÉÔ – Sootra SthaanaÌlÉ – Nidaana SthaanaÌuÉ – Vimaana SthaanaÍcÉ –Chikitsaa SthaanaKey to Transliteratea – Aaa - AÉi - Cee - Du - Eoo - F
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  2  ABSTRACTBackground of the Study :-Anupana is a substance, which is taken along with or after the intake of oushadha oraahaara dravya. It helps not only for the palatability but mainly for carrying the oushadhadravya to the target place by which it increases its bioavailability and facilitates easyabsorption. Hence this research is undertaken to study the concept of Anupana and toemphasize its role in chikitsa w.s.r. to Ghrita as Anupana in Vataja Kasa.Objectives of the Study :- To understand and explain precisely the concept of Anupana and Sahapana. To study the role of Anupana in Chikitsa. To assess the effect of Ghrita as an Anupana with Vidangadi churna in Vataja Kasa.Methods :-A Comparative Single Blind Clinical Study with pre and post design. Patients ofVataja Kasa were made into 3 groups named as group A, B and C, consisting of 10 patientseach and administered with 4 gms of Vidangadi churna after food along with 4 ml of Ushnajala, 4 gms of Ghrita and without Anupana respectively.Results :-The study showed that the group B showed good result clinically when compared toother two groups.Interpretation and Conclusion :-Based on literary aspect of the present study, Anupana denotes both Pashchaatpanaand Sahapana.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  3  Group A and C showed statistically highly significant in Kasa vega at p value 0.000and statistically significant in group B at p value 0.001 and that of AEC showed nonsignificant in all the three groups but in group B, 50% of the patient showed good result aftertreatment and after follow up. By overall observation group B showed good and quick resultclinically.Keywords :- Anupana Ghrita Ushna jala Vataja Kasa Eosinophilia         
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  4  INTRODUCTION“AÉæwÉkÉÏ eÉÉ»ûuÉÏ iÉÉårÉÇ uÉæ±Éå lÉÉUÉrÉhÉÉå WûËUÈ |”Ayurveda the indigenous system of medicine is an integral part of Indian culture.Several drugs have been in use for centuries by the ancient Aachaaryaas for preventing andcuring various ailments. “The war between health and diseases starts with the onset of Life”.Therefore every person needs to be protected from diseases which are manifested by thevitiated doshaas, to grow up as a healthy citizen, for which the doshaas should be kept innormal conditions.For the equilibrium of these, Ayurveda explains dvividhopakramaas i.e., oorjaskaraand roganut. Roganut includes Shodhana and Shamana chikitsa. Shamana chikitsa is the onein which the doshaas are pacified but will not be expelled from the body, here the oushadhadravya is administered with proper Anupana.Anupana is a substance, which is taken along with or after the intake of oushadha oraahaara dravya. It enhances the action of dravya with which it is administered and therebyachieves the desired effect quickly by carrying the oushadha dravya to the target site andthereby increases its bioavailability and facilitates easy absorption. Though the Anupana isadministered along with oushadha to improve the taste and to mask the bad odour of thedravya, mainly given for carrying the essential substance to the target place.rÉÉåaÉqÉÉxÉÉÇ iÉÑ rÉÉå ÌuɱɬåzÉMüÉsÉÉåmÉmÉÉÌSiÉqÉç |mÉÑÂwÉÇ mÉÑÂwÉÇ uÉϤrÉ xÉ ¥ÉårÉÉå ÍpÉwÉaÉѨÉqÉÈ || (cÉ.xÉÔ.1/123)By the Yukti of a vaidya, a specific Anupana with specific dravya gives specificeffect in specific doshaas and rogaas of a rogi. With different Anupana a single oushadha
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  5  dravya can be given in different rogaas like Kasa, Shwasa and Hikka to get beneficial effectswhich emphasize the importance of Anupana.Uchhwaasa and Nishwaasa or to say breathing out and breathing in are thecontinuous phenomenon of life. To and fro movement of air through the Praanavaha srotasis the vital sign of life, the normalcy of which suggests health. The abnormality in respirationindicates disease, and its cessation marks death. This unique sign of life is affected in thedisease Kasa.Kasa or Cough is one of the commonest complaints in day to day practice and is alsoa symptom of various systemic diseases. Kasa, in Ayurveda is of 5 types. Among themVataja Kasa though it is not a life threatening, it troubles the person as it hinders the day today activity. For the same reasons many treatment modalities have been mentioned inAyurveda in the context of Vataja Kasa to get rid from the problems. Vidangadi churna withGhrita is one such yoga which is administered in this condition as a shamanoushadha. Bylooking in to each constituent of Vidangadi churna and the specific Anupana (Ghrita), itappears that this combination is likely to be very effective in combating the signs &symptoms Vataja Kasa.Therefore, the present research work entitled “A study of Anupana w.s.r. tothe role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa” is planned to evaluate the relative merit of the oraladministration of the Vidangadi churna with Ghrita as Anupana based on Aaptopadesha andUshna jala and without Anupana to find the role of Anupana.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  6  OBJECTIVES To understand and explain precisely the concept of Anupana and Sahapana. To study the role of Anupana in Chikitsa. To assess the effect of Ghrita as an Anupana with Vidangadi churna in Vataja Kasa.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  7  Ayurveda the science of life mainly gives importance to swasthasya swasthyarakshana and later aartasya roganut. To mentain and to achieve good health, Ayurvedaexplains many concepts such as aahaara vidhi vidhaana, sadvrutta, dinacharya, rutucharyaand also oushadha sevana. In aahaara vidhi vidhaana and oushadha sevana, Achaaryaashave explained many methods such as intake of proper Anupana before or during or after theconsumption of the food 0r medicine. So to understand the concept of Anupana a detailedreview is essential.HISTORICAL REVIEWA brief review of earlier idea would help in understanding not only the concepts ofthe Anupana as a whole but also the changing perspective about Anupana in modern times.Hence it would in a nutshell, give an idea about the long path mankind has traversedin finding benefit of the usage of Anupana.References of Anupana from various literatures are described in chronological order;1. Veda kaala2. Upanishat kaala3. Puraana kaala4. Raamaayana kaala5. Mahaabhaarata kaala6. Samhitaa kaala7. Sangraha kaala8. Madhya kaala9. Aadhunika kaala1. Veda kaala :-The Vedaas are the source of mankind’s knowledge and provides comprehensivedetails of various scientific knowledge.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  8  The reference of the word Anupana is not directly available in Vedic period. But canbe traced with the help of different aspects like aachamana, the paana which is taken forsome of the regimens to cure the diseases etc.The concept of aachamana i.e, by making the palm in the form of gokarnaakaaraand the jala is taken till the black gram sinks in it which has to be drink by chanting themantra. In Ayurvedic granthaas the concept of aachamana is explained in the context ofDinacharya that explains aachamana should be performed after bath, beginning and at theend of meals etc. so this concept can be equated to the concept of Anupana.2. Upanishat kaala :-In the commentary on Chaandogyopanishat the word Anupana is available.3. Puraana kaala:-In Agni puraana, in the context of Danta swaasthya, aahaara dravyaas is to beconsumed along with sheeta jala. Vishnu puraana, it is mentioned that while consumingaahaara, the jala has to be taken in between and after the food. In Garuda puraana, it hasbeen mentioned that the shaali tandula choorna along with ksheera. Some other referencesare tabulated below ;Table No. 1 - Showing references of Anupana in different puraana ;Sl.No Oushadha/Aahaara Anupana/Sahapana Vyaadhi Reference1. Ashwagandha paaka Ghrita Vandhyatwa Garuda Puraana2. Vyosha + Keshara Ghrita Vandhyatwa Garuda Puraana3. Shaali tandula choorna Dugdha Stanyaalpata Garuda Puraana4. Aamalaki swarasa Madhu Pradara Garuda Puraana
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  9  5. Kaarpaasa moola Tandulodaka Pradara Garuda Puraana6. Sharkaraa Dhaanyodaka Pitta vruddhi Brahma VaivartaPuraana7. Aahaara dravya Sheeta jala Danta roga Agni Puraana4. Raamaayana kaala :-In Raavanakruta Madhusheelaa book there is mentioning of 84 types of aasavaas.Same numbers of aasavaas which are mentioned in Charaka Samhitaa are being used asAnupana dravya till today.5. Mahaabhaarata kaala :-There is reference in Mahaabhaarata which quotes that, when a raakshasa by thename Baataapi was troubling the people in the form of a mesha, that time Agastya muniswallowed that Raakshasa along with food. After eating, Agastya muni felt to take Anupana.6. Samhitaa kaala :-i). Charaka Samhitaa -Aachaarya Charaka has dealt about Anupana in the context of Annapanavidhi inSutrasthana. After krutaanna varga, in Aahaaropayogee varga the detail description ofAnupana i.e qualities, mode of action, and selection of specific Anupanaas according todifferent conditions has been dealt. The action of Anupana is related in accordance with theAahaara upayogita. In another context, Aachaarya described Anupana for different diseasedconditions like sthoulya, tandraa and alpaagni etc. If specific Anupana is not mentioned for aparticular dravya or a roga then, one should choose Anupana according to desha and kaala.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  10  From the lists of 84 Aasavaas and other Peyaas like Jala are advised to be evaluated and thenconsidered for administration.ii). Sushruta Samhitaa-Aachaarya Sushruta has described Anupana in Anupana varga after the descriptionof Manda-Peyaadi Pathya kalpanaas i.e after krutaanna varga and before aahaara vidhi inAnnapaana vidhi adhyaaya. Here detailed description of Anupana i.e, different Anupanadravyaas, superiority of the jala as Anupana, properties, contraindications, rules andregulations for Anupana sevana are given.iii). Bhela Samhitaa –Aachaarya Bhela, described Anupana in Annapaanavidheeya adhyaaya ofSootrasthaana. Here explanation about different Anupana dravyaas in detail and theproperties of Anupana are given.iv). Kashyapa Samhitaa –Aachaarya Kaashyapa has not explained about Anupana in detail. But explainedsome of the applications of Anupana like; in Snehaadhyaaya he explained specific Anupanadravya for ghritapaana, tailapaana, vasaapaana and majjaapaana.7. Sangraha kaala :-i). Ashtaanga Sangraha –In Ashtaanga Sangraha Anupana is explained in detail in Annapaanavidhi adhyaaya.Here in this text the references of Anupana regarding, different Anupana dravyaas for
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  11  different Doshaas, rogaas and aahaara dravyaas, properties of Anupana, contraindicationsfor jala as Anupana, rules and regulations while consuming Anupana are available in detail.ii). Ashtaanga Hrudaya –In Ashtaanga Hrudaya concept of Anupana is explained in Maatraashiteeyaadhyaaya. Here in this text the references of Anupana regarding, different Anupana dravyafor different rogaas and aahaaraas, lakshanas of Anupana, properties and contraindicationfor jala as Anupana are explained.8. Madhya kaala :-In some of the madhyakaaleena granthaas like Maadhava Dravyaguna explainsAnupana in Anupanavidhi, Dravyaguna Sangraha in Anupana varga, Kaiyyadeva Nighantuin Vihaara varga, Madanapaala Nighantu in Mishraka varga, Kalyaanakaaraka inanupanaadhikaara, Shaarangadhara in madhyama khanda, Bhaavaprakaasha in prathamakhanda, Yogaratnaakara in Rasaayanaadhikaara, Madana Vinoda in Mishra varga and inRaaja Nighantu in rogaadi varga we get references of Anupana in detail. Only in RaajaNighantu there is a clear explanation of classification of Anupana into kraamana andpaachana are available. Aachaarya Shaarangadhara explains about Anupana mainly for theconsumption of medicines.9. Aadhunika kaala :-In some of the Rasashaastra texts like, Rasa Tarangini, Rasa Jala Nidhi, AanandaKanda and Ayurveda Prakaasha etc. have given clear explanation of Anupana which hasbeen followed while administering medicines. Some of the later texts like Anupana Manjari,Anupana Darpana, Anupana Taranginee and Anupana Kalpataru have given elaborativeexplanation about Anupana.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  12  DERIVATIONThe word Anupana is derived out of two words ; AlÉÑ + mÉÉlÉ (Anu + Paana)Anu - AlÉÑ, urÉ, EmÉxÉaÉï ÌuÉzÉåwÉÈ | AxrÉÉjÉÉÈ | mɶÉÉiÉç | xÉSØzrÉqÉç | sɤÉhÉÇ | uÉÉåxqÉÉ | CirÉqpÉÉuÉÈ | pÉÉaÉÈ |WûÏlÉÈ | xÉWûÉjÉïÈ | AÉrÉÉqÉÈ | xÉqÉÏmÉÇ | mÉËUmÉÉOûÏ | (S.K.D Vol. I)The word “anu” is an “avyaya” and “upasarga vishesha.” The word anu indicates themeanings like asyaathaha, pashchaat, sadrushyam, lakshanam, bhaagaha, heenaha,sahaarthaha, aayaamaha, sameepam and paripaatee.The different English meanings of the word anu are ; after, afterwards, thereupon,again, further, behind, then, next, along, alongside, lengthwise, over, through, to, towards, at,according to, in order, near to, under, subordinate to, with, along with and connected withetc.1Paana - mÉÉ mÉÉlÉå + pÉÉuÉå srÉÑOèû | (S.K.D Vol. III) mÉÏrÉiÉå rÉÌSÌiÉ | MüqÉïÍhÉ srÉÑOèû | (S.K.D Vol. III)
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  13  Paanam is “Kleeba” linga i.e, “napumsaka” linga which is derived out of “paa”dhatu and “lyut” pratyaya. Different English meanings of the word paana are; drinking,quaffing, kissing, drinking spirituous liquors, a drinking vessel, sharpening and protection.2Anupana - AlÉÑ + mÉÉ + MüqÉïÍhÉ srÉÑOèû | (S.K.D Vol. I) AlÉÑpÉåwÉeÉålÉ xÉWû mɶÉÉ²É mÉÏrÉiÉå MüqÉïÍhÉ srÉÑOèû | (Vacha) AlÉÑ xÉWû mɶÉÉ²É mÉÏrÉiÉå – AlÉÑ + mÉÉ (mÉÉlÉå) “srÉÑOèû” | (S.K Vol. I)The one which is consumed along with or after the bheshaja (medicine) isAnupana. The term Anupana is formed by “anu” upasarga and “paa” dhatu added by thesuffix “lyut” pratyaya.The dictionary meanings of Anupana are “a drink taken with or after medicine, afluid vehicle in medicine. 3DEFINITION1. Anupana is defined as the one which is consumed along with or after thebheshaja.4,5,6,72. The vishesha peya (specific liquid) that has to be consumed for the intake ofoushadha is called Anupana.83. The paana which is taken after the intake of food is Anupana.9,104. The paana which is taken in between and before is also considered as Anupana.11
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  14  5. The one which is taken in prescribed time and in proper method is called Anupana.126. The paana which is consumed after oushadha and bhakshana is Anupana.13, 14LAKSHANAAnupana should possess the properties opposite to those of the aahaaraas, but at thesame time should not contradict the qualities of the dhatus.15, 16SYNONYMSThe different terms implying the meanings of Anupana have been mentioned indifferent contexts and those are enlisted as the synonyms of Anupana, which are tabulatedbelow ;Table No. 2 - Showing synonyms of Anupana in different classics ;Sl.No Synonyms C.S S.S A.S A.H Sh.S C.C.V.K S.K S.Ou.S.Sa S.K.D1. Anupana         2. Vaahana X X X X X  X X X3. Sahayogi X X X X X  X X X4. Maadhyama X X X X X  X X X5. Anutarsha  X X X X X X X X6. Anupeya  X X X X X X X X7. Anupaaneeya X X X X X X  X X8. OushadhaangapeyaX X X X X X X  Anupana - Means the one which is consumed along with or after the bheshaja.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  15  Vaahana - Means the one which carriesSahayogi - Means the one which brings togetherMaadhyama - Means the one which acts as media or the one which is taken in themiddleAnutarsha - Means the one which is beneficial in thirst.17Anupeya - Means the one thing which is taken along with or after food.Anupaaneeya - Means the one which is taken along with medicine.18Oushadhanga peya - Means the peya which is used along with medicine. 19,20TYPESIn Ayurvedic texts there is no direct mentioning of different types of Anupana exceptin Raja Nighantu21, but it can be classified based on the time of administration, form and theusage. The classification made by Raja Nighantukaara is ;I. Classification made by Raja Nighantu –1. Kraamana :- That which is administered in delay i.e, by surpassing the actual time or aftera gap of actual time.2. Paachana :– That which is given in the night.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  16  Flow chart No. 1 – Showing classifications of Anupana;AnupanaI.Raja Nighantu ref. II.Based on time of administration III.Based on the form IV.Based on usage1. Drava Anupana 1. Aahaaropayogi1. Kraamana 2. Paachana 2. Shushka Anupana 2. OushadhopayogiA. 1. Aadipana B. 1. Pashchaatpana2. Madhyapana 2. Sahapana3. AntahpanaII. Based on the time of administration -A. 1. Aadipana :- The Anupana to be taken prior to bhojana is known as Aadipana.Importance - It causes krushata.Indication - Sthoulya2. Madhyapana :- The Anupana to be taken during or in between the bhojana isMadhyapana.Importance - It helps in maintenance of the body.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  17  Indications - Swaasthya3. Antahpana :- If the pana is taken after the bhojana is called Antahpana.Importance - It causes Brumhana.Indications - KaarshyaB. 1. Pashchaatpana :- The paana which is taken after the consumption of any substanceeither for food or medicine is known as pashchatpana.2. Sahapana :- The paana which is consumed along with some substances is known asSahapana.III. Based on the form -A. 1. Drava Anupana :- The Anupana in the liquid form.Eg - Jala, ushnajala, ksheera etc.2. Shushka Anupana :- The Anupana in the solid form.Eg - Sharkaraa, sitaa etc.IV. Based on the usage-1. Aharopayogi :- The Anupana in the context of aahaara sevana.Eg – For pishtaanna, sukhodaka as Anupana.2. Oushadhopayogi :- The Anupana in the context of oushadha sevana.Eg – For snehapana, Ushnajala as Anupana.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  18  Other classifications made on the basis of different rasa, guna, veerya etc., are given below ;Based on Rasa ; 22, 23Table No. 3 – Showing classification of Anupana based on rasa;Sl.No Rasa Anupana1. Madhura KatuTrikatuka + Khandaasava2. Aamla LavanaPadmotpala kandaasava3. Lavana Aamla rasaSuraasava, Aranaala4. Katu Tikta,Doorvaanalaveraasava5. Tikta Katu, Aamla and Kashaaya6. Kashaaya Madhuara,Daadimavetraasava7. Sarva rasa KsheeraBased on Guna/Veerya ; 24, 25Table No. 4 – Showing classification of Anupana based on guna/veerya ;Sl.No Guna Anupana1. Ushna, Pittaja vikaara, Raktajavikaara and VidaahaSheeta jala2. Sheeta, Vata and Kapha vikaara Ushna jala
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  19  MAATRAA 26,27,28,29Maatraa or dose is the amount of a substance to be taken. Proper dose should befollowed to get beneficial effects. The maatraa of Anupana for different Doshaas are notmentioned in any of the brihatrayees but mentioned in later granthaas. The maatraas that arementioned in Dravya Guna Sangraha, Sharangadhara Samhitaa, Goodhartha Deepika,Deepika, Madana Vinoda and Madhava Dravyaguna are tabulated below ;Table No. 5 – Showing maatraa of Anupana for doshaas in pala pramaana ;Sl.No Dosha D.G.S Sha.S Deepika GoodharthaDeepikaM.V M.D.G1. Vata 2 3 3 2 2 22. Pitta 3 2 2 3 3 33. Kapha 1 1 1 1 1 1In Govinda Sena’s text book Vaidyaka paribhaashaa pradeepa, it is said that theAnupana should be consumed in jyeshta maatraa till 8 pala.ANUPANA KAALAAnupana kaala and oushadha sevana kaala influences the body both in physiologicaland pathological level. The time of administration depends upon the variations of Doshaas atdifferent time in a day. As mentioned in the definition of Anupana, it is clear that Anupana is to be takenafter or along with bhojana or oushadha. Some other reference says it can be taken before food also.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  20   The Anupana can be administered in delay i.e, by surpassing the actual time ofadministration. It can be given in the night.GUNA KARMAGuna and karma resides in the dravya in inherent form. By the knowledge of gunaand karma, the dravya can be administered appropriately. Therefore to understand the effectof Anupana, the knowledge of its Guna karma is most essential.The general guna karma of Anupana dravyaas are tabulated as belows –Table No. 6 – Showing gunakarma of Anupana;Sl.No GunaKarmaC.S S.S A.S A.H B.S Y.R D.G.S K.D.N A.K M.D.G1. iÉmÉïrÉÌiÉ    X X X   X 2. mÉëÏhÉrÉÌiÉ  X  X X X X X X X3. FeÉïrÉÌiÉ  X   X X X  X X4. oÉ×ÇWûrÉÌiÉ    X X X   X 5. mÉrÉÉïÎmiÉÇAÍpÉÌlÉuÉïiÉïrÉÌiÉ X  X X X X X X X6. pÉÑ£üqÉuÉxÉÉSrÉÌiÉ  X  X X X X X X X7. A³ÉxÉÇbÉÉiÉÇÍpÉlĘ́É X   X X X  8. qÉÉSïuÉqÉÉmÉÉSrÉÌiÉ    X X X   X 9. YsÉåSrÉÌiÉ  X  X X X X X X X
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  21  10. eÉUrÉÌiÉ  X X X X X X X X X11. xÉÑZÉmÉËUhÉÉÍqÉiÉÉ    X  X  X X X12. AÉzÉÑurÉuÉÉÌrÉiÉÉ  X  X X X X X X X13. oÉsÉMüU   X X X X   X 14. AÉWûÉUxrÉEmÉeÉlÉrÉÌiÉX X  X X X X X XX15. UÉåcÉlÉ X  X X  X   X 16. uÉ×wrÉ X  X X X X   X 17. SÉåwÉxɆ¡ûÉiÉpÉåSlÉX  X X X X   X18. ´ÉqÉ WûU X  X X X X   X 19. YsÉqÉ WûU X  X X X X   X 20. xÉÑZÉ X  X X X X   X 21. SÏmÉlÉ X  X X X X   X 22. SÉåwÉ zÉqÉlÉ X  X X X X   X 23 ÌmÉmÉÉxÉÉcNåûSlÉ X  X X X X   X 24. uÉhÉï MüU X  X  X X   X 25. iÉ×ÎmiÉ MüU X X X  X X X   X26. urÉÉÎmiÉ MüU X X X  X X X   X27. SØRûÉ…¡ûiÉÉ X X X  X X X   X28. ÌuÉÎYsÉÌ¨É eÉUhÉ X X X  X X X   X29. SÉåwÉuɪÒ uÉÉpÉÑ£üqÉÌiÉqÉɧÉÇxÉÑZÉqɳÉÇmÉëeÉÏrÉïÌiÉX  X X X X  X X 
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  22  30. xÉÉiqrÉiÉÉÇmÉërÉcNûÌiÉX X X X  X X X XX31. AmÉMüwÉïÌiÉ X X X X  X X X X X32. qÉlÉÉå¥É X X X X X X X X  X33. UÉåaÉ lÉÉzÉlÉ X X X X X  X X X X1. iÉmÉïrÉÌiÉ – Refreshment2. mÉëÏhÉrÉÌiÉ - Pleasing or satisfying3. FeÉïrÉÌiÉ - That gives energy4. oÉ×ÇWûrÉÌiÉ – Nourishing5. mÉrÉÉïÎmiÉqÉÍpÉÌlÉuÉïiÉïrÉÌiÉ - Brings satisfaction and6. pÉÑ£üqÉuÉxÉÉSrÉÌiÉ - Steadiness in the food consumed7. A³ÉxÉÇbÉÉiÉÇ ÍpÉlÉÌ¨É - Helps in breakdown of the food particles8. qÉÉSïuÉqÉÉmÉÉSrÉÌiÉ - Softens the food9. YsÉåSrÉÌiÉ - Brings unctuousness to food10. eÉUrÉÌiÉ - Helps in digestion11. xÉÑZÉmÉËUhÉÉÍqÉiÉÉ - Proper assimilation
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  23  12. AÉzÉÑurÉuÉÉÌrÉiÉÉ - Helps in instant diffusion of food13. oÉsÉMüU – Bestows strength14. AÉWûÉUxrÉ EmÉeÉlÉrÉÌiÉ – Supplies the food to the tissues instantaneously15. UÉåcÉlÉ – Improves taste16. uÉ×wrÉ – Improves the potency17. SÉåwÉxɆ¡ûÉiÉ pÉåSlÉ – Dissolves the accumulated Doshas18. ´ÉqÉ WûU – Relieves fatigue19. YsÉqÉ WûU – Removes lethargy20. xÉÑZÉ - Pleasant21. SÏmÉlÉ - Appetiser22. SÉåwÉ zÉqÉlÉ – Alleviates Doshas23 ÌmÉmÉÉxÉÉcNåûSlÉ – Quenches thirst24. uÉhÉï MüU – Improves complexion25. iÉ×ÎmiÉ MüU – Brings satisfaction26. urÉÉÎmiÉ MüU – Spreads the food or medicine
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  24  27. SØRûÉ…¡ûiÉÉ – Brings strength28. ÌuÉÎYsÉÌ¨É eÉUhÉ – That gives unctuousness29. SÉåwÉuɪÒ uÉÉ pÉÑ£üqÉÌiÉqÉɧÉÇ xÉÑZÉqɳÉÇ mÉëeÉÏrÉïÌiÉ – Even helps in digestion of heavy meals30. xÉÉiqrÉiÉÉÇ mÉërÉcNûÌiÉ – Offers compatibility31. AmÉMüwÉïÌiÉ – Helps in downward movement of excreta.32. qÉlÉÉå¥É – Good for manas.33. UÉåaÉ lÉÉzÉlÉ – Capacity to cure the disease.DIFFERENT ANUPANA DRAVYAAS AND INDICATIONSThere are different Anupana dravyaas are told in the classics like mahendra jala,Ushna jala and ksheera etc. With different Anupana a single oushadha dravya can be givenin different rogaas. So the understanding of each Anupana dravyaas and its indication is veryessential. Some of the Anupana dravyaas are tabulated below;Mahendra jala :-Table No. 7 – Showing indication mahendra jala as Anupana ;Sl.No Indication C.S S.S A.S A.H M.P.N M.D.G A.D B.S1. Saatmya X  X X X X X X2. Hita X  X X X X X X
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  25  Ushna jala :-Table No. 8 – Showing indication Ushna jala as Anupana ;Sl.No Indication C.S S.S A.S A.H M.P.N M.D.G A.D B.S1. Snehapaana X   X X   2. Vata X  X X X X  X3. Kapha X  X X X X  X4. Ghritapana  X   X X X X5. Durjaraa X X  X X X X XSheeta jala :-Table No. 9 – Showing indication sheeta jala as Anupana ;Sl.No Indication C.S S.S A.S A.H M.P.N M.D.G A.D B.S1. Madyaarti X  X X X X X X2. Visha X  X X X X X X3. Pitta X  X X X X  X4. Shonita X  X X X X  X5. BhallaatakasnehaX X X X   X X6. Moorcchaa X X X X  X X X7. Vidaaha X X  X X X X XDadhi :-Table No. 10 – Showing indication dadhi as Anupana ;Sl.No Indication C.S S.S A.S A.H M.P.N M.D.G A.D B.S1. Madyaarti X X X X X   X2. Vishajushta X X X X X   XKsheera :-
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  26  Table No. 11 – Showing indication ksheera as Anupana ;Sl.No Indication C.S S.S A.S A.H M.P.N M.D.G A.D B.S1. Yuddha X  X X X X  X2. Adhwa        X3. Aatapa sevana   X     X4. Santaapa X  X X X X  X5. Visha X  X X    X6. Madya X  X X    X7. Ruja X  X X X X  X8. Gharma X  X X X X  X9. Bhaashya        X10 Stree        X11. Klaanta    X    X12. Shonitapitta X  X X    X13. Upavaasa  X  X   X X14. Vyaayaama X X  X X X X X15. Baala X X   X X X X16. Vruddha X X   X X X X17. Ksheena X X X  X X X X18. Langhana X X X  X X X X19. Vyaadhi karshiata X X X  X X X X20. Oushadha karshita X X X  X X X XMaamsa rasa :-Table No. 12 – Showing indication maamsa rasa as Anupana ;Sl.No Indication C.S S.S A.S A.H M.P.N M.D.G A.D B.S
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  27  1. Yuddha X  X X X X  X2. Adhwa X  X X X X  X3. Santaapa X  X X X X  X4. Visha X  X X X X  X5. Madya X  X X X X  X6. Ruja X  X X X X  X7. Shosha X X   X X X X8. AtilanghanoktarogaX X  X X X X X9. Aatapa X X X X X X  XSuraa :-Table No. 13 – Showing indication sura as Anupana ;Sl.No Indication C.S S.S A.S A.H M.P.N M.D.G A.D B.S1. Krusha     X   X2. Shrama X X  X X X X XMadhoodaka :-Table No. 14 – Showing indication madhoodaka as Anupana ;Sl.No Indication C.S S.S A.S A.H M.P.N M.D.G A.D B.S1. Sthoola     X   XMadya :-Table No. 15 – Showing indication madya as Anupana ;Sl.No Indication C.S S.S A.S A.H M.P.N M.D.G A.D B.S
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  28  1. Alpaagni  X     X X2. Anidraa  X X X X  X X3. Tandraa  X X X X  X X4. Shoka  X X X X  X X5. Bhaya  X X X X X X X6. Klama  X X X X  X X7. Madyasevee    X X   X8. Maamsasevee    X X   X9. Bhrama X X X  X  X X10. Shosha X X X X  X X X11. Visha X X X X  X X XIkshu rasa :-Table No. 16 – Showing indication ikshu rasa as Anupana ;Sl.No Indication C.S S.S A.S A.H M.P.N M.D.G A.D B.S1. Shonita Pitta X  X X X   XArkasava :-Table No. 17 – Showing indication arkaasava as Anupana ;Sl.No Indication C.S S.S A.S A.H M.P.N M.D.G A.D B.S1. Vishaarti X   X X   XShelu aasava :-Table No. 18 – Showing indication shelu aasava as Anupana ;Sl.No Indication C.S S.S A.S A.H M.P.N M.D.G A.D B.S1. Vishaarti X   X X   X
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  29  Shireeshaasava :-Table No. 19 – Showing indication shireeshaasava as Anupana ;Sl.No Indication C.S S.S A.S A.H M.P.N M.D.G A.D B.S1. Vishaarti X   X X   XKaanjikaadi aamla :-Table No. 20 – Showing indication kaanjikaadi aamla as Anupana ;Sl.No Indication C.S S.S A.S A.H M.P.N M.D.G A.D B.S1. Vata X X  X X X X XSharkarodaka :-Table No. 21 – Showing indication sharkarodaka as Anupana ;Sl.No Indication C.S S.S A.S A.H M.P.N M.D.G A.D B.S1. Pitta X X  X X X X XTriphalodaka with kshoudra :-Table No. 22 – Showing indication triphalodaka with kshoudra as Anupana ;Sl.No Indication C.S S.S A.S A.H M.P.N M.D.G A.D B.S1. Kapha X X  X X X X XDifferent Aahaara dravyaas and Anupana -To get the desired benefit of in the body, specific Anupana dravya are told forspecific dravyaas, those are tabulated below;
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  30  Ushnodaka :-Table No. 23 – Showing Ushna jala as Anupana for aahaara dravya ;Sl.No Aahaara/OushadhadravyaC.S S.S A.S A.H M.P.N M.D.G A.D B.S1. Pishtaanna X X  X X X X XSheeta jala :-Table No. 24 – Showing sheeta jala as Anupana for different aahaara dravya ;Sl.No Aahaara/OushadhadravyaC.S S.S A.S A.H M.P.N M.D.G A.D B.S1. Maakshika/Madhu X    X   X2. Pishtaanna X  X X X   X3. Dadhi X    X  X X4. Paayasa X  X X X  X X5. Visha X  X  X  X X6. Madya X    X  X X7. Bisagranthi X X X X X X X X8. Yava X X   X X X X9. Godhooma X X   X X X X10. Taila X X X X X X  X11. Yoosha X X X X X X  X12. Aamlakaanjee X X X X X X  X
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  31  Sukhoshna jala :-Table No. 25 – Showing sukhoshna jala as Anupana for aahaara dravya ;Sl.No Aahaara/OushadhadravyaC.S S.S A.S A.H M.P.N M.D.G A.D B.S1. Pishta X  X  X   XKsheera :-Table No. 26 – Showing ksheera as Anupana for different aahaara dravya ;Sl.No Aahaara/OushadhadravyaC.S S.S A.S A.H M.P.N M.D.G A.D B.S1. Shashtika shaali X X  X X X X X2. Shaali X  X X X X  X3. Mudga X  X X X X  XMaamsa rasa :-Table No. 27 – Showing maamsa rasa as Anupana for different aahaara dravya ;Sl.No Aahaara/OushadhadravyaC.S S.S A.S A.H M.P.N M.D.G A.D B.S1. Shaali X  X X    X2. Mudga X  X X    XYoosha :-Table No. 28 – Showing yoosha as Anupana for different aahaara dravya ;Sl.No Aahaara/OushadhadravyaC.S S.S A.S A.H M.P.N M.D.G A.D B.S1. Taila   X X X X X X2. Shaali X X X X   X X3. Mudga X X X X   X X
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  32  Dadhi mastu :-Table No. 29 – Showing dadhi mastu as Anupana for different aahaara dravya ;Sl.No Aahaara/OushadhadravyaC.S S.S A.S A.H M.P.N M.D.G A.D B.S1. Shaaka X X X  X X X X2. Mudga X X X  X X X XTakra :-Table No. 30 – Showing takra as Anupana for different aahaara dravya ;Sl.No Aahaara/OushadhadravyaC.S S.S A.S A.H M.P.N M.D.G A.D B.S1. Shaaka X X X  X X X X2. Mudga X X X  X X X XAamla kaanjikaa :-Table No. 31 – Showing aamla kaanjikaa as Anupana for different aahaara dravya ;Sl.No Aahaara/OushadhadravyaC.S S.S A.S A.H M.P.N M.D.G A.D B.S1. Shaaka X X X  X X X X2. Mudga X X X  X X X XAshwagandhaa kashaaya :-Table No. 32 –Showing ashwagandha kashaaya as Anupana for different oushadhadravya;Sl.No Aahaara/OushadhadravyaC.S S.S A.S A.H M.P.N M.D.G A.D B.S1. Vaarunee X X X X X X X 2. Manda X X X X X X X 
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  33  DIFFERENT ANUPANA DRAVYA FOR DIFFERENT DOSHAAnupana Dravyaas act either by rasa or guna or vipaaka or veerya and antagonizethe vitiated Doshaas in the body. The specific Anupana dravya against each Doshaas is veryessential to get beneficial effects. Different Aachaaryaas have told different Anupana fordifferent Doshaas which are tabulated below ;Vata -Table No. 33 – Showing different Anupana for Vata dosha ;Sl.No Anupana C.S S.S A.S D.G.S K.D.N A.P A.M A.D M.V M.D.G LOL1. ÎxlÉakÉ   X  X X X    X2. EwhÉ   X  X X X    X3. AqsÉ UxÉ X X  X X X X X X X X4. xɤÉÉæSìÌmÉmmÉsÉÏX X X X X  X X X X X5. xÉÉerÉUxÉÉålÉMüX X X X X X  X X X Pitta -Table No. 34 – Showing different Anupana for Pitta dosha ;Sl.No Anupana C.S S.S A.S D.G.S K.D.N A.P A.M A.D M.V M.D.G1. qÉkÉÑU   X  X X X   2. zÉÏiÉ   X  X X X   3. zÉMïüUÉåSMü X X  X X X X X X X4. LsÉÉ X X X X X  X X X X5. ÍxÉiÉÉ X X X X X  X X X X
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  34  6. MümÉÔïU X X X X X  X X X XKapha -Table No. 35 – Showing different Anupana for Kapha dosha ;Sl.No Anupana C.S S.S A.S D.G.S K.D.N A.P A.M A.D M.V M.D.G1. Ã¤É   X  X X X   2. EwhÉ   X  X X X   3. ̧ÉTüsÉÉåSM+¤ÉÉæSìX X  X X X X X X X4. iÉÉårÉ X X X X  X X X X X5. §rÉÔwÉhÉ X X X X X  X X X X6. ÍcɧÉMü qÉÔsÉcÉÔhÉïX X X X X  X X X X7. iÉÉsÉ X X X X X X  X X XFor Tridosha, sakshoudra ardrodaka is told as Anupana Lolimbaraja.DIFFERENT ANUPANA DRAVYA FOR DIFFERENT ROGA30Table No. 36 – Showing different Anupana dravya for different Roga ;Sl.No. UÉåaÉ AlÉÑmÉÉlÉ1. sÉÔMüUÉåaÉ (xÉÔrÉïiÉÉmÉrÉÑ£ü SÒ¹ uÉÉrÉÑ eÉÉÌlÉiÉ UÉåaÉ) ÍcÉgcÉÉ, AÉqÉsÉMü + zÉMïüUÉ and qÉkÉÑrÉÑ£üeÉsÉmÉÉlÉ2. zÉÏiÉsÉÉeÉÌlÉiÉ SÉWû qÉkÉÑrÉÑ£ü eÉsÉ + zÉMïüUÉ3. zÉÏiÉsÉÉeÉÌlÉiÉ SÉWû lÉÏÍsÉMüÉ + eÉsÉ4. zÉÔsÉ bÉ×iÉrÉÑ£ü ÌWû…¡Óû
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  35  ÌWû…¡Óû + EwhÉeÉsÉ5. mÉÑUÉhÉ euÉU ÌmÉmmÉsÉÏ6. uÉÉiÉUÉåaÉ bÉ×iÉrÉÑ£ü sÉzÉÑlÉ7. μÉxÉlÉMü qÉkÉÑrÉÑ£ü ̧ÉMüOÒû8. zÉÏiÉUÉåaÉ qÉUÏcÉrÉÑ£ü oÉ×WûiÉÏmɧÉ9. mÉëqÉåWû zÉMïüUÉrÉÑ£ü ̧ÉTüsÉÉ10. ̧ÉSÉåwÉ mÉëMüÉåmÉ qÉkÉÑrÉÑ£ü AÉSìïMü xuÉUxÉ11. euÉU qÉÑxiÉÉ and mÉmÉïOû12. aÉ×WûhÉÏ qÉÍjÉiÉ13. ÌuÉwÉ xÉÑuÉhÉï14. NûÌSï sÉÉeÉÉ (MüqÉsÉoÉÏeÉ sÉÉeÉÉ)15. AÌiÉxÉÉU MÑüOûeÉ16. U£üÌmÉ¨É uÉxÉÉ17. AzÉï pÉssÉÉiÉMü18. M×üÍqÉ ÌuÉQû…¡û19. ÌuÉxTüÉåOûûMü uÉÉiÉ xÉÔiÉ (mÉÉUS)20. U£üxÉëÉuÉ AzqÉpÉåS21. ÌuÉxÉÔÍcÉMüÉ uÉ×ÌMü22. uÉÉiÉU£ü aÉlkÉMü23. ÍzÉUÉåUÉåU zÉÑÎhPûMüÉ24. AzqÉUÏ WåûqÉÉWûUÏiÉMüÐ + aÉlkÉMü25. qÉÔ§ÉM×ücNíû WåûqÉÉWûUÏiÉMüÐ + aÉlkÉMü26. AmÉxqÉÉU iÉæsÉ
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  36  27. qÉÔNûÉï iÉæsÉ28. FkuÉï uÉÉiÉ uÉcÉÉrÉÑ£ü sÉuÉ…¡û29. oÉÑήpÉëÇzÉ uÉcÉÉrÉÑ£ü sÉuÉ…¡û30. ESU AmsÉÉÌuÉiÉ ÌmÉmmÉsÉÏ + AMïüSÒakÉ31. ¤ÉrÉ aÉÑQÕûÍcÉ32. mÉÉhQÒû sÉÉåWû + qÉkÉÑ/̧ÉTüsÉÉYuÉÉjÉ/iÉ¢ü33. mÉëSU UxÉÉgeÉlÉ34. AeÉÏhÉï 31i. AÉSìïMü xuÉUxÉ/ÌlÉqoÉÔ xuÉUxÉ/SÉÌQûqÉxuÉUxÉ+ ÌoÉQû sÉuÉhÉii. ÌWûXçauÉɹMü cÉÔhÉïiii. mÉÉcÉMüÉMïüiv. MÑüqÉÉUÏ AÉxÉuÉDIFFERENT ANUPANA DRAVYA FOR DIFFERENT DHAATU32Table No. 37 – Showing different Anupana dravya for different dhaatu ;Sl.No. kÉÉiÉÑ AlÉÑmÉÉlÉ1. xÉÑuÉhÉï WûUÏiÉMüÐ + ÍxÉiÉÉ2. UÉæmrÉ zÉMïüUÉ + qÉkÉÑ3. iÉÉqÉë uÉlÉuÉëÏÌWû + ÍxÉiÉÉ4. lÉÉaÉ WåûqÉÉWûUÏiÉMüÐ + ÍxÉiÉÉ5. uÉ…¡û qÉåwÉzÉ×…¡ûÏ + ÍxÉiÉÉ6. AÉU §ÉÑÌOû + qÉkÉÑ-ZÉhQû7. ̧ÉkÉÉiÉÑ Ì§ÉTüsÉÉ cÉÔhÉï
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  37  8. ArÉ Ì§ÉuÉ×iÉÉ + xÉælkÉuÉ9. ArÉ SÕuÉÉïUxÉ + qÉkÉÑ10. qÉhQÕûU WûUÏiÉMüÐ + qÉkÉÑ11. M×ümÉÉÍhÉ sÉÉåWû μÉåiÉ SÕuÉÉï UxÉ + ÍxÉiÉÉ12. ÌmÉ…¡û mÉYuÉ SÉÌQûqÉ TüsÉ UxÉ13. bÉÉåwÉ ÍcÉgcÉÉ TüsÉDIFFERENT ANUPANA DRAVYA FOR DIFFERENTUPADHAATU33Table No. 38 – Showing different Anupana dravya for different upadhaatu ;Sl.No. EmÉkÉÉiÉÑ AlÉÑmÉÉlÉ1. qÉsÉxÉÇrÉÑiÉ mÉÉUSçü mÉÉÍcÉiÉ aÉlkÉMü2. qÉsÉxÉÇrÉÑiÉ mÉÉUS aÉlkÉMü + lÉÉaÉuÉssÉÏ SsÉ3. xÉÔiÉ SìɤÉÉ, MÔüwqÉÉhQû, iÉÑsÉxÉÏ, zÉiÉmÉÑÎwmÉMüÉ, sÉuÉ…¡û,iuÉMçü, lÉÉaÉMåüzÉU, aÉlkÉMü + mÉrÉ4. xÉÔiÉ lÉÉaÉuÉssÉÏ UxÉ, pÉ×…¡ûUÉeÉ UxÉ, iÉÑsÉxÉÏ UxÉ + NûÉaÉSÒakÉ5. iÉÉsÉ eÉÏUMü + zÉMïüUÉ6. iÉÉsÉ MÔüwqÉÉhQû UxÉ, SÒUÉsÉpÉÉ UxÉ, UÉeÉWÇûxÉÏ UxÉ7. iÉÉsÉ xuÉhÉïmÉÑwmÉÏ and pÉÔÌlÉqoÉ YuÉÉjÉ8. iÉÉsÉ xÉmÉÉï¤ÉÏ UxÉ + ÍxÉiÉÉ9. UxÉ aÉlkÉMü + aÉÉåSÒakÉ10. qÉlÉÈÍzÉsÉÉ eÉÏUMü + qÉÉͤÉMü11. oÉÍsÉ aÉÉåSÒakÉ, SåuÉMÑüxÉÑqÉ, uÉcÉÉ + bÉ×iÉ
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  38  12. ApÉëMü kÉɧÉÏ TüsÉ13. qÉÉÍ¤É MÑüsÉijÉ MüwÉÉrÉ14. qÉÉÍ¤É SÉÌQûqÉiuÉcÉÉ15. ÍzÉsÉÉÎeÉiÉ qÉUÏcÉ/AÉqsÉuÉåiÉxÉ + bÉ×iÉ16. qÉssÉ qÉåbÉlÉÉS UxÉ +ÍxÉiÉÉ17. qÉssÉ ÌlÉqoÉÔ18. qÉssÉ zÉMïüUÉrÉÑ£ü aÉÉåSÒakÉ/ zÉMïüUÉrÉÑ£ü ZÉÌSUxÉÉU19. UxÉMümÉÔïU kÉÉlrÉMü/qÉÌWûwÉÏzÉM×üiÉç + ÍxÉiÉÉ20. iÉÑijÉMü eÉqoÉÏUÏ UxÉ/ sÉÉeÉÉ + uÉÉËU21. qÉ×SÉxÉÇaÉ aÉÉåbÉ×iÉ/AqsÉMü UxÉ + ÍxÉiÉÉ22. lÉuÉxÉÉU aÉSïpÉzÉM×üiÉç23. qÉ×Ì¨É aÉSïpÉzÉM×üiÉç24. aÉæËUMü aÉSïpÉzÉM×üiÉç25. MüÉxÉÏxÉ aÉSïpÉzÉM×üiÉç26. MüÉcÉ aÉSïpÉzÉM×üiÉç27. iÉÉæUÏ aÉSïpÉzÉM×üiÉç28. qÉÑ£üÉ bÉ×iÉ/qÉkÉÑ/ÍxÉiÉÉ/aÉÉåSÒakÉ29. mÉëuÉÉsÉ bÉ×iÉ/qÉkÉÑ/ÍxÉiÉÉ/aÉÉåSÒakÉ30. WûÏUMü bÉ×iÉ/qÉkÉÑ/ÍxÉiÉÉ/aÉÉåSÒakÉ
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  39  DIFFERENT ANUPANA DRAVYA FOR DIFFERENT STHAAVARAVISHA34Table No. 39– Showing different Anupana dravya for different sthaavara visha ;Sl.No. xjÉÉuÉU ÌuÉwÉ AlÉÑmÉÉlÉ1. lÉÉaÉTåülÉ oÉ×Wûi¤ÉÑSìÉUxÉ + SÒakÉ2. lÉÉaÉTåülÉ uÉcÉÉ, xÉælkÉuÉ, ÌmÉmmÉsÉÏ and qÉSlÉTüsÉ3. lÉÉaÉTåülÉ Oûƒ¡ûhÉ, iÉÑijÉ + bÉ×iÉ4. kɨÉÔU uÉ×liÉÉMüTüsÉÉ UxÉ5. uÉixÉlÉÉaÉ mÉOûuÉhÉuÉ×¤É UxÉ + zÉMïüUÉ6. pÉssÉÉiÉ qÉåbÉlÉÉSUxÉ sÉåmÉ + lÉuÉlÉÏiÉ7. pÉssÉÉiÉ SÉÂ, xÉwÉïmÉ, qÉÑxiÉÉ + lÉuÉlÉÏiÉ8. pÉssÉÉiÉ lÉuÉlÉÏiÉ, ÌiÉsÉ/SÒakÉ/ZÉhQû + bÉ×iÉ9. pÉ…¡ûÉ aÉÉåSÍkÉ, zÉÑhPûÏ10. pÉ…¡ûÉ AÉSìïMü, xÉÇSåxÉQûÉ qÉÔsÉ11. EŠOûÉ qÉåbÉlÉÉSUxÉ+ zÉMïüUÉ12. EŠOûÉ SÒakÉ13. qɱ qÉkÉÑ, ZÉeÉÔïUÏ, qÉײÏMüÉ, uÉפÉÉqsÉ, AqsÉÉ, SÉÌQûqÉ,mÉÂwÉ, AÉqÉsÉ14. mÉÔaÉÏTüsÉ zÉMïüUÉ/zÉMïüUÉrÉÑ£ü qÉkÉÑ15. MüÉåSìuÉ xÉÑzÉÏiÉsÉ ¤ÉÏU, MÔüwqqÉÉhQûUxÉ + aÉÑQû16. MühÉïuÉÏU qÉÉÌWûwÉ SÍkÉ + ÍxÉiÉÉ17. MühÉïuÉÏU qÉÉÌWûwÉ mÉrÉ+ ÍxÉiÉÉ18. MühÉïuÉÏU AMïüiuÉcÉÉ+ ÍxÉiÉÉ19. uÉeÉëÏ zÉiÉÉuÉËU + ÍxÉiÉÉ
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  40  20. xlÉÑWûÏ xÉÑuÉhÉïaÉæËUMürÉÑ£ü eÉsÉ21. AMïü xÉÑuÉhÉïaÉæËUMürÉÑ£ü eÉsÉ22. SliÉÏoÉÏeÉ kÉÉlrÉMü + ÍxÉiÉÉ23. MüÉåcÉMü bÉ×iÉ, qÉkÉÑ, zÉMïüUÉDIFFERENT ANUPANA DRAVYA FOR DIFFERENT JAANGAMAVISHA35Table No. 40 – Showing different Anupana dravya for different jaangama visha ;Sl.No. eÉÉ…¡ûqÉ ÌuÉwÉ AlÉÑmÉÉlÉ1. mɳÉaÉ Ì§ÉTüsÉÉ, cÉlSlÉ, MÑü¸, AÉSìïMü + bÉ×iÉ2. mɳÉaÉ aÉÉåÎeÉÀûÉ UxÉ, TüÍsÉlÉÏ UxÉ, ClSìuÉÉÂhÉÏ UxÉ,̧ÉmÉÍhÉïMüÉ UxÉ3. mɳÉaÉ iÉÑijÉ, uÉcÉÉ, qÉSlÉTüsÉ + aÉÉåSÒakÉ4. mɳÉaÉ qÉUÏcÉ + bÉ×iÉ5. μÉÉlÉ xÉælkÉuÉ ÍqÉÍ´ÉiÉ MÑüqÉÉUÏSsÉ + xÉÑZÉÉåwhÉ eÉsÉ6. μÉÉlÉ ÌiÉsÉiÉæsÉ, mÉsÉÉhQÒû, aÉÑQû and AMïü¤ÉÏU7. μÉÉlÉ zÉÑwMüü AMïü qÉÔsÉ + qÉUÏcÉ8. μÉÉlÉ bÉ×iÉ9. ÌuÉwÉMüÐO bÉ×iÉ10. ESUaÉiÉ eÉliÉÑ ÌuÉwÉMüÉåcÉ + eÉsÉ11. uÉ×ͶÉMü oÉÉhÉmÉÑ„¡û UxÉ, qÉåbÉlÉÉS UxÉ + zÉMïüU12. aÉ×WûaÉÉåÍkÉMüÉ Ì§ÉMüOÒû, ÍzÉaÉëÑoÉÏeÉ, WûËUSìɲrÉ,MüÌmÉMüŠÑ oÉÏeÉ13. xÉUPû AMï qÉÔsÉiuÉcÉ + zÉÏiÉeÉsÉ14. qÉÔwÉMü oÉÉhÉmÉÑ„¡ûUxÉ + ÍxÉiÉÉ
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  41  15. μÉåiÉqÉÔwÉMüeÉlrÉ aÉëÎljÉ aÉSïpÉ zÉM×üiÉç16. ÍxÉÇWûoÉÉsÉ qÉkÉÑ17. NÒûNÒûlSU MüÉÎgeÉMüÉ18. SÒ¹ eÉsÉ qÉhQÕûU, aÉSïpÉzÉM×üiÉç, AeÉzÉM×üiÉç19. eÉsÉÉåSU due to rÉÔMüÉ ÌmÉmmÉsÉÏ cÉÔhÉï + xlÉÑÌWû ¤ÉÏU20. xÉuÉïÌuÉwÉ bÉ×iÉrÉÑ£ü iÉhQÒûsÉ21. ¥ÉÉiÉÉ¥ÉÉiÉ ÌuÉwÉ ÍxÉiÉÉ/qÉkÉÑ/SÒaS/iÉhQÒûsÉÉ/qÉÉÌWûwÉ zÉM×üiÉç22. AsÉMïü ÌuÉwÉ Ã¤É A³É/iÉæsÉ/mÉsÉÉhQÒûIMPORTANCE OF ANUPANA IN CHIKITSAAAnupana or the adjuvant for food and medicine has its relevance and importance inAyurvedic Clinical practice.As the oil spreads on the water, the medicine also gets spread by the effect ofAnupana.36,37When the medicine is administered with appropriate Anupana, the effect ofdrug gets enhanced.38If water is not consumed after food, then the food becomes dry andproduces different ailments in the body. At the same time, consumption of proper Anupanaafter food does proper digestion even if the quantity of food consumed is excess in quantityand quality (Guru, Adhikamatrayukta anna).39By the help of Anupana the properties of theoushadha (medicine) will increase and helps to cure the disease.40FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED DURING ANUPANA
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  42  Before administering Anupana certain factors are to be considered especially to thosewho are lazy and leads a comfortable life (sukhochita), who has mandaagni, who issukumaara.A dheera vaidya should give proper Anupana like sheeta jala, ushna jala, aasava,madya, yoosha, phalaamla, dhaanyaamla, paya and maamsa rasa in proper quantity byconsidering kaala, roga and different dravyaas.41, 42INDICATIONS OF ANUPANA 431. Peenasa2. Urakshata3. Shwaasa4. Kasa5. Jatroordhwaroga6. Geetaa gaayana7. Adhyayana8. Sambhaashana9. SwarasaadaThose who are 44, Su.Su.46/44510. Balavaan11. Habituated to kathina bhojana12. Teekshnaagni13. Karmanitya14. SwarakshayaCONTRAINDICATIONS OF ANUPANAThe proper rules and regulations are to be followed when consuming, if not even theamruta will act like visha. Similarly in certain conditions some of the Anupanaas are alsoprohibited from consumption which is mentioned below ;
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  43  Contraindications of Jala as Anupana :-1. FkuÉÉï…¡û UÉåaÉ – Diseases above the clavicle3. μÉÉxÉ – Difficulty in breathing4. MüÉxÉ - Cough5. aÉÏiÉÉ aÉÉrÉlÉ - Singing6. pÉÉwrÉ - Speech7. AkrÉrÉlÉ mÉëxÉ£ü – Habituated for reading8. EUÉåUÉåaÉ – Diseases of chest region9. ¤ÉiÉ – Injury to chest10. mÉëxÉåMü – Excessive salivation11. xuÉU pÉåS – Hoarseness of voice12. mÉëÎYsÉ³É SåWû – Oily skin13. qÉåWû – Excessive urination14. MühPû UÉåaÉ – Diseases of throat15. AÍ¤É UÉåaÉ - Diseases of eyes16. uÉëhÉ – Wound or ulcer
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  44  17. mÉÏlÉxÉ - Rhinitis18. qÉåRíû UÉåaÉ – Penile diseases19. aÉsÉ UÉåaÉ - Diseases of throatTable No. 41 – Showing contraindications of jala as Anupana ;Sl.No ArÉÉåarÉ cÉ.xÉÇ. xÉÑ.xÉÇ. A.xÉÇ. A.WØû Sì.aÉÑ.xÉÇ Mæü.ÌlÉ. qÉ.ÌuÉ qÉ.Sì.aÉÑì1. FkuÉÉï…¡û UÉåaÉ        2. ÌWûMçüMüÉ  X  X X X X X3. μÉÉxÉ        4. MüÉxÉ        5. aÉÏiÉÉ aÉÉrÉlÉ  X   X X X 6. AkuÉ X X X X X X X 7. pÉÉwrÉ  X   X X X 8. AkrÉrÉlÉ mÉëxÉ£ü  X X X X X X 9. xuÉmlÉ X X X X X X X 8. EUÉåUÉåaÉ    X   X 9. ¤ÉiÉ        10. mÉëxÉåMü X   X   X 11. xuÉU pÉåS X      X 12. mÉëÎYsÉ³É SåWû X X  X X  X X13. qÉåWû X X  X X X X X14. MühPû UÉåaÉ X X  X X X X X
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  45  15. AÍ¤É UÉåaÉ X X  X X  X X16. uÉëhÉ X X  X X  X X17. mÉÏlÉxÉ X X X  X X X X18. qÉåRíû UÉåaÉ X X X X X  X X19 aÉsÉ UÉåaÉ X X X X X  X XContraindications of Ushna jala as Anupana :-In some conditions ushna jala is also contraindicated. Ushna jala is contraindicatedwhile consuming ;1. Ksheera2. Dadhi3. Madhu 454. Bhallaataka snehapaana5. Tuvaraka snehapaana 466. Pittaja jwara7. Daaha8. Bhrama9. Atisaara due to pralaapa 4710. Raktasrava11. Garbha chyuti12. Garbha daha48ADVERSE EFFECTS OF ANUPANAIf Anupana is taken in contraindicated conditions it does dushti in amashaya, kanta,uras and there by produces mandaagni, saada, chardi etc.49ANUPANANANTARA NISHIDDHA KARMA50,51,52After the Anupana, the person should not undertake -
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  46  1. Journey2. Too much of talk3. Too much of study4. Too much of sing5. Too much of sleep6. Exercise.DISADVANTAGE OF NOT TAKING ANUPANAIf Anupana is not consumed in prescribed form then the solid food which is takenwill not mix with liquid portion, remains without any movement and causes disorders. Henceproper Anupana should be used.53SINGLE FORMULATION OR DRUG WITH DIFFERENT ANUPANAIn Ayurveda there are many references in which single yoga (formulation) or a drugis used in different conditions based on different Anupana. This shows the importance ofAnupana. Some of such references are tabulated below ;Gudoochi –Table No. 42 – Showing different Anupana dravya for Gudoochi ;Sl.No Anupana Vyaadhi1. Ghrita Vata2. Guda Vibandha3. Mishree Pitta4. Madhu Kapha5. Eranda sneha Vata-rakta6. Shunti Aamavaata
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  47  Rutu Hareetaki –Table No. 43 – Showing different Anupana dravya for Hareetaki in different rutu ;Sl.No Rutu Anupana1. Varsha Saindhava2. Sharad Sharkaraa3. Hemanta Shunti4. Shishira Kanaa5. Vasanta Madhu6. Greeshma GudaYogaraaja Guggulu –Table No. 44 – Showing different Anupana dravya for Yogaraaja Guggulu ;Sl.No. Vyaadhi Anupana1. Vata roga Raasnaadi kwaatha2. Medovruddhi and Kushta Manjishtadi kwaatha3. Sarva vrana Nimba and Nirgundee kwaathaNaaraayana choorna –Table No. 45 – Showing different Anupana dravya for Naaraayana choorna ;Sl.No Vyaadhi Charaka Vaagbhata Shaarangadhara1. Udara X Takra Ushtradugdha/Takra
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  48  2. Gulma Badaraambu Badara kwaatha Badara kwaatha3. Aanaaha Suraa Suraa X4. Vata roga Prasanna Prasanna Prasanna5. Malaavarodha Dadhi manda Dadhi manda Dadhi mastu6. Arsha Daadimaambu Daadima swarasa daadimaambu7. Parikartikaa Vrukshaamla Vrukshaamla Vrukshaamla8. Ajeerna Ushna jala Sukhodaka Ushna jala9. Aadhmaana X X Suraa10. Visha X X GhritaRasa Sindhoora –Table No. 46 – Showing different Anupana dravya for Rasa Sindhoora ;Sl.No Vyaadhi Anupana1. Nava jwara Tulasee, Aardraka swarasa, Taamboola swarasa2. Jeerna jwara Gudoochi, Dhaanyaka kwaatha3. Prameha Gudoochi swarasa, Haridraa kwaatha4. Pradara Ashoka, Balaa, Lodhra kwaatha5. Arsha Baala abhayaa kwaatha6. Apasmaara Vachaa swarasa/ Braahmee + Vachaa + Shankhapushpee+ Kushta + Elaa kwaatha7. Unmaada Kooshmaanda swarasa8. Shwaasa Vibheetaki swarasa, Vaasaa swarasa9. Kaamalaa Daarvee kwaatha10. Paandu Loha bhasma11. Mootrakrucchra Seetopala + Elaa + Shilaajitu + Sheeta ksheera12. Ajeerna Madhu/ Mustaka kwaatha13. Shoola Triphalaa kwaatha
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  49  14. Moorcchaa Kanaa choorna + Madhu15. Vamana Bruhadelaa kwaatha + Madhu16. Shwayathu Punarnava kwaatha17. Visphota Gudoochi, Nimba, Khadira twak, Indrayava kwaatha18. Garbhaashaya roga Kaakolee choorna + Naarikela taila19. Atikaalaja prameha Vanga bhasma + Madhu20. Teevra vamana Trikatu + Dhaanyaa + Jeeraka + Madhu21. Bhagandara Triphalaa/ Vidanga kwaatha22. Gulma Mishreya + Baala abhayaa + Yavaanee choornakwaatha/ Yavaanee choorna/ Vida lavana23. Vata-KaphajanyaPuraatana shirahshoolaDashamoola kwaatha24. Puraatana vrana Kantakaaree, Sugandhabalaa, Gudoochi, Shunteekwaatha25. Puraatana aamavaata Gudoochi, Mustaka, Shataavaree, Pippalee, Hareetakee,Vachaa/ Shuntee kwaatha26. Vaajeekaranaartha Shaalmalee moola choorna/ Vidaaryaadi gana + Ksheera27. Dhaatu vardhanaartha Abhraka bhasma + Swarna bhasma28. Swapna meha Jaateephala, Lavanga, Karpoora, Ahiphena choorna29. ChirakaaleenashirahkampaBalaa kwaathaREVIEW ON SAHAPANASahapana is a concept in which the administration of medicine by mixing withanother substance. Thoug such concepts are found in Ayurvedic practice, the word Sahapanais not found in any of the Ayurvedic text books prior to Rasa Tarangini. In Rasa TaranginiAnupana has been classified into two types that are Anupana and Sahapana. So a briefunderstanding of the concept is essential.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  50  Derivation -The word Sahapana is made up of two words ; xÉWû + mÉÉlÉ (Saha + Paana)Saha :- xÉWû, urÉ, xÉÌWûiÉqÉç | iÉimÉrÉÉïrÉÈ | xÉÉMüqÉç xÉÉuWïûqÉç xɧÉqÉç xÉqÉqÉç | CirÉqÉUÈ | (S.K.D Vol. V)The word Saha is an “avyaya” which indicate the meaning as sahitam.It has the synonyms like, saakam, saahrvyam, satram, samam and sajuhu.The term paana means to drink or to consume.Sahapana :- xÉWûmÉÉlÉqÉç | YsÉÉæ | LMü§ÉmÉÉlÉå | Wåû.cÉÇ. | (V.S.S)The word Sahapana is formed from “Kleeba” linga i.e, napumsaka linga.Definition -The substance which is taken by mixing with oushadha (medicine) is calledSahapana.54Mode of action of Sahapana -During the intake of medicine, the dravya which is taken by mixing and that helps thedravya to reach the target place in paramaanu roopa (minute form) is carried out by the helpof Sahapana. 55Importance of Sahapana -By the help of Sahapana the properties of the oushadha (medicine) will increase andthereby helps to cure the diseases.55
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  51  ANUPANA CONCEPTS IN OTHER SYSTEMS OF MEDICINEIn western system of medicine –The terms which can be taken to understand the concepts of Anupana from modernsystem of medicine are vehicle, adjuvant or synergist and carrier through which the actionslike drug absorption, drug companion, drug interaction, drug delivery and bioavailability ofthe drug will takes place.Vehicle :-The word vehicle is derived from the Latin word “vehiculum” means that whichcarries. JLNSIt also called as excipient.Definition -1. Liquid etc. as a medium for suspending pigments, drugs, etc. vehicular adj. [Latinveho carry] 562. An inert agent that carries the active ingredient in a medicine is called vehicle. 573. An excipient or a menstruum. A substance, usually without therapeutic action, usedas a medium to give bulk for the administration of medicines is called vehicle. 584. A more or less inert substance added in a prescription as a diluent or vehicle or togive form or consistency when the remedy is given in pill form is called excipient. 585. Any more or less inert substance added to prescription in order to confer suitableconsistency or a form of to the drug is called excipient. 596. An inert medium (as a syrup) in which a medicinally active agent is administered iscalled vehicle. 607. Any of various media acting usually as solvents, carriers, or binders for activeingredients or pigments is called vehicle. 60
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  52  8. A substance, usually fluid, possessing little or no medicinal action, used as a mediumfor active remedies is called vehicle. 619. Excipients are non-active ingredients added to capsules to facilitate a number ofdesired effects.Classification of Excipients – It can be classified into the following categories, Diluents Lubricants Surfactants or wetting agents AbsorbentsDiluent - Diluents are fillers that add bulk to a capsule to facilitate proper fill and cohesion.Eg - Lactose, microcrystalline cellulose and pregelatinized starch.Lubricants - Lubricants are added to a capsule to prevent adhesion and facilitate the flow ofthe drug fill into the tableting or encapsulating machinery.Eg - Magnesium stearate.Surfactants - Surfactants or wetting agents facilitate the wetting of the drug substance toenhance dissolution.Eg - Sodium lauryl sulfate.Absorbents - Absorbents are added to a capsule to physically separate interacting agents andabsorb any liquefied material.Eg - Magnesium carbonate, kaolin, or light magnesium oxide.Eg for vehicle – A syrup in liquid preparation.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  53   Simple syrup, aromatic powder, honey, and various elixirs.Research article on vehicle :- 62Title – “Extrinsic sugar as vehicle for dietary fat”This study concludes that lowering the intake of extrinsic sugar is unlikely to beassociated with higher fat intake. Instead extrinsic sugar may act as a vehicle for fat intake,encouraging consumption by making the fat more palatable.Adjuvant :-The word adjuvant is derived from Latin word “adjuvans” means to aid. Synergist isthe synonym given for adjuvant.Definition – That which assists, especially a drug added to a prescription to hasten or increase theaction of a principal ingredient. 63 A remedy that acts to enhance the action of another is called synergist. 63 A substance added to a drug product formulation which affects the action of theactive ingredient in a predictable way.64Eg – In immunology, chemicals such as aluminium hydroxide and aluminium phosphate thatare added to an antigen to increase the body’s immunologic response. The adjuvants thatincrease the size of the antigen, making it easier for B-lymphocytes and phagocytes torecognize it. It also promotes the chemotaxis and stimulates the release of cytokines.The terms related to synergist are ; Synergetic or synergic – The one which exhibits co-operative action.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  54   Synergistic – That which is concerning synergy on acting together. Synergy or synergism – An action of two or more agents working with each other.The action will be combined and co-ordinated. 65Carrier :-Definition –A molecule that when combined with another substance is called carrier.Benefit – When it is combined with another substance, it can pass through a cell membrane,as occurs in facilitated diffusion or some transport mechanisms. 66Importance of vehicle –Vehicle is a substance that is advised along with the medicine. And the actions of itare seen in relation with following aspects;1. Drug administration :-There are many routes of drug administrations are mentioned in modern system ofmedicine. One of such method is oral administration or oral ingestion.Oral ingestion – It is the most common method of drug administration. It is the safest, mostconvenient and most economical.Absorption from GI tract is governed by factors such as surface area for absorption,blood flow to the site of administration, the physical state of drug like solution, suspension orsolid dosage form, its water solubility and the drugs concentration at the site of action. Fordrugs given in solid form, the rate of dissolution may be the limiting factor in their
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  55  absorption, especially they have low water solubility. Since most drug absorption from the GItract occurs by passive diffusion, absorption is favoured when the drug is in the non-ionizedand more lipophilic form.Modifications in oral ingestion –Some of the modifications in drug administration are made in modern system ofmedicine to increase the efficacy of the medicines like in the case of tablets. Themodifications that are made in tablets are given below;1. Controlled – release preparations -67The rate of absorption of a drug administered as a tablet or other solid oral dosageform is partly dependent on its rate of dissolution in GI fluids. This is the base of controlledrelease, extended release, sustained release and prolonged action pharmaceutical preparationthat is designed to produce slow, uniform absorption of the drugs for eight hours or longer.Such preparations are offered for medication in all drug categories.Advantages of such preparation – Reduction in the frequency of drug administration Maintenance of therapeutic effect over night. Decreased incidence and intensity of both undesired effect and non-therapeutic bloodlevels of the drug that often occur after administration of immediate release dosageforms.Base – Hydroxides or carbonates or bicarbonates as a base for EsculetinEg – Antidepressant therapy – Nemeroff, 2003
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  56   Ca++entry blockers – Dihydropyridine2. Sustained action tablets 68– The tablet which is administered through oral route and theyrelease the drug at desired time and prolong the effect is called sustained action tablet.Base - Ethyl cellulose.Eg - Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) tablets3. Sublingual tablets 68–Definition - One that dissolves when held beneath the tongue, permitting direct absorption ofthe active ingredient by the oral mucosa is called sublingual tablets.These contain the drugs which are destroyed, inactivated or not absorbed in the GI tract, butare directly absorbed through, the mucosal tissues of the oral cavity.Use - Sublingual tablets are used when the drug is unstable in the stomach or when a rapidonset of drug action is desired.Base - Epinephrine bitartrate with the total quantity of microcrystalline cellulose and twothirds of the quantity of low-substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose.Eg - Nitroglycerin tablets4. Lozenge tablets 68– The type where the drugs will not disintegrate in oral cavity, butslowly dissolve in the oral cavity to produce continuous effect on the mucous membrane inmouth or the throat is called lozenge tablet.Base - Aspartame, Asukfame-K, Cyclamate, Saccharin and Sucralose.5. Soluble tablets 68- The tablets which are dissolve in liquids like water is called solubletablets. Base - Sugar alcohol.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  57  Eg – Antibiotics6. Effervescent tablets 68– The tablets which liberate CO2 and produce effervescence.Use - Effervescent tablets are easily placed in solution for a patient to drink. The patientabsorbs the drug more rapidly because the active ingredient is in solution.Base - Bicarbonate, citric acid and tartaric acid which are added with other drugs.Eg- Generic Name - Aspirin Effervescent Tablets, Brand Name example - Alka-Seltzer7. Enteric coated tablets 68–The tablets which disintegrate in the alkaline media of intestines are called entericcoated tablets or an enteric-coated tablet is a tablet that has a special outer covering designedto dissolve in the small intestine. Once the enteric-coating is dissolved, the tabletdisintegrates and the active ingredient can be absorbed by the patient.Use - Enteric-coated tablets are used when the active ingredient is destroyed by substances inthe stomach. In addition, enteric-coated tablets are indicated when the stomach is irritated bythe drug in the tablet.Base - Hydroxyproply methylcellulose.Eg – Aspirin8. Chewable tablets 68– That which is consumed by chewing is called chewable tablets.Use - It gives pleasant, cooling sensation. Antacids are invariably prepared as chewable toobtain quick ingestion relief as well as the antacid dose is too large to swallow and theactivity is related to particle size.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  58  Base - Mannitol, Sorbitol, Lactose, Chocolate powder, Dextrose and Glycine are used as abase for the chewable tablets.Eg - Antacid tablets, Multivitamin tablets9. Sugar coated tablets 68– In this sugar coating is done to mask the odd taste and odour aswell as to protect the drug from atmospheric condition.Base - Sugar coating liquids used in preparing sugar coated tablets contain binders such asgelatin or gum arabic so as to increase strength of the sugar coating layer or to increasebonding strength between an uncoated tablet and the sugar-coating layer.10. Film coated tablets 68– Here thin coating with water soluble materials to protect the drugfrom atmospheric conditions.Use - Film coating techniques reduce process times, offer greater control over coatingparameters.Base – i. Film coating involves the deposition of a thin polymer layer onto the tablet core,usually by a spray method.ii. The colour concentrated base dispersion contains a pigment, dye (optional) and at least oneplasticizer adapted to affect the disintegration time of the final coating in a co-solventmixture of water and a lower alkanol. The color concentrated base dispersion is diluted with afilm-forming solution of zein in a lower alkanol (and optionally a small amount of water) toform a film coating mixture. A mixture of plasticizers having different moisture resistancemay be utilized to vary the moisture resistance of the coating.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  59  11. Hard and soft gelatin capsules 68- The basic difference between the hard and soft gelatinencapsulation processes is that in the hard gelatin capsule process, the capsule isprefabricated and supplied empty, whereas in the soft gelatin capsule process theencapsulation and filling take place simultaneously. A soft gelatin capsule comprising a shellof gelatin and a softener.Base - Polyethylene glycol and a low polyhydric alcohol.Eg - Cod liver oil soft gel capsules2. Drug companion :-69Definition -A medication whose efficacy depends on its use with second agent and the same drugmay have little effect when used alone is called drug companion.3. Drug delivery :-Definition –Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions.Technologies employed include are those concerning drug preparation, route ofadministration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity. 70There are several methods of drug delivery have been used experimentally.Those are ;1. Chemical modifications of a drug to enable it to penetrate membranes such as bloodbrain barrier.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  60  2. Incorporation of micro-particles in colloidal carriers made of proteins, carbohydrates,lipids or synthetic polymers.3. Controlled release systems that permit a drug to be delivered for very long periods.714. Drug interaction :–Definition - The combined effect of drugs taken concurrently is called drug interaction.The result may be antagonism or synergism and consequently may be lethal insome cases. It is important for the patient, physician and nurse to be aware of thepotential interaction of drugs that are prescribed as well as self administering. Manypatients especially elderly may take several medicines each day. The chances ofdeveloping an undesired drug interaction increase rapidly with the number of drugs used.It is estimated that if eight or more medications are being used then there is a 100%chance of interaction.725. Drug absorption :-Definition –The process whereby a drug moves from the muscle, digestive tract, or other site ofentry into the body toward the circulatory system. 73Drugs given by mouth may be inactive because, 74 Enzymatic degradation of polypeptides within the lumen of the gastrointestinaltractEg – Insulin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone Poor absorption from the gastrointestinal tract
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  61  Eg – Aminoglycoside, antibiotics. Some of the inactivation compounds are absorbed from the GIT but are degradedin the gut wall or during the first passage through the liver before they can reachtheir site of action.Eg - Testosterone and aldosterone6. Bioavailability :-Definition –o Bioavailability is a term used to indicate the fractional extent to which a dose ofdrug reaches its site of action or a biological fluid from which the drug has accessto its site of action.75o The rate and extent to which an active drug or metabolite enters the generalcirculation, permitting access to the site of action. It is determined either bymeasurement of the concentration of the drug in body fluids or by the magnitudeof the pharmacologic response.76o Bioavailability of a drug is defined as the amount or percentage of drug that isabsorbed from a given dosage form and reaches the systemic circulationfollowing non-vascular administration.77Some of the factors affecting drug absorption and its bioavailability 78–Physical properties of drug Nature of the dosage form Physiological factorsPhysical properties –
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  62   Physical state – Liquids are absorbed better than solids and crystalloids. Lipid or water solubility – Drugs in aqueous solution mix more rapidly than thosein oily solution with the aqueous phase of absorption site and hence absorbedfaster. However, at the cell surface, the lipid soluble drugs penetrate into the cellmore rapidly than the water soluble drugs.Nature of the dosage form – Particle size – The particle size of sparingly soluble drugs can affect theirabsorption. So a tablet that contains large aggregates of the active compound doesnot disintegrate easily even on prolonged contact with gastric and intestinal juicesand hence poorly absorbed. Small particle size is important for absorption ofcorticosteroids, antibiotics. Thus by reducing the particle size the drug dose can bereduced. Disintegration time and dissolution rate – The effect of the physical factors iscommonly evaluated by determining,1. The ‘disintegration time’ which measures the rate of the breakup of thetablet or capsule into the granules. The disintegration time of a tablet is a poormeasure of the bioavailability of the contained drug. Because, in addition tothe disintegration time and particle size, various other factors such ascrystalline form, saturation solubility and salvation can modify thebioavailability of a drug.2. The ‘dissolution rate’ which is the rate at which the drug goes into thesolution. Formulation – Usually substances like lactose, sucrose, starch and calciumphosphate or lactate are used as inert diluents in formulating powders ant tablets.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  63  Such filters may not be totally inert but may affect the absorption as well asstability of the medicament. Thus, calcium and magnesium ions reduce theabsorption of tetracycline, while calcium phosphate used as a diluent forcalciferol may cause calcium toxicity, when given in large doses. Replacement ofcalcium phosphate by lactose made a marked difference the efficacy of areformulated phenytoin preparation. It is well established that the methodformulations markedly influence the drug absorption and thus determine itsbioavailability. A faulty formulation can render a useful drug totally usefullytherapeutics.Contraindications of vehicle -In modern system of medicine some of the drugs which should not beconsumed along with some particular vehicle. If consumed it shows ill effect to thebody. Some of the examples are tabulated below;Table No. 47 - Showing contraindications of vehicle for different drugs;Sl.No Drug Vehicle Ill effect1. Tetracycline Milk and milkproductsBecause of the presence of calciumin milk the drug action hampers2. Tranquilizers Caffeine Harmful effects3. Antidepressant CaffeineFishAlcoholHarmful effectsHyper tension and other cardiacdisordersDepression4. Sedatives Caffeine Harmful effect5. Anti-arrhythmic Caffeine Impairment in cardiac activity6. Drugs used in angina Caffeine Impairment in cardiac activity
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  64  7. Peptic ulcer formingdrugsCaffeine Increase in gastric secretion8. Antihistamine Alcohol Excess sleep9. Paracetamol Alcohol Liver disorder10. Aspirin Alcohol Liver disorder, blood mixed stool11.  -blockers Meat Reduced action of the drug12. Dalcolax Milk Reduced action of the drug13. Iodine (in goiter) Cauli-flower Obstruction in production of thyroidhormones14. Drugs used in angina Alcohol Hypertension, death15. Anticoagulant Alcohol Internal hemorrhage16. Hypoglycemic drugs Alcohol Hypoglycemia leading to giddinessetc.17. Sulfonamide Alcohol Severe impairment in the body maylead to death18. Antibiotic Alcohol Severe impairment in the body maylead to death19. Diuretics Alcohol HypertensionIn Siddha system of medicine79–In this system of medicine, the same formulation is used for different ailments butvaries its adjuvant called Anupanam. According to Siddha, the Anupana will be varying indifferent seasons.Eg - Milk, ghee, honey, herbal extracts, ginger juice, betel leaf juice, cold water and warmwater.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  65  Importance –o It is believed that, if proper, the adjuvant itself would modify the therapeuticproperties and potency of the drug leading to the desired effect.o The adjuvant used for a drug would also modify the potency and curative capabilitysynergistically for better therapeutic results.In Naturopathy system of medicine –The main methods of treating any disease in Prakruti chikitsaa are by the help ofmud, water and sun. According this system, the fruits and vegetables juices are advised afteror before the food intake or only the intake of fruit juices to cure many diseases.Table No. 48 – Showing the examples for fluids as Anupana for different diseases inPrakruti chikitsaa;Sl.No Disease Fluids1. Blood pressure Carrot, grapes, orange, sweet orange, milk,2. Jaundice Grapes, orange, sweet orange3. Carcinoma Carrot, fig4. Hyper-acidity Carrot, spinach leaf, holy basil5. Ulcer Grapes, fig, carrot, milk6. Dyspnoea Carrot, fig, grapes, green leafy soups, goat milk,black gram soup7. Disorder related to blood Lemon, carrot, tomato, spinach leaf, apple8. Loss of appetite 2 parts tomato + 1 part pine apple and lemon juice9. Arthritis Carrot, spinach leaf, coriander, coconut water10. Diabetes Carrot, coconut water, bitter gourd, spinach leaf11. Stones Cucumber, carrot12. Headache Beet root, carrot
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  66  In Homeopathic system of medicine –The term vehicle implies, "Means of conveyance or transmission."Definition - Vehicle is a substance, in which medicines are prepared or mixed and given fortheir internal administrations either by oral or olfaction method and external application formedications. 80These substances are comparatively inert as such taken as a means of developing thetherapeutic activity of medicinal substance.Forms of VehiclesThere are two forms of vehicles:1. Solid 2. Liquid.Solid Vehicles -1. Milk sugar2. GlobuleS or pillules3. Pellets4. Tablets or Tabloids5. ConesLiquid Vehicles -1. Distilled Water2. Alcohol3. Glycerine4. Olive Oil5. Almond OilQualities of an ideal vehicle -1. It may not have any medicinal property of its own.2. It should be chemically neutral; neither acidic nor alkaline in medicinal effects. They mustnot undergo change or decomposition,
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  67  3. The above two specific properties are more applicable to those which are used inpotentising medicines.4. It must be harmless regarding its action on human organisms. The pharmacologicalmessage of the original drug is not disturbed in any way.5. It should be capable of carrying the dynamic powers of drugs into interior humanorganisms to fight the disease force.6. It should be edible and palatable.Uses of Vehicles -1. Vehicles are used in the preparation of mother tinctures, mother solutions and motherpowders from crude drug materials and without any vehicles these preparation could not bemade.2. It is used for further triturations and increased potentisation from the mother, so thatpharmaceutical message is easily carried and therapeutic values are retained of the particulardrug substances.3. Used as bases for preparing external applications of medicines.4. For dispensing medicines or remedies according to the prescriptions of physicians.5. Vehicles like olive oil, vaseline, glycerine, etc. are themselves applied externally as amechanical aid only.6. As a preservant or certain medicines, vehicle like alcohol is mixed in certain percentagewith the freshly expressed juices of plants (vide Organon of Medicine, aphorism 268,footnote).
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  68  7. Used as placebo or phytum in between the administrations of the two doses of medicinesor remedies, especially in cases of chronic diseases and where long-acting remedies are used.8. Sick babies who could not tolerate fats, sugar of milk is given as a diet.The concept of biological specificity and resonant promotion of lone pair electrons isput forward by Dr. Rati Ram Sharma. According to this concept, the lone pair of electrons inthe vehicle molecules (alcohol, water and lactose) gets resonantly promoted duringdynamisation. During this process, the vehicle molecules achieve the same number of activeelectrons and same exchangeable energies as the drug molecules. Thus the vehicle moleculesexhibit the properties of drug molecules. The new concept, which shows that an imprint oforiginal drug molecules could be made upon vehicle molecules. So even in the absence oforiginal drug molecules vehicle molecules bear the properties of drug molecules.81In Unani system of medicine 82–In Unani system of medicine, the term “Badarakaa/Rahanuma which meansSamrakshaka/pathapradarshaka” indicates the word Anupana or vehicle.Definition – The one which helps for the consumption of medicine and for the oushadhavilineebhava (to mix the oushadha) is called Anupana.According to them mixing of several drugs also is considered as Badrakaa i.e, Anupana.Types of Badrakaa – Moophrad (Asamsrushta)  Murakkab (Samsrushta)Moophrad or asamsrushta – When a drug is administered with simple Anupana then theaction will take place only based on the drug
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  69  Eg – Any moola (asla or amood) with simple Anupana like water.Murakkab or samsrushta – When a drug is administered with similar property that of the drugthen the action takes place by both drug and Anupana.Eg – Sanaayake or sonaamukhi with milk.Benefits – To help the drug in reaching specific target organ It quickly enhances the quality of the drug there by action of drug also will be quick By the help of Anupana, the drug will enter even to the minute cellEg – Ahiphena with taila Karpoora with sneha or madya Sonaamukhi with milk for virechana.In Chinese system of medicine –In Chinese medicine system the importance of vehicle for the consumption ofmedicine is also given. The research article shows that the importance of vehicle in thatsystem. The drug which is taken in this study is Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza). Danshen iswidely used in traditional Chinese medicine, often in combination with other herbs.Remedies containing danshen are used traditionally to treat a diversity of ailments,
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  70  particularly cardiac and vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis or blood clottingabnormalities.Title -“Reducing effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza extracts on alcohol intake: Influence of vehicle.”83The results of the present study demonstrate that Polysorbate 80 is a proper vehiclefor unravelling the reducing effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza extracts on alcohol intake. Theability of Polysorbate 80 to form micelles with the active ingredient(s) of the Salviamiltiorrhiza may explain these results. They may also offer relevant information forpharmaceutical preparation of Salvia miltiorrhiza extract to be used in future clinical trials.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  71  REVIEW ON KASAUchhwaasa and Nishwaasa or to say breathing out and breathing in are thecontinuous phenomenon of life. i.e, to and fro movement of air through the Praanavahasrotas. It is the vital sign of life and the normalcy of which suggests health. The abnormalityin respiration indicates disease, and its cessation marks death. The one of the rogas thataffects the praanavaha srotas is the disease Kasa.Kasa or Cough is a trivial disease, which is one of the commonest complaint in day today practice and it is also a symptom of various diseases of respiratory system. In Ayurveda,Kasa is explained as a separate disease entity with the explanation of specific Nidaanapanchakaas, saadhyaasaadhyataa, chikitsaa and pathyaapathya.Kasa may not be a life threatening but increasingly annoying and irritating to theindividuals in routine activities. More over when neglected they may lead to a series ofcomplications later. Kasa or cough has a broad-spectrum of etiology, ranging from allergensto infections. Recurrent attacks of Kasa or cough hamper the person’s day today activities. Soit needs to be treated properly either by Shodhana or Shamana line of treatment.Derivation of Kasa :-o According to Gangadhara on Charaka Kasadhikaara, Kasa from the dhaatu“kasri”, which means “bhinnaswara” i.e, unpleasant or broken sound.o Paanini When "gater" partyaya is added to the root “kas” which gives themeaning gati - movement.o According to Chakrapaani on Charaka Kasadhikaara, the word Kasa isderived from “kas” and gives the meaning "aÉÌiÉ zÉÉiÉlÉrÉÉåÈ" means "to fall"
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  72  Definition of Kasa :-1. zÉÑwMüÉåuÉÉ xÉ MüTüÉå uÉÉ MüxÉlÉÉiÉç MüÉxÉ EcrÉiÉå || (cÉ.ÍcÉ.18/8)This means the production of abnormal sound in the process which may be productive ordry.2. EUmÉëpÉ×ÌiÉ zÉÉiÉlÉrÉÉåÈ MüÉxÉ CÌiÉ AlÉuÉxjÉÉ xÉÉqrÉ EcrÉiÉå | (cÉ¢ümÉÉÍhÉ-cÉ.ÍcÉ.18/8)Means that shareera especially urapradesh shows falling posture while coughing.3. xÉÎqpɳÉMüÉÇxrÉ xuÉÉlÉ iÉÑsrÉ bÉÉåwÉÈ | (xÉÑ.E.52/5)Means it is the disease associated with a typical sound that can be compared to that ofsound obtained from broken bronze vessel.4. xÉ bÉÉåwÉ iÉ̲ÌuÉkÉ mÉëÉhÉ ÌlÉaÉqÉlÉjÉÈ xuÉUrÉÑ£ü xÉ mÉëÉhÉ uÉÉrÉÑÈ | (QûsWûhÉ-xÉÑ.E.52/5)Means forceful expulsion of the praana vaayu resulting in the production of sound(ghosha) resembling that of a broken bronze vessel is called Kasa.5. MüxÉÌiÉ ÍzÉUÉåMühPûÉiÉç FkuÉïaÉcNûÌiÉ uÉÉrÉÑËUÌiÉ | (qÉkÉÑMüÉåwÉ-qÉÉ.ÌlÉ.11/2)The disease where the vaayu attains upward movement and moves above kanta and shirais called as Kasa.The English meaning of Kasa is “cough". 84Synonyms of Kasa :-Synonyms of Kasa given in Atharva veda are,1. Kaasaha2. Kaasa3. Kaasika,  4. Kshavathu 85“Kasa” and “Kshavathu” are the synonyms. Though they are different entities, theirpathogenesis could be the same.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  73  Nidaana of Kasa :-  Nidaana is the cause for all disease and one among the five factors (nidaanapanchaka) for the diagnosis of any disease. It is classified into different groups in Ayurvedicclassics on different basis. In this chapter the causative factor of Kasa will be dealt.Nidaana is categorized broadly into two main divisions ;1) Samanya Nidaana (General causative factor)2) Vishesha Nidaana (Specific causative factor)General etiological factors are responsible for the manifestation of all varieties ofKasa where as the specific etiological factors are responsible for the specific variety of Kasa.For the better understanding of Nidaanaas can be broadly grouped into two groups; Aahaaraja Nidaana Vihaaraja NidaanaAahaaraja Nidaana of Kasa :-Table No. 49 – Showing aahaaraja nidaana of Kasa in different classics ;Sl.No Nidaanaas C.S S.S A.S B.S H.S M.N Y.R B.P G.N B.R1. Rookshaahaara sevana     X     2. Ati kashaayarasaaahaara sevana  X X X X X X X X3. Sheeta aahaara sevana   X X X X X X X X4. Asaatmyaahaara sevana X  X   X X X X X5. Alpaahaara sevana  X X X X X X X X X6. BhojanasyavimaargagamanaX  X X X     Vihaaraja nidaana of Kasa :-Table No. 50 – Showing vihaaraja nidaana of Kasa in different classics ;
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  74  Sl.No Nidaanaas C.S S.S A.S B.S H.S M.N Y.R B.P G.N B.R1. Dhoomopaghaata X  X  X     2. Rajasevana X  X X      3. Shrama          4. Vegaavarodha     X     5. Haasyapraharsha X X X X  X X X X X6. Anila sannirodha X X X X  X X X X X7. Vega udeerana X X  X X X X X X X8. Raatri jaagarana X X  X X X X X X X9. Kshavathu dhaarana X  X  X     Vishesha nidaanaAachaarya Charaka has given the special etiological factors for the causation ofindividual type of Kasa.Table No. 51- Showing vishesha aahaaraja nidaana of Kasa; 86Sl.No Vataja Kasa Pittaja Kasa Kaphaja Kasa Kshataja Kasa Kshayaja Kasa1. Rookshaahaara Katu ahaara Guru aahaaraVishamaaahaara2. Sheetaahaara UshnaahaaraAbhishyandhiaahaaraAsaatmyaaahaara3. KashaayaahaaraVidaahiaahaaraMadhuraaahaara4.AlpaahaarasevanaAmla, kshaaraaahaaraSnigdhaaahaara5. Pramitaashana6. Anashana_
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  75  Vihaaraja nidaana –Table No. 52 - Showing vishesha vihaaraja nidaana of Kasa; 86Sl.No Vataja Kasa Pittaja Kasa Kaphaja Kasa Kshataja Kasa Kshayaja Kasa1. Ati streesevanaKrodha SwapnavicheshtaAti vyavaaya Ati vyavaaya2. Vegadhaarana Agni santaapa Bhaara vahana Vega dhaarana3. Adhwa4.Aayaasa SooryasantaapaavyaayaamaYuddhaGhruninaamchintaaPoorwaroopa of Kasa :-Poorwaroopa are those signs and symptoms which appear earlier to the actualdisease. They manifest during the stage of dosha dooshya sammoorchana. The Poorwaroopa of Kasa are tabulated below ;Table No. 53 – Showing poorwaroopa of Kasa in different classics ;Sl.No Poorvarupa C.S S.S A.S A.H M.N G.N B.P V.S1. Shooka poorna gala  X      2. Shooka poorna aasya  X X X    3. Kante kandu        4. Bhojyaanaamavarodha   X X    5. Arochaka X    X X X X6. Sashabdha vaishamya X  X X X X X X7. Agnisaada X  X X X X X X8. Gala lepa X  X X X X X X9. Taalu lepa X  X X X X X X10. Hrudaya Aswasthataa X X  X X X X X11. Kavala galane vyadha X X X X X X  X
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  76  Types :-In Garuda puraana three types of Kasa are mentioned ;1. Abhrata Kasa 2. Vataja Kasa 3. Summaa KasaAachaaryaas like Charaka, Sushruta, Vaagbhata, Bhela, Bhaavamishra,Shaarngadhara, Yogaratnaakara, Maadhavakara, Sodhala (Gada Nigraha) mentioned Kasaas five types. They are;1. Vataja2. Pittaja3. Kaphaja4. Kshataja5. KshayajaHaareeta Samhitaa mentioned eight types Kasa ;1. Vataja2. Pittaja3. Kaphaja4. Vata Pittaja5. KaphaPittaja6. Sannipataja7. Raktaja8. KshayajaMaharshi Haareeta has excluded Kshataja Kasa and has included Vata-Pittaja,Shleshma-Pittaja, Sannipataja and Raktaja Kasa. The lakshanas mentioned for Raktaja Kasais more or less similar to the Kshataja Kasa explained by other authors.In the management of Kasa while discussing the chikitsaa aspects Charaka, Sushruta andVaagbhata explains1. Kaphaanubandhi anilaja2. Kaphanubandhi pittja3. Vatanubandhi Pittaja4. SannipatajaIn Basavarajeeyam only five types of Kasa are explained while classifying thedisease but in the context of management classified 14 different varieties of Kasa ;1. Shukti2. Shleshma3. Aama4. Paandu5. Krishna6. Dadhi7. Shleshmajihwika8. Upajihwikaa9. Oordhva10. Kushta11. Kanta jiwhikaa12. Jaraa13. Kasa14. KasaatisaraBased on saadhyaasaadhyataa, the disease can be classified into1. Saadhya Kasa 2. Asaadhya KasaBased on occurrence, Kasa can be classified into two groups ;
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  77  1. Nija or Doshaja Kasa 2.Aagantuja KasaBased on the nature of Kasa, the disease Kasa can be classified into two varieties ;1. Shushka Kasa 2. Aardra KasaClassification of Kasa :-Flow chart No. 2 – Showing Kasa bheda according to different aachaaryaas ;KASA BHEDABased on occurrence Based on Dosha Based on Nature of Kasa Based on Saadhyaasaadhata(Based on Lakshana)Nija Aaganthuja Saadhya AsaadhyaShushka Aardhra5 types (Most of the Aachaaryaas) 8 types (Haareeta)1) Vataja Kasa, 1) Vataja Kasa2) Pittaja Kasa, 2) Pittaja Kasa,3) Kaphaja Kasa, 3) Kaphaja Kasa,4) Kshataja Kasa 4) VataPittaja Kasa,5) Kshyaja Kasa 5) Shleshma Pittaja Kasa,6) Sannipataja Kasa,7) Raktaja Kasa,8) Kshyaja Kasa.Roopa or lakshana of Kasa –
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  78  The actual signs and symptoms of the disease will be seen in the vyakta avasthaawhere dosha dooshya sammoorchana takes place. With the help of roopa, a disease can bediagnosed and confirmed. The sampraapti ghatakaas can be studied with the help of roopaonly. Roopa of Vataja Kasa –Vataja Kasa is having the lakshanas like shushka Kasa, kapha shushkata or alpakaphata which comes out with krucchrata, shushka ura, shushka kanta, shushka vaktra, hrutshoola, parshwa shoola, shirashoola, nirghosha, shirashoola and swarabheda.Roopa of Pittaja Kasa –Table No. 54 – Showing Pittaja Kasa lakshanas in different classics ;Sl. No Lakshanaas C.S S.S A.S A.H B.S M.N B.P1. Peetha nishteevanaand peetha netra    X X 2. Tikta aasyata     X  3. Urodoomaayana  X  X   X4. Trushnaa     X  5. Daaha   X X X  6. Moha  X  X X X X7. Aruchi   X X X X X8. Bhrama  X   X X X
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  79  9. Pratata Kasa  X   X X X10. Shleshmana Pittasamsrustam X X X X X X11. Hrudgraha X X X X  X 12. Jwara X      13. Paandu X   X X  14. Pitta and raktavamanaX    X  15. Mukha shosha X X X  X  Roopa of Kaphaja Kasa –Table No. 55 – Showing Kaphaja Kasa lakshanas in different classics ;Sl. No Lakshanas C.S S.S A.S A.H B.S M.N B.P1. Bahula, Madhura,Snigdha, Ghana, SandraKapha X X X X X X2. Urah alpa rujatwa X  X X X  3. Hrudaya stimitha X X  X X X X4. Vaksha KaphaSampurnamiva Manyate X X X X X X5. Kanthe kandu X X X X  X X6. Swarabheda X X X X X X 7. Peenasa  X  X X X 8. Utklesha  X X X X X X
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  80  9. Chardi  X  X X X X10. Aruchi    X  X X11. Aasya maadhuryataa  X X X  X X12. Shirashoola X  X X   X13. Mandaagni  X X X X X X14. Gourava  X  X X  X15. Angasaada X  X X X X X16. Romaharsha  X  X X X X17. Mukhalepa X  X X X X X18. Kledataa X X  X X X XRoopa of Kshataja Kasa–Kshataja Kasa has the lakshanaas like,1. Shushka Kasa in the beginning2. Rakta mishrita kapha shteevanalater3. Toda in the kanta4. Toda in the vaksha Pradesha5. Parwa bheda6. Jwara7. Shwasa8. Trushnaa9. Vikruta swara10. Paaraavata iva koojana.Roopa of Kshayaja Kasa–Kshayaja Kasa has the lakshanaas like,1. Harita varnayukta kapha which is rakta mishrita2. Durgandhayukta steevana3. Rogi feels as if like hrudaya has become sthaana chyuta4. Feels to take more aahaara but still becomes krusha5. Mukha, twacha, paani and paada tala shlakshnataa
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  81  6. Shreemaddarshana lochana (kaantiyukta lochana)7. Dwandwa doshaja jwara8. Paarshwa ruja9. Peenasa10. Aruchi11. Some times malabaddhataa and some times samhata mala12. Swarabheda13. Lakshanaas will some times increase due to ushna and some time due to sheeta.Sampraapti of Kasa :-Sampraapti deals with all the pathological process, which are responsible for clinicalsigns and symptoms of the disease. Sampraapti helps to understand how the disease hasmanifested after nidaana Sevana. Ayurveda has given much importance for SampraaptiVighatana. Because chikitsaaa is mainly to disintegrate the Sampraapti (pathology) i.e“Sampraapti Vighatana meva Chikitsaa”  Aachaarya Charaka explained saamaanya sampraapti of Kasa as vitiated praanaand udaana vaayu, attains upward movement and gets filled up in the channels, which arepresent in the shira, ura and greevaa pradesha. Vitiation of praana and udaana vaayu andblocking of srotas results in increased pressure inside the channels of eyes, nose, ear andthroat. In turn there will be severe painful contraction of muscles in the areas like mandibularjoint and cervical region, resulting in forceful expulsion of air producing a typical sound inthe presence or absence of sputum called as Kasa.  Aachaarya Sushruta narrates sampraapti of Kasa as by the nidaana sevana, vitiationof praana vaayu takes place and this gets mixed with udaana vaayu, and further movesupwards. The prakopa of these two vaayus causes abnormal, forceful expulsion of vaayufrom the mouth creating a peculiar sound similar to that of sound produced by broken bronzevessel.  In Ashtaanga Hrudaya, Vaagbhata opined that due to nidaana sevana, vitiation ofpraana and udaana vaayu take place, which move upwards and get filled up in the srotas of
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  82  kanta and shira pradesha. Due to increased pressure inside the srotas, the vaayu expels outwith a forceful forward bending of urah pradesha and even eyeballs move forward alongwith little pain in above-mentioned regions. This creates a peculiar sound that resembles thesound produced by a broken bronze vessel. In Ashtaanga Sangraha, Vaagbhata describes sampraapti in a different view i.e., dueto kashaayadi sevana, sustenance of urges, waking up in the nights and causes which areresponsible for dhaatu kshaya provocates vitiation of apaana vaayu causing obstruction inthe natural movements of apaana vaayu. As a result vaayu move upwards and reaches urahsthaana which is the seat of udaana vaayu, rasa dhaatu and sanchaara sthaana of praanavaayu. This vitiated vayu fills up in the channels present in the ura, kanta and shirapradesha. This results in increased in pressure inside the srotas followed by a spasm pain inprishta, ura and paarshwa pradesha and forceful expulsion of vaayu through the wideopened mouth making a typical sound resembling that of sound produced by broken bronzevessel in a forward bending posture. He also opines that the sound may vary depending uponthe areas of obstruction, the structure involved and whether Kapha is accompanied or not. Kasa vega dhaarana 87–In Ayurveda, elaborative explanation on natural urges are given and these naturalurges should not be suppressed i.e, vegadhaarana should not be done as it is one of the majorcause for the manifestation of almost all the vyaadhees. One of them is Kasa vega dharana.Suppression of Kasa makes increase in its vega, appearance of shwasa, aruchi,hrudroga, shosha and hidhmaa.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  83  REVIEW ON VATAJA KASAIntroduction –Kasa is one of the common complaints in day to day practice and it is also a symptomof various diseases of respiratory system. In Ayurvedic classics mainly there are five types ofKasa have been explained. Among them Vataja Kasa though it is not life threatening, ittroubles the person as it hinders the day to day activity. So the detailed understanding of thedisease Vataja Kasa helps to treat effectively.Derivation :-Etymologically the word "Vataja Kasa" consists of two components viz., uÉÉiÉeÉ and MüÉxÉ.Vataja - The word Vata belongs to “pullinga” derived from the root uÉÉ - aÉÌiÉ aÉlkÉlÉrÉÉåÈ and"tha" prathyaya giving the meaning "to move", "to make known", "to enlighten". Ja means"produced by"Kasa – It is derived from “Kas” dhaatu "gater" pratyaya.Definition :-Vataja :-o uÉÉ aÉÌiÉ aÉlkÉlÉrÉÉåÈ uÉÉÌiÉ aÉcNûiÉÏÌiÉ | (UhÉÎeÉiÉç UÉrÉ SåxÉÉrÉÏ)That which gives movement (gati), knowledge (jnaana) and enlightment(utsaaha/gandhana) to the shareera. Vataja means that which is produced by Vata which isone of the doshaa in the body.Kasa – Expulsion of the praana vaayu resulting in the production of sound resembling that ofa broken bronze vessel is called Kasa.Nidaana of Vataja Kasa :-
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  84  Aahaaraja nidaana – Rookshaahaara Sheetaahaara Kashaayaahaara Alpaahaara sevana Pramitaashana AnashanaVihaaraja nidaana – Ati stree sevana  Vegadhaarana  AayaasaPoorwaroopa of Vataja Kasa :-There is no specific poorwaroopa told for individual type of Kasa in classics. So thesaamaanya poorwaroopa told for the Kasa can only be taken as the Poorwaroopa of theVataja Kasa.Roopa of Vataja Kasa :-Table No. 56 –Showing Vataja Kasa lakshanaas in different classics; 88,89,90,91,92,93,94,95,96,97Sl.No Lakshanaas C.S S.S A.S A.H B.S M.N B.P Y.R V.S G.N1. Shushka Kasa          2. Kaphashushkataa X  X X X X X X X3. Alpa andkrucchra Kapha X  X X X X X X X4. Hrutshoola     X     5. Parshwashoola          6. Urahshoola  X    X   X X7. Shirashoola     X     8. Swarabheda   X X      9. Shushka ura  X   X X X X X 10. Shushka kanta  X   X X X X X 
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  85  11. Shushka vaktra  X   X X X X X 12. Lomaharsha  X X X X X X X X X13. Prataamyataa  X X X  X X X X X14. Nirghosha  X X X X X X X X X15. Deenataa  X X X X X X X X X16. Dourbalya  X X X X X X X  17. Kshobha  X   X X X X X X18. Moha  X   X X X X X X19. Snigdha, aamla,lavana Bhuktepeeteprashaamyati X X X X X X X X X20. Vega vahana ofmaaruta X X X X X X X X X21. Udara shoola X  X X X  X X  22. Prasakta vega X  X X      23. Shankhashoola X  X X    X  24. Kantashoola X X  X X X X X X X25. Ksheena oja X  X X      26. Ksheena bala X  X  X     27. Ksheena swara X         28. Rujaaswana X X X  X X X X X X29. PaaraavataivakoojanaX X X X  X X X X X30. Kashamaanana X  X X X  X X  31. Mahaavega X X   X X X X X X
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  86  32. Angaharsha X X  X X X X X X X33. Prushta stambha X X X X X X  X X X34. Vaksha shoola X X X X X X X X X 35. Satata shteevanaSwalpa shushkaX X X X X X X X X 36. Aatopa X X X X  X X X X X37. Shira manthana X X X X  X X X X X38. Shooka poornagalaX X X X  X X X X X39. ShushkanishteevanaX X X X  X X X X X40. Shushkanishteevana,mukte na kasateX X X X  X X X X X41. HrudayamavakupyatiX X X X  X X X X X42. ShwasenavikoojanaX X X X  X X X X X43. Taalu shosha X X X X  X X X X X44. Shyaava netra X X X X  X X X X X45. Varna bheda X X X X  X X X X X46. VisheshaadriktakoshtashcakasateX X X X  X X X X XSampraapti of Vataja Kasa :-There is no clear explanation of sampraapti of the disease Vataja Kasa except fromsome of the Aachaaryaas like Bhela. But the description regarding the general sampraapti ofKasa explained in our classics can be taken to understand the sampraapti of Vataja Kasa.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  87  The sampraapti of Vataja Kasa explained by Aachaarya Bhela tells that, due tonidaana sevana, vitiation of Vata takes place and moves to the Hrudaya. In Hrudaya, itcreates hrudgraha and reaches oordhwa dhamanees thereby produces Vataja Kasa.98Upashaya of Vataja Kasa :-Food having snigdha, aamla, lavana, ushna and vatahara aahaaraas are consideredas upashaya of Vataja Kasa.Anupashaya of Vataja Kasa :-Ruksha, sheeta, kashaaya dravya sevana, alpa bhojana, pramitha bhojana andvegadhaarana all act as anupashaya.Saadhyaasaadhyatha :-Before starting treatment vaidya should decide whether the patient should be treatedbased on the prognosis of the disease. Aachaaryaas have mentioned that only saadhyavyaadhees have to be treated.According to Charaka and Vaagbhata the Kasa, which is manifested by a singledosha is saadhya. So Vataja Kasa is saadhya to treat.Vataja Kasa will be saadhya for chikitsaa if it is; Eka doshaja Navotpanna. Upadrava rahita All the chikitsaa chatushpaadaas are in proper condition Manifested with alpa nidaana, poorwaroopa and roopa The prakruti is not of Vataja The kaala and the desha are not similar to the Vata dosha.In Bhaavaprakasha it is stated that all type of Kasa in old age is yaapya.Chikitsaaa Vivechana :-
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  88  Elaborate description about the line of treatment of individual varieties of Kasa hasbeen mentioned by different Aachaaryaas.Based on the rogi and roga bala the mode of treatment whether Shodhana or Shamana in hasto be decided.The line of treatment of Vataja Kasa includes 991. Sneha2. Sarpi3. Basti4. Peya5. Yoosha6. Ksheera7. Maamsa rasa8. Snaihika dhooma9. Lehya10. Abhyanga11. Parisheka12. Swedana13. Oordhwabhaktika sneha14. VirechanaSome of the yogaas for Vataja Kasa –Table No. 57 – Showing some of the Yogaas for Vataja Kasa –Sl.No DIFFERENT KALPANAAS YOGAAS1.Choornai. Vidangadi churna (C.Chi.)ii. Pathyaadi churna (B.R)iii. Hingwaadi churna (B.R)2.Lehai. Agasthya hareetaki (A.H)ii. Chitrakaadi leha (C.S Chi.)iii. Duralabhadi leha (C.Chi.)iv. Dusparshaadi leha (C.Chi.)v. Nagaraadi leha (Y.R)vi. Kantakaari leha (C.Chi.)3.Ghrita and Tailai. Kantakaaryaadi Ghrita (C.D)ii. Pippalyaadi Ghrita (Y.R)iii. Raasnaa Ghrita (C.Chi.)iv. Vyoshaadi Ghrita (Y.R)
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  89  4.Dhooma yogai. Harataala dhooma (C.Chi.)ii. Manshilaadi dhooma (C.D)iii. Prapoundarikaadi dhooma (C.Chi.)5. Swarasa, KwaathaKshreerai. Dashamoola kwaatha (Y.R)ii. Panchakola ksheera (C.D)iii. Shrangavera swarasa (B.R)6. Vati and Rasayogaas i. Elaadi gutika (B.R)ii. Amrutaarnava rasa (B.R)iii. Chandraamurta rasa (B.R)iv. Kasa kutaara rasa ( R.S)v. Kasaantaka rasa (B.R)vi. Kasa samhaara bhairavi rasa (B.R)vii. Lakshmee vilaasa rasa (B.R)viii. Mahaakaaleshwara rasa (B.R)ix. Nityodaya rasa ( R.S.S)x. Panchaamruta rasa (B.R)xi. Vijaya bhairavi rasa (B.R)Pathya for Vataja Kasa –Table No. 58– Showing Pathyaas for Vataja Kasa –Sl.No. Aahaara varga Dravya1. Shooka varga i. Shaaliii. Puraana shaaliiii. Godhoomaiv. Tandulav. Yavavi. Shashtika shaalivii. Laajaa2. Shimbee varga i. Mudgaii. Kulatthaiii. Maasha3. Maamsa varga i. Graamya praani maamsaii. Jaangala maamsa
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  90  iii. Aanoopa praani maamsaiv. Pakshi maamsa4. Gorasa varga i. Ksheeraii. Dadhiiii. Go-ksheeraiv. Gomootrav. Ghrita5. Jala varga i. Ushnodaka6. Phala vargaandShaaka vargai. Vaastukaii. Aamra phalaiii. Beejapooraiv. Raasnaav. Draakshavi. Devadaaruvii. Balaaviii. Maatulungaix. Pippaleex. Triphalaaxi. Kadaleexii. Vidangaxiii. Dashamoolaxiv. Lashuna7. Madhu varga i. Madhu8. Ikshu varga i. Ikshu rasaii. Sharkaraaiii. Guda9. Taila varga i. Tila tailaii. Sarshapa tailaiii. Bilva tailaVATAJA KASA IN WESTERN SYSTEM OF MEDICINECough :-Cough is an explosive expiration that provides a protective mechanism for clearingthe Tracheo-bronchial tree of secretions and foreign material. It is considered as a symptombut not as such as a disease according to modern medicine.Definition - A cough is a sudden, often involuntary, forceful release of air from the lungs.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  91   Cough is a sudden explosive forcing of air through the glottis, excited by an effort toexpel mucus or other matter from the bronchial tubes or larynx or it is to force the airthrough the glottis by a series of expiratory efforts. 100Cough reflex -Cough is a protective reflex, occurs due to the irritation of the mucus membrane ofthe larynx or Tracheo-bronchial tree causes coughing.Physiology of cough reflex 101-The bronchi and the trachea are so sensitive that any foreign matter or other cause ofirritation initiates the cough reflex. The larynx and carina (the point where the trachea dividesinto the bronchi) are especially sensitive to corrosive chemical stimuli, such as sulphur-dioxide gas and chlorine. Afferent impulses pass from the respiratory passages mainlythrough the vagus nerve to the medulla. There, the neuronal circuits of the medulla, causingthe following effects, integrate an automatic sequence of events ; First, about 2.5 liters of air is inspired. Second, the epiglottis closes and the vocal cords shut tightly to entrap the air withinthe lungs. Third, the abdominal muscles contract forcefully, pushing against the diaphragmwhile other expiratory muscles, such as the internal intercostals, also contractforcefully. Consequently, the pressure in the lungs raises usually to 100 mm of Hg ormore. Fourth, the vocal cords and the epiglottis suddenly open widely so that the air underpressure in the lungs explodes outward. Indeed, this air is sometimes expelled atvelocities as high as 75 to 100 miles an hour. The rapidly moving air usually carrieswith it any foreign matter that is present in the bronchi or trachea.Flow chart No. 3 – Showing Physiology of cough reflex;
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  92  Types of cough -Cough is divided into two types based on association of mucus. They are ; 102o Dry cough o Productive coughCough which is devoid of expectoration is named as dry cough. Minor irritations inthe throat can start the cough reflex, even when there is no mucus secretion in the bronchialtree. Cough associated with profuse mucus secretion of bronchial mucosa is termed asproductive cough.Sensors stimulatedSetting up of reflexRelaxation of Diaphragm + Violent contraction of expiratoryMuscles + Closure of GlottisVocal cords closed and air can’t escape – pressure within lungs build upForceful opening of glottisAir escapes violently with high speed and soundUnwanted material in the lungs expelledCOUGH
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  93  Causes and Symptoms 103- Environmental pollutants, such as cigarette smoke, dust or smoke can also cause acough. Post-nasal drip (the irritating trickle of mucus from the nasal passages into the throatcaused by allergies or sinusitis) can also result in cough. Some chronic conditions, such as asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema and cysticfibrosis, are characterized by cough. A condition in which stomach acid backs up into the esophagus (Gastro esophagealreflex) can cause coughing, especially when a person is lying down. A cough can also be a side effect of medications that are administered via an inhaler(It can also be a side effect of beta-blockers or ACE inhibitors).Investigations -Laboratory investigations help the physician to confirm the diagnosis, though muchcan be diagnosed based on the clinical signs and symptoms.1. Routine blood investigations like TLC, DLC, Hb%, ESR helps to rule out, Anemia etc.2. Absolute Eosinophil Count (AEC) to rule out Eosinophilia.3. Stool examination for evidence of Helminthic ova and cyst.4. Chest Radiograph may help to indicate the presence and extent of inflammation.5. Branchoscopy or laryngoscopy may be used to inspect the interior of bronchi and larynx,when a physician can’t come to a conclusion with Radiograph.Treatment 104-Specific remedies (antibiotics etc), cough may be treated as a symptom with, Pharyngeal Demulcents Expectorants Antitussives Antihistamines Bronchodilators
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  94  Prevention 103-It is important to identify and treat the underlying diseases and origin of the cough.Prevention of repeated respiratory tract infections play a major role in reducing cough andmaking the child to be more active in his curricular as well as in extra curricular activities. Avoid smoking and coming in direct contact with dust and allergens. Avoid coming in direct contact with people experiencing cough or the symptoms. Wash hands frequently during episodes of upper respiratory illness. Wear a nasal mask in places of pollution and while attending patients with cough. Proper immunization should be administered such as for rubella, measles andpertussis.Eosinophil –A white blood cell with a polymorphic nucleus and cytoplasmic granules that stainwith eosin or other acid stains. Eosinophil are known to destroy parasitic organisms and toplay a major role in allergic reactions. They release some of the major chemical mediatorsthat cause broncho-constriction. 105Eosinophilia 106:-Eosinophilia is a chronic disorder resulting from excessive production of a particulartype of white blood cells. If diagnosed in time and treated in a proper fashion this disorder iscurable in most cases and affected persons can lead normal life.Definition –Eosinophilia refers to a health condition resulting due to presence of excessiveEosinophils (type of white blood cell) in blood or body tissues. Eosinophils are produced inthe bone marrow existing normally in the bloodstream and gut lining, which helps the bodyfight infection from parasitic organisms.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  95  Causes of Eosinophilia -There are a variety of disorders that can cause Eosinophilia ranging from simple hayfever to life threatening tumor. Most common cause for Eosinophilia are parasitic infections(such as hookworm, schistosomiasis), allergic conditions (such asthma and hey fever) andcertain types of drug reactions. Few other rarer causes include: Lung diseases (e.g., Tropical Pulmonary Eosinophilia, Loefflers Syndrome) Due to inflammation of blood vessels (e.g., Churg-Strauss syndrome) Certain malignant tumors (e.g., lymphoma) Due to certain types of antibody deficiencies Certain types of skin diseases (e.g., dermatitis herpetiformis) allergy causing substances such as pollen or dust mite allergy, or any otherSymptoms of Eosinophilia -Symptoms of Eosinophilia vary based on the underlying conditions;1. Frequent wheezing and breathlessness caused due to asthma.2. Due to parasitic infections symptoms may range between abdominal pain, diarrhoea,fever, cough and rashes.3. Frequent infectio ns, abscesses, pneumonia, mouth sores4. Weight loss5. Night sweats6. Enlargement of lymph nodes7. skin rashes
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  96  Investigations –Lab studies can be in the following lines: A complete blood count may be conducted in order to identify if problem exists A spinal fluid examination is carried out in order to diagnose Eosinophilia due toworm infections. Imaging studies can be carried out via CT scan of the lungs, abdomen, pelvis, etcdepending on symptoms and cause of Eosinophilia.Normal values of AEC –Different openions regarding normal values of AEC, 40-400 cells/mm3 Less than 350 cells per microliter (cells/mcL) 50-350/mm3 150-450cu.mmEosinophil in Hypersensitivity reaction - 107 The peripheral blood hyper-eosinophil in states of parasitic invasion leads to anexpanded total pool of Eosinophil, which are predominantly located in the tissues.Tissue Eosinophil is prominent at the mucosal and cutaneous surfaces in adistribution similar to that of the mast cells and lymphocytes which produce IgE. Eosinophil attracted to the sites of parasite invasion fulfils at least two roles:Defending the sensitized host by directly damaging the parasite and containing theimmediate hypersensitive reaction, involved by antigens release from the parasites.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  97   The Eosinophil possess enzyme which are capable of specifically degrading mastcell mediators and there by containing immediate type of hypersensitivity reaction toantigen derived from parasite. Thus Eosinophil attracted by diverse specific chemotactic factors to the sites ofparasitic invasion are able to degrade many of the mast cell mediators elaborated byimmediate hypersensitivity response to parasitic antigen.Treatment for Eosinophilia 106-Once Eosinophilia is diagnosed treatment will proceed in lines of trying to identifycause of the disorder. Physician may perform simple skin / blood tests in order to identify thespecific allergy causing the problem (such as pollen or dust mite allergy, or any other as maybe determined). Parasitic infections can be detected by analyzing blood and stool samples.Following methods can be adopted for the treatment of Eosinophilia; Diet history and details of medication in order to detect any specific allergic reactions Primarily on lines of reducing symptoms. Initially treatments are mostly oral withcorticosteroid therapy (beginning with prednisolone both inhaled and topical).Systemic (oral, intramuscular, intravenous) may also be used to treat allergicconditions. In most cases treatments help to significantly reduce symptoms ofEosinophilia enabling persons to lead normal life.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  98  Rise in AEC in Peripheral Blood Smear -Eosinophil have anti parasitic role, they are also related to defend the body againstallergic disorders. Here in TPE there will be infiltration of filarial parasites larvae into thelungs in order to act against larvae there will be increase in the number of eosinophilliabecause MBP (major basic protein) granules present in the eosinophillia acts against thelarvae. In order to tone defense mechanism against larvae eosinophils show rise in numberand migrate - resulting in rise in AEC in peripheral blood smear.108
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  99  DURG REVIEWVidangadi Churna :-The references of Vidangadi churna in the context of Kasa are available inC.Chi.18/47-48, B.Chi.22/31-32, A.S.Chi.4/15 and A.H.Chi.3/12-13. In Bhela Samhitaathough the ingredients are similar to that of other aachaaryaas but the yoga starts withYavakshaara.Vidangadi churna consists of following drugs ;Table No. 59 – Showing ingredients and quantities of Vidangadi churna ;Sl.No Ingredients Quantity1. Vidanga One part2. Naagara One part3. Raasnaa One part4. Pippalee One part5. Hingu 1/8thpart6. Saindhava lavana One part7. Bhaarangi One part8. Yavakshaara One partThe properties of each drug are explained as follows ;1. Vidanga :-Latin name – Embelia ribesFamily – MyrsinaceaeSynonyms – Krimighna, Chitratandula, Amoghaa, Jantuhantri, Tandulee, Kairalee andMrugagaamini.Table No. 60 – Showing gana vargeekaraa of Vidanga;Charaka Sushruta Vaagbhatai). Krimighnaii). Kushtaghnaiii). Truptighnai). Surasaadi ganaii). Pippalyaadi ganai). Surasaadi ganaii). Pippalyaadi ganaVarieties - Embelia robusta
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  100  Morphology –A large scandent shrub, branches are long, slender and the bark studded with whitecoloured lenticels. Leaves are coracious; 5-9cm to 2-3.8cm, elliptic or lanceolate withacuminate apex, whole surface is scattered with reddish minute glands. Flowers arenumerous, pentamerous, greenish yellow with panicle inflorescence. Fruits are black,globose, 3-4 mm in diameter, succulent.Habitat - It distributed throughout India.Chemical composition - Embelin, Christembine, Homoembelin, Vilangine and QuercitolProperties -Rasa – Katu, Kashaaya and TiktaGuna – Laghu, Rooksha and TeekshnaVeerya – UshnaVipaaka – KatuDosha karma – Kapha-Vata shaamakaKarma – Krimighna and DeepanaIndications – Krimi, Udara, AadhmaanaPart used – Fruits and RootDose – Choorna – 3-5gms, moola kalka – 10-20gms.Important formulations – Vidangadi churna, Vidangadi loha, Vidangarishta, Vidanga tailaand Trimadaasava .2. Naagara :-Latin name – Zingiber officinaleFamily – ZingiberaceaeSynonyms – Shunti, Shungavera, Vishwa, Vishwabheshaja, Mahoushadha and Katubhadra.Table No. 61 – Showing gana vargeekaraa of Naagara;Charaka Sushruta Vaagbhatai).Truptighna i). Pippalyaadi gana i). Pippalyaadi gana
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  101  ii). Arshoghnaiii). Deepaneeyaiv).Shoola prashamanav). Trushnaa nigrahanaii).TrikatuVarieties - Shunti and Aardraka based on the formMorphology –A perennial herb with erect stem grows upto 15-150 cm tall. Leaves are subsessile,linear-lanceolate or lanceolate with acuminate apex, glabrous with the length of 10-30 cmlong. Flowers are clothed with sheaths, shoot upto 12 cm long, corolla tube is light-yellowcoloured, lip orbicular, dull purple with creamy blotches. Rhizomes are aromatic.Habitat - It is cultivated throughout India.Chemical composition – alpha-curcumene, beta-D-curcumene, beta-bourbornene, d-borneal,d-camphene and geraniol.Properties -Rasa – KatuGuna – Laghu, SnigdhaVeerya – UshnaVipaaka – MadhuraDosha karma – Kapha-Vata shaamakaKarma – Deepana, VataanulomaIndications – Kasa, Shwasa, Hika,Part used – RhizomeDose – Choorna – 1-2gm, Swarasa – 5-10ml.Important formulations – Vidangadi churna, Soubhaagya shuntee paaka, Trikatu choorna,Panchakola choorna and Samasharkara choorna .3. Raasnaa :-Latin name – Alpinia galangaFamily – ZingiberaceaeSynonyms– Elaaparni, Yuktaa, Yukta rasa, Sugandhaa, Malaya vachaa and Sthoola granthi.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  102  Varieties - The plants which may be taken as Raasnaa are Pluchea lanceolata, Vandaroxburhii, Viscum album , but the vaidyaas of south believes that Alpinia galangal is only thereal Raasnaa.Morphology –A perennial herb with erect stem grows upto 15-150 cm tall. Leaves are subsessile,lanceolate with acuminate apex, glabrous with the length of 10-30 cm long. Flowers arebisexual, white in colour. Rhizomes are aromatic with many ridges.Habitat - It is cultivated throughout India especially in south India.Chemical composition – Galongin, Kampferol, Eugenol, Cedrol and Galanolactone .Properties -Rasa – KatuGuna – Laghu, Rooksha, TeekshnaVeerya – UshnaVipaaka – KatuDosha karma – Kapha-Vata shaamakaKarma – Vataghna, HrudyaIndications – Kasa, Shwasa and HrudrogaPart used – RhizomeDose – Choorna – 1-3gm.Important formulations – Vidangadi churna, Raasnaa erandaadi Kashaaya,Mahaaraasnaadi kashaaya, Raasnaasaptaka kashaaya and Raasnaadi taila.4. Pippalee :-Latin name – Piper longumFamily – PiperaceaeSynonyms – Kanaa, Krushnaa, Kolaa, Maagadhi,Vaidehi and Ooshana.Table No. 62 – Showing gana vargeekaraa of Pippalee;Charaka Sushruta Vaagbhatai).Deepaneeyaii). Kantyai).Pippalyaadi ganaii). Trikatui).Pippalyaadi gana
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  103  iii). Aashtaapanopagaiv). Shiro virechanopagav). Sheeta prashamanavi). Shoola prashamanavii). Kasaharaviii). Hikkaanigrahanaix). Truptighnax). Vamanaiii). Oordhwabhaagaharaiv). Aamalakyaadi ganav). ShirovirechanaVarieties - Pippalee (Piper longum) and Gaja Pippalee (Piper chaba)Morphology –An aromatic slender climber, stems are creeping, jointed, attaching to some otherplants for the support to climb. Leaves are 5-9cm – 3-5cm, subacute, entire, glabrous cordatebase with acute apex. Flowers are pendulate spikes, bisexual, males are larger than female.Fruits are blackish when dried.Habitat – It is distributed in hot regions of India, Western Ghats from Konkan to Kerala andalso found in central Himalayas to Assam.Chemical composition – Essential oils, Mono- and sasquiterpenes, Caryophyllene, Piperine,Piplartine, Piperlongumine and Piperlonguminine .Properties -Rasa – KatuGuna – Laghu, Snigdha, TeekshnaVeerya – UshnaVipaaka – MadhuraDosha karma – Vata- KaphashaamakaKarma – Deepana, Vrushya, RasayanaIndications – Kasa, Shwasa, UdaraPart used – Fruits and RootsDose – Choorna – 0.5-1gm.Important formulations – Vidangadi churna, Trikatu choorna, Panchakola choorna andPippalyaadi Ghrita, Vyoshaadi vati and Pippalyaasava .
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  104  5. Hingu :-Latin name – Ferula narthexFamily – UmbelliferaeSynonyms – Jatuka, Baahleeka, Raamata, Sahasravedhi, Ugragandha, Jarana, andJantughna .Table No. 63 – Showing gana vargeekaraa of Hingu;Charaka Sushruta Vaagbhatai).Deepaneeyaii). Shwasaharaiii). Samjnaasthaapanaiv). Katu skandhai). Pippalyaadi ganaii). Ooshakaadi ganai).Pippalyaadi ganaVarieties - Ferula asafeotida, F. jaeschkeana and F. thomsoni .Morphology –An aromatic small shrub grows upto 1.5 - 2.4m height. Leaves are pubescent whentender ovate, serrated and shiny. Flowers are terminal, bisexual with umbel inflorescence.Habitat – Afghanistan and Baltisan.Chemical composition – Gum contains a-pinene, Phellandrene, a-trisulfide and FarnesiferolA. In roots, Feotidin, Lueolin and in whole plant, Assafoetidine and Ferolicin.Properties -Rasa – KatuGuna – Laghu, Snigdha, TeekshnaVeerya – UshnaVipaaka – KatuDosha karma – Kapha- Vata shaamakaKarma – Shoolahara and AnulomaneeyaIndication–Krimi, Udar and AgnimaandyaPart used – Resin (Niryaasa)Dose – 125-500mg.Important formulations – Vidangadi churna, Higwashtaka choorna, Rajahapravartineevati, Hingu triguna taila and Hingwaadi gutikaa
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  105  6. Saindhava Lavana :-Latin name – Sodii chloridumSynonyms – Sheetashiva, Manimantha and SindhujaTable No. 64 – Showing gana vargeekaraa of Saindhava lavana;Charaka Sushruta Vaagbhatai). Lavana skandha i. Mishraka i). Lavana skandhaHabitat – It is collected from Sindhu region.Chemical composition – Potassium chloride and Calcium chloride.Properties -Rasa – Lavana, MadhuraGuna – Laghu, Snigdha, SookshmaVeerya – SheetaVipaaka – MadhuraDosha karma – Tridosha shaamakaKarma – Deepana, Paachana, RuchyaIndications-Vrana, AgnimaandyaImportant formulations – Vidangadi churna, Lavana Bhaaskara choorna and Hingwastakachoorna.7. Bhaarangi :-Latin name – Clerodendrum serratumFamily – VerbenaceaeSynonyms – Kharashaaka, Padmaa, Phanjee, Braahmanyaashtyaka and Hanjikaa .Table No. 65 – Showing gana vargeekaraa of Bhaarangi;Charaka Sushruta Vaagbhatai). Pureesha sangrahaneeya i). Pippalyaadi gana i). Pippalyaadi ganaVarieties - Clerodendrum indicum.Morphology –It is a shrub grows upto 1.5 – 3m height with glabrous and hollow branches. Leavesare opposite, lanceolate with acuminate apex. Flowers are elongated, pinkish white coloured
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  106  with terminal panicle inflorescence. Fruits are drupe, blue coloured with oblong seeds. Rootsare with numerous nodular structures.Habitat – It is distributed all over India.Chemical composition – Hispidulin, 7-0-glucuronides, Scutellarein, Uncinatone andPectolinarigeninProperties -Rasa – Tikta, KatuGuna – Laghu, RookshaVeerya – UshnaVipaaka – KatuDosha karma – Kapha-Vata shaamakaKarma – Kasahara, JwaraharaIndications – Kasa, Shwasa, Shotha,Vrana, Krimi, Peenasa and JwaraPart used –RootsDose – Choorna – 3-6gm.Important formulations – Vidangadi churna, Bhaarangyaadi kashaaya and Bhaarangiguda8. Yava kshaara :-Latin name – Potasii carbonasSynonyms – Yavaapatya, Yavaja, Yaavashookaja, Yavaagraja, Yavaahwa, Yaavya,Yavanaalaja, Swarjikaa and Suvarchikaa .Chemical composition – Potassium chloride and Calcium chloride.PropertiesRasa – KatuGuna – Laghu, Rooksha, Teekshna, SaraVeerya – UshnaDosha karma – Kapha-Vata shaamakaKarma – Deepana and Vishaghna .Indications – Kasa, Shwasa, Galaroga,Udara, Vibandha, Paandu, Hrudroga andShoola.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  107  Important formulations- Vidangadi churna, Tumburvaadi choorna and Chitrakaadichoorna.Table No. 66 - Showing ingredient of Vidangadi churna and its properties :-Sl.No Name ofthe drugLatin name Rasa Guna Veerya Vipaka Doshaghnata Karma Partused1. Vidanga EmbeliaribesKatuKashayaTiktaLaghu,Rooksha,TeekshnaUshna Katu Kapha-VatashaamakaKrimighnaVishaghnaDeepanaFruit2. Naagara ZingiberofficinaleKatu Laghu,SnigdhaUshna Swaadu Kapha-VatashaamakaDeepana,VataanulomanaTuber3. Raasnaa AlpiniagalangaKatu LaghuRookshaTeekshnaUshna Katu Kapha-VatashaamakaVataghnaHrudyaTuber4. Pippalee PipperlongumKatu Laghu,Snigdha,TeekshnaUshna Swaadu KaphaVatashaamakaRasaayana,KasaharaShwasaharaFruit5. Hingu FerulanarthaxKatu Laghu,Snigdha,TeekshnaUshna Katu Kapha-VatashaamakaShulaharaAnulomakaDeepanaKrimiharaResin6. SaindavalavanaSodiichloridumLavanaSwaaduLaghuSnigdhaSukshmaSheeta Swaadu TridoshashaamakaDeepanaPaachana7. BhaarangiClerodendrum serratumTiktaKatuLaghu,RookshaUshna Katu Kapha-VatashaamakaKrimighnaKasahara,SwasaharaJwaraharaRoot8. YavakshaaraPotasiicarbonas- LaghuSnigdhaSukshma- - Kapha-VatashaamakaDeepana,ShwasaharaGalarogaharaAlong with Vidangadi churna, two different Anupana i.e, Ghrita and Ushna jala hasbeen administered for the comparative clinical study. The details of Ghrita and Ushna jala aregiven below ;Ghrita :-
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  108  Ghrita is the first and foremost essential of all foods and central element of Vedicculture. It is one among the ‘nitya sevaneeya aaharaa dravya’ It is considered as shreshtabecause it is used from birth and saatmya to all. It alleviates Vata by its snigdhata, Pittaby soumya guna, Kapha by samskaara, hence it is capable of tridoshahara i.e. alleviatesVata, Pitta, Kapha respectively because of maadhuryataa, avidaahitva and samskaarasyaanuvartanam.Ghee is a clarified butter fat, considered as vehicle for various medicines, as itincreases the potency of medicine. It can be used both internally and externally. Inpanchakarma, it is commonly used for snehana, basti, karnapoorana, akshitarpana,nasya. In India fresh ghee is used daily for cooking and for worship. Fresh ghee is a richsource of vit A, D, E, K and it can be given through intramuscular injections as anantidote in case of Rickets and Tuberculosis. Ghrita is considered as a best sneha dravya.Among the varieties of Ghrita, Go-Ghrita is considered as best. So the Go-Ghrita wastaken for the present study.Latin name :– Butarum deparatumEnglish Name :- Indian clarified Butter, GheeTable No. 67 - Showing synonyms of Ghrita;Sl.No Synonyms D.N R.N B.P.N K.D.N M.P.N D.G.H S.K.D V.S.S1. Ghrita        2. Aajya        3. Havi        4. Sarpi        5. Pavitram   X  X X  6. Navaneetaka X X X X X X  
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  109  7. Navaneetaja   X  X X X X8. Jeevaneeya  X X  X X X X9. Amrutam   X X X X  10. Amrutaahvaya X X X   X X X11. Abhighaaraha   X  X X  12. Aaghaara X X X   X X X13. Homya X  X X X X  14. Aayu X  X X X X  15. Taijasa X  X X X X  16. Aajam X X X X X X  17. Purodasha X X X X X X X 18. Toyadam X X X X X X X 19. Vanhibhogyam X X X X X X X 20. Poutham X X X X X X X Table No. 68 - Showing gana vargeekarana of Ghrita;Guna karma of Ghrita :-Table No. 69 - Showing different gunakarmaas of Ghrita in different classics;Sl.No Guna karma C.S S.S A.H B.P.N K.D.N D.N1. Nirvaapana  X X X X XSl.No Aachaaryaas Varga1. Charaka Samhitaa Go-rasa2. Sushruta Samhitaa Ghrita3. Ashtaanga Hrudaya Ksheera4. Ashtaanga Sangraha Ksheera6. Bhaavaprakaasha Nighantu Ghrita7. Dhanwantari Nighantu Suvarnaadi8. Kaiyyadeva Nighantu Ghrita9. Raja Nighantu Ksheeraadi10. Madanapaala Nighantu Paneeyadi11. Priyaa Nighantu Drava
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  110  2. Mrudukara  X X X X X3. Svaraprasaada      X4. Varnaprasaada  X X X  X5. Smruti vruddhi      6. Buddhi vruddi    X  7. Agni vruddhi      8. Meda vruddhi X     9. Kaanti vruddhi X     10. Soukumaarya X   X X 11. Balakara X     12. Aayushya X    X 13. Vayasthaapana X     X14. Chakshushya X     15. Rasaayana X X X  X X16. Ojo vruddhi      X17. Tejo vruddhi X  X  X X18. Laavanya vruddhi X  X  X X19. Rochana X X X  X X20. Jeevana X X X X  X21. Brihmana X X X X  XIndications of Ghrita for different rogaas :-Table No. 70 - Showing indications of Ghrita for different rogaas ;Sl.No Indications C.S S.S A.H B.P.N K.D.N D.N1. Unmaada     X X2. Shosha  X   X X
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  111  Table No. 71 - Showing actions of Ghrita over different Dhaatus :-Sl.No Action on dhaatu C.S S.S A.H B.P.N K.D.N D.N1. Rasa vruddhi  X X X X X2. Rakta shaamaka X X X  X X3. Jeevana (for Rakta) X X X X  X4. Medo vruddhi  X X X X X5. Shukra vruddhi      Chemical composition of ghee :-Ghee contains mainly glycerols, glyceryl, free fatty acids, fat soluble vitamins,phospholipids, cholesterol, ethers and alcohol. The total proportions of about 3-4 % ofpolyunsaturated fatty acids are present in ghee. The fatty acid composition greatly influences3. Jwara     X X4. Mada  X X X X X5. Apasmaara   X  X X6. Moorcha  X X X X X7. Gara  X X X X X8. Yoniroga  X X X X X9. Karnaroga  X X X X X10. Shiroroga  X X X X X11. Udaavarta X  X  X X12. Kusta X X X  X X13. Shoola X  X  X X14. Aanaha X  X  X X15. Kshataksheena X X  X X 
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  112  the fat contents, rheological properties such as melting and crystallization behavior,solubility, surface activity, and ability to form emulsions.Ushna jala :-Jala or water is the nectar for all the living creatures. It is one among theMahaabhootaas according to Indian philosophy. According modern philosophers lifebeginned at ocean that is in water. Aadi Shankaraachaarya quoted that the water comes fromthe heaven and gets collected in the form of the sea on the earth.According to Taitireeya Upanishad, the Aakaasha is originated from Aatmaa andfrom that Vaayu, Agni, Ap mahaabhoota in the sequence of genesis. Jala is the essentialfactor for the maintenance of life hence called amrita and jeevana. Water is essential inhealth as well as in disease conditions like diarrhea, dehydration, dysuria and fever. Charakaconsidered jala as the base for taste. There are many types of jala explained in Ayurvedicclassics under jala varga. One of such is Ushna jala.Latin name – AquaEnglish name – Hot waterTable No. 72 - Showing gana vargeekarana of Ushna jala;Sl.No Aachaaryaas Varga1. Sushruta Samhitaa Jala2. Ashtaanga Sangraha Jala3. Ashtaanga Hrudaya Toya4. Dhanwanthari Nighantu Jala5. Kaiyyadeva Nighantu Jala6. Shodhala Nighantu Paaneeya7. Raja Nighantu Paaneeya8. Maadhava Dravyagun Toya9. Madanapaala Nighantu Paaneeya10. Harithakyaadi Nighantu Vaari11. Priyaa Nighantu JalaMethod of preparation of Ushna jala :-
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  113  There are different methods told for the preparation of Ushna jala by differentaachaaryaas. One of such method is prepared just by boiling the water.109Qualities of Ushna jala 110:-Rasa – MadhuraGuna – LaghuVeerya – SheetaVipaaka – SwaaduDosha karma – Tridosha shaamakaGunakarma of Ushna jala :-Table No. 73 - Showing the qualities of Ushna jala by different aachaaryaas;Sl.No Gura karma C.S S.S A.S A.H K.S Y.R Sha.S B.P1. Deepana   X     X2. Kapha vicchedee X  X X X X X X3. Pittaanulomana X  X X X X X X4. Vaataanulomana   X X X X X X5. Kapha jwara X  X X X X X X6. Vata jwara X  X X X X X X7. Kapha-Vata jwara X  X X X X X X8. Jwarahara   X X X   9. Trushnaa   X X  X X X10. Chedana X  X X X X X X11. Dosha maardavataa X  X X X X X X12. Sroto maardavataa X  X X X X X X13. Kaphahara X  X     14. Medohara X  X X X   15. Anilahara X  X    X 16. Aamahara X   X X  X 17. Basti shodhana X  X  X   X18. Shwasahara X  X  X   19. Kasahara X  X  X   20. Sadaa pathya X  X X X  X 21. Snehapaana X   X X X X X
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  114  22. Vishtabdha X X  X X X X X23. Anna kledakaaraka X X  X X X X X24. Agni naashana* X X  X X X X X25. Solves the aamaashayavibaddha due to KaphaX X  X X X X X26. Solves the aamaashayavibaddha due to VataX X  X X X X X27. Pachyatekshipramaahaara X  X X X X X28. Paachana  X X  X X X 29. Kantya X X X  X X X X30. Highmaa X X X   X X X31. Aadhmaana X X X  X X X X32. Nava jwara X X X  X X X X33. Apeenasa X X X  X X X X34. Paarshwa ruk X X X  X X X X35. Ghrita paana X X X X  X X X36. Shoolahara X X X X  X X X37. Arochaka X X X X  X X X38. Vibandha X X X X  X X X39. Gulma X X X X  X X X40. Vrana mrudukarana X X X X  X X X41. Dhaatu mrudukarana X X X X  X X X42. Aamavaata X X X X X X  X43. Pitta X X X X X X X 44. Vamana  X X X X X X X45. Apatarpanakara  X X X X X X X46. Shleshma parishoshana  X X X X X X X* It does agni naashana if consumed in excess quantity.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa  Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat  115  MATERIALS AND METHODSThis part deals with the materials and methods of the research work carried out in thestudy.MATERIALS :-1. Literary study 2. Drugs 3. InstrumentsCollection of Materials -1) Literary StudyThe Literary source for the present study was obtained from ; Charaka Samhitaa withcommentaries Sushruta Samhitaa withcommentary Ashtaanga Sangraha withcommentary Ashtaanga Hrudaya withcommentaries Kashyapa Samhitaa Bhela Samhitaa Haareeta Samhitaa Laghutrayees Vangasena Gada Nigraha Ayurveda Ka Vaijnanika Itihasa Anupana Manjari Anupana Darpana Anupana Kalpataru Dravyaguna books and Nighantus Rasashaatra books like RasaTarangini, Ayurveda Prakasha andAananda Kanda etc. Modern text books Websites Retrospective studySources of the data -
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 118 The literary sources for the present work were obtained from ; Library, Govt Ayurveda Medical College, Mysore Library, S.D.M. College of Ayurveda and Hospital, Hassan Library, J.S.S. Ayurveda Medical College, Mysore2) Drugs Vidangadi churna Ghrita for Anupana Ushna jala for AnupanaVidangadi churna :-Preparation of Vidangadi churna :-First time the yoga was prepared on 14-10-2008 and second time on 04-05-2009. Thequantities of individual ingredients in Vidangadi churna are taken both the times as givenbelow ;Table No. 74 - Showing the ingredients of Vidangadi churna with quantities ;Sl.No Ingredients Quantities in gms1. Vidanga 5002. Naagara 5003. Raasnaa 5004. Pippalee 5005. Hingu 62.56. Saindhava lavana 5007. Bhaarangi 5008. Yavakshaara 500The ingredients in Vidangadi churna are Vidanga, Naagara, Raasna, Pippalee,Hingu Saindhava lavana, Bhaarangi and Yavakshaara. For the present study all the drugswere purchased from Govindaraj Setty and son’s Pansari shop, Devaraj Urs road, Mysore.All the drugs except Hingu were taken, cleaned and made into fine powder in a Mill nearBannimantapa and filtered in Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana laboratory of GAMC,
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 119 Mysore. Then equal quantity of each drugs are taken and mixed well. The quantity of Hingutaken was 1/8thpart of a drug such that it should not cause utklesha. SharangadharaIt was madebharjana with Ghrita to make it free from impurities and to make powder easily. Then it waspowdered and added with other drugs and the churna was used for the present study.Ghrita :-The proper Go-Ghrita was collected from a village at Honnavar which was preparedwithout adding salt, turmeric etc.Ushna jala :-Ushna jala was told to prepare by the patients by just boiling before consuming theVidangadi churna.Instruments :-Torch light, Stethoscope, Sphygmomanometer, Thermometer, Measuring cups, Small plasticcovers were used for the present study.Measuring cups - Measuring cups were given to each patients coming under Ghrita andUshna jala group for measuring the Anupana dravya while consuming the medicine.Small plastic covers - Small plastic covers were used to fill the churna for each dose. Eachsmall plastic cover was filled with 4gms of Vidangadi churna and total 45 covers were usedfor each patient. 4gms of Vidangadi churna was measured initially with the help of digitalweighing machine in Shankar Setty and son’s jewelers, K.R.circle, Mysore and later ondecided the quantity by putting into measuring cups.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 120 METHODOLOGYAim -To study the role of Anupana in chikitsa by clinical trail by taking Vidangadi churnayoga with Ghrita, Ushna jala and without Anupana in Vataja Kasa.Methods:1. Literary -In the present study, the literary work was done on the basis of Doota sandesha vidhi,Samucchaya vidhi and Nirdesha tantrayukti. The discussion was written on the basis ofOoncha shiloccha nyaaya by applying relevant tantrayuktis, saptavidha kalpanaas andarthaashrayaas.2. Methods of clinical study -The comparative clinical study with different Anupana was done on the basis of VidyaaKalpanaa.Note - Doota sandesha vidhi - Whatever told in the text was written as it is Samucchaya vidhi - Represents the collection of all matter related to particular topic Nirdesha tantrayukti - Elaborate explanation of concise matter Ooncha shiloccha nyaaya - It represents the selection of collected matters Vidyaa Kalpanaa - Application and introduction of Anya shastra vishayas for betterunderstanding of the present topic.Objectives of the study - To understand and explain precisely the concept of Anupana and Sahapana. To study the role of Anupana in Chikitsa. To assess the effect of Ghrita as an Anupana with Vidangadi churna in Vataja Kasa.Research design -
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 121 Clinical study -All the diagnosed patients of Vataja Kasa were made into three groups consisting of10 patients in each group. They are administered Vidangadi churna along with Ghrita, Ushnajala and without Anupana respectively to evaluate the efficacy of the Anupana and the drugclinically.Sources of the patients -Patients who fulfill the diagnostic criteria were taken from OPD, IPD and specialcamps conducted in Govt Ayurveda Medical College and Hospital, Mysore were selected forthe study.Method of collection of data - Patients suffering from Vataja Kasa belonging to either sex were selected by lotterymethod and made into three groups. Informed consent was obtained before study. Patients were studied with a detailed case-sheet proforma prepared for the study.Inclusion Criteria - The individuals coming under diagnostic criteria were selected. Individuals of either sex between the age group 17-60 years were selected. The individuals willing for the treatment were selected.Exclusion criteria - Pregnant and lactating women were excluded. Individuals with other systemic disorders were excluded. Eosinophilia with other respiratory problems like bronchial asthama etc. wereexcluded.Diagnostic criteria - Shushka Kasa Vega
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 122  Kapha shushkata Alpa kaphata Kapha which comes out with krucchrata Hrut shoola/Ura shoola (chest pain) due to excess Kasa Raised eosinophil count above 400 cells/mm3Sampling method - Patients of Vataja Kasa were selected randomly by lottery method and made in tothree groups.Research design - It is a Controlled Clinical Single Blind study with pre and post design where there arethree groups, each group consisting of 10 patients.Investigations - Absolute Eosinophil Count (AEC)Intervention -Group A –Yoga - Vidangadi churnaAnupana – Ushna jalaSevanakala – Bhojanottara (After food)Maatraa - 4g thrice in a day with 4ml of Ushna jalaDuration – Fifteen daysPathyapathya were advised as per classics.Follow up - Fifteen days.Group B –Yoga - Vidangadi churnaAnupana – Ghrita
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 123 Sevanakala – Bhojanottara (After food)Maatraa - 4g thrice in a day with 4g of GhritaDuration – Fifteen daysPathyapathya were advised as per classics.Follow up - Fifteen days.Group C –Yoga - Vidangadi churnaAnupana – No AnupanaSevanakala – Bhojanottara (After food)Maatraa - 4g thrice in a dayDuration – Fifteen daysPathyapathya were advised as per classics.Follow up - Fifteen days.Pilot study for group C – As the palatability of the Vidangadi churna without Anupanaseemed to be difficult to consume, a pilot study was conducted by administering Vidangadichurna without Anupana to six patients. During and after administration patients did notshow any complications. So group C was made to find the role of Anupana.Assessment criteria -Assessment was done based on subjective parameter, objective parameter andobservational parameter.For the assessment of the treatment following subjective parameters were consideredand they were graded and scores were given as follows ;Subjective parameter :-Shushka kasa Vega - No Kasa Vega - 1 Alpa Kasa Vega 3-4 times/day - 2 Muhurmuhu Kasa Vega more than 3-4 times/day - 3
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 124  Kasa Vega which disturbs the sleep - 4Hrut shoola (chest pain)/ Ura shoola due to excess Kasa - No Hrut shoola - 1 Hrut shoola (chest pain)/ Ura shoola at Kasa Vega - 2 Hrut shoola (chest pain)/ Ura shoola persists 1-2hrs after Kasa vega - 3 Hrut shoola (chest pain)/ Ura shoola which disturbs the sleep - 4Parshwa shoola - No Parshwa shoola - 1 Parshwa shoola at Kasa Vega - 2 Parshwa shoola persists 1-2hrs after Kasa vega - 3 Parshwa shoola which disturbs the sleep - 4Shira shoola - No Shira shoola - 1 Shira shoola at Kasa Vega - 2 Shira shoola persists 1-2hrs after Kasa vega - 3 Shira shoola which disturbs the sleep - 4Shankha shoola - No Shankha shoola - 1 Shankha shoola at Kasa Vega - 2 Shanka shoola persists 1-2hrs after Kasa vega - 3 Shankha shoola which disturbs the sleep - 4Udara shoola - No Udara shoola - 1 Udara shoola at Kasa Vega - 2 Udara shoola persists 1-2hrs after Kasa vega - 3 Udara shoola which disturbs the sleep - 4Objective parameter :-Absolute Eosinophil count - 40 – 400 cells/mm3 -1
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 125  401 – 1000 cells/mm3- 2 1001 – 2000 cells/mm3- 3 2001 above - 4Observational parameter :- Shushka ura Present/Absent Shushka kantha Present/Absent Shushka vaktra Present/Absent Nirghosha Present/Absent Swarabheda Present/Absent Lomaharsha Present/Absent Deenata Present/Absent Dourbalya Present/Absent Kshobha Present/Absent Moha Present/Absent Mahaavega Present/Absent Pratamyata Present/Absent Kshamanana Present/AbsentPilot study for fixing the assessment criteria –To fix the assessment parameters a pilot study was conducted. Eg- A patientcomplained with hrut shoola (chest pain due to excess Kasa) had the symptom till 1-2hrsafter Kasa vega. Based on the signs and symptoms of the patient the abow parameters weremade.Data collection -Data was collected before treatment, after treatment and at the end of follow up i.e,on 1stday, 15thday and 30thday.Assessment -
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 126 Assessment of the patients was made before treatment, after treatment and at the endof follow up. The data was collected and analyzed for the total scores before treatment, aftertreatment and after follow up was assessed by using ;• Contingency Co-efficient• Chi-square test• Descriptives• Independent-Samples t-TestAll the statistical methods were carried out through the SPSS for Windows (version 16.0).
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 127 OBSERVATIONSTotal 30 patients coming under the inclusion criteria were randomly taken by lottery methodfor the clinical study and made into three groups. Observations in the present study weredone in following manner ; General Observations Observation during intervention Observation on resultsGeneral observations -In the present study total 32 patients were registered, out of which 2 patientsdiscontinued the treatment during various stages of the clinical study and with 30 patients theclinical study was completed.Age –Table No. 75 - Showing age wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa ;Age groups(in years)No of patients Percentage19-30 11 36.731-40 7 23.341-50 6 20.051-60 6 20.0Descriptives statistics –
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 128 Table No. 76 - Showing age wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja KasaGroups N Mean Std. deviation Minimum MaximumGroup-A 10 39.3000 14.8178 19.00 60.00Group-B 10 34.3000 14.2287 19.00 60.00Group-C 10 40.7000 10.0670 28.00 60.00Total 30 38.1000 13.0473 19.00 60.00Table No. 77 - Showing age wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja KasaIndependent Samples Test1.583 28 .125 7.8000Equal variancesassumedAGEt df Sig. (2-tailed)MeanDifferencet-test for Equality of MeansIn present study age group between 16-60 yrs were selected. It was found that thepatients of age group between 19-30 yrs were 11 (36.7%), 31-40 yrs were 7 (23.3%) 41-50 yrs were 6 (20.0%) and 51-60 yrs were 6 (20.0%).Sex –Table No. 78 - Showing sex wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa;Sex No of patients PercentageMale 20 66.7Female 10 33.3Group StatisticsTable No. 79 - Showing sex wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa;
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 129 SEX N Mean Std.Deviation Std. Error MeanMale 20 40.7000 12.9822 2.9029Female 10 32.9000 12.1514 3.8426 In the present study it was observed that more number of patients were male i.e., 20(66.7%) and female patients were 10 (33.3%).Marital status –Table No. 80 -Showing marital status wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa;Marital status No of patients PercentageMarried 25 83.3Unmarried 5 16.7In the present study it was observed that majority of patients were married i.e.25 (83.3%) and unmarried were 5 (16.7%).Religion –Table No. 81 - Showing religion wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa;Religion No of patients Percentage
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 130 Hindu 27 90.0Muslim 3 10.0In the present study it was observed that majority of patients were belonging to Hinducommunity i.e., 27 (90.0%) and 3 (10.0%) were Muslim community.Educational status –Table No. 82 - Showing educational status wise distribution of 30 patients in VatajaKasa;Educational status No of patients PercentageUneducated 3 10.0Primary 4 13.3SSLC 8 26.7PUC 4 13.3Graduate 7 23.3Post Graduate 4 13.3In the present study it was observed that uneducated patients were 3 (10.0%), primarywere 4 (13.3%), SSLC were 8 (26.7%), PUC were 4 (13.3%), graduates were 7 (23.3) andpost- graduates were 4 (13.3%)Occupation –Table No. 83 - Showing occupation status wise distribution of 30 patients in VatajaKasa;
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 131 Occupation No of patients PercentageStudent 4 13.3Sweeper 1 3.3Officers 2 6.7Clerk 2 6.7Teacher 1 3.3Merchant 2 6.7House wife 6 20.0Building constructor 1 3.3Cook 1 3.3Cooli 4 13.3Agriculture 1 3.3Priest 1 3.3Bus agent 1 3.3Engineer 1 3.3Cleaner 2 6.7In the present study it was observed that students and cooli were 4 (13.3%) each,house- wives were 6 (20.0%), officers, clerk, merchant and cleaner were 2 (6.7%) each andsweeper, teacher, building constructor, cook, agriculture, priest, bus agent and engineer were1 (3.3%) each.Socio economic status –Table No. 84 - Showing socio economic status wise distribution of 30 patients in VatajaKasa;Socio economic status No. of patients PercentagePoor 5 16.7
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 132 Middle 23 76.7Rich 2 6.7In the present study it was observed that poor patients were 5 (16.7%), middle-classwere 23 (76.7%) and rich were 2 (6.7%).Location –Table No. 85 - Showing location wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa;Location No. of patients PercentageUrban 20 66.7Rural 10 33.3In the present study it was observed that 20 (66.7%) patients were from urban and 10(33.3%) from rural.Fresh and treated case –Table No. 86-Showing fresh and treated wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa;Case No. of patients PercentageFresh 8 26.7Treated 22 73.3In the present study it was observed that 8 (26.7%) patients were fresh and 22(73.3%) patients were treated.Mode of onset -Table No. 87 -Showing mode of onset wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa;Mode of onset No. of patients PercentageAcute 4 13.3
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 133 Gradual 26 86.7In the present study it was observed that 4 (13.3%) had acute onset and 26 (86.7%)had gradual onset.Course –Table No. 88 - Showing course wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa;Course No. of patients PercentageContinuous 3 10.0Intermittent 27 90.0In the present study it was observed that 3 (10.0%) patients had continuous courseand 27 (90.0%) had intermittent course.Periodicity -Table No. 89 - Showing periodicity wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa;Periodicity No. of patients PercentageSeasonal 15 50.0Irregular 15 50.0In the present study it was observed that both seasonal and irregular periodicity wereseen with 15 (50.0%) each.Occurrence –Table No. 90 - Showing occurrence wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa;Occurrence No. of patients PercentageDay 3 10.0
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 134 Night 22 73.3Persistent 5 16.7In the present study it was observed that 3 (10.0%) patients had occurrence ofKasavega in day, 22 (73.3%) in night and 5 (16.7%) had persistent.Severity –Table No. 91 - Showing severity wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa;Severity No. of patients PercentageMild 1 3.3Moderate 20 66.7Severe 9 30.0In the present study it was observed that 1 (3.3%) had mild 20 (66.7%) had moderateand 9 (30.0%) had severe Vataja Kasa.Koshta –Table No. 92 – Showing koshta wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa;Koshta No. of patients PercentageMrudu 4 13.3Madhyama 20 66.7Kroora 6 20.0In the present study it was observed that 4 (13.3%) patient had mrudu koshta, 20(66.7%) with madhyama and 6 (20.0%) with kroora koshta.Agni –Table No. 93 – Showing agni wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa;Agni No. of patients PercentageVishama 10 33.3
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 135 Manda 20 66.7In the present study it was observed that 10 (33.3%) had vishamaagni and 20 (66.7%)had mandaagni.Nidraa –Table No. 94 – Showing nidraa wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa;Nidraa No. of patients PercentagePraakruta 11 36.7Ati 2 6.7Alpa 17 56.7In the present study it was observed that 11 (36.7%) had praakruta nidraa, 2 (6.7%)had ati nidraa and 17 (56.7%) had alpa nidraa.Coffee –Table No. 95 – Showing coffee intake wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa;Coffee No. of patients PercentageYes 16 53.3No 14 46.7In the present study it was observed that 16 (53.3%) patients were having the habit oftaking coffee and 14 (46.7%) were not having the habit of coffee.Tea –Table No. 96 - Showing tea intake wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa;Tea No. of patients PercentageYes 13 43.3
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 136 No 17 56.7In the present study it was observed that 13 (43.3%) patients were having the habit oftaking tea and 17 (56.7%) were not having the habit of taking tea.Tobacco –Table No.97-Showing tobacco intake wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa;Tobacco No. of patients PercentageYes 4 13.3No 26 86.7In the present study it was observed that 4 (13.3%) patients were having the habit oftaking tobacco and 26 (86.7%) were not having the habit of taking tobacco.Smoking –Table No. 98 - Showing smoking wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa;Smoking No. of patients PercentageYes 6 20.0No 24 80.0In the present study it was observed that 6 (20.0%) patients were having the habit ofsmoking and 24 (80.0%) were not having the habit of smoking.Alcohol –Table No. 99 -Showing alcohol intake wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa;Alcohol No. of patients PercentageYes 8 26.7
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 137 No 22 73.3In the present study it was observed that 8 (26.7%) patients were having the habit oftaking alcohol and 22 (73.3%) were not having the habit of taking alcohol.Diet –Table No. 100 – Showing diet wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa;Diet No. of patients PercentageVeg 7 23.3Mixed 23 76.7In the present study it was observed that 7 (23.3%) patients were vegetarian and 23(76.7%) were having mixed diet.Naadi –Table No. 101 – Showing naadi wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa;Naadi No. of patients PercentageVP 27 90.0PK 1 3.3KV 2 6.7In the present study it was observed that 27 (90.0%) patients had Vata-Pitta naadi, 1(3.3%) had Pitta-Kapha and 2 (6.7%) patients had Kapha-Vata naadi.Prakruti –Table No. 102 – Showing prakruti wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa;Prakruti No. of patients PercentageVP 20 66.7
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 138 PK 6 20.0KV 3 10.0KP 1 3.3In the present study it was observed that 20 (66.7%) patients had Vata-Pitta prakruti,6 (20.0 %) had Pitta-Kapha prakruti, 3 (10.0%) had Kapha-Vata prakruti and 1 (3.3%)patient had Kapha-Pitta prakruti.Rogi bala –Table No. 103 – Showing rogi bala wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa;Rogi bala No. of patients PercentagePravara 12 40.0Madhyama 18 60.0In the present study it was observed that 12 (40.0%) patients had pravara bala and 18(60.0%) had madhyama bala.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 139 ObservationsIllustration No. 1 – Showing age wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa;Illustration No. 2 – Showing sex wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa;Illustration No. 3 – Showing marital status wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa;
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 140 Illustration No. 4 – Showing religion wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa;Illustration No. 5 – Showing occupation wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa;Illustration No. 6– Showing socio economic status wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa;
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 141 Illustration No. 7 – Showing locality wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa;Illustration No. 8 – Showing fresh and treated wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa;Illustration No. 9 – Showing mode of onset wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa;
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 142 Illustration No. 10 – Showing course wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa;Illustration No. 11 – Showing periodicity wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa;Illustration No. 12 – Showing occurrence wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa;
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 143 Illustration No. 13 – Showing severity wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa;Illustration No. 14 – Showing koshta wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa;Illustration No. 15 – Showing agni wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa;
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 144 Illustration No. 16 – Showing nidraa wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa;Illustration No. 17 – Showing diet wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa;Illustration No. 18 – Showing naadi wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa;
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 145 Illustration No. 19 – Showing prakruti wise distribution of 30 patients in Vataja Kasa;
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 146 Observations during Intervention –Group A - Most patients had agni maandya and alpa nidraa as one of the presenting symptom. Medicine given was accepted with difficulty due to non-palatability. Also, someadverse effects like burning sensation in chest, burning sensation in abdomen andsome had loose stools after consumption of Vidangadi Churna. All the patients got relief from agni maandya and alpa nidraa by consumingVidangadi Churna with Ushna jala. Most of the patients got relief from the Vataja Kasa lakshanaas clinically and inlaboratory findings the result is better than group C. Three patients had other symptoms like kanta kandu, pratishyaaya and kshavathu.Group B – Most patients had agni maandya and alpa nidraa as one of the presenting symptom. Some of the patients got cured from the Kasa vega within two or three days ofadministration of Vidangadi churna along with Ghrita. All the patients got cured from the symptoms of Vataja Kasa clinically duringtreatment and after follow up also and in most of the patients laboratory findings alsoshowed good improvement when compared to other two groups. All the patients got relief from agni maandya and alpa nidraa. Two patients had other associated symptoms like kanta kandu and pratishyaaya. One patient developed throat pain after taking Ghrita as Anupana and discontinuedthe treatment in the middle.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 147 Group C - Most patients had agni maandya and alpa nidraa as one of the presenting symptom. Medicine given was accepted with difficulty due to non-palatability and patients wereconvinced with difficulty. Most of the patient got relief from Vataja Kasa symptoms clinically at the end of thecourse but no much difference in laboratory findings. All the patients got relief from agni maandya and alpa nidraa. Three patients had other associated symptoms like kanta kandu, pratishyaaya andone patient got kshavathu after follow up. One patient discontinued the treatment in the middle of the course but the reasoncould not be elicited.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 148 RESULTSResult related observations:-The results on lakshanaas of Vataja Kasa before treatment, after treatment and afterfollow up based on the subjective, objective and observational parameters are explainedbelow ;Results based on subjective parameter :-Table No. 104 – Showing results of Kasa vega;Groups Assessment No KasavegaAlpa KasavegaMuhurmuhuKasa vegaKasa vega whichdisturbs the sleepBT 0 1 9 0AT 4 5 1 0Group AAF 9 1 0 0BT 0 3 4 3AT 4 5 1 0Group BAF 9 1 0 0Group C BTATAF027263820000Table No. 105 – Showing Symmetric Measures in Kasa vega;Groups Value Approx. Sig.Group A Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .698 .000Group B Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .661 .001Group C Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .646 .000
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 149 In Group A before treatment 9 patients had Grade III Kasa vega, 1 patient had GradeII Kasa vega. After Treatment 5 patients attained Grade II Kasa vega and 4 attained Grade IKasa vega. After follow up majority of the patients i.e, 9 showed improvement and attainedGrade I Kasa vega and 1 had Grade II Kasa vega.In Group B before treatment 3 patients had Grade IV Kasa vega, 4 had Grade III, 3had Grade II. After treatment none of the patients had Grade IV Kasa vega, 1 had Grade III,5 had Grade II and 4 had Grade I. After follow up, 9 showed improvement and attainedGrade I Kasa vega and 1 had Grade II Kasa vega.In Group C before treatment, 8 patients had Grade III, 2 had Grade II. After treatment2 patients Grade III, 6 had Grade II, 2 attained Grade I. After follow up, 7 showedimprovement and attained Grade I Kasa vega and 3 had Grade II Kasa vega.On observation of results, it has been noted that in group A and C, there isimprovement in Kasa vega from Grade III to Grade I and the result showed statisticallyhighly significant at P value 0.000. In Group B, there is significant improvement of Kasavega from Grade IV to I at P value 0.001.Table No. 106 - Showing results of Hrut shoola;
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 150 Groups Assessment No Hrut shoola Hrut shoola at KasavegaHrut shoola persistsafter Kasa vegaBT 4 5 1AT 9 1 0Group AAF 10 0 0BT 3 6 1AT 8 2 0Group BAF 10 0 0Group CBTATAF6810420000Table No. 107 – Showing Symmetric Measures in Hrut shoola;Groups Value Approx. Sig.Group A Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .530 .020Group B Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .546 .013Group C Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .378 .082In Group A and B, there is improvement of Hrut shoola from Grade III to Grade I. InGroup C there is improvement from Grade II to Grade I. Group B is statistically significant atp value 0.013.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 151 Table No. 108 - Showing results of Parshwa shoola;Groups Assessment No ParshwashoolaParshwa shoolaat Kasa vegaParshwa shoola persistsafter Kasa vegaBT 3 5 2AT 9 1 0Group AAF 10 0 0BT 6 3 1AT 9 1 0AF 10 0 0BT 3 6 1AT 8 2 0Group BGroup CAF 10 0 0Table No. 109 - Showing Symmetric Measures in Parshwa shoola;In Group A, majority of the patients showed improvement in Parshwa shoola at Pvalue 0.005. In Group B and C also there is improvement in Parshwa shoola, but there is nostatistical significance in Parshwa shoola.Groups Value Approx. Sig.Group A Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .576 .005Group B Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .423 .162Group C Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .546 .013
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 152 Table No. 110 - Showing results of Shira shoola;Groups Assessment NoShirashoolaShirashoola atKasa vegaShirashoolapersists afterKasa vegaShirashoolathat disturbsthe sleepBT 2 5 3 0AT 9 1 0 0Group AAF 10 0 0 0BT 3 6 1 0AT 9 1 0 0Group BAF 10 0 0 0BT 2 6 1 1AT 8 2 0 0Group CAF 9 1 0 0Table No. 111 - Showing Symmetric Measures in Shira shoola;Groups Value Approx. Sig.Group A Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .617 .001Group B Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .574 .005Group C Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .553 .040In Group A, there is improvement in Shirashoola and results also showed statisticallyhighly significant at P value 0.001. Group B showed significant improvements results at Pvalue 0.005 whereas Group C showed no statistical significance P value 0.040.Table No. 112 - Showing results of Shankha shoola;
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 153 Groups Assessment No ShankhashoolaShankha shoolaat Kasa vegaShankha shoola persistsafter Kasa vegaBT 5 4 1AT 10 0 0Group AAF 10 0 0BT 4 5 1AT 9 1 0AF 10 0 0BT 4 5 1AT 9 1 0Group BGroup CAF 10 0 0Table No. 113 - Showing Symmetric Measures in Shankha shoola;Groups Value Approx. Sig.Group A Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .535 .017Group B Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .530 .020Group C Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .530 .020There is improvement of Shankha shoola from Grade III to Grade I. but there is nostatistical significant in any of the groups.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 154 Table No. 114 - Showing results of Udara shoola -Groups Assessment No UdarashoolaUdara shoola atKasa vegaUdara shoola persistsafter Kasa vegaBT 8 1 1AT 10 0 0Group AAF 10 0 0BT 10 0 0AT 10 0 0AF 10 0 0BT 8 1 1AT 10 0 0Group BGroup CAF 10 0 0Table No. 115 - Showing Symmetric Measures in Udara shoola;Groups Value Approx. Sig.Group A Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .354 .369Group B Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .Group C Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .354 .369The results showed that there is no statistically significant in Udara shoola in GroupsA and C. In Group B no case was reported with the complaint of Udara shoola.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 155 Result based on the objective parameter -Table No. 116 - Showing results of Absolute Eosinophil Count (AEC);Groups Assessment 40-400cells/mm3401-1000cells/mm31001-2000cells/mm3Above 2000cells/mm3BT 0 7 3 0AT 1 7 2 0Group AAF 2 8 0 0BT 0 6 3 1AT 5 4 1 0Group BAF 5 4 1 0BT 0 7 3 0AT 0 6 4 0Group CAF 1 6 3 0Table No. 117 - Showing Symmetric Measures in AEC;Groups Value Approx. Sig.Group-A Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .374 .299Group-B Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .484 .164Group-C Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .267 .680In Group A before treatment 7 patients had Grade II AEC, 3 patients had Grade III.After treatment 1 patient attained Grade I, and 7 patients had Grade II and 2 patients hadGrade III. Where as after follow up 2 patients attained Grade I and 8 had Grade II AEC.In Group B before treatment 6 patients had Grade II AEC, 3 had Grade III, 1 hadGrade IV. After treatment and after follow up 5 patients attained Grade I AEC, 4 attainedGrade II, 1 patient with Grade III.In Group C before treatment, 7 patients had Grade II AEC, 3 had Grade III. Aftertreatment 6 patients attained Grade II, 4 had Grade III. After follow up, 1 attained Grade Iand 6 attained Grade II and 3 patients with Grade III.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 156 There was no statistical significance in any of the groups. However in Group B 50% ofthe patients showed improvement after treatment and also after follow up period.Result based on observational parameter –Table No. 118 – Showing the results in Kapha shushkataa, alpa kaphataa and kaphakrucchrataa;Groups Assessment Present AbsentBT 5 5AT 3 7Group AAF 0 10BT 3 7AT 0 10Group BAF 0 10BT 6 4AT 2 8Group CAF 1 9Table No. 119 - Showing Symmetric Measures in Kapha shushkataa, alpa kaphataa andkapha krucchrataa;Groups Value Approx. Sig.Group A Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .421 .039Group B Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .426 .036Group C Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .426 .036There is no statistical significance in Kapha shushkataa, alpa kaphataa and Kaphakrucchrataa in any of the groups.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 157 Table No. 120 – Showing the results in Shushka ura, Shushka kanta and Shushkavaktra;Groups Assessment Present AbsentBT 5 5AT 1 9Group AAF 0 10BT 3 7AT 0 10Group BAF 0 10BT 7 3AT 2 8Group CAF 0 10Table No. 121 - Showing Symmetric Measures in Shushka ura, Shushka kanta andShushka vaktra;Symmetric MeasuresGroups Value Approx. Sig.Group A Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .475 .013Group B Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .426 .036Group C Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .540 .002There is no statistical significance in Shushka ura, Shushka kanta and Shushka vaktrain group A and B. Groups C showed statistically significant at p value at 0.002.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 158 Table No. 122 – Showing the results in Nirghosha;Groups Assessment Present AbsentBT 6 4AT 0 10Group AAF 0 10BT 6 4AT 1 9Group BAF 0 10BT 4 6AT 1 9Group CAF 0 10Table No. 123 - Showing Symmetric Measures in Nirghosha;Groups Value Approx. Sig.Group A Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .577 .001Group B Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .527 .003Group C Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .415 .044The results showed statistically highly significant in Group A and statistically significantin group B at p value 0.003, but no statistical significance in Nirghosha in group C.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 159 Table No. 124 – Showing the results in Swarabheda;Groups Assessment Present AbsentBT 2 8AT 0 10Group AAF 0 10BT 5 5AT 0 10Group BAF 0 10BT 5 5AT 3 7Group CAF 1 9Table No. 125 - Showing Symmetric Measures in Swarabheda;Groups Value Approx. Sig.Group A Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .354 .117Group B Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .535 .002Group C Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .336 .149The results showed that there is no statistical significance in any of the group A andC for swarabheda but showed statistically significant in group B at p value 0.002.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 160 Table No. 126 – Showing the results in Lomaharsha;Groups Assessment Present AbsentBT 1 9AT 0 10Group AAF 0 10BT 1 9AT 0 10Group BAF 0 10BT 1 9AT 0 10Group CAF 0 10Table No. 127 - Showing Symmetric Measures in Lomaharsha;Groups Value Approx. Sig.Group A Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .254 .355Group B Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .254 .355Group C Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .254 .355There is no statistical significance in Lomaharsha in any of the groups.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 161 Table No. 128 – Showing the results in Deenataa;Groups Assessment Present AbsentBT 0 10AT 0 10Group AAF 0 10BT 2 8AT 0 10Group BAF 0 10BT 0 10AT 0 10Group CAF 0 10Table No. 129 - Showing Symmetric Measures in Deeanataa;Groups Value Approx. Sig.Group A Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .Group B Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .354 .117Group C Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .In Group A and C no patients were reported with Deenata. In group B the reportedpatients showed no statistical significance.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 162 Table No. 130 – Showing the results in Dourbalya;Groups Assessment Present AbsentBT 7 3AT 2 8Group AAF 3 7BT 5 5AT 1 9Group BAF 0 10BT 8 2AT 3 7Group CAF 1 9Table No. 131 - Showing Symmetric Measures in Dourbalya;Groups Value Approx. Sig.Group A Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .403 .054Group B Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .475 .013Group C Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .515 .004There is no statistical significance in Dourbalya in group A and B but showedsignificant in group C at p value 0.004.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 163 Table No. 132 – Showing the results in Mahaa vega;Groups Assessment Present AbsentBT 4 6AT 0 10Group AAF 0 10BT 8 2AT 1 9Group BAF 0 10BT 2 8AT 0 10Group CAF 0 10Table No. 133 - Showing Symmetric Measures in Mahaa vega;Groups Value Approx. Sig.Group A Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .485 .010Group B Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .613 .000Group C Nominal by Nominal Contingency Coefficient .354 .117In groups A and C the patient reported with Mahaavega showed no statisticalsignificance whereas in group B the result showed statistically highly significant at P value0.000.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 164 RESULTSResults based on subjective parameter :-Illustration No. 20 – Showing results of Kasa vega;Illustration No. 21 – Showing results of Hrut shoola;
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 165 Illustration No. 22 – Showing results of Parshwa shoola;Illustration No. 23 – Showing results of Shira shoola;Illustration No. 24 – Showing results of Shankha shoola;
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 166 Illustration No. 25 – Showing results of Udara shoola;Result based on the objective parameter -Illustration No. 26 – Showing results of Absolute Eosinophil Count (AEC);Result based on observational parameter –Illustration No. 27 – Showing results of Kapha shushkataa, alpa kaphataa and kaphakrucchrataa;
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 167 DISCUSSIONThe discussion is the interpretation of observations and results obtained from theclinical study along of the review. So the relevant points are discussed here.Discussion on title :-“A study on Anupana w.s.r. to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa.”The entire science of Ayurveda has been framed upon “Trisutraas” i.e., hetu, lingaand oushadha. Among them oushadha acts as an instrumental aid in curing the diseases, forthe maintenance and for the promotion of good health. The administration of oushadhaincludes the consumption of dravya along with Anupana. There are several specific Anupanaexplained for specific dosha and roga in Ayurvedic classics. So it is necessary to throw lighton the importance of Anupana in the clinical practice. Vataja Kasa is a trivial disease thateverybody suffers at any stage of life. Hence this work aimed at to study the concept ofAnupana and its role in chikitsa vis-a-vis to Ghrita as Anupana in Vataja Kasa.Discussion on derivation of Anupana –The term ‘Anu’ in Anupana denotes two things- Saha and Pashchaat (along with andafter). Hence Anupana term is commonly used to denote Pashchaat pana and Sahapana.Discussion on definition of Anupana –By compiling all the definitions, Anupana can be understood as a specific substanceto be administered at proper time and in prescribed method along with or after aahaara andoushadha to get the desired effects.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 168 The definition can been put forth as following shloka; AÉæwÉåkÉålÉ, AÉWûÉUåhÉ xÉWû mɶÉÉ²É rÉ̲ÍkÉuÉzÉÉimÉÏrÉiÉå iÉSlÉÑmÉÉlÉqÉç | (xuÉ) iÉjÉÉ cÉ xÉÇaÉëWûÈ –AlÉÑmÉÉlÉÇ Ì²kÉÉmÉëÉå£Çü mɶÉÉiÉç xÉWû ÌuÉpÉåSiÉÈ |MüxqÉÉimɶÉÉÌSÌiÉ cÉåSÉæwÉkÉÉWûÉUiÉxxqÉ×iÉÈ ||iÉjÉÉ MåülÉåÌiÉ xÉÇmÉëÉmiÉå AÉWûÉUåhÉÉæwÉkÉålÉ cÉ |ÌuÉÍkÉuÉimÉÏrÉiÉå rɨÉÑ iÉSlÉÑmÉÉlÉqÉÑSÉWØûiÉqÉç || (xuÉ)Discussion on lakshana of Anupana–The characteristic feature of Anupana should be as follows-Anupana should be in such a way that it synergizes the drug action but not produceany adverse reactions to the tissues. Thus the drug interactions should not produce any lethaleffects.Discussion on synonyms of Anupana –Shabdaanvayatva Arthaashraya helps to understand the paryayaas that conveys thedifferent features -Based on Padaartha tantrayukti the synonyms of Anupana can be understood asfollows- sahayogi and maadhyama denotes the lakshana, vaahana represents action andoushadhaanga peya refers to the mode of administration, anupeya and anupaaneeyaindicates the time of administration.Based on Prakaranaadhikarana tantrayukti, anutarsha indicates the one which isbeneficial in thirst.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 169 Based on Vidyaa Kalpana and Paratantra pratyaya arthaashraya, Sahayogi is adrug companion that acts like Adjuvant/Synergist by enhancing the action of principleingredient.Vaahana and Maadhyama denote Vehicle/excipient that carries the active ingredientin suspension. It also acts as a carrier thereby causes facilitated diffusion and active transport.Oushadhaangapeya refers to adjuvant/drug companion/synergist/vehicle/carrier.The synonyms have been put forth as following shloka; AlÉÑmÉÉlÉxrÉ mÉrÉÉïrÉÉÈ lÉÉlÉÉaÉëljÉåwÉÑ aÉÉåcÉUÉÈ |uÉÉWûlÉÇ mÉëÉmÉMüiuÉÉŠ xÉWûrÉÉåÌaÉ iÉjÉæuÉ cÉ ||qÉÉkrÉqÉgcÉÉlÉÑmÉÉlÉÏrÉqÉlÉÑmÉårÉÇ iÉjÉæuÉ cÉ |AÉæwÉkÉÉ…¡ûiÉrÉÉmÉårÉÇ AlÉÑiÉwÉïgcÉ xÉmiÉMüqÉç || (xuÉ)The seven synonyms which are collected from different granthaas are vaahana, sahayogi,maadhyama, anupaaneeya, anupeya, oushadhaanga peya and anutarsha.Discussion on types of Anupana –1. Kraamana and paachana –The classification Kraamana and Paachana can be understood based on Sanskritvyaakarana- LiÉSè (AlÉÑmÉÉlÉqÉç) ÌuÉsÉqorÉ ¢üÏrÉiÉå cÉåiÉç ¢üÉqÉhÉqÉÏËUiÉqÉç |LiÉSè (AlÉÑmÉÉlÉqÉç) UɧÉÉæ ¢üÏrÉiÉå cÉåiÉç mÉÉcÉlÉÇ FÍcÉUå (EcrÉiÉå) ||
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 170 The one which acts after some interval of time (Vilambya) is known as Kraamana.The Anupana which is given in the night is known as Paachana. By Arthapatti tantrayukti itcan be said that Kraamana is the Anupana administered in the day time.Eg for Kraamana – Ushna jala with Eranda taila in Virechana.By Ingita kalpana, Kraamana acts as the controlled release, extended release,sustained release and prolonged action pharmaceutical preparation that is designed to prolongthe effect and also to produce slow, uniform absorption of the drugs for longer time.Paachana can be equated to the Anupana which is administered in nishi (oushadhasevanakaala) hence it might be given for urdhwa jatru vikaaraas.2. Aadi, madhya and antahpaana -By Uhya tantrayukti, Anupana has been further classified. The classification Aadi,Madhya, Antahpana told in the context of Aahaaravidhi is made on the basis of time ofadministration. This can be applied in relation with oushadha also (Hetwartha tantrayukti).This can be understood as; AÉæwÉkÉÉWûÉUrÉÉåqÉïkrÉå AÉSÉuÉliÉå cÉ rÉÑÌ£üiÉÈ |mÉërÉÉåaÉÌlÉmÉÑhÉæxiɧÉÉmrÉlÉÑmÉÉlÉÇ ÌuÉkÉÏrÉiÉå || (xuÉ)3. Sahapana and Pashchaatpana -Based on derivation, Sahapana and Pashchaatpana are taken as the types ofAnupana.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 171 4. Drava and Shushka -Anupana is classified as Drava and Shushka Based on the form of the substance used.Because in Ayurvedic classics many references where the guda, sharkara are used asAnupana. The gross meaning of paana indicates the consumption of liquid or to drink but theactual meaning of ‘paana’ indicates to drink or to consume so the Anupana can be a liquid ora solid. To avoid such confusion this classification is made.5. Aahaaropayogi and oushadhopayogi -In bruhatrayees, though the application of Anupana is in the context of oushadha andaahaara, but mainly explained in the context of aahaaropayogi varga which can beunderstood based on Pradhaanena kalpanaa. So based on its usage both with oushadha oraahaara and also for better demarcation, it is classified as aaharopayogi and oushadopayogi.Discussion on Maatraa -There is difference of opinion regarding maatraa of Anupana among Aachaaryaas. Itmay be due to the following reasons -Based on the agnibala, for Kapha 1 Pala is recommended as they have eithersamaagni or mandaagni, for Vata 2 Pala as they possess vishamaagni and for Pitta 3 Pala astheir agni is teekshna.Moreover, these dosages are told in the chapter Choorna kalpana especially forchoorna, avaleha, gutika and kalka. Probably this maatraa is told for the drava Anupana.Hence it might be for Vata which is rooksha 3 Pala of Anupana is needed to counteract therookshataa of choorna etc., For Pitta 2 Pala is needed as it is sasneha and for Kapha which
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 172 is already snigdha one Pala is sufficient to achieve the desired effects. This can also beunderstood based on the Panchabhoutik composition of each doshaas.As the Anupana given along with aahaara or oushadha has to undergoavasthaapaaka, lesser quantity of Anupana (1 Pala) is sufficient to pacify Kapha doshawhich is nourished during madhura avasthaapaaka. Moderate quantity (2 Pala) is sufficientto pacify Pitta vikaaraas in amla avasthaapaaka and more quantity (3 Pala) is needed topacify Vata vikaaraas during katu avasthaapaaka.Though different maatraas are specified in classics, based on Yukti pramaana, thephysician should decide the dose by considering the nature of Anupana dravya.Discussion on Anupana Kaala -The time of administration of Anupana is nothing but the time in which medicine orfood is administered. So oushadha sevana kaala can be adopted as Anupana kaala in case ofadministration with medicines. Similarly for aahaara it can be given based on agni of theindividual, either prior or in between or at the end of food intake to achieve the desiredeffects.Discussion on Anupana Guna Karma -Several Gunakarma of Anupana have been depicted in the classics which can beunderstood by applying Yukti pramaana in the following manner-1) Pertaining to Aahaara - Paryaaptimabhinirvartayati, bhuktam avasaadayati,annasanghaatam bhinnatti, maardavam aapaadayati, kledayati, jarayati, sukhaparinaamayati.2) Pertaining to oushadha - Rochana, vyaaptikara, aashu vyavaayita, saatmyataamprayacchati.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 173 3) Pertaining to Roga - Dosha sanghaata bhedana, shramahara, klamahara,deepana, vrushya, pipaasaa chedana.4) Pertaining to Swastha - Tarpana, preenana, oorjaa, balakara, varnakara,apakarshayati.Discussion on different Anupana for different doshaas –Generally oushadha or Anupana are given as they act antagonistic to the qualities ofdoshaas. Hence based on Vishesha siddhaanta (visheshastu viparyayaha) in Vata snigdha,ushna and amla dravyaas are chosen as Anupana. Similarly in Pitta madhura and sheeta andin Kapha rooksha and ushna dravyaas are given.Discussion on contraindications of jala as Anupana –As jala is most widely prescribed Anupana, the contraindications have beenexplained and probably these contraindications are told only in relation with aahaara.However in Aananda Kanda the same diseases are told as indication probably in relation withoushadha. As the diseases are enlisted in contraindications are in oordhwa aamaashayapradesha, the jala as Anupana may hamper the agni. So in such conditions the Anupanawhich has deepana paachana can be administered.If jala is taken in these contraindicated conditions then it vitiates the aamaashaya andthere by produces number of diseases such as abhishyandaadi rogaas.111It may becontraindicated because the jala which stays in the kanta and uras, will not move down so itcauses vitiation of dosha.112By observing the actions of jala in contraindicated conditions, it may be inferredbased on Apavarga tantrayukti jala here refers to sheeta jala not Ushna jala.Discussion on different Anupana dravyaas –
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 174 Several Anupanaas are enlisted as they have vivid applicability in specific vyadhi,dosha, kaala, vaya and karma. This can be understood by Tantra samjnaa arthaashraya; In case of dhaatu kshaya, maamsa rasa given as Anupana to nourish the dhaatu, inkrusha to do brumhana suraa is given as Anupana. In case of Vata dosha, saghrita rasona pacify Vata as they possess snigdha andushna guna respectively. In greeshma rutu sheetajala as Anupana pacifies the Ushnata. In vaya it can be explained on the basis of the avasthaa- i.e, in baalyaaavasthaa (1-10 years) the Anupana such as ksheera, madhu are generally used because inbaalyaavasthaa if Anupanaas are tikta, katu then the baala will not consume it because of its palatability. In vruddhi avsthaa (11-20 years) the Anupana such asksheera, ghrita can be used because during this avasthaa, the shareera uttarottaravruddhi takes place. So similarly the proper Anupana can be selected in otheravasthaas also. In case of snehana, Ushna jala is taken as Anupana to facilitate easy absorption of fat. Generally different Anupana are given for different dravyaas so as to improve thedissolution and disintegration rate of the dravya. The disintegration rate and thedissolution are dependent on the size of the particles in the formulation. As theAnupana also posses the medicinal properties this concept is adopted from thewestern medical system by considering Samaana tantra pratyaya arthaashrya, forbetter understanding. Hence based on the Vikalpa tantrayukti, understanding ofdifferent Anupana dravya helps to select the Anupana for specific purposes.Discussion on Importance of Anupana in chikitsaa -
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 175 The importance of Anupana can be understood using Yukti Pramaana in followingmanner-1. Roga naashakatwa (disease pacifying) - A single drug with different Anupana givesdifferent effects. By considering the applicability of Gudoochi, Narayana choornaand Rasa sindhoora with different Anupana in different diseases the roganaashakatwa quality of Anupana is understood.2. Guna vardhaka (property enhancer) - Certain Anupana amplify the effects of theadministered drugs. YRFor an instance, Madhu along with Sitopaladi churna given incase of Kasa enhances Kapha chedana action of the choorna.3. Haaniprada guna naashaka (counteract undesired properties) – Certain drugs produceill effects if not purified properly. For such reasons Anupana that counteract theundesired properties has to be administered. Eg- Gomootra or Ksheera used asAnupana with Shilajatu, Lashuna with Ksheera and Hingu with Ghrita as itcounteracts the undesired property.4. Aashukaaritaa (quick absorption) – Anupana gains its importance by spreading themedicine to the target site rapidly.36,37By looking into the factors affectingbioavailability and drug absorption, Anupana acts as a base to form an appropriatemedium to the drug and facilitates absorption in different phases (aqueous or lipid).Thus it helps in penetration of the drug into the specific site.5. Gandha naashana (mask the bad odour) – Certain drugs possess bad odour hence tomask it and to improve the palatability specific Anupana are adopted. For example,Ksheera given as Anupana with Eranda taila. Even in the allopathic system ofmedicine to mask the bad odour many modfications are made like hard and softgelatin capsules.6. Ruchikaaraka (Palatability) – In case of oushadha that is bitter in taste can be givenalong with Anupana which is sweet in taste to improve the palatability. For the samereason Aachaaryaas might have told rochana as one of the gunakarma. Eg-Vaasa
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 176 swarasa with Madhu. For the same reason in Western system of medicine lots ofmodifications are made in pharmaceutical preparations such as sugar coated tabletsand gelatin capsules.Probable mode of action of Anupana -Based on Sambhava tantrayukti, probable mode of action of Anupana can beunderstood. Anupana when judiciously administered with aahaara and oushadha reaches theblood circulation there by reaches the target site. At times by vyavaayi and vikaashi guna, itarrives the specific target and cures the disease. The same concept can be explained in thefollowing shloka; rÉÉåarÉÉlÉÑmÉÉlÉiÉÈ mÉëÉå£Çü iÉmÉïhÉÇ oÉ×ÇWûhÉÇ iÉjÉÉ |pÉåwÉeÉgcÉÉlÉÑmÉÉlÉålÉ U£üqÉåuÉÉlÉÑaÉcNûÌiÉ ||ÌuÉMüÉÌwÉiuÉÉSèurÉuÉÉÌrÉiuÉÉiÉç rÉÉåarÉÉ…¡Çû mÉËUkÉÉuÉÌiÉ |rÉjÉÉuÉ̲ÌlÉrÉÉåaÉålÉ xÉuÉïUÉåaÉ ÌlÉuÉÉUMüqÉç || (xuÉ)Discussion of Sahapana -In bruhatrayees and later granthaas the word Sahapana has not been mentioned.Only in Rasa Tarangini the classification of Anupana and Sahapana are made. In previousgranthaas to Rasa Tarangini, lots of Anupana are administered along with and afteroushadha. Probably for better understanding such classification is made by the author. Butthe actual meaning of Anupana includes saha and pashchaat. Therefore Pashchaatpana andSahapana may be ideal way of classification of Anupana.Discussion on the concept of Anupana in other systems of medicine - In Naturopathy system of medicine, the fruit and vegetable juices are advised after orbefore the food intake. So this method can be considered as Anupana because theAnupana are used before, in the middle or after the food even in Ayurveda also.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 177  In Siddha system of medicine, the same formulation is used for different ailmentswith different Anupanam thus the therapeutic properties and potency of the drug areenhanced. This concept is similar in Ayurvedic system of medicine also. In Unani system of medicine, Badarakaa or Rahanuma which means Samrakshaka orpathapradarshaka indicates the word Anupana. The classification Moophrad(Asamsrushta) and Murakkab (Samsrushta) is a newer thought in Unani system ofmedicine. Anupana help the drug in reaching specific target organs quickly. In Chinese system of medicine, the concept of Anupana is explained and it helps toenhance the action of a drug. In Homeopathic system of medicine, a research showed that in the absence of originaldrug molecules vehicle molecules bear the properties of drug molecules. Theclassification of vehicle told in this system i.e, solid and liquid which supports theclassification which is made in present study as shushka and drava Anupana. Thequality of an ideal vehicle and its benefits of vehicles explained in this system aresimilar to that explained in Ayurveda. In Western system of medicine, the Anupana may have little therapeutic effect ormay not. The vehicles are added along with the drug during the preparation only. Thepreparations such as controlled release, sustained release, lozenge tablets,effervescent tablets and in other formulations the base which are added may be themodification of Anupana.Discussion on Vataja Kasa -In the previous works, Vataja Kasa has been compared with Tropical PulmonaryEosinophilia by considering the AEC more than 400 cells/mm3. So in the present study, theraised Eosinophil count above 400 cells/mm3has been adopted as one of the diagnostic
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 178 criteria. In the present study, it was observed that the patient with AEC 400 – 2000 cells/mm3had the classical symptoms of Vataja Kasa. It was observed that when the AEC exceeds2000, then patient developed with difficulty in breathing, exertional dyspnoea and wheezingon auscultation. Based on this Vataja Kasa can be compared with Eosinophilia whichproduces cough as the symptom.Table No. 134 - Showing the comparison of Vataja Kasa with Eosinophilia;Factors Vataja Kasa EosinophiliaEtiology Asaathmya aahaara sevana Allergic reactions due to filariallarvae into lungs infiltrationSigns andSymptomsa) Shuska Kasab) Hrut/Ura shoolac) Ksheenabala, Ksheenaojad) Dourbalyaa) Dry coughb) Chest painc) Weight lossd) MalaisePathology a) Sanga is explained in the sampraaptiof disease (Obstruction in normalpathway of air)b) Praanavahasrotasc) Rasadhatu supports the body innormal condition rasa and raktatogether circulate in the bodya) Pulmonary functions revealrestricted ventilation defectwith super imposed air wayobstruction.b) It involves mainly involvedlungs.c) Eosinophil supports the bodymajor basic protein granulespresent in Eosinophils actagainst the larvae.Complication Shwasa Bronchial Asthma etc.Discussion on Materials and Methods -Present study is a Controlled Clinical Single Blind study with pre and post designwhere there are three groups. The Group A was treated with Vidangadi churna with Ushnajala as Anupana, Group B was treated with Vidangadi churna with Ghrita as Anupana andthe Group C Vidangadi churna without any Anupana.Reason for Selection of Vidangadi churna –
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 179 The ingredients of Vidangadi churna are Vidanga, Naagara, Raasnaa, Pippalee,Hingu, Saindhava, Bhaarangi and Yavakshaara which are easily available. This was selectedon the basis of Aaptopadesha, its indication in Vataja Kasa and majority of drugs in it haveproperties such as kasahara, krimighna, Vata shamana and Rasaayana i.e, it acts as anti-tussive, anti-inflammatory, anti-histaminic, anti-helminthic and immunomodulator action.Reason for Selection of Go-Ghrita, Ushna jala and without Anupana – Go-Ghrita wasselected based on Upadesha tantrayukti and as the Ghrita is one of the best Vata shaamaka.Ushna jala was used as it is easy to prepare and everybody can take. The group withoutAnupana was selected so as to find the role of Anupana.Discussion on Inclusion Criteria - Individuals of either sex between the age group 17-60 years were selected, as theingredients in Vidangadi churna are teekshna and ushna, to avoid baala and vruddhaas they are more prone to get the complications. The individuals willing for the treatment were selected because of the palatability ofthe yoga.Discussion on Exclusion criteria - Pregnant and lactating women were excluded because the kshaara is one of theingredients which should not be used in garbhini and sootikaa. Individuals with other systemic disorders and Eosinophilia with other respiratoryproblems like bronchial asthama etc. were excluded to avoid interference in theaction of the treatment and also to avoid complications.Diagnostic criteria -
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 180  Shushka Kasa Vega, Kapha shushkata, Alpa kaphata, Kapha which comes out withkrucchrata, Hrut shoola/Ura shoola (chest pain) due to excess Kasa were taken asthe diagnostic criteria as these symptoms are more predominantly seen in previousresearch works. Raised Eosinophil count above 400 cells/mm3– As the several previous researcherscompared Vataja Kasa with Tropical Pulmonary Eosinophilia, AEC (AbsoluteEosinophil Count) more than the normal limit has been taken for objectiveassessment.Discussion on Intervention –The study is designed in such a way so as to get a clear picture regarding efficacies ofeach Anupana which is used in the present study.Discussion on Dose fixation -Four grams of Vidangadi churna in three divided dose were made based onAachaarya Shaarangadhara’s view (choorna maatraa is 1 karsha i.e, 12gms).Based on Aaptopadesha Pramana, the Ghrita should be taken quantity sufficientsuch that it should form a paste like consistency with the choorna. It has been derived fromthe Pilot study that the sufficient quantity of Ghrita is 4gm. Hence the same quantity hasbeen fixed for Ushna jala also.Discussion on Time of administration of medicine-Bhojanottara sevana kaala was selected as the udaana Vata is involving insampraapti.Discussion on Statistical Analysis -Contingency Co-efficient –
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 181 It is applied when Categorical Data Analysis is to be done.  Then a contingencytable can be used to express the relationship between the variablesDescriptive statistics -The Descriptives procedure displays univariate summary statistics for severalvariables in a single table and calculates standardized values (z scores). Variables can beordered by the size of their means (in ascending or descending order), alphabetically, or bythe order in which one select the variables (the default).Independent-Samples t Test -The Independent-Samples t Test procedure compares means for two groups of cases.Ideally, for this test, the subjects should be randomly assigned to two groups, so that anydifference in response is due to the treatment (or lack of treatment) and not to other factors.Chi-square test -The Chi-Square Test procedure tabulates a variable into categories and computes achi-square statistic. This goodness-of-fit test compares the observed and expected frequenciesin each category to test either that all categories contain the same proportion of values or thateach category contains a user-specified proportion of values.Discussion on Observation and Results -General observations –Age – The age in relation with Vataja Kasa showed statistically non significant. This isprobably due to lesser sample size.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 182 Sex - The sex ratio showed more numbers of male (66.7%) are suffered with Vataja Kasa.This is probably due to males who work more outside and the most of the female patients inthe present study were house-wives.Marital status – Married patients showed more prone (83.3%) for Vataja Kasa.Religion – Hindu showed more prone (90.0%) for Vataja Kasa.Educational status– Educational status showed statistically non significant in relation withVataja Kasa. This is probably due to lesser sample size.Occupational status – Occupational status showed statistically non significant in relation withVataja Kasa. This is probably due to lesser sample size.Socio-economical status – Middle class patients are more prone (76.7%) to get Vataja Kasa.Locality – Urban patients (66.7%) are more likely to suffer with Vataja Kasa probably due toenvironmental pollution.Fresh-treated case – In the present study treated patients (73.3%) were reported more whencompared to untreated.Mode of onset – In the present study majority of the patients (86.7%) had gradual mode ofonset.Course – In the present study majority of the patients (90.0%) had intermittent course.Periodicity – In the present study periodicity showed non significant. This is probably due tolesser sample size.Occurrence – In the present study majority of the patients (73.3%) had more Kasa vega in thenight.Severity – Majority of the patients (66.7%) had moderate severity.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 183 Koshta – Madhyama koshta patients are more prone (66.7%) to get Vataja Kasa.Agni – Mandaagni persons (66.7%) are more like to suffer with Vataja Kasa.Nidraa – The patients suffering with Vataja Kasa have more likely (56.7%) to get alpanidraa.Vyasana – Vyasana in relation with Vataja Kasa showed non significant. This is probablydue to lesser sample size.Diet – The patient who are consuming mixed diet are more prone (76.7%) to get VatajaKasa.Naadi – Majority of the patients of Vataja Kasa (90.0%) had Vata-Pitta naadi.Prakruti – Vata-Pitta prakruti patients (66.7%) are more like to get Vataja Kasa.Rogi bala – 60% of the patients had madhyama roga bala.Discussion on results -In the present study it is observed that Vidangadi churna effectively reduced the signsand symptoms of Vataja Kasa, but with regard to Absolute Eosinophil Count Vidangadichurna showed better results in group B when compared to other two groups. It was observedthat in all the three groups, the patients were relived from the symptoms of Vataja Kasa within 30 days after the commencement of treatment. But in group B the signs and symptoms ofVataja Kasa were reduced within 2-3 days. This is probably due to the target site action ofGhrita as Anupana.Subjective –Kasa vega - On observation of results, it has been noted that in group A and C the resultshowed statistically highly significant at P value 0.000. In Group B, there is significant
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 184 improvement of Kasa vega at P value 0.001. In group B the result is only statisticallysignificant because three patients had grade IV Kasa vega.Hrutshoola - Group B is statistically significant at p value 0.013. This is probably due to theVatahara property of Vidangadi churna and Ghrita.Parshwashoola - In Group A, majority of the patients showed improvement inParshwashoola at P value 0.005. In Group B and C also there is improvement inparshwashoola, but there is no statistical significance in parshwashoola.Shirashoola - In Group A, there is improvement in shirashoola and results also showedstatistically highly significant at P value 0.001. This is probably due to the severity ofshirashoola in group A was less than other two groups.Shankhashoola - There is no statistical significant in any of the groups. This is probably dueto only few patients reported with this symptom.Udarashoola - There is no statistical significant in group A and C. In group B no case wasreported with the complaint of udarashoolaObjective –Absolute Eosinophil Count (AEC) - There was no statistical significance in any of thegroups. But more number of patients in group B got relief clinically. This is probably due tothe target site action of Ghrita as Anupana with Vidangadi churna. The result in group B wasstatistically non significant, this is probably due to the amount of individual patient’s AEC ingroup B was higher than other two groups and the result of AEC after treatment and followup was in the border line (500 cells/mm3) for the normalcy.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 185 Observational –Shushka ura, Shushka kanta and Shushka vaktra - Groups C showed statistically significant atp value at 0.002. This is probably due to the number of patients who had these symptoms astheir main complaint when compared to other two groups.Nirghosha - The results showed statistically highly significant in Group A at p value 0.001and at p value 0.003 in group B.Swarabheda - In group B the result showed statistically significant at p value 0.002. This isprobably due to the Ghrita which soothen the kanta pradesha.Lomaharsha - There is no statistical significance in Lomaharsha in any of the groups. This isprobably due to the number of patient complaining with this symptom (only one patient ineach group).Deenataa - In group B the reported patients showed no statistical significance. In Group Aand C no patients were reported with Deenataa. This is probably due to only two casesreported with this complaint.Dourbalya – The result showed significant in group C at p value 0.004. This is probably dueto majority of the patients in group C had dourbalya.Mahaa vega – In group B the result showed statistically highly significant at P value 0.000.This is probably due to majority of the patients in group B had mahaavega.Probable mode of action of Vidangadi churna on Vataja Kasa :-The action of Vidangadi churna on Vataja Kasa w.s.r to cough with Eosinophilia canbe analyzed as follows - All the drugs possess deepana and paachana effect by which agni is corrected.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 186  Embelin the principal constituent of Vidanga possess anti-helminthic property thereby help in prevention of parasitic infestation which is one of the important cause inmanifestation of cough associated with Eosinophilia (filarial infestation). Bhaarangi, Shunti, Hingu and Pippalee possess anti-histaminic i.e, anti-allergic andanti-inflammatory properties, thus these drugs may act by counteracting the clinicalsymptoms which are resultant of allergic and inflammatory reactions. Pippalee is alsoa good immunomodulator so by which it may prevent recurrent attacks of cough. Shunti and Pippalee produce soothing effect on the throat there by it may be helpfulin swarabheda and reducing the irritation by which it prevents the repeated Kasavega. Raasnaa is one of the best vedanaa sthaapaka and it has relaxant action on smoothmuscles there by it may be helpful in Hrut/ura and parshwa shoola. Saindhava lavana and Yavakshaara are good Vata shaamakaas and lavana helps inrelieving constipation and it liquefies the shushka Kapha.Thus over all it can be said that Vidangadi churna acts as anti-inflammatory, anti-histaminic, anti-helminthic and immunomodulator drug on Vataja Kasa w.s.r. to cough dueto Eosinophilia.Probable mode of action of Ghrita on Vataja Kasa :-As the Ghrita is snigdha, it removes the rookshata in ura and kanta pradesha and asit is agni deepaka, corrects the agni thereby reduces shushka Kasa.Probable mode of action of Ushna jala on Vataja Kasa :-As Ushna jala is having madhura rasa and vipaaka, it reduces Vata and does agni deepanathereby cures Kasa.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 187 CONCLUSION Anupana denotes Pashchaatpana and Sahapana. Anupana is a specific substance administered at the proper time and in prescribedmethod along with or after aahaara and oushadha to get the desired effects. Sahayogi is a drug companion that acts like Adjuvant/Synergist. Vaahana and Maadhyama denote Vehicle/excipient that carries the active ingredientin suspension thereby causes facilitated diffusion. Oushadhaangapeya refers to adjuvant/drug companion/synergist/vehicle/carrier for adrug. Kraamana gives the controlled release, extended release and sustained release action. Based on its utility, Anupana is classified as aaharopayogi and oushadopayogi. Understanding of different Anupana dravyaas helps to select the Anupana forspecific purposes. Anupana acts as Roga nashaka, Gunavardhaka, Haaniprada guna naashaka,Aashukaaritaa, Gandha naashana and Ruchikaaraka. There is improvement of Kasa vega in group A (Ushna jala) and C (withoutAnupana) and the result showed statistically highly significant at P value 0.000.Group B (Ghrita) showed statistically significant at P value 0.001. There was no statistical significance in AEC in any of the groups, but more numberof patients in group B got relief clinically. In Group B there were statistically significant results in mahavega and swarabheda. The effect of Vidangadi churna showed rapid improvement from the symptoms in thegroup where Ghrita is administered as Anupana.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 188 RECOMMENDATION FOR FUTURE STUDY The same study can be conducted with larger sample size. The study can be conducted in animals with different protocols to find the target siteof action. The study can be designed that a yoga with Anupana, without Anupana and onlyAnupana. The study can be designed to differentiate efficacy of Paschaatpana and Sahapana. The Anupana dravya can be mixed in the formulation while preparing the medicineitself and can be tried clinically. The study can be conducted by comparing IgG and IgE levels before, after thetreatment and after follow up.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 189 SUMMARYAnupana is a substance, which is taken along with or after the intake of oushadha oraahaara dravya. It helps not only for the palatability but mainly for carrying the oushadhadravya to the target place by which it increases its bioavailability and facilitates easyabsorption. Hence this research is undertaken to study the concept of Anupana and toemphasize its role in chikitsa w.s.r. to Ghrita as Anupana in Vataja Kasa. The present studyfinds its place in providing efficacious intervention with regards to Anupana.The present dissertation work was divided into 2 parts. The first chapter deals withthe introduction, historical review, derivation of Anupana, definition, lakshana, synonyms,types, maatraa, kaala, gunakarma of Anupana, different Anupana dravya for different dosha,roga, importance of Anupana in chikitsaa, indications and contraindications of jala asAnupana, Anupanaanantara nishiddha karma, single formulation with different Anupana,Anupana in other systems of medicines and Sahapana are explained. In the second chapter,Kasa roga in brief and Vataja Kasa in detail were explained with related modern (westernmedicine system) disease. In the third chapter, Drug review (Vidangadi churna, Ghrita andUshna jala) was dealt.In the second part, Materials & Methods, Observation of clinical trials, Results,Statistical tables & graphs, Discussion, Conclusions and Summary were dealt. A total of 30Patients in three groups (each group contains 10 patients each) were selected for the study.In first group i.e, group A was administered with Vidangadi churna along with Ushnajala, group B with Vidangadi churna along with Ghrita and in group C only Vidangadichurna was administered without any Anupana.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 190 The different parameters of the study were observed and recorded before treatment,after treatment and after the follow-up. The Observations and Results were statisticallyanalyzed for better interpretation. Based on statistical analysis and general observations,Group A and C showed statistically highly significant in Kasa vega at p value 0.000 andstatistically significant in group B at p value 0.001 and that of AEC showed non significant inall the three groups but in group B, 50% of the patient showed good result after treatment andafter follow up. By overall observation group B showed good and quick result clinically.The conclusion was derived on the basis of detailed discussions, observations & deepstudy was submitted under the chapter on Conclusion. Future perspective of the study washighlighted as an aid for the future research workers. 
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    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 197 79. http://www.medicinalplants-kr.org/THE_SIDDA_YSTEM_OF_MEDICINE.HTM -Sept 200980. http://www.hpathy.com/pharmacy/homeopathic-vehicles.asp - Nov 200981. http://www.similima.com – Oct 200982. Hakim Dalajith Simha, Unani Dravya Guna Adasrha, 1sted., Lucknow, AyurvedicEvam Tibbi Academy, 1972: 172, 183, 31583. http://cat.inist.fr - 2003, vol. 17, no5, pp. 537-541 [5 page (s) (article)] (11 ref.)84. Monner-Williams M. A Sanskrit English dictionary, 1sted., Delhi, MohanlalBanarsidas publisher’s pvt ltd, 1990: 22585. Wasudev Laxman Shastri Pansikar, Amara kosha of Amara Simha, 7thed., Bombay,Nirnaya Sagar Press, 1934: 12086. Ganga Sahaya Pandeya, Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, 8thed., Varanasi,Chowkambha Samskrita Samsthan, 2004, (2): 455-45787. K. R. Shrikantha Murthy, Ashtanga Sangraha of Vagbhata, 4thed., Varanasi,Chaukhabha Orientalia, 2001, (1): 7488. Ganga Sahaya Pandeya, Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, 8thed., Varanasi,Chowkambha Samskrita Samsthan, 2004, (2): 45589. Acharya YT, Acharya NR, Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta, 7thed., Varanasi,Chowkambha orientalia, 2003: 76690. Ramachandra Shastri Kinjawadekar, Ashtanga Sangraha of Vagbhata, 2nded., Delhi,Satguru publications, 1999: 66491. Sadashiva Shastri, Ashtanga Hrudaya of Vagbhata, Varanasi, ChowkambhaSurabharathi Prakashan, 2002: 47092. Krishnamurthy. K.H, Bhela Samhita of Bhela, 1sted., Varanasi, Chaukhambha VisvaBharati, 2000: 146,424,425
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    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 200 ANNEXURE  DEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES IN AYURVEDA SIDDHANTAGOVERNMENT AYURVEDA MEDICAL COLLEGE,MYSORE.Proforma of case sheet for the study of “A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role ofGhrita in Vataja Kasa”Part A :- History Taking & Clinical Examination.Part B :- Interpretation.Part C :- Observation and Assessment.H.O.D. :- Dr. N.Anjaneya MurthyGuide :- Dr. Naseema AkhtarCo-guide :- Dr. Vasudev A. ChateResearcher :- Dr. Rajesh M. BhatPart AHistory Taking & Clinical ExaminationName :- OPD. No. :-Age :- IPD. No. :-Sex :- Male/Female Ward No. :-Marital status :- M /U /W /D Bed No. :-Religion :- Hindu/Muslim/Christian/Others Date of commencement :-Education :- UE/Primary/SSLC/PUC/Graduate/ Date of completion :-Post-graduateOccupation :-Socio-economic status :- P /M /RPostal Address :-Phone No. :-Locality :- Urban/RuralDiagnosis :- Case :- Fresh/TreatedGroup :-Chief complaints :- Duration :-
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 201 ☼ Shushka Kasa Vega☼ Kapha shushkata☼ Alpa kaphata☼ Kapha which comes out with krucchrata☼ Hrut shoola/Ura shoola (chest pain) due to excess KasaAssociated complaints :- Duration :- Shushka ura Shushka kantha Shushka vaktra Nirghosha Shira shoola Swarabheda Parshwa shoola Shankha shoola Udara shoola Lomaharsha Deenata Dourbalya Kshobha Moha Maha vega Pratamyata Kshamanana OthersHistory of present illness :-1. Shuska Kasa :-
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 202 a) Mode of onset : Acute/Gradualb) Course : Continuous/Intermittentc) Periodicity : Seasonal/Irregulard) Occurrence : Day/Night/Persistente) Predisposing factors : Allergens/Smoke/Dust/Food -/Cold items/Drenching in rain/Paint/Season/Others -f) Severity : Mild/Moderate/Severe2. Kapha shushkata or alpa kaphata which comes out with krucchrata :-Expectoration :- Present/AbsentQuantity :- Little/NilColour :- White/Greenish/Yellowish/Mixed with bloodConsistency :- Thick/Semisolid/WaterySputum comes out :- Easily/With difficulty3. Hrit Shoola (chest pain) due to excess Kasa : - Present/AbsentSeverity :- Mild/Moderate/SevereDuration :- Shorter/LongerOther symptoms :-
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 203 History of past illness :-Treatment history :-Family history :-Personal history :-Koshta :- Mrudu/Madhyama/KrooraAgni :- Sama/Vishama/Manda/TeekshnaMootra :-i. Frequency - D/Nii. Colour – Normal/Abnormaliii. Burning sensation –Absent/Presentiv. Pain –Absent/PresentMala :-i. Frequency - /Dayii. Colour – Normal/Abnormaliii. Burning sensation –Absent/Presentiv. Bleeding –Absent/Presentv. Pain –Absent/PresentNidra :- Prakruta/Ati/Alpa/AnidraHours of sleep in night - hrs.Hours of sleep in day - hrs.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 204 Vyasana :-Quantity Duration Regular Occasional Stopped sinceCoffeeTeaTobaccoSmokingAlcoholOthersDiet :-o Veg/Mixedo Predominant rasa –Madhura/Amla/Lavana/Katu/Tikta/Kashayao Predominant guna –o Other details –Activity :- Nature of work- Working environment - Working hours - Previous occupation - Other details -Menstrual history :-Duration :- days Regular/IrregularBleeding :- Normal/Scanty/Excess/AbsentComplication :- Absent/Present
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 205 EXAMINATION OF THE PATIENTGeneral examination :-Built : Sthoola/Madhyama/KrushaHeight : cms.Weight : kgs.Pulse : /min.BP : mm of Hg.Respiratory rate : /min.Temperature : Afebrile/FebrileNail bed : Normal/AbnormalConjunctiva : Pink/Pale/BlueLymph nodes : Normal/EnlargedOther findings :SYSTEMIC EXAMINATIONExamination of Respiratoy System :-Nasal Cavity :- Polyps : Absent/PresentNasal septum : Normal/DeviatedOral Cavity :- Tonsillitis : Absent/PresentPharyngitis : Absent/PresentChest :-Inspection :-Shape -Size-Movement of the chest-Respiratory rate-Symmetry-
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 VII Palpation :-Symmetry –Lymph nodes – Normal/EnlargedVocal fremitus –Trachea – Normally placed/AbnormalTenderness –Absent/PresentPercussion :- Resonant/DullnessAuscultation :-Breathing sounds –NormalAbnormal - Ronchi/Wheezing –Absent/Present Creptations – Fine/Course Pleural rub –Absent/PresentCardio-vascular system :- Normal/AbnormalGastro-Intestinal System :- Normal/AbnormalCentral Nervous System :- Normal/AbnormalLocomotor System :- Normal/AbnormalAshta Sthana Preeksha :- Nadi- V/P/K/VP/PK/KV/Sama Mala – Prakruta/Vaikruta Mootra – Prakruta/Vaikruta Jihwa –Alipta/Lipta Shabda-Prakruta/Vaikruta Sparsha - Prakruta/Vaikruta Dhruk - Prakruta/Vaikruta Akruti - Prakruta/Vaikruta
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 VIII Dashavidha Pareeksha:-4 Prakruti - V/ P/ K/ VP/ PK/ KV/ Sama4 Vikruti – Dosha –Dhatu –Mala –4 Sara – Pravara/Madhyama/Avara4 Samhanana – Balavanta/Madhyama/Alpa bala4 Pramana – Pravara/Madhyama/Avara4 Satwa – Pravara/Madhyama/Avara4 Satmya – Pravara/Madhyama/Avara4 Ahara Shakti – Abhyavaharana Shakti - Pravara/Madhyama/AvaraJarana Shakti - Pravara/Madhyama/Avara4 Vyayama Shakti – Pravara/Madhyama/Avara4 Vaya – Years* Rogi bala: Pravara/Madhyama/AvaraLaboratory investigation :-Blood for Absolute Eosinophil Count (AEC) :- cells/mm3Part B(Interpretation)Nidana Panchaka :- Nidana :-
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   Dr. Rajesh M. Bhat                                                                                                                                 IX  Purvarupa :- Rupa :- Upashaya :- Anupashaya :- Samprapti :- Samprapti Ghataka :-o Dosha :o Dushya :o Srotas :o Dushtiprakara :o Rogamarga :o Utpatttisthana :o Sancharasthana :o Vyaktasthana :o Agni :o Ama :o Adhisthana :Vyadhi Vinishchaya :-Intervention :-
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   xxiii  Group A –Yoga - Vidangadi churnaAnupana – Ushna jalaSevanakala – Bhojanottara (After food)Matra - 4g thrice in a day with 4ml of UshnajalaDuration – Fifteen daysPathyapathya will be advised as per classics.Follow up - Fifteen days.Group B –Yoga - Vidangadi churnaAnupana – GhritaSevanakala – Bhojanottara (After food)Matra - 4g thrice in a day with 4g of GhritaDuration – Fifteen daysPathyapathya will be advised as per classics.Follow up - Fifteen days.Group C –Yoga - Vidangadi churnaAnupana – No AnupanaSevanakala – Bhojanottara (After food)Matra - 4g thrice in a dayDuration – Fifteen daysPathyapathya will be advised as per classics.Follow up - Fifteen days.
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   xxiii  Part-CObservation & AssessmentSubjective :-Lakshanas 1stday 15thday 30thdayShushka Kasa VegaHrut shoola/Ura shoola (chest pain)due to excess KasaParshwa shoolaShira shoolaShankha shoolaUdara shoolaObjective :-1stday 15thday 30thdayRaised Eosinophil countObservational :-
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   xxiii  Lakshanas 1stday 15thday 30thdayKapha shushkataAlpa kaphataKapha which comes out with krucchrataShushka uraShushka kanthaShushka vaktraNirghoshaSwarabhedaLomaharshaDeenataDourbalyaKshobhaMohaMaha vegaPratamyataKshamananaOthers –Result :-Signature of Researcher :-Signature of Guide :- Signature of H.O.D.Signature of Co-guide :-
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   xxiii  REFERENCES1. ANUPANA AND SAHAPANA -Historical review - AÉrÉiÉÇ mÉuÉïhÉÉÇ M×üiuÉÉ aÉÉåMühÉÉïM×üÌiÉqÉiMüUqÉç |xÉÇWûiÉÉ…¡ÓûsÉÏlÉÉ iÉÉårÉÇ aÉ×WûÏiuÉÉ mÉÉÍhÉlÉÉ Ì²eÉÈ ||qÉÑ£üÉ…¡Óû¸MüÌlɸÉprÉÉÇ zÉåwÉåhÉÉcÉqÉlÉÇ cÉUåiÉç |qÉÉwÉqÉ‹lÉqÉɧÉÉxiÉÑ xÉÇaÉ×½ ̧ÉÈ ÌmÉoÉåiÉ || (zÉ.MüÉæ. Vol I) oÉÉiÉÉÌmÉpÉïͤÉiÉiÉÉårÉålÉ iuÉaÉxirÉålÉ Ì²eÉÉå¨ÉqÉÉ |AlÉÑmÉÉlÉ M×üiÉÇ iÉålÉ MüÉ MüjÉÉ xÉuÉïSåÌWûlÉÉqÉç || (qÉWûÉpÉÉUiÉ)Derivation - AlÉÑ + mÉÉ + MüqÉïÍhÉ srÉÑOèû | (zÉ.Mü.SØ.) AlÉÑ pÉåwÉeÉålÉ xÉWû mɶÉÉ²É mÉÏrÉiÉå MüqÉïÍhÉ srÉÑOèû | (uÉÉcÉxmÉirÉqÉç) AlÉÑ xÉWû mɶÉÉ²É mÉÏrÉiÉå – AlÉÑ + mÉÉ (mÉÉlÉå) “srÉÑOèû” | (zÉ.MüÉæ. Vol I)Definition - AlÉÑ pÉåwÉeÉålÉ xÉWû mɶÉÉ²É mÉÏrÉiÉå |AÉæwÉkÉålÉ xÉWû iÉiÉç mɶÉÉ²É mÉårÉå || (uÉÉcÉxmÉirÉqÉç) AÉæwÉkÉÉ…¡û mÉårÉ ÌuÉzÉåwÉÈ | (zÉ.Mü.SØ.) AÉæwÉkÉålÉ xÉWû iÉiÉç mɶÉÉ²É mÉÏrÉiÉå rÉiÉç | (zÉ.Mü.SØ.) AlÉÑ xÉWû mɶÉÉ²É mÉÏrÉiÉå | (zÉoSÉjÉï MüÉæxiÉÑpÉ) A³ÉÉSÉlÉÑ mɶÉÉiÉç mÉÏrÉiÉ CirÉlÉÑmÉÉlÉqÉç | (QûsWûhÉ-xÉÑ.xÉÔ.46/419) AlÉÑmɶÉÉiÉç mÉÏrÉiÉ CirÉlÉÑmÉÉlÉqÉç |LiÉUŠ oÉÉWÒûsrÉÉÍpÉmÉëÉrÉåhÉ | iÉή qÉkrÉåÅmrÉÉSÉuÉÌmÉ mÉÏrÉiÉå | (WåûqÉÉÌSì-A.WØû.xÉÔ.8/47)
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   xxiii   rÉͳÉrÉiÉMüÉsÉÇ ÌuÉÍkÉuÉzÉÉiÉç mÉÏrÉiÉå iÉiÉç – AlÉÑmÉÉlÉqÉç | (WåûqÉÉÌSì-A.WØû.xÉÔ.8/47) AlÉÑmÉÉlÉå pÉÑ£üxrÉÉåmÉËUmÉÉlÉå | (ClSÒ-A.xÉÇ.xÉÔ.10/51) AlÉÑmÉÉlÉÍqÉÌiÉ AlÉÑmɶÉÉiÉç mÉÉlÉqÉç | AÉæwÉkÉpɤÉhÉÉåmÉËU rÉimÉÏiÉÇ iÉSlÉÑmÉÉlÉÍqÉirÉjÉïÈ || (AÉRûqÉssÉ-zÉÉ.qÉ.6/5) AlÉÑmÉÉlÉÍqÉÌiÉ AlÉÑmɶÉÉiÉç mÉÉlÉÇ iÉiÉç M×üiÉÈ | (AÉRûqÉssÉ-zÉÉ.qÉ.8/4) AlÉÑmÉÉlÉÇ lÉÉqÉ AÉæwÉÍkÉpɤÉhÉÉimɶÉÉiÉç xÉåuÉlÉÏrÉÇ CirÉlÉrÉÉåpÉåïSÈ | (mÉëxÉÉËUhÉÏ urÉÉZrÉÉ- UxÉ.iÉUÇ.6/112) AlÉÑ xÉWû mɶÉÉ²É mÉÏrÉiÉå CÌiÉ AlÉÑmÉÉlÉqÉç | (P.V.Sharma - Sì.aÉÑ.ÌuÉ.) AlÉÑaÉiÉÇ mÉÉlÉÇ AlÉÑmÉÉlÉqÉç | (Mü.MüÉ.) AlÉÑmÉÉlÉÇ lÉÉqÉ AÉæwÉkÉpɤÉhÉÉiÉç mɶÉÉiÉç xÉåuÉlÉÏrÉqÉç CirÉlÉrÉÉåpÉåïSÈ | (UxÉ.iÉUÇ.6/112-WûËUS¨É zÉÉx§ÉÏ OûÏMüÉ)Lakshana - rÉSÉWûÉU aÉÑhÉæÈ mÉÉlÉÇ ÌuÉmÉUÏiÉÇ iÉÌSwrÉiÉå |A³ÉÉlÉÑmÉÉlÉÇ kÉÉiÉÔlÉÉÇ SØ¹Ç rÉ³É ÌuÉUÉåÍkÉ cÉ || (cÉ.xÉÔ.27/319) ÌuÉmÉUÏiÉÇ rÉS³ÉxrÉ aÉÑhÉæÈ xrÉɳÉÌuÉUÉåÍkÉ cÉ |AlÉÑmÉÉlÉÇ xÉqÉÉxÉålÉ xÉuÉïSÉ iÉimÉëzÉxrÉiÉå || (A.WØû.xÉÔ.8/51)Synonyms - uÉÉWûrÉÌiÉ- uÉWû(mÉëÉmÉhÉå) + xuÉÉrÉåï ÍhÉcÉç srÉÑOèû | (zÉ. MüÉæ.5) xÉWû rÉÉÌiÉ- rÉÉ (mÉëÉmÉhÉå) ÍhÉlÉ:| (zÉ.MüÉæ.6) qÉkrÉå pÉuÉqÉç qÉhÉç| (zÉ.MüÉæ.5) AlÉÑiÉ×wrÉiÉå-AlÉÑ+ ÍgÉ iÉ×wÉÉ (ÌmÉmÉÉxÉÉrÉÉqÉç) “bÉgÉç” | (zÉ.MüÉæ.1) AlÉÑiÉ×wrÉiÉå CSqÉç- MüqÉï “bÉgÉç”| (zÉ.MüÉæ.1) AlÉÑiÉ×wrÉiÉåÅlÉålÉ-MüU “bÉgÉç”| (zÉ.MüÉæ.1)
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   xxiii  AlÉÑmÉÉlÉ MüÉsÉ/pÉåS - zÉÏiÉÉåwhÉiÉÉårÉ AÉxÉuÉ qɱrÉÔwÉTüsÉÉqsÉkÉÉlrÉÉqsÉ mÉrÉÉåUxÉÉlÉÉqÉç |rÉxrÉÉlÉÑmÉÉlÉÇ iÉÑ ÌWûiÉÇ pÉuÉå±xiÉxqÉæ mÉëSårÉÇ ÎiuÉWû qÉɧÉrÉÉ iÉiÉç ||urÉÉÍkÉÇ cÉ MüÉsÉÇ cÉ ÌuÉpÉÉurÉ kÉÏUæSìïurÉÉÍhÉ pÉÉåerÉÉÌlÉ iÉÉÌlÉiÉÉÌlÉ | (xÉÑ.xÉÔ.46/420,421) iɧÉÉSÉæ MüzÉïrÉåimÉÏiÉÇ xjÉÉmÉrÉålqÉkrÉxÉåÌuÉiÉqÉç |mɶÉÉimÉÏiÉÇ oÉ×ÇWûrÉÌiÉ iÉxqÉɲϤrÉ mÉërÉÉåeÉiÉç || (xÉÑ.xÉÔ.46/) iÉSÉSÉæ MüzÉïrÉåimÉÏiÉÇ xjÉÉmÉrÉålqÉkrÉxÉåÌuÉiÉqÉç |mɶÉÉimÉÏiÉÇ oÉ×ÇWûrÉÌiÉ iÉxiÉqÉϤrÉ mÉërÉÉåeÉiÉç || (qÉÉ.Sì.aÉÑ.28/16) ¥ÉårÉÇ UxÉÉÌS MüjÉlÉÉSlÉliÉUÇ ÌMüsÉÉlÉÑmÉÉlÉÇ MüjÉrÉÎliÉ xÉÔUrÉÈ |ÌuÉsÉqorÉ cÉ ¢üÉqÉhÉqÉåiÉSÏËUiÉÇ UɧÉÉæ mÉÑlÉÈ mÉÉcÉlÉqÉåiÉSÕÍcÉUå || (UÉ.ÌlÉ.UÉåaÉÉÌS uÉaÉï/43)AlÉÑmÉÉlÉ qÉɧÉÉ - AlÉÑmÉÉlÉÇ mÉërÉÉå£üurÉÇ urÉÉkÉÉæ zsÉåwqÉ pÉuÉå mÉsÉqÉç |mÉsɲrÉÇ iuÉÌlÉsÉeÉå ÌmɨÉeÉå iÉÑ mÉsɧÉrÉqÉç || (Sì.aÉÑ.xÉÇ.14/20) cÉÔhÉÉïuÉsÉåWûaÉÑÌOûMüÉMüsMüÉlÉÉqÉlÉÑmÉÉlÉMüqÉç |uÉÉiÉÌmɨÉMüTüÉiɃ¡åû̧ÉSèurÉåMümÉsÉqÉÉWûUåiÉç || (zÉÉ.qÉ.6/4) AÉiɃ¡ûÉå UÉåaÉÈ iÉålÉ uÉÉiÉÉiɃ¡åû ̧ÉmÉsÉÇ, ÌmɨÉÉiɃ¡åû ̲mÉsÉÇ, MüTüÉiɃ¡åû mÉsÉæMüÍqÉÌiÉ iÉÉimÉrÉÉïjÉïÈ |(SÏÌmÉMüÉ-zÉÉ.qÉ.6/4) ÌmɨÉMüTüÉiɃ¡åû ÌmɨÉÉSÏlÉÉÇ Ì§ÉSèurÉåMümÉsÉÇ WûUåiÉç ÌmɨÉå ̧ÉmÉsÉÇ uÉÉiÉå ̲mÉsÉÇ, MüTü LMü mÉsÉÇ |(aÉÔRûÉjÉï SÏÌmÉMüÉ-zÉÉ.qÉ.6/4) iÉiMüÉTüÉÅÌlÉsÉÌmɨÉåwÉÑ cÉæMü̧̲ÉmÉsÉÉåÎlqÉiÉqÉç | (qÉ.ÌuÉ. ÍqÉ´ÉuÉaÉï) AlÉÑmÉÉlÉÇ mÉërÉÉå£üurÉÇ urÉÉkÉÉæ zsÉåwqÉpÉuÉå mÉsÉqÉç |mÉsɲrÉÇ iuÉÌlÉsÉeÉå ÌmɨÉeÉå cÉ mÉÉsɧÉrÉqÉç || (qÉÉ.Sì.aÉÑ.28/21)
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   xxiii   SÏmiÉÉalÉrÉÉåqÉWûÉMüÉrÉÉÈ xlÉåWûxÉÉiqrÉÉÈ qÉWûÉoÉsÉÉÈ |ÌuÉxÉmÉÉåïlqÉÉS aÉÑsqÉÉiÉÉïÈ xÉmÉïSÇ·íÉ ÌuÉwÉÉÌSïiÉÉÈ |erÉå¹qÉɧÉÉÇ ÌmÉoÉårÉÑxiÉå mÉsÉÉlrɹÉæ ÌuÉÍzÉwÉiÉÈ || (uÉæ±Mü mÉËUpÉÉwÉÉ mÉëSÏmÉ 3/99)AlÉÑmÉÉlÉ ´Éå¸iÉÉ - rÉjÉÉ iÉæsÉÇ eÉsÉåͤÉmiÉÇ ¤ÉhÉålÉæuÉ mÉëxÉmÉïÌiÉ|AlÉÑmÉÉlÉ oÉsÉÉS…¡åû iÉjÉÉ xÉmÉïÌiÉ pÉåwÉeÉqÉç || (zÉÉ. qÉ. 6/5) rÉjÉÉ eÉsÉaÉiÉÇ iÉæsÉÇ iÉi¤ÉhÉÉSåuÉ xÉmÉïÌiÉ |iÉjÉÉ pÉåwÉeÉqÉ…¡ûwÉÑ mÉëxÉmÉïirÉlÉÑmÉÉlÉiÉÈ || (qÉÉ.Sì.aÉÑ.28/3) rÉÎiMÇüÍcÉiÉç AÉæwÉkÉ uÉæ±æ: SårÉÇ UÉåaÉÉlÉÑmÉÉlÉiÉ: |iÉiiɪÒÇhÉMüUÇ ¥ÉårÉÇ AlÉÑmÉÉlÉÇ oÉsÉÉÌSWû || (rÉÉå.U. UxÉÉrÉlÉ ÍcÉÌMüixÉÉ)AlÉÑmÉÉlÉ aÉÑhÉ MüqÉï - AjÉÉlÉÑmÉÉlÉ MüqÉïaÉÑhÉÉlÉç mÉëuɤrÉÉqÉÈ – AlÉÑmÉÉlÉÇ iÉmÉïrÉÌiÉ, mÉëÏhÉrÉÌiÉ, FeÉïrÉÌiÉ, oÉ×ÇWûrÉÌiÉ, mÉrÉÉïÎmiÉqÉÍpÉÌlÉuÉïiÉïrÉÌiÉ,pÉÑ£üqÉuÉxÉÉSrÉÌiÉ , A³ÉxɆ¡ûÉiÉÇ ÍpÉlĘ́É, qÉÉSïuÉqÉÉmÉÉSrÉÌiÉ, YsÉåSrÉÌiÉ eÉUrÉÌiÉ, xÉÑZÉmÉËUhÉÉÍqÉiÉÉqÉÉzÉÑurÉuÉÉÌrÉiÉÉÇcÉÉWûÉUxrÉÉåmÉeÉlÉrÉÌiÉ || (cÉ.xÉÔ.27/325) AlÉÑmÉÉlÉÇ ÌWûiÉÇ rÉÑ£Çü iÉmÉïrÉirÉÉzÉÑ qÉÉlÉuÉqÉç |xÉÑZÉÇ mÉcÉÌiÉ cÉÉWûÉUqÉÉrÉÑwÉå cÉ oÉsÉÉrÉ cÉ || (cÉ.xÉÔ.27/326) SÉåwÉuɪÒ uÉÉ pÉÑ£üqÉÌiÉqÉɧÉqÉjÉÉÌmÉ uÉÉ |rÉjÉÉå£üÉlÉÑmÉÉlÉålÉxÉÑZÉqɳÉÇ mÉëeÉÏrÉïÌiÉ ||UÉåcÉlÉÇ oÉ×ÇWûhÉÇ uÉ×wrÉÇ SÉåwÉxɆ¡ûÉiÉpÉåSlÉqÉç |iÉmÉïhÉÇ qÉÉSïuÉMüUÇ ´ÉqÉYsÉqÉWûUÇ xÉÑZÉqÉç ||SÏmÉlÉÇ SÉåwÉzÉqÉlÉÇ ÌmÉmÉÉxÉÉcNåûSlÉÇ mÉUqÉç |oÉsrÉÇ uÉhÉïMüUÇ xÉqrÉaÉlÉÑmÉÉlÉÇ xÉSÉåcrÉiÉå || (xÉÑ.xÉÔ.46/235-237)
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    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   xxiii  uÉåaÉkÉÉUhÉqÉÉrÉÉxÉÉå uÉÉiÉMüÉxÉmÉëuÉiÉïMüÉÈ || (cÉ.ÍcÉ.18/10) MÑüÌmÉiÉÉå uÉÉiÉsÉæuÉÉïiÉÈ | (A.WØû.ÌlÉ.3/22) rÉxxÉSÉ uÉÉiÉsÉÉå eÉliÉÑUxÉÉiqrÉÇ uÉæ ÌlÉwÉåuÉåiÉ |äÉqÉzlÉÉÌiÉ ÌmÉoÉÌiÉ Ã¤ÉÇ ÌWû oÉWÒû ZÉÉSÌiÉ || (pÉå.ÌlÉ.4/2)uÉÉiÉeÉ MüÉxÉ xÉÇmÉëÉÎmiÉ :- iÉxrÉ uÉÉiÉÈ mÉëMÑüÌmÉiÉÉå aÉ×WûÏiuÉÉ WØûSrÉÇ iÉiÉÈ |FkuÉïÇ xÉÇmÉëÉmrÉ kÉqÉlÉÏUjÉ MüÉxÉÉrÉMüsmÉiÉå || (pÉå.ÌlÉ.4/3)uÉÉiÉeÉ MüÉxÉ sɤÉhÉ :- WØûimÉÉμÉÉåïUÈÍzÉUÈzÉÔsÉxuÉUpÉåSMüUÉå pÉ×zÉqÉç |zÉÑwMüÉåUMühPûuÉY§ÉxrÉ WØû¹sÉÉåqlÉÈ mÉëiÉÉqrÉiÉÈ ||ÌlÉbÉÉåïwÉSælrÉxiÉlÉSÉæoÉïsrɤÉÉåpÉqÉÉåWûM×üiÉç |zÉÑwMüMüÉxÉÈ MüTÇü zÉÑwMÇü M×üccNíûÉlqÉÑYiuÉÉÅsmÉiÉÉÇ uÉëeÉåiÉç ||ÎxlÉakÉÉqsÉsÉuÉhÉÉåwhÉæ¶É pÉÑ£ümÉÏiÉæÈ mÉëiÉÉqrÉÌiÉ |FkuÉïuÉÉiÉxrÉ eÉÏhÉåïųÉå uÉåaÉuÉÉlqÉÉÂiÉÉå pÉuÉåiÉç || (cÉ.ÍcÉ.18/11-13) WØûcNû„¡ûqÉÔkÉÉåïSUmÉÉμÉïzÉÔsÉÏÇ ¤ÉqÉÉlÉÉlÉÈ ¤ÉÏhÉxuÉUoÉsÉÉæeÉÉÈ ||mÉëxÉ£üqÉliÉÈ MüTüqÉÏUhÉålÉ MüÉxÉåiÉÑ zÉÑwMÇü xuÉUpÉåSrÉÑ£üÈ | (xÉÑ.E.52/8) & (qÉÉ.ÌlÉ.11/5) zÉÑwMüÉåUÈMühPûMüY§ÉiÉÉqÉç ||WØûimÉÉμÉÉåïUÈÍzÉUÈzÉÔsÉÇ qÉÉåWû¤ÉÉåpÉxuÉU¤ÉrÉÉlÉç |MüUÉåÌiÉ zÉÑwMÇü MüÉxÉÇ cÉ qÉWûÉuÉåaÉÂeÉÉxuÉlÉqÉç ||xÉÉåÅ…¡ûWûwÉÏï MüTÇü zÉÑwMÇü M×ücNíûÉlqÉÑYiuÉÉÅsmÉiÉÉÇ uÉëeÉåiÉç | (A.WØû. MüÉxÉ ÌlÉSÉlÉ/22,23) WØûcNû„¡ûqÉÔkrÉÉåïSUmÉÉμÉïzÉÔsÉÏ ¤ÉqÉÉlÉÉlÉÈ ¤ÉÏhÉoÉsÉÈxuÉUÉæeÉÈ |mÉëxÉ£üuÉåaÉxiÉÑ xÉqÉÏUhÉålÉ ÍpɳÉxuÉUÈ MüÉxÉÌiÉ zÉÑwMüqÉåuÉ || (uÉÇ.xÉå.-MüÉxÉÉÍkÉMüÉU/5)
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   xxiii   EUzzÉÔsÉÇ mÉÉμÉïzÉÔsÉÇ mÉ×¹xiÉqpÉxrÉ eÉÉrÉiÉå |AÉOûÉåmrÉiÉåÅxrÉÉåSUÇ cÉ ÍzÉU¶ÉÉxrÉÉÌiÉqÉljrÉiÉå ||EUÉåÍpÉbÉÉiÉÉimÉÉμÉåï cÉ aÉ×½iÉå CuÉ SåÌWûlÉÈ |lÉMüTüÈ MüÉzÉqÉÉlÉxrÉ qÉÑWÒûÈ MüÉxÉÉå ÂhÉή ÌWû ||CirÉåÍpÉsÉï¤ÉhÉæÌuÉï±É²ÉiÉMüÉxÉÇ zÉUÏËUhÉÉqÉç | (pÉå.ÌlÉ.4/4-6) qÉÉÂiÉÉiMüÉxÉiÉå zÉÑwMÇü zÉÔMümÉÔhÉïaÉsÉÉå rÉjÉÉ ||ÌlɸÏuÉÌiÉ cÉ zÉÑwMÇü cÉ iÉ§É qÉÑ£åü lÉ MüÉxÉiÉå |mÉëiÉÉqrÉåiMüÉxÉqÉÉlÉxrÉ WØûSrÉ cÉÉuÉM×üwrÉiÉå ||mÉÉμÉåï cÉ ÂeÉiÉÉåÅirÉjÉïÇ μÉÉxÉålÉ cÉ ÌuÉMÔüeÉÌiÉ |xÉ„¡ûrÉÉåeÉÉïrÉiÉå zÉÔsÉÇ iÉÉsÉÑzÉÉåwÉxiÉjÉæuÉ cÉ ||zrÉÉuÉå lÉå§Éå cÉ uÉϤrÉåiÉå xuÉUÉå uÉhÉï¶É ÍpɱiÉå |ÌuÉzÉåwÉÉÌSì£ü MüÉå¹¶É MüÉxÉiÉå uÉÉiÉ mÉÏÌQûiÉÈ || (pÉå.ÍcÉ.20/4-7)uÉÉiÉeÉ MüÉxÉ ÍcÉÌMüixÉÉ :- äÉxrÉÉÌlÉsÉeÉÇ MüÉxÉqÉÉSÉæ xlÉåWæûÂmÉÉcÉUåiÉç |xÉÌmÉïÍpÉoÉïÎxiÉÍpÉÈ mÉårÉÉ ¤ÉÏU rÉÔwÉ UxÉÉÌSÍpÉÈ ||uÉÉiÉblÉÍxÉ®æÈ xlÉåWûɱækÉÔïqÉæsÉåïWæû¶É rÉÑÌ£üiÉÈ |AprÉ…¡æûÈ mÉËUwÉåMæü¶É ÎxlÉakÉæÈ xuÉåSæ¶É oÉÑήqÉÉlÉç ||oÉÎxiÉÍpÉoÉï®ÌuɲÉiÉÇ zÉÑwMüÉåkuÉïÇ cÉÉåkuÉïpÉÌ£üMæüÈ |bÉ×iÉæÈ xÉÌmɨÉÇ xÉMüTÇü eÉrÉåiÉç xlÉåWûÌuÉUåcÉlÉæÈ || (cÉ.ÍcÉ.18/32-34) äÉxrÉÉÌlÉsÉeÉÇ MüÉxÉqÉÉSÉæ xlÉåWæûÂmÉÉcÉUåiÉç |xÉÌmÉïÍpÉoÉïÎxiÉÍpÉÈ || (uÉÇ.xÉå.-MüÉxÉÉÍkÉMüÉU/6)
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   xxiii  MüÉxÉå bÉ×iÉ mÉëkÉÉlÉiÉÉ :- bÉ×iÉÇ iÉÑ ÌmɨÉåÅprÉÌSMåü ÍsɽɲÉiÉåÅÍkÉMåü ÌmÉoÉåiÉç |sÉÏRÇû ÌlÉuÉÉïmÉrÉåÎimɨÉqÉsmÉiuÉÉ®ÎliÉ lÉÉlÉsÉqÉç |AÉ¢üÉqÉÉirÉÌlÉsÉÇ mÉÏiÉqÉÑwhÉÇ ÌlÉÂhÉή cÉ || (A.WØû.ÍcÉ.3//110,111)ÌmɨÉåÅprÉÍkÉMåü bÉ×iÉÇ ÍsɽÉiÉç | uÉÉiÉåÅÍkÉMåü bÉ×iÉÇ ÌmÉoÉåiÉç |sÉÏRÇû bÉ×iÉÇ ÌmɨÉÇ ÌlÉuÉÉïmÉrÉåiÉç-xÉÇzÉqÉrÉåiÉç | AlÉsÉÇ cÉ lÉ WûÎliÉ sÉÏRÇû bÉ×iÉqÉç | (AÂhÉS¨É)uÉÉiÉeÉ MüÉxÉ mÉjrÉÉmÉjrÉ :- mÉårÉÉ ¤ÉÏU rÉÔwÉ UxÉÉÌSÍpÉÈ ||uÉÉxiÉÑMüÉå uÉÉrÉxÉÏzÉÉMÇü qÉÔsÉMÇü xÉÑÌlÉwÉhhÉMüqÉç |xlÉåWûiÉæsÉÉSrÉÉå pɤrÉÉÈ ¤ÉÏUå¤ÉÑUxÉaÉÉæÌQûMüÉÈ ||SkrÉÉUlÉÉsÉÉqsÉTüsÉÇ mÉëxɳÉÉmÉÉlÉqÉåuÉ cÉ |zÉxrÉiÉå uÉÉiÉMüÉxÉåwÉÑ xuÉɲÉqsÉsÉuÉhÉÉÌlÉ cÉ ||aÉëÉqrÉÉlÉÔmÉÉåSMæüÈ zÉÉÍsÉrÉuÉaÉÉåkÉÔqÉwÉ̹MüÉlÉç |UxÉæÈ qÉÉÇxÉÉiqÉaÉÑmiÉÉlÉÉÇ rÉÔwÉæuÉÉï rÉÉåeÉrÉå̬iÉÉlÉç || (uÉÇ.xÉå.-MüÉxÉÉÍkÉMüÉU/6-9) & (pÉæ.U.MüÉxÉÍcÉÌMüixÉÉ mÉëMüUhÉ)ÌuÉQû…¡ûÉÌS cÉÔhÉï :- ÌuÉQû…¡Çû lÉÉaÉUÇ UÉxlÉÉ ÌmÉmmÉsÉÏ ÌWû…¡Óû xÉælkÉuÉqÉç |pÉÉaÉÏïÇ ¤ÉÉU¶É iÉŠÔhÉïÇ ÌmÉoÉå²É bÉ×iÉqÉɧÉrÉÉ ||xÉMüTåüÅÌlÉsÉeÉå MüÉxÉå μÉÉxÉÌWûMçüMüÉWûiÉÉÎalÉwÉÑ | (cÉ.ÍcÉ.18/47,48), (A.WØû.ÍcÉ.3/12,13) & (A.xÉÇ.ÍcÉ.4/9)bÉ×iÉqÉɧÉrÉåÌiÉ cÉÔhÉÉïsÉÉåRûlÉÉåÍcÉiÉqÉɧÉrÉÉ bÉ×iÉqÉɧÉrÉÉ | (cÉ¢ümÉÉÍhÉ)ÌuÉQû…¡ûÉÌScÉÔhÉÉåïmÉrÉÉåaÉå bÉ×iÉå qÉɧÉzÉoSÈ xiÉÉåMü mÉrÉÉïrÉÈ | (ClSÒ) rÉuɤÉÉUÇ ÌuÉQû…¡ûÉÌlÉ ÌWû…¡Óû pÉÉ…¡ûÏï qÉWûÉæwÉkÉqÉç |xÉælkÉuÉÇ ÌmÉmmÉsÉÏ UÉxlÉÉ iÉÑsrÉÉlÉåiÉÉÌlÉ cÉÔhÉïrÉåiÉç ||bÉ×iÉqÉɧÉÉrÉÑ£Çü cÉÔhÉïÇ ÌmÉoÉåiMüÉxÉÌuÉlÉÉzÉlÉqÉç |qÉlSÉÎalÉiÉÉÇ iÉqÉμÉÉxÉÇ ÌWûMçüMüÉÇ cÉæuÉÉmÉMüwÉïÌiÉ || (pÉå.ÍcÉ.20/31,32)
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   xxiii  List of photographs :- 1. Raw drugsVidanga Naagara Raasnaa      Pippalee Hingu Saindhava       Bhaarangi Yavakshaara Ghrita          Procedure of Hingu bharjana Mixture of all choornaas Anupana dose fixation
    • A study on Anupana w.s.r.to the role of Ghrita in Vataja Kasa   xxiii  List of photographs :- 2. Wet drugsVidanga NaagaraRaasnaa PippaleeHingu Bhaarangi