Vangabhasma oligospermia rs001-gdg
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Preparation Physico – chemical analysis of vanga bhasma and its clinical evaluation in Kseena sukra (oligospermia) - Dr. K.S.Santoji, Department of rasashastra, Post graduate studies and research ...

Preparation Physico – chemical analysis of vanga bhasma and its clinical evaluation in Kseena sukra (oligospermia) - Dr. K.S.Santoji, Department of rasashastra, Post graduate studies and research center, Shri D. G. Melmalagi Ayurvedic Medical College, Gadag

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Vangabhasma oligospermia rs001-gdg Vangabhasma oligospermia rs001-gdg Document Transcript

  • Department of Post Graduate D.G.M.Ayurvedic Medical College &Studies in RASASHASTRA Post Graduate cum Research Center Gadag –582103 Dist: Gadag J.S.V.V. SAMITE’S DECLARATION I here by declare that this dissertation entitled “ THE PREPARATION, PHYSICO- CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF VANGA BHASMA AND ITS CLINICAL EVALUATION IN KSHEENASHUKRA (Oligosparmia) ” is a bonafide and genuine research work carried out by me under the guidance of Dr.M.C.Patil. Professor & HOD, Department of Post Graduate Studies in Rasashastra, D. G. M Ayurvedic Medical College & Post Graduate cum Research Center Gadag –582103 Date: Dr.Kalakappa.S.Santoji P.G.Schalor, Place: Gadag. Dept. of Rasashastra, D.G.M.Ayurvedic Medical College & Post Graduate cum Research Center Gadag –582103
  • Department of Post graduate D.G.M.Ayurvedic Medical College &Studies in RASASHASTRA Post Graduate cum Research Center Gadag –582103 Dist: Gadag J.S.V.V. SAMITE’S CERTIFICATE I here by declare that this dissertation entitled “THE PREPARATION, PHYSICO- CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF VANGA BHASMA AND ITS CLINICAL EVALUATION IN KSHEENASHUKRA (Oligospermia)” is a bonafide and genuine research work done by Dr.Kalakappa.S.Santoji in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Ayurveda Vachaspati (M.D) in Rasashastra of Rajiv Gandhi University of Health sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka. Date: Guide Place: Gadag. Dr.M.C.Patil. M.D.(RS) Head of the department Rasashastra D.G.M.Ayurvedic Medical College & Post Graduate cum Research Center Gadag –582103
  • Department of Post graduate D.G.M.Ayurvedic Medical College &Studies in RASASHASTRA Post Graduate cum Research Center Gadag –582103 Dist: Gadag J.S.V.V. SAMITE’S CERTIFICATEI here by declare that this dissertation entitled “THE PREPARATION, PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF VANGA BHASMA AND ITS CLINICAL EVALUATIONIN KSHEENASHUKRA(Oligospermia)” is a bonafide and genuine research workdone by Dr.Kalakappa.S.Santoji in partial fulfillment of the requirement for thedegree of Ayurveda Vachaspati (M.D) in Rasashastra of Rajiv Gandhi University ofHealth sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka.Date: Co-GuidePlace: Gadag. Dr.Girish.N.Danappagoudar M.D.(RS). Lecturer Rasashastra D.G.M.Ayurvedic Medical College & Post Graduate cum Research Center Gadag –582103
  • ENDORSMENT BY THE HOD, PRINCIPAL/HEAD OF THE INSTITUTATION J.S.V.V. SAMITE’S ENDORSEMENTI here by declare that this dissertation entitled “THE PREPARATION, PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF VANGA BHASMA AND ITS CLINICAL EVALUATIONIN KSHEENASHUKRA(Oligospermia)” is a bonafide and genuine research workdone by Dr.Kalakappa.S.Santoji under the guidence of Dr.M.C.Patil Professor,HOD Department of Post Graduate Studies & Dr.Girish.N.DanappagoudarLecturer, Department of Rasashastra, Post Graduate Studies in D.G.M.AyurvedicMedical College, Gadag.Seal & Signature of the HOD. Seal & Signature of the Principal:Name : Name:Date: Date:Place: Gadag. Place:
  • COPYRIGHT I here by declare that the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences,Karnataka shall have the rights to preserve, use and disseminate this dissertation inprint or electronic format for academic / research purpose.Date: Dr.Kalakappa.S.Santoji P.G.Schalor, Dept. of Rasashastra D.G.M.AyurvedicPlace: Gadag Medical College & Post Graduate cum Research Center Gadag –582103© Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka
  • THE PREPARATION, PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF VANGA BHASMA AND ITS CLINICAL EVALUATION IN KSHEENASHUKRA (Oligospermia). By DR. KALAKAPPA.S.SANTOJI B.A.M.S (K.U.Dharawad) DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, KARNATAKA, BANGALORE IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF “DOCTOR OF MEDICINE” (AYURVEDA) In RASASHASTRAGUIDE CO-GUIDEDR.M.C.PATIL DR. GIRISH.N.DANAPPAGOUDAR M.D.(R.S) M.D(R.S)Prof. Head of the Department Lecturer. Departmentof Rasashastra. of Rasashastra. DEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES IN RASASHASTRAD.G.M.AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE & RESEARCH CENTER. GADAG –582103 FEBRUARY- 2005
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENT My father & mother is the only Inspiration. This work carries some sweatmemories to express & record about some distinguished personalities by whom I had beeninspired during the course of this thesis.I express my deep sense of gratitude to my respected guide Prof.Dr.M.C.Patil. MD(Ayu)Head of Dept. of RS, DGMAMC & PGSRC, Gadag. He has been very kind to guide me in thepreparation of thesis & for who extraordinary efforts, tremendous encouragement & mostvaluable thought provoking critical suggestions, made me to complete this work. I am extremely greatful & obliged to my co-guide Dr.Girish .N.Danappagiudar.MD(Ayu). Lecturer in Rasashastra, PG studies & Research center DGMAMC,Gadag, for patiently going through the draft of thesis & correcting with precious remarks whichhave been very useful. I am thankful to Dr.G.B.Patil principal, DGMAMC, PGSRC,Gadag, forproviding all necessary facilities for this research work. I wish to convey thanks to my teacher Prof.Dr.R.K.GachchinamathHOD,Rasashastra dept,(UG) DGMAMC, Gadag, for being kind & affectionate through hisvaluable suggestions & advises. It gives me immense pleasure to express my gratitude to Dr. Dilipkumar B.MD (Ayu). Asst. Prof. PGSRC for kind advise encouragement during the study. I acknowledge the valuable help given to me by my best friends Dr.Jagadish Mitti MD(Ayu). Lecturer & Dr. Shashikant Nidagundi MD(Ayu) Lecturer, fortheir support during my PG study. I am greatful for the support and advise given by Dr. S.H.Doddamani MD(Ayu). Asst. Prof. PGSRC. DGMAMC, Gadag, during my clinical trail and encouraged meall the time during this work.
  • I express my deep gratitude to Dr. B.M.Mulkipatil MD (Ayu), Lecture,PGSRC, Gadag, for his fullhanded whole hearted, co-operation and suggestions in thisstudy, for which I will be ever greatful to him. I wish to convey thanks to all UG & PG lectures of DGMAMC, Gadag, fortheir timely help & constant co-operation during my PG work. I sincerely thank my beloved classmates Dr. K.M.Jaggal, Dr. P. KoteshwarRao, Dr. V.S.Hiremath, Dr. R.B.Paattanashetti, for their deep co-operation and involvementin the study. I am also thankful to scholars of PG Dept. of Rasashastra who have directlyor indirectly helps my thesis work. & expected their co-operation & support during my PGwork. I am glad to express my heartiest thanks to Dr. Chandur Medical pharma .J.T.College Gadag, having helped me in carrying out analytical works, and for giving kindsuggestions. I wish to convey my thanks to beloved librarian, Sri. V.M.Mundinamani,Asst. S.B.Sureban for providing many valuable references in the study. I am thankful to Sri.B.S.Tippanagouda, Lab technician, who extended this co-operation in investigations. I tender my sincere thanks to Nandakumar, statistician for his help instatistical evaluation & results. I wish to thank the physicians , House surgeons, Hospital staff, nurses &non teaching staff for their timely assistance in completion of this work. Let me express my thanks to all patients, those were on trial for theirconsent for enrolling in this clinical study & obedience to advises. I am highly indebted to my beloved parents brothers sisters & other familymembers for their love & affection rendered through out my career.
  • I am thankful to computer operator in bringing out the computer presence ofmy thesis in such a elegant way. I express my thanks to all the persons who have helped me directly &indirectly with apologies for my ability to identify them individually. Lastly I prey my deep homage & tribute to my grand parents for the love &affection rendered through out my career.GadagFebruary 2005 Dr: K.S.Santoji
  • ABBREVIATION1. R.T - Rasa Tarangini2. R.R.S - Rasa ratna Samuchchaya3. R.P.S - Rasa Prakasha Sudhakara.4 A.P - Ayurveda Prakash5. R.A - Rasamritam6. R.J.N.I - Rasa Jala Nidhi7. R.K - Rasa Kamadhenu8. B.R.R.S - Brihat Rasa Raja Sundara9. R.Chu - Rasendra Chudamani10. R.S.S.- Rasendra Sara Sangraha11. M.N - Madhava Nidhana12. K.N - Kaideva Nighantu13. M.N - Madanapala Nighantu14. R.N - Raja Nighantu15. B.P - Bhava Prakasha Nighantu16. S.B.M.M- Siddha Bheshaja Manimala17. Ch.S - Charaka Samhita18. S.S - Sushruta Samhita19. A.S- Ashtanga Sangraha20. A.H - Ashtanga Hridaya21. B.P - British Pharmacopia22. _ Not mentioned.23. + Mentioned
  • LIST OF TABLESSl.N0. Topic Page. No.1. Synonyms of Vanga 92. Shodhana media according to various authorities. 153. Drugs used in Jarana of Vanga. 174. Pharmacological properties of Vanga. 225. Indication of Vanga bhasma in various diseases. 246. Ores of Tin & their occurrence. 327. Physical properties of Tin 368. Compounds of Tin 389. Alloys of Tin 3810. Detection of Tin compounds 3911. Qualities of Shuddha shukra 5512. Ksheenashukra lakshana 5913. Loss of Vanga in various practicles 7514. Changes during Jarana 7715. Observation of Vanga during puta 8016. Ayurvedic tests of Vanga bhasma 8117. Observation based on age 9118. Observation based on Religion 9219. Observation based on Occupation 9320. Observation based on Socio-Economic status 9421. Observation based on Education 9522. Observation based on Diet 9623. Observation based on Previous illness 97
  • 24. Observation based on Injury 9825. Observation based on Habit 9926. Observation based on H/O Mastrubution 10027. Observation based on Duration of marriage 10128. Observation based on Previous conception 10229. Observation based on Patients mind during Coitus 10330. Observation based on Sexual desire 10431. Observation based on Ejaculation 10532. Observation based on Ejaculation with Pain /Burning 10633. Observation based on Psychological history 10734. Observation based on Ksheenashukra lakshana 10835. Observation based on Sexual desire (A.T & B.T) 10936. Observation based on Errection (A.T & B.T) 11037. Observation based on Ejaculation (A.T. & B.T) 11138. Observation based on Rigidity (A.T & B.T) 11239. Observation based on Orgasm (A.T. & B.T) 11340. Observation based on Abstinence period 11441. Observation based on Semen volume (A.T. & B.T) 11542. Observation based on Sperm count (A.T. & B.T) 11643. Observation based on Viability (A.T & B.T) 11744. Observation based on Motility (A.T & B.T) 11845. Statistical result 11946. Result 120
  • LIST OF GRAPHSSl.N0. Topic Page. No.1. Distribution based on age 912. Distribution based on Religion 923. Distribution based on Occupation 934. Distribution based on Socio-Economic status 945. Distribution based on Education 956. Distribution based on Diet 967. Distribution based on Previous illness 978. Distribution based on Injury 989. Distribution based on Habit 9910. Distribution based on H/O Mastrubution 10011. Distribution based on Duration of marriage 10112. Distribution based on Previous conception 10213. Distribution based on Patients mind during Coitus 10314. Distribution based on Sexual desire 10415. Distribution based on Ejaculation 10516. Distribution based on Ejaculation with Pain /Burning 10617. Distribution based on Psychological history 10718. Distribution based on Sexual desire (A.T & B.T) 10919. Distribution based on Errection (A.T & B.T) 11020. Distribution based on Ejaculation (A.T. & B.T) 111
  • 21. Distribution based on Rigidity (A.T & B.T) 11222. Distribution based on Orgasm (A.T. & B.T) 11323. Distribution based on Abstinence period 11424. Distribution based on Semen volume (A.T. & B.T) 11525. Distribution based on Sperm count (A.T. & B.T) 11626. Distribution based on Viability (A.T & B.T) 11727. Distribution based on Motility (A.T & B.T) 11828. Result 120 LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS 1. Pitara yantra & Vanga 2. Vanga shodana in Taila, Thakra & Gomootra 3. Vanga Shodhana in Kanji, Kulaththa & Haridrayukta Nirgundi swarasa 4. Jarita Vanga 5. Vanga subjected to Puta 6. Vanga bhasma & Capsules
  • ABSTRACTBack ground: Ksheena shukra is the cause of infertility characterized by low sperm configauration. This isthe resultant of nutritional deficiency, smoking, alcohol consumption, stress, strain, in judicious useof drugs & environmental pollution which leads to psychological problems in couples. In modern sience there are number of drugs for Ksheena shukra (Oligospermia), butthey leads to various complications. Ayurveda too has may herbal, mineral & herbo mineralpreparation which are claiming to be very effective in Ksheena shukra, some of them arevery easy to prepare, some are very difficult to prepare. & even costly also.Rasataranginikara considered Vanga bhasma as a ideal preparation in Ksheena shukra. Thisis to be prepared after classical method of shodhana & marana it is considered to be a goodrasayana & balya.So it is expected to improve the quality & quantity of the Ksheena shukra.Hence the present study is under taken.Objectives: a. Preparation of Vanga bhasma b. Physico-chemical analysis of Vanga bhasma c. Clinical evaluation of vanga bhasma on KSHEENA SHUKRA (OLIGOSPERMIA)METHODS: Pharmaceutical study: a) Vanga shodhna according to Rasatarangini 18 chapter shloka no 11 b) Vanga jarana & marana according to Rasatarangini 18 chapter shloka no 19 to 24 & Rasamrita 23 chapter shloka no. 88 to 94
  • Analytical study: Vanga bhasma is subjected to physico chemical analysis i.e Assay for Tin, Acid insoluble ash, Loss on 110o c, Loss on ignition 10000 c & physical analysis fineness of partical test including organoleptic character .Clinical study: 26 patients of Ksheena shukra ( Oligospermia ) with confirmed diagnose are taken from the OPD section of P.G.R.C.DGM Ayurvedic medical collage hospital Gadag.Results: 1. Vanga bhasma prepared by following the classical method of Shodhana & Marana is proved as a genuine one. 2. Vanga bhasma is improving the quality & quantity of shukra, which is confirmed by the value of subjective & objective parameter, which has the stastatical ‘p’value < 0.001 3. By the statistical analysis it is comes to know that Vanga bhasma is statistically highly significant for all the subjective & objective parameters of Ksheena shukraInterpretation & Conclusion : 1. The dravyas which are mentioned in the classical procedure of Vanga shodhana & marana definitely convert the Vanga into pure Vanga bhasma & induces the disease curing property 2. Apamarga used for the Vanga jarana definitely reduces the specific gravity of the Vanga with the help of agni & vagorious rubbing with ladle converts the Vanga into Vanga powder. 3. Ayurvedic bhasma pariksha & modern physico-chemical analysis are the confirmative test for the complete formation of bhasma & its genuinity. 4. Vanga bhasma along with Apamarga moola churna & milk is the best remedy for Ksheena shukra.Key words: Ksheena shukra, Oligospermia, Vanga, Shodhana, Jarana, Marana, Physico-chemical analysis,Subjective & Objective criteria, Study duration, Milk
  • CONTENTS Page Number.I. INTRODUCTION 1-3II. OBJECTIVES 4III. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 1. DRUG REVIEW 5-40 2. DISEASE REVIEW 41-66 A. SHAREERA (ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY) 43-54 B. NIDANA (PATHOLOGY) 55-65 C. CHIKITSA (TREATMENT) 66IV. METHODOLOGY 1. PHARMACEUTICAL STUDY 67-80 2. ANALYTICAL STUDY 81-85 3. CLINICAL STUDY 86-89V. OBSERVATION & RESULTS 90-120VI. DISCUSSION 121-127VII. CONCLUSION 128-129VIII. SUMMARY 130-131 BIBLIOGRAPHYANNEXURE – 1 MASTER CHARTANNEXURE – 2 CASE SHEET
  • Introduction INTRODUCTION: Ayurveda is the most ancient system of medicine. Which is (mostly) based onits own fundamental principles theories or concepts. Which are deeply rooted into the oldestscriptures of Hindu veda i.e “Atharvanaveda”. It is an encylopedia of ancient eternal medicalwisdom in spite of its antiquity. (3,000 years old) it is being practicing even today all over theworld. Rasashastra, one of the branch of Ayurveda which is well developed byNagarjuna. Hence he is known as pioneer of Rasashastra. He practiced Ayurveda by usingrasa dravya’s i.e metals, minerals, gems etc, to achieve the aims of Rasashastra.i.eLohasiddhi & Dehasiddhi. Now Rasashastra holds topmost place in Ayurveda due to itsunique preparation’s – Rasabhasma’s, Kharaliya rasayana, Pottali Rasayana, Parpati rasayana,Kupipakwa rasayana and their utility. Bhasma’s are the unique solid dosage form of Ayurvedic preparation.Preparation of bhasma involves number of steps - shodhana, jarana then marana. In thesesteps minerals, metals, gems are processed with herbal / animal origin drugs. So that maritabhasma should posses desired pharmacological action. Standard bhasma should benishchandra, varitara, rekhapoorna & apunarbhava etc. Absorption, Assimilation, Excretion ofsuch bhasma is very quick and helps in faster recovery within a short period. In the same wayall moorchita rasayanas have nearly the same characters.Historical review: History reveals metals and minerals are therapeutically used from Rigvedaperiod. In samhita kala Charaka, Sushruta & Vagbhata practiced metals, minerals, gems as atherapeutic. Preparations of Vanga are practiced by our rasavaidyas since good old days. It is adrug of mineral origin described in Ayurveda. It can be used as a single drug or incombination either with mineral drug or with herbal drugs in certain diseases. It wasspecifically recommended for Prameha & Ksheenashukra. It was prescribed as a best rasayanawhile explaining its efficacy in shukrakshaya. Rasavaidyas have described veryauthentically.i.e 1
  • Introduction “ VANGA BHAKSHATO NARASYA NA BHAVIAT | SWAPNEPI SHUKRA KSHAYAM || ” Rasatarangini-19 chapter.Many rasa vaidyas called vanga as shukrala dhatu, vrushya which indicates its main use .According to Rasaupanishat- “SARVESHAMEVA LOHANAM BALAVAN VANGA MUCHETE” Rasaratna samuchchayakara are while highlighting the efficacy of Vanga bhasma, hementioned “Godheko tanga aour adamiko vanga”. So in this way Vanga bhasma is veryeffective in shukrakshaya and shukrameha. According to Indian maetriamedica Vangabhasmais best drug in sexual disability and impotency. The dream and desire for progeny is never ending. Every body wants to keep thefamily tree growing. There is a myth amongest the people that is more of a womens problem.In fact a male is also equally prone to the problem. Our society, having the reputation of maledomination, if a couple fails to conceive, the women is blamed and put fault. Inability toconceive can lead to psychological as well as social problem. The person without progeny iscondemned and neglected in society. It is cleared by charakas words that the man alone lookslike a tree having only one branch shadeless, fruitless and with foul smell. According to WHO survey in 1996, 15% of couple experience relative orabsolute infertility in which male infertility is 8%. Who are suffering from sexual dysfunctionover 75% of men with infertility, have poor semen quality. So most common cause for maleinfertility is Ksheenashukra (Oligospermia). The WHO static of year 1967 research reveais that 18% of infertility is due to males.Where the sperm count is less than 20 million / ml and motility less than 4 hours afterejaculation. Common lakshanas of the Ksheenashukra are medravedhana, vrushanavedhana, maithunashaktata, chiratpraseka, alparakta shukradarshana, dourbalya, mukashosha,pandutwa, sadana, shrama etc. General investigation used to diagnose the disease are HB%,RBS, Semen analysis, fructose study and serum hormonal study. According to modern science Oligospermia or sexual disability may be due tomental disturbance, as secondary in Diabetes mellitus, Multiple sclerosis and some timesdeformity in Endocrinal glands, which play an important role in reproduction. So treatment is 2
  • Introductionalso according to the causes and hormonal replacement. But modern drug shows number ofcomplications like metabolic disturbance and carcinogenic effect in long run. Vanga bhasma shows multidimensional properties i.e dose is very smallduration is short, economic, and best balyadravya, dhatu sthoulyakara keeping in view of theabove facts it was felt to conduct a study to analyisis the efficacy of vanga bhasma by clinicaltrails. Here the objective cretiria for assessing the drug efficacy is qualitative and quantitativechange in the semen. The present work----- THE PREPARATION, PHYSICO – CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF VANGABHASMA AND ITS CLINICAL EVALUVATION IN KSHEENASHUKRA(OLIGOSPERMIA). This desertation is presented in 7 chapters i.e Chapter Content 1. Introduction 2. Objectives 3. Literary review a. Drug review 1. Cocept of Vanga in Ayurveda view 2. Concept of Vanga in Modern view b. Disease review 1. Shareera ( Anatomy & physiology) 2. Nidana ( Pathology ) 3. Chikitsa ( treatment ) 4. Methodology 1. Pharmaceutical study 2. Analytical study 3. Clinical study 5. Results 1. Observation 2. Result 6. Discussion 7. Summary & Conclusion 3
  • Introduction OBJECTIVES Vanga bhasma is indicated in many disorders like Mootra margagata vikara, Twakavikara, Pradara roga and in Ksheenashukra. It is necessary to establish its efficacy by clinicalstudy with support of Ayurvedic as well as modern parameters, in order to evaluate geneunityof Vanga bhasma, so the present study is planned. The main aim & objectives of the study areas fallows. 1. Preparation of Vanga bhasma. 2. Physico-chemical analysis of Vanga bhasma. 3. Clinical evaluation of Vanga bhasma on Ksheena shukra (Oligospermia). 4
  • Review of Literature. Vanga DRUG REVIEWVANGA IN AYURVEDIC CONCEPT Metals are familiar to Indian physicians since antiquity. Including their differentcharacters & uses . This is well substantiated & data has been well documented in Vedas & wefind plenty of references pertaining to various metals like Swarna, Rajata, Loha, Trapu (vanga). Vanga is a metallic drug used in many form. In ancient times it was beingliberally used in coating the other metals & hardening the soft metals by observing the factors,the history of vanga can be classified into four periods 1. Vedic period 2. Samhita period 3. Rasashastra period 4. Nigantu period 1. Vedic period: The word “Trapu” has been mentioned to the metal vanga in (Yajurveda & Atharvanaveda) the Vedas and it is derived from the Sanskrit root “Tap” meaning a sense of Ashma. Rigveda also mentions about metals like gold, silver and bronze (which is an alloy of tin (vanga). In Athervana veda vanga is correlated with other dhatus. In this veda loha’s are compared with the colour of the dhatus. Ex: Flesh has the colour of shyama (Iron), blood has the colour of loha, totally it has the colour of tin & has the smell of lead. 2. Samhita period:- The official books of Ayurveda i.e Charaka samhita, Sushruta samhita & Ashtanga sangraha mentioned Vanga as one among the pancha loha i.e Suvarna, Rajata, Tamra, Vanga & Seesaka. In Charaka samhita, Sutrastana under dinacharya topic, while explaining the oral hygiene mentions that tongue scraper is to be made up of loha’s like Suvarna, Rajata, Tamra, Vanga & Seesaka etc. In charaka chikitsa sthana under kushta chikitsa, while explaining the mandala kushta chikitsa, the external application is made up of Loha choorna, Trapu choorna with Gomootra1. In Sushruta samhita, Uttara tantra 12 chapter refers to the use of Vanga choorna , Shilajatu, 5
  • Review of Literature. Vanga Rasanjana, Tuthya, Kaseesa. Loha, Trapu choorna, Kamalapatra, kshara, chandana choorna with honey as varti for Anjana in disease Raktabishandya. In the same chapter Vanga choorna with Swarna, Lavana, Ratana choorna, Kukkutanda twak choorna , Lashuna etc are prescribed as Lekhananjana2. Ashtanga sangraha 14 chapter, while explaining the treatment for diseases of Netrasandhi & mandala. Anjana is prepared out of powder of precious minerals like Tamra, Loha, Seesa, Trapu, Manashila, Samudralavana, Kukkutanda, Saindhava choorna with honey is mentioned3.3. Rasashastra period :- The period in between 8-9 A.D is the golden period for Rasashastra. In this period the father of Rasashastra, i.e lord. Nagarjuna has developed the science to the maximum extent. So during the Nagarjuna period the usage of preparations from metals & minerals was in full swing. The description of of vanga loha along with its synonyms, properties, purification therapeutric uses etc have been described extensively all most texts of Rasa shastra texts where Vanga loha is explained in detail. 1. Rasahridaya tantra 10 century 2. Rasarnava 12 century 3. Rasendra chintamani 14 century 4. Rasaprakasha sudhakara 14 century 5. Rasa ratna samuchchaya 14 century 6. Rasendra sara sangraha 14 century 7. Rasa kamadhenu. 17 century 8. Ayurveda prakash 17 century 9. Rasajalanidhi 20 century 10. Rasatarangini 20 century 11. Rasayoga sagara 20 century 12. Rasamritum 20 century 6
  • Review of Literature. Vanga4. Nighantu period :- Nighantu have good contribution for Ayurveda, following are the some of nighantus in which the Vanga is described extensively. Dhanvantari nighantu Madanapala ” Raja ” Saligram nighantu Bhavaprakash ” Shodal ” Synonyms of Vanga Synonyms play an important role in samskrit literature. Some times they indicate morphological structure, habitat, pharmacological property, availability & therapeutic value of the drugs, even synonyms facilitates to identify the drug properly. Following are the some important synonymes of vanga collected from different texts and their meanings. 1. Abheer :- Which gives confidence. 2. Banga :- Which was transported from Bangladesha in olden days. 3. Chippata:-Which melts easily. 4. Ghana:- Gains solid state very quickly. 5. Kasteera:- Shaining metal. 6. Kurupy:- If Vanga exposes to atmosphere for longer period it becomes dull. 7. Nagabhava:- Its properties are similar to Naga. 8. Nagaja:-It occurs along with lead ores. 9. Pichchata:- Which melts easily. 10. Puspa:- Molten vanga attains shape of flowers after pouring in liquid media. 11. Pootiganda:-Emits foul smell on heating. 12. Ranga:- Used for dyeing process. 13. Rangaka:- Used for dyeing process. 14. Roupya shastra:- Destroys the metallic properties of silver. 15. Simhala:- Occurs in Simhala desha. 16. Shukraloha:-Represents shukragraha, useful in shukravikara. 7
  • Review of Literature. Vanga17. Shweta:- White coloured metal.18. Swarnabhava:- Used in alchemy process of gold.19. Swarnaja:- Tin also occurs in gold mines.20. Shwetaroupya:-Looks like silver.21. Trapu:- Which melts easily.22. Trapusa:- Which melts easily.23. Vanga:- Also available in Vangadesha.24. Vangaka:- Also available in Vangadesha.25. Aneela:-Hydrogen is liberated when molten vanga is poured into the liquid.26. Chakra.27.Aleemaka.28.Neelika. VERNACULAR NAME Latin – Stannum Sanskrit – Vangam Kannada – Tavara Hindi – Ranga, Kathala English – Tin, pewter caly. Arbian – Rusas Abruz Barma – Khai,maphyn Douch – Kathil Malayalam – Vellithium Marathi – Kathil, Kaloi Persian – Urziz Telugu – Vangamu 8
  • Review of Literature. Vanga Synonymes of Vanga Table No.1Sl.No Name R.T R.R.S R.A A.P R.J. N R.K Mad.N D.N R.N K.N1 Vangaka + + + +2 Ranga + + + + + + +3 Shukralaha + +4 Kurupya + + +5 Trapu + + + + + + + + +6 Trapusha + + +7 Vanga + + + + + + + +8 Pichchata + + + + + + +9 Aleemaka +10 Vanga + +11 Gurupatraka + +12 Hima + + +13 Kasteera + +14 Mrudu vanga + +15 Nagaja +16 Pushpa +17 Pootigandha +18 Simhala +19 Shweta20 Abheera +21 Mukhabhushana +22 Shwetaroupya +23 Rupashankha24 Nigata25 Tiraka +26 Karati +27 Ganam + +28 Trapuka29 Aneela +30 Gurashresta +31 Lavana +32 Surati +33 Neelaka +34 Manduka +35 Madhura +36 Dashaahyam +37 Sheta38 Sheeta +39 Trapuka + +40 Kharati + 9
  • Review of Literature. VangaPRAPTI STHANA :- Usually Vanga is not available in muktavasta (Native form), but is in theform of oxide known as Vanga pathara (Tinstone). In India it is found in less quantity in Bihar.Specially in Burma & Bangla desh it is available in large quantity . So in olden days Vanga wasimported from vangadesha (Bangla desha) hence called as Banga, Vanga also found in Simhaladesha (Srilanka) hence Simhala. Vanga has been found in native form in Bolivia, Sayaberia &also found in nature in yougika form (mixed) i.e it contains Gandhaka (Sulphur) Silika, Loha(Iron), Tamra (copper) etc. by applying heat to this yougika form in presence of charcoal vangacould be separated. Vanga is also avialable abundantly in Malasia & Tennaserim.DESCRIPTION :- ±dg®dPdaTdz§Sd £dd«T®da›da ¡d¯dQ±df±dI¶a | ¬ddîUµaŸdz£dy «d£dZ ±d§£dQd£d®ddye›deT±daªd®dZ || Ad.§d 3/2 According to ancient classics vanga is one among the sapta dhatus and belongs topootiloha group. It melts quickly on heating and produces bad smell (Loathsome) while beingmelted. Vanga is metal like silver malleable having low melting point. When molten vangapoured in liquid media it takes the shape of flowers and the properties of vanga are same as thatof Naga. Vanga is commonly used for coating copper & bronze vessels and in preparation ofdyes. In alchemy, vanga is used to convert lower metals into higher metals. The efficacy of vanga bhasma in shukra kshaya prameha etc. has been extensivelydescribed in ayurvedic classics, as • “ Vangam bhakshayato narasya na bhuvet swapneapi shukra krayam” || R.T • “ Simha yatha hastiganam nithanti tathaiva vanga akhila mehavargam” || R.TBHOUTIKA GUNAS OF VANGA :- Varna (colour) – Sweta Sparsha (Touch) – Mrudu snigdha Apekshita gurutwa – 118.7 10
  • Review of Literature. Vanga 0 Melting point – 232 C Boiling point – 22700CVanga is softer than gold, harder than lead.Lighter than lead & malleable metal.VANGA BEDHA :- šdgTšda e«dÚdI¶a Ÿdye£d Ùfe®dQa ®da›da «dgŸSd£dy | šdjT £dÎd ›dgPdz: ÚdyÝa e«dÚdI¶a ¦d eUµ£da «d£d«dŠ || T.¤d.-18µ In ayurvedic literature two varieties of vanga have been described4 . 1) Khuraka vanga 2) Mishraka vanga. In these two Khuraka vanga is said to be better than Mishraka vanga for medicalpurpose. Some Acharyas are having openion of Mishraka vanga is unfit to use in medicine. In Rasakamadhenu, Rasarnavam, Vanga is classified in two types based on its 5colour . 1) Shweta vanga 2) Krishna vangaAmong these two shweta vanga is laghu, mrudhu, snigdha, is supposed to be best one.CHARACTERS OF EACH KIND OF VANGA :- ¥d®d¬da «dmQg¬da e±¦d›¥da Q„h£dQ„d®d«dŠ ±d›ddzT®d«dŠ | e¦d¯Sd©Qa šdŠj¶T®d®d¦›dZ ±SddQ e«dÚdI¶ ¯Sdd«dd¯dgªTI¶a || T.T.±d- 5/152 1) Khuraka vanga:- Khuraka vanga is white in colour, smooth to touch, melts easily on heating , heavy in weight. When melts it will not produce much sound 6. 2) Mishraka vanga:- Q„d®dy Ae£d I¶£dfPda TŠm´d£®d¦Sd¥dd£dge«deÚd£da | ¥dg±dTa I¶Mµf¦dŸdz®d e«dÚdI¶a ®d¦›d«dgŸSd£dy || T.£d.-27/8 Mishraka vanga does not melt easily, it is rough to touch when mixed with other metals like loha it becomes dull black (ash) in colour and hard in nature 7. 11
  • Review of Literature. VangaGRAHYA VANGA LAKSHANA:-šdgTI¶dT®Sd¶¯dg¸¶¬ddîUµa «ddTPddSd §TŠ¯d¯Sd£dy |e«dÚdI¶ UyµSd«ddSd£®d£d T±d£daÎda e®dŸd´d£dy || T.£d-18/5 Khuraka vanga is supposed to be good for medicinal use , where as mishrakavanga is not so useful 8 . Various references explain that the vanga which is having following charactersis best one i.e vanga must be shweta , mrudhu, swachcha, snigdha,sheetala, easily melting &easily malleable. CONCEPT OF SHODHANA AND MARANA Invention of metal brought a great change in the life style of early man. As he went oninvesting various metals, he understood their uses and utilized them for various purposes. Whenobserved medicinal values in metals he started using them as medicine. During samhita period metals were used only in the form of raja (choorna) but after the8th century a scientific study of metals was carried out for their therapeutic values. Till lastcentury even in western medical sciences, metals are used for therapeutic purposes but afterobserving some of their toxic effects, the usage of some metals was ceased. Rasavaidyas too had the knowledge of toxic effects of metals and minerals but wereusing rasoushadhis, were are free from adverse effects by virtue of unique procedures (shodhana& marana) adopted by them in detoxifying the metals, these procedures not only make a mineralor metal free from the toxic effects but also make them to absorbable and therapeuticallyeffective with a minimum dose for a maximum and quick result. Hence Rasoushadhis arewidely used by Ayurvedic physicians without the fear of adverse effects.A¬§d «ddÎddî§dSddye›d£®dd£dŠ AèŸdyT§T±da›d£ddZ |´d§T«ddTdy›SdQdSd£®dd£dŠ Adz°d¥dªãdye¥dI¶TdyT±dZ || T.±dd.±da While preparing medicine, Ayurvedic acharyas were of opinion that when a medicine isadministered in a particular disease it should only cure that disease but should not cause anyother diseases or adverse effect. 12
  • Review of Literature. Vanga Keeping the above in consideration various shodhana & marana procedure are explainedin Rasa shastra classics9.MERITS:- 1. These procedures involve physico-chemical action in order to activate the inorganic substances (may be from neerindriya state to sendriya state). 2. These procedures not only remove the toxic effects of a drug but also the various herbs used to act on metals, so as to enhance the pharmacological action of a drug.SHODHANA 10 :- DeÔÝzTdz°d¥dzZ ±ddØa e¸¶Sd£dy §dy°d¦ddeQI¶a | «d¬de®deŸJµ¦£d¤dy Sdd£dg ¯ddy¥d¦da £deQUµdyŸŸSd£dy || T.£d-2/52 µ Shodhana is a process by which impurities are removed from a substance byimplementing prescribed methods like mardana etc. This indicates by shodhana, impurities &toxic qualities are removed from the drug and to induce certain qualities which are essential forfurther procedures.Classification:- Shodhana has been divided into two. 1. Samanya shodhana 2. Vishesha shodhana. Vanga has an explosive tendency, while pouring in shodhana dravya it may cause injury, to avoid this, one special apparatus is designed and this is known as Pithara yantra. Pithara yantra:- It contains mainly one metal (loha) bhanda & is covered with iron or mud lid having 2 cms hole at its center. 1. Samanya shodhana of vanga11:- The common procedure for group of dravya or metal is called Samany shodhana. £dz¬dy £d¸y¶ ›d®dd«dgÎdy UµT¦dd¬dy Ig¶¬¬d£Sd¡dy | ¸¶«dde¦d°dyŸSd£d§£da Q„d®dy Q„d®dy £dg ±d§£d¥dd || ±®dPdd‰eQ¬ddyUµ§dÎddPdda ¯dgeÔTy°dda §d‚¯d±Sd£dy || T.T.±d 5/13 In this Vanga is melted and poured in medias like Tila taila (Sesame oil), Takra (Butter milk), Gomootra (Cow’s urine), Aranala/kanjika (Weak organic acid), Kulaththa (Horse gram decoction), 7 times in each media. 13
  • Review of Literature. Vanga2. Vishesha shodhana:- Generally samanya shodhana is planted to remove certain impurities but Vishesha shodhana is a plan to induce certain therapeutic values in particular drug. In rasagranthas various vishesha shodhana procedures are mentioned for vanga. But all this can be grouped into two types. i. Swedana ii. Nirvapana. i. Swedana :- It is carried out in dolayantra containing choornodaka for 3 hours12,13. ii. Nirvapana :-Vanga is melted and poured in shodhana media mentioned below for 7 times were each time fresh drava dravya is to be taken.14 to 23 14
  • Review of Literature. Vanga Shodhana media according to different authoritiesSl. Drug R.T R.A R.R.S R.P.S A.P R.chu B.R.R.Su R.Sa.Sa R.K R.J.No Ni1 Sudha jala +2 Arka + + + dugdha3 Haridra+Nir + + + + + + gundi swarasa4 Takra + +5 Kumari + + swarasa6 Nirgundi + + swarasa7 Bhallataka + taila8 Kanji +9 Gomootra +10 Snuhi + + ksheera11 Bhrungaraja + swarasa12 Mutra varga +13 Amla varga +14 Kshara + varga Table no.2 15
  • Review of Literature. VangaMARANA: «ddTSd£dy ¦d¯Sd£dy ªd±«df¸¶fSd£dy Be£d | Marana means “killing” and converting a metal into non reversible and final form i,e bhasma.DEFINITION: The processes by which a metals, minerals or any hard substance is subjected to soaking, drying and ignition to convert bhasma is known as Marana.This marana process converts metals into fine state of smaller molecules and makes them so light as to be highly absorbable and assimilated after oral administration. 1) Marana is process by which metal looses its original state (metallic) still retains its originality (medicinal value) 2) By marana process drug is converted into a biologically acceptable form. This process consists of two stages : 1) .Bhavana: Mardana with some drava dravya for a specific period 2) Putapaka:Subjectig the drug for agnikarma at different temprature.MARANA OF VANGA: As the melting point of vanga is low, it melts readly when subjected to puta after shodhana, so does not reduce to bhasma.This in convenience can be rectified by following a unique method .i,e adding yavakuta choorna of some antagonistic drugs like Apamarga, Ashwatwak, Kukkutanda twak choorna etc.on molten metal slowly and agitating then rubbing with iron ladle vigoriosly, by this molten metal is converted into powder form, this procedure is known as Jaarana by modern Ayurvedic scholars (Damodar joshi & C.B.jaw). Here the word jarana refers to jeerna or shitilata of metallic state of a metal.This may be called as intermediate procedure or conversion phase, for this procedure various drugs of herbal, mineral and animal origion are mentioned.The list of such drugs are as follows : 16
  • Review of Literature. VangaDrugs used for jarana of vangaHERBAL DRUGS MINERALS ANIMAL1. Apamarga 1.Abhraka 1.Karkata shringa2. Ashwatha 2.Haratala 2.Kukkutanda twak3. Arka 3.Karpura 3.Mukta shukti4. Babbula 4.Makshika 4.Shanka5.Bhallataka 5.Manashila 5.Varatika6.Chincha 6.Parada7.Haridra 7.Saindhava8.Jeeraka 8.Shilajatu9.Palasha 9.Tankana10.Punarnava 10.Suryakshara11.Pippali12.Snuhi kshira13.Tila14.Vata twak15.Yavanika16.Vanya karpas Table no.3Only after jarana pootilohas should be subjected to further procedure . Marana mainly consists of following steps: 1) Bhavana 2) Formation of chakrikas (pellets) 3) Arranging the chakrikas in sharava 4) Sealing of sharava (sandhi bhandhana) 5) Puta (Heating) 17
  • Review of Literature. VangaA.Bhavana: Jarita vanga is mixed with kumari swarasa or shatavari swarasa & triturated well inkhalva yantra for a specified period till the liquid added is dried and mass attaines semisolidstate.B.Formation of chakrika: When mass attains semisolid state then it is made into chakrikas of uniform size, shape& thickness, then dried in shadow.C.Arranging chakrikas in sharava: Dried chakrikas are kept in earthen sharava and another sharava of same size is placedin inverted form over the first sharava.D.Sealing the sharava: The gap between the two sharava to be sealed by means of cloth smeared with mud ormultanimitti for seven times & dried.This sealing is done to avoid the entry of air and loss ofmaterial, now this apparatus is called as sharava samputa.E.Putam: The dried sharava samputa is to be kept in a pit filled with layers of cowdung cakes.More cowdung cakes are placed at the sides, bottom and over the samputa then it subjected toheating.The size of pit & number of cowdung cakes depends upon the substances selected forputa.Generally ardha gaja puta for 7 times is advised for vanga. After the first puta chakrikas are removed out and subjected to mardana with kumariswarasa and once again chakrikas are made and dried in shadow. Then chakrikas are sealed insharava samputa & subjected to puta.Some acharyas mentioned preparing the pottali instead ofpreparing the sharava samputa & it is to be kept in chincha kshara then it is subjected to puta. Various methods of marana have been explained in classics which are listed below: th1.One part of vanga & 1/16 part of parada to be taken in a iron vessel & subjected to agni. When vanga starts to melt, then add shodhita Haratala little by little & stirr continuously by means of vanyakarpas stick till vanga is reduced to powder.24,252.Vanga is subjected to Jarana with Apamarga panchanga churna/Ashwath twak when it completely undergoes Jarana, wash it with water. Then add Kumari swarasa, triturate it well, when it attains semisolid state made into chakrikas & put in sharawa samputa. Then subjected to Ardhagaja pata, the same process is repeated for 7 times.26 to 31 18
  • Review of Literature. Vanga3.Vanga is subjected to agni in iron vessel, when it melts, add ¼ part of parada & ½ part of shodita haratal triturate it well till it becomes fine choorna. Then it is subjected to bhavana with Arka dugdha & made into chakrika. Put such chakrika in shrava samputa which contains Ashwatha twak, then it is subjected to puta. Such process is repeated for two times.324. Foils of pointed vanga are to be smeared with Haratala and Arka ksheera / Palasha swarasa subjected to laghu putam with the ashes of bodhi & chincha.33 to 395. Apamarga jarita vanga is subjected to marana with the chincha kshara in Ardha gajaputa. Such two puta converts the vanga in to bhasma.406. Shodhita vanga is subjected to Jarana with Palasha, Haratala, Ajwana, Sorakashilajatu, Apamarga. Then it is put in gajaputa along with chincha bark. Such two ardha gajaputa definitely converts vanga into bhasma.417. Vanga is converted into bhasma, it is subjected to puta along with 20 parts of Atasichurna & Ajavana, & for second puta it is mixed with ¼ part of Haratal & equal quantity of kshara’s, by such putas vanga will be converted into bhasma.428. Vanga is converted into bhasma, if it is subjected to Ardhgajaputa along with Ashwath, Chincha bark choorna, Tila by such 10 putas convert Vanga into bhasma.439.Vanga is converted into vanga bhasma when it processed with equal quantity of Haridra & ¼ part of Kalmisora & then kept in sharava samputa, subjected for gajaputa. Such processes repeated for two times.4410.Vanga is put in an iron pan subjected to heat, when it melts , add ¼ part of haratal & 1/8 part parada, triturate with Agastya vruksha dandu till it is converted into bhasma.4511.Surya kshara jarita vanga is mixed with equal quantity of haratal, subjected to mardana with nimbu swarasa. Then chakrikas are made & put into the sharava samputa, subjected to gajaputa. Such 10 gajaputas convert vanga into bhasma.4612.Vanga bhasma can be prepared by subjecting to jarana with equal quantity of Haridra, Ajavana, Jeera, Chincha & Ashwaththa. Then it is subjected puta, it is definitely converted into bhasma.47,4813. Leaves of vanga are reduced to ashes, if they are subjected to puta, after having been smeared with Haritala rubbed with juice of palasha.49 19
  • Review of Literature. Vanga14.Vanga is reduced to ashes if it is subjected to agni made of Chincha, Palasha, Ashwaththa wood after having been mixed with oil or essence of Bhallataka and wrapped with a piece of cloth.5015. Vanga is incinerated if subjected to putam for seven times after having been mixed with Haritala and rubbed with Arka dugdha, dry barks of Ashwaththa tree being placed on all sides of the vanga while confined with in the samputa.5116. Vanga bhasma can be prepared, if it is subjected to heat by Putam, after having been smeared with a paste made of Makshika and Haratala duly rubbed with the Palasha patra swarasa.52TESTS FOR BHASMA:-In Rasashastra some tests have been specified to confirm the standards of prepared vangabhasma. The test are divided into –1.Test for physical nature: 2.Test for chemical nature:* Varitaratwa * Niruttha* Unamatwa * Apunarbhava* Rekha poornatwa * Gata rasatwa* Anjana sadrasha sukshmatwa *Vishesha varnotpatti.* Mrudutwa & Shlakshnatwa.TEST FOR PHYSICAL NATURE:53 These indicates fineness and other physical properties of bhasma. 1) Varitara:- According to this test, a properly prepared vanga bhasma when sprinkled over water in a beaker, it floats on the surface and does not sink., it is known as Varitara. By means of puta, the practical of bhasma become light and attain a state of fine consistency and they can not break the surface tension of water as it happens normally. 2) Unmatwa:- This test is similar to the test of Varitaratwa with little modification after testing the Varitaratwa of bhasma, small food grains are directly placed over the layer of bhasma. Which is floating over the water and if food grains don’t sink and continue to float , then the bhasma is supposed to the quality of Unmatwa. This is an advanced test of Varitaratwa & denotes more Laghuthwa. 20
  • Review of Literature. Vanga 3) Rekha poornatwa:- This is an another test which indicates the fineness of bhasma. Here the bhasma when held in between the thumb and index fingers rubbed, if bhasma enters the furrows of fingers, the test known as Rekhapoornatwa. This indicates that the particles of bhasma have attained fine state that they could be easily absorbed into the system when administered. 4) Anjana sadrusha sukshmatwa:- Little amount of bhasma is used in eyes as anjana, if bhasma causes irritation to the eye then bhasma should be further subjected to some more putas. This test shows whether all particles of bhasma have reached the required state of fineness. 5) Mrudutwa & Sookshmatwa:- Physical properties of bhasma should be Mrudu & Sookshma to touch. This is due to the fineness of bhasma particles and bhasma does not prove positive, this indicates the bhasma needs more putas.TEST FOR CHEMICAL NATURE 54:- These are some test for bhasmas in which chemical action & reaction areexpected. Here Niruthathwa and Apunarbhavatwa are important tests. Both these tests indicatesthe non-attainment of original form of the metal.1. Apunarbhavata:- If marita bhasma is mixed with mitra panchaka dravyas (Ghrita, Madhu, Guggula, Gunja & Tankana) enclosed in sharava samputa & heated at the temperature same as while preparing bhasma. If this process do not yield orignal metal then bhasma is considered to be Apunarbhavatwa.2. Niruthathwa:- In this test specified quantity of pure silver and vanga bhasma is placed in a crucible and subjected to agni karma. If bhasma is apakwa then free particals get deposited on silver & silver weight increases. If bhasma is pakwa their will be no change in weight of the silver.3. Nichandratwa:- Chandrika is the natural luster of a metal, absence of luster indicates conversion of metal into bhasma form. For this test small quantity of vanga bhasma is taken in between index & thumb finger rubbed vigorously & exposed to sunlight and viewed very carefully for presence of metallic luster, indicates apakwatha of bhasma, so needs more puta.4. Gatarastwa:- After completion of marana process, generally the bhasma will be tasteless. This is to be tested by tounge, if taste is present indicates apakwata of bhasma. 21
  • Review of Literature. Vanga 5. Vishishta varnotpatti:- Means the attainment of an appropriate colour. In the contest of preparation vanga bhasma the attainment of colour is white / whitish yellow colour. Characteristics of incinerated vanga:- Properly incinerated vanga should be laghu, sheeta and ruksha. Bad effects of improperly prepared vanga bhasma:- Unpurified and not properly incinerated vanga bhasma, if taken internally not only causes following diseases, but also shortens the longevity. Ashmari, Shwayathu, Meha, Kushta, Kshaya, Bagandhara, Gulma, Pandu, Mootrakruchra, Jwara etc. Antidote of impurified bhasma:- Meshashringi choorna + Honey should be given for 3 to 4 days or till disappearance of toxic effect.55 PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES:Sl. Name of Lavana Katu Tikta Kasha Ushna Sheet Katu Lagh She Ushna Ruksha SaraNo classics ya a u eta1 R.T + + + + + + + + + +2 R.R.S + + + + +3 R.J.N + + + +4 R.K + + + + + +5 R.P.S + +6 A.P + + +7 R.A +8 R.Ch + + +9 R.S.S + + + + +10 B.R.R.S +11 M.M +12 D.N + + + +13 R.N + + + + +14 K.N + + + + Table no.4 22
  • Review of Literature. Vanga Rasa, Guna, Veerya, Vipaka and Prabhava these are the five basic parameters to evaluatethe pharmacological action of drug. Pharmacological properties of vanga have been explainedsystematically in classics as follows- Pharmacological properties of vanga according to various authoritiesBy observing the above table vanga bhasma is having the following properties-Rasa – Tikta, Lavana, . Guna – Rooksha, LaghuVirya – In rasa classics there are two opinions regarding the virya of vanga. Some Acharyasmentioned virya of vanga as ushna and others as a sheeta virya, but Rasataranginikar clarifies bythe giving the following qutation .®d¦›dd ›da¥ddeQSddy›dy¦d «ddeT£da £dg°Pd£dda ©dm¡dy£dŠ |´ddTdeQ¦dda «dm£dŸŸdyUµa ¯df£d£dd Sde£d e¦dªd‰±«da || T.±d-27/45If vanga marana is done along with Gandhaka, Haratala etc. Then vanga obtains Ushna virya. Ifvanga is incinerated along with Apamarga kshara, Chincha kshara etc. Then it obtains Sheetavirya.Vipaka:- All the Rasashastra classics have agreed that the vipaka of vanga bhasma is Katu.ACTION OF VANGA BHASMA ON DOSHAS:- Due to its tikta - kashaya rasa and rooksha & laghuguna it metigates pitta(pittashamaka). lavana rasa & ushna veerya metigates vata.ACTION OF VANGA BHASMA ON DHATU AND UPADHATU:- Rasa dhatu – Kantikaraka, dahaprashamana, varnya. Rakta dhatu – Raktadoshanashka. Mamsa dhatu – Vriddikara. Medha dhatu – Medhahara Asti dhatu – Balakara Shukra dhatu – Shukra vardhaka Artava – Artava vikaranashaka. 23
  • Review of Literature. Vanga ACTIONS OF VANGA BHASMA ON SROTAS:- Bahya srotas: Abhyantara srotas: Vrunaropana 1.Pranavaha srotas – Kasa – Swasa Bahyakrimihara 2. Annavaha srotas – Deepana – Pachana Mukha durgandhahara 3. Raktavaha srotas – Rakta shodhaka 4. Mootravaha srotas – Mootra sangrahakara 5. Prajanana ” - Vrushya shukra vardhaka Artava vikara nashaka. 6. Manovaha ,, - Medhya 7. Jnyanendriya ,, - Chakshushya 8. Swedavaha ,, - Swedahara Therapeutic uses:- During samhita period vanga churna was chiefly used for external application in some diseases. In Rasa granthas and Nighantu vanga bhasma is used in various diseases listed as below. Indication of vanga bhasma in various diseasesSl. Diseases R. R.R. R.J. R. A. R. R.Ch R.S. B.R. R.P.S M. D.N R. K.NNo T S N K P A S R.S N N1 Prameha + + + + + + + + + + + + +2 Medhovikara + + + + + + + + +3 Shukrakshaya + + + + + + + + +4 Vruna + + + + +5 Netravikara + + + + +6 Shwetapradara + + + + + + + +7 Pandu + + + + + + + + +8 Kasa + + + + + + +9 Swasa + + + + + +10 Kushta + + +11 Raktapitta + + + + + +12 Shosha + + +13 Agnimandya + + + +14 Krimighna + + + + + + + + + + + +15 Adhmana + +16 Manovikara + +17 Kshaya + +18 Swapnameha + + + +19 Garbhashaya + + chyuti Table no.5 24
  • Review of Literature. VangaAnupana of vanga in various disease 56,:- 1. Vanga cures bad smell of mouth if it is taken along with Kharpura (Campor). 2. It is nutritive & useful in premature ejaculation if it taken with Jatiphala or Tamboola patraswarasa. 3. In ksheena shukra it is to be used along with Apamarga mula choorna / Tulasi patra swarasa / Haridra / Kasturi / Musli. 4. In pandu roga it should be given with butter milk / ghee. 5. In general weakness given with honey. 6. In amlapitta & rakta pitta it is administered with Haridra. 7. In allivated pitta given along with Sugar candy. 8. To stimulate agni given along with Pippali churna. 9. In prameha given along with Guduchi satwa & Shila jatu. 10. In twak vikara given along with Khadiradi kwatha. 11. In Shweta padara given along with Loha bhasma and Shukti bhasma . 12. In Shwasa given along with Tamra bhasma. 13. In Krimiroga given along with Madhu & Karanja swarasa. 14. In Asthigata jwara given along with Sitopaladi churna, Navaneeta & Madhu. 15. In Gulma given along with Tankana. 16. In Raktapitta given along with Haridra. 25
  • Review of Literature. VangaDESCRIPTION OF DRUGS USED FOR SHODHANA, JARANA,MARANA &ANUPANA DRAVYA 1. Tila taila57: B°d£I¶°ddSddy «d¥dgTZ ±de£d™£dZ ±da|›TdeUµI¶ e§dÏdI¶ T±£d¤ddy°PdZ | e£d¬ddy e®d§ddIy¶ «d¥dgTdy ©de¬dÝZ e±¦d›¥ddy ®dmPdd¬dy§d¦dH®d§d¤SdZ || Q¦Sd¤ddyAe›¦d«dyœdd¡d¦d¦ddyA¬§d«dgÎd±£®dŸSddyA¤dIy¶¯SddyAe¦d¬dUµd›dgèÜd | E£d¬dy°dg ±d®d‰°®de±d£dZ §T¥dd¦ddy «d¥SdZ e±d£ddyUµf¦d£dT±£d¤dd¦Sdy || ±dg.¯dg 46/39.40 Rasa :- Madhura,Tikta, Kashaya Guna :- Ushna, Teekshna, Sukshma, Vishada, Vyavayi Vipaka :- Madhura, Veerya :- Ushna Doshakarma :- Kapha vata shamaka Karma :- Vrishya, Amapachaka2. Takra58 : £d¸¶a ¬dœdg I¶°ddSdda¬da Qf§d¦da I¶R¶®dd£de¡d£d | ¯ddyR¶dyQTd¯ddz›TUµePd Qdyy°dµ «djÎd›TUµdèeŸd || ›dg¬«d§¬dfUµ œähµ£d®Sdd§dQ›dT §ddPNgµ®dd«dSdd¦dŠ ¡dSdy£dŠ | A.±d 6/69-70 Takra is light, astringent, hot,& digestive stimulent, it allevates Kapha vata. It cures shotha,udara, grahini, arsha, mootragraha, aruchi, gulma, pleeha, ghrita vyapat & pandu roga. According to sushruta, Takra has madhura & amla rasa.3. Gomootra59: ›ddy«djÎda ¬dœdg £df´Pddy°Pda ±d´ddT£®dd£d ®dd£d¬da | ¬dœ®dde›¦dQf§d¦da «dy¥Sd e§dÏd¬da I¶ñR¶®dd£de¡d£dŠ || ±d.±dg 46/218 It is laghu, teekshna, ushna & alkaline, therefore it does not aggrevates vata. It is stimulent, promoter of intellect, aggrevator of pitta & allivator of kapha & vata. It is also used in purgation therapy & asthapana therapy. According to Indian maetriamedica Gomootra contains ammonia in concentrated form it is used in both internal & external medication.It also has an laxative & purgative nature so it is used in various medicinal preparation like Punarnava mandoora, Marichyadi taila.It is a good bio-availability enhancing drug. 26
  • Review of Literature. Vanga4. Kaanji60: Ig¶¬«dd°d¥dd¦Sd«dPNµdeQ±dae¥d£da I¶deP¡dI¶a e®dQgZ |µ ¯dd.±d.D-10/11 Liqour prepared with the manda of half boiled kulmash dhanya is Kaanji. I¶de¦¡dI¶a ªdyQ£df´Pddy°Pda TdyŸd¦da §ddŸd¦da ¬dœdga | QdUµ¡®dTUµTa ±§d¯d‰|£dŠ §dd¦dd£dŠ Ùd£dI¶ñR¶dñ§dUµ«dŠ | ªdd.§T. 21/2 It is purgative, teekshna, ushna, appetizer,carminative & light.When applied externally it cures daha & fever.When taken internally it allivates vata & kapha61.5. Kulaththa62: D°PdZ Ig¶¬d£Sddy T±d£dZ I¶°ddSdZ I¶Lgµe®d§ddIy¶ I¶ñR¶«ddè£dœ¦dZ | ¯dg¸¶¯«deT ›dg¬«d e¦d¯dQ¦dÜd ±da›TdUµI¶: §df¦d±dI¶d±dUµdeT || ±dg.±dg.46/37 The decoction prepared out of horse gram is ushna,kashya in rasa, katu vipaka , it allivates kapha & vata .It cures shukrashmari, gullma, sangrahani, pinasa and kasa.6. Nirgundi63: Latin name – Vites negundo Family - Verbinaceac Sanskrit -- Sephalika English – Five leaved chaste french tree Kannada - Bile yekki Usefull part – Root, fruit, flower, & leaves Rasa – Tikta, Kashaya & Katu Guna – Rooksha Veerya – Ushna Vipaka – Katu Dosha karma – Vata kapha shamaka 27
  • Review of Literature. VangaChemical Constituents – Leaves contain a colourless essential oil of the odour of the drug & a resin, Fruits contains an acid resin as astringent organic acid, malic acid, traces of alkaloid & a colouring matter. Actions – Leaves are externally used as a antiparasitic & powerfull discutient internally.Alternative aromatic bitter vermifuge, anodyne. Root is tonic, febrifuge, expectorant & nerving.Dried fruit acts as a vermifuge, flowers are cool & astringent.7. Haridra64: Latin name : Curcuma longa Family : Scitaminaceae English : Saffron turmeric Hindi – Haldi Sanskrit – Rajani, Gouri, Haridra & Nisha Usefull part – Tubers Rasa – Katu, Tikta, Guna – Rooksha Veerya – Ushna Vipaka – Katu Dosha karma – Kapha vata shamaka Chemical constituents – Essential oil, curcuma (C21 H20 O4 ), Yellow colouring matter, Turmeric oil or Turmerol, 24% starch & 30 % albumin. Action – Aromatic, Stimulent, Tonic, Carminative & internally juice is anti helmintic 28
  • Review of Literature. Vanga8. Apamarga65: Latin name – Achyranthes aspera Family – Amaranthaceae English – Prickly chalf flower Hindi – Chirchta Kannada - Uttarani Sanakrit – Shikari Usefull part – Panchanga Rasa – Katu & Tikta Guna – Laghu, Rooksha & Teekshna Veerya – Ushna Vipaka - Katu Dosha karma – Kapha vata shamaka Chemical constituents – Rich quantity of Kshara & Pottassium. Action – Vedana shamaka, Twak doshahara, Shirovirechaka & Raktashodhaka9. Kumari66: Latin name – Aloe vera Family – Liliaceae English –Indian aloe Hindi – Ghikavar Sanakrit – Kumari Kannada - Lolesara Usefull part – Patra swarasa Rasa – Tikta 29
  • Review of Literature. Vanga Guna – Rooksha Veerya – Sheeta Vipaka - Katu Dosha karma – Kapha pitta shamakaChemical constituents – Aloin resin 30 to 50 %, Volatile oil & ash 1%, also aloetic & chrysamic acids.Aloin is neutral active priciple obtained by digesting aloes in alcohol boiling, filtering & crystallizing. It occurs in tufts of yellow coloured crystal without any odour.Action – Leaf juice is used in abdominal disorders, warm infestations, dysurea, skindisorders, blood & spleen disorders.10. Godugda: Rasa – Madhura Guna – Snigda Veerya – Sheeta Vipaka - Madhura Dosha karma – Vata pitta shamaka Karma – Bramhana, Vrishya, Madhya, Balavardhaka, Jeevaniya & Asthisandhanakara Rogaghnata – Pandu, Rakta pitta, Yoni roga, Shukra dosha, Mootra roga, Pradara roga etc & it is pathya in vata pittaja vikara67 AÎd ›d®Sda £dg ¡df®d¦dfSda T±ddSd¦da | ´d£d´dfPdeUµ£da «dy¥Sda ©d¬Sda ±£d¦SdI¶Ta ±dTa || Úd«dªT«dQd¬d ¬de´«d±®dd±dI¶d±dde£dÎdgLµ ´dgQZ | ¡dfPd‰¡®dTa «djÎd¸g¶ŸJ…µa T™£de§dÏda Ÿd ¦dd¯dSdy£d || A.ähµ.±dg - 5/21-22 Cows milk promotes long life it is reguvinator good for those emaciated afterinjury, increases intelligence, strength & breast milk. It cures shrama, kasa, thrishna, jeernajwara, mootra krichra & rakta pitta68,69. 30
  • Review of Literature. Vanga CONCEPT OF TIN (VANGA) IN MODERN VIEWHISTORY:- Tin and its various alloy’s have been known since in ancient time. Homer has mentionedthis metal as a “Kassiteros”. The similarity between Greek word Kassiteros and Samskrit word“Castira” has been used as an argument in favour of the eastern origin of the metal. Romanscalled it “Stannum” from which the modern symbol “Sn” has been derived from the fourthcentury. The meaning of Stannum had changed to “Tin.”70 Tinstone is also known as Steamtin. The earliest known object made of pure Tin are a “Ring piligrim bottle” found inEgyptain. Tomas of 18th dynasty (1580 – 1350 B.C). However Tin ores are not found in Egypt.So Tin must have been imported. The carnish Tin industry was dated back to 360 – 200 B.C.and Tin was imported from cornwall into Itally, after that period Tin was known to SouthAmericans. Indians prior to Europian’s, Tin was not used by them to manufacture articles, butfor the preparation of Bronze with compositions. Hernam cortes found small pieces of Tin usedas a money among the native of taxco. When he arrived in Maxico in 1519. In Roman timesthere are number of evidences that Tinned copper vessels & art of coating other metals, Tin wasused.GEO-CHEMISTRY (OCCURANCE):- This metal is said to occur in native state in Siberia71 in small amount. The principleore of Tin is Tinstone ( Sno2) also known as cassiterite. The mineral ore is found intersphread inrocks especially in Granite. Tin stone contains 3.5 to 10% of Tin.72 It also exits along with thepyrite ore of copper, iron and zinc. But it is rarerly extracted out of them. Tin is more abundentin iron nickel ore of earth than in the crust. At the low temperature crystallized Tin deposits insulphuric minerals. At high temperature, it deposits in oxide crystallized form. Some of the oresof Tin and their occurance are given below. 31
  • Review of Literature. Vanga Ores of Tin & their occurrence Name Formula OccurrenceCasseterite Sno2 BolviaCylinderite Pb3Sn4Sb2S14 BolviaFranckeite Pb5Sn3Ssssb2S14 BolviaStannete Cu2FeSnS4 Bolvia and Cornwell center UropeArandisite Sn5(OH)8 (Sio4)8 South West AfricaCanfieldite Ag3SnS6 BolviaPlumbastannite Pb2Fe2Sn2Sb2S11 Peru Table no 6Principle suppliers of tin are Boliva, Malaysia, Indonesia, Nigeria, UK, Australia, China,Burma, United states,Japan etc. In India small amount of tin stone is available in Hajaribagh(Bihar)& Orissa.73Extraction:74,75,76 Metallic iron obtained from its ore tinstonewhich contains only 10% metal “SnO2” Therest being worthless gangue meterial siliceous.Tungsten of iron, Manganese, Iron pyrites,Copper, Arscenic. So the extraction of metal from “Tin stone” is carried out in the followingsteps. 1.Concentration of ore 2 Roasting 3 .Electromagnetic separation 4. Smelting 5.Refining1.Concentration of ore . The ore is crushed to a fine powder and is subjected to gravity separation.The oreparticles are washed in a steam of water, when the heavier ore particales settle at the bottom.Thelighter gangue material are washed away. 32
  • Review of Literature. Vanga2.Roasting: (Calcination) The concentrated ore is roasted in a large furnace then the impurities such as Arscenic,Sulphar, Antimony, Bismuth are converted in to oxides & volatilise away. The sulphides ofCopper and iron present in the ore are oxidized to their respective sulphates. S + O2 SO2 4As + 3O2 2As2O3 FeS + 2O2 FeSO4 4Sb + 3O2 2Sb2O3 CuS + 2O2 CuSO4The roasted ore is cooled & extracted with dilute sulphuric acid when copper & iron sulphatesare washed off. The tin oxide is relatively much more concentrated is called black tin.3.Electromagnetic separation: The heavier impurities like tungstates of iron & magnetic which are not separated bygravity separation are separated by magnetic separation.these impurities are slightlymagnetic.The crushed roasted ore is dropped on the belt moving around pulleys one of which ismagnetic. The magnetic material by virtue of its attraction to the magnetic pulley, falls directlybelow it while the non magnetic impurities away from it.4.Smelting: The roasted ore is mixed with anthracite in the ratio of 1: 4 & is subjected to heat in areverberatory furnace, when tin oxide is reduced to the metal. SnO2 + 2C = Sn + 2COA small amount of lime is added as flux. The molten metal is tapped out of the furnace.5.Refining: The refining of tin is done by a number of methods. 1) Liquation : The crude metal is heated on the inclined hearth of reverbratory furnace.When tin metal flows down leaving behind iron & copper. 33
  • Review of Literature. Vanga 2) Poling : The molten metal is stirred with the loggs of green word poles.Which iron & copper oxidised to their respective oxides.Tin so obtained is about 99% pure. 3) Electrolysis: Blocks of impure tin metal ore suspended in the electrolytic bath of fluosilicic acid and tin sulphate cathode is very pure tin metal plate or wire on passing the current tin metal deposits on the cathode the metal thus obtained is 99.9% pure. _______ Crushed in ______ ______ Washed with Mining of Ore Powdered Orewater stamp mills Rich Ore Floating process Dil. H2SO4 Roasting Black Tin Tin oxide Very Rich Ore CuSO4.FeSO4 Elimination S.As elimination Magnetic seperation Impure Tin metal PureTin Ore rich inTin Smelting Refining by Slag elimination 1. Liquation 2. Poling 3. Electrolysis Flow chart of extraction of Tin: 34
  • Review of Literature. VangaProperties of Tin 78,79,80 Tin is a soft ductile silver white lustrous metal which is readily extracted down.Theductility of tin is greatest 1000 c to 2000 c the metal is brittle enough to be powderd, but harderthan the lead,softer than zinc. It has a low elastic limit. When bent the cast metal emits acrackling sound called the “cry of tin”.This is caused by the grinding the crystals of the metalagainst one another within the bar when bent.The metal has two allotropic modifications.In theusual commercial form it is white metal.But when exposed to temprature below 130 c forsufficient time it becomes brittle and can be readly crushed to gray powder, spontaneously ifkept in cold climate for years it is named as tin peste or tin disease or tin plague. Tin melts at 2320 c & boils at 22600 c volatilazation occurs at 12000 c. It is autocatalytic & single grane of gray in contact with piece of white metal below transition tempraturewill start transformation.The transition temprature is given below.Gray (cubic)Sp.gr.5.8 180C White tetragonal 1700C white rhombic 2320C Liquid. α Sp.G.7.8 Sp.G.7.56 βGray Tin is called alpha Tin has diomand cubic structre. White tin is crystal is called as betatetragonal in structure . White tin is stable between 180 c to 1700 c convertion of white to graydoes not takes place accept at much lower temprature . 35
  • Review of Literature. Vanga Table shows physical properties of tin811.Atomic number 602.Atomic weight 118.693.Isotopes 112,114,120,122,1244.Electrons 2—8—18—18--45.Density 7.316.Melting point 231.90 c7.Boiling point 22600 c8.Volatilazation 12000 c9.Common oxidation states 0,+2,+4,10.Radious A0 1.40 011.Radious (ionic) A Tetravalent 0.7112.Ionisation potential first (volt) 7.3013.Oxidation potential M M++(volt) +0.13 Table no 7Chemical properties of tin 82,83,841.Action of air : Air has no action on tin at ordinary temprature but when heated to whiteness (1500---16000 c) in presence of oxygen it burns with bright flame giving stannic oxide. Sn + O2 SnO22.Action of halogens & sulphar: If the metal is heated in the atmosphere of chlorine or sulphar vapour. It readlycombines to form stannic chloride& stannic sulphide respectively. Sn + 2Cl2 SnCl2 Sn + 2S SnS2 36
  • Review of Literature. Vanga3.Action on acids: A) Tin slowly reacts with dilute HCL acid but reaction becomes rapid on heating withconcentrated HCL acid forming stannous chloride & producing hydrogen. Sn + 2HCL SnCl2 + H2 B) Dilute sulphuric acid has no action but concentrated acid dissolves the metal formingstannous sulphate producing hydrogen . Sn + H2SO4 SnSO4 + SO2 + 2H2O C) Dilute nitric acid reacts to forming stannous nitrate & ammonium nitrate 4Sn + 10 HNO3 4Sn (NO2)2 + NH4NO3 + 3H2O D) Hot concentrated nitric acid produces copious fumes of nitrogen dioxide & metastannicacid. Sn + 4HNO3 H2SnO3 + 4NO2 + H2O E) Organic acids have no action on tin4.Action on alkalies:- When metal is heated with alkali solutions it reacts to liberate hydrogen. Sn + 2NaOH + H 2O Na2SnO3 +2H2USES:- 1. Tin is used in the preparation of number of alloys such as solder, Britannia metal etc. 2. It is used in the preparation of collapsible tubes for toothpaste and various ointments. 3. The metal is extensively used in Tinning brass utensils. 4. It is largerly used in forming a protective coating over iron sheets or vessels etc. i.e for Tin plating. 5. Tin amalgam is used in making mirrors. 6. Tin foil used for wrapping cigarettes and other food materials. 7. Tin compounds are used in dyeing industry and as a reducing agent. 8. Tin compounds are having bactericidal, fungicidal activity. 37
  • Review of Literature. Vanga 85,86TIN COMPOUNDSTin exhibits variable valency positive two and positive four. Tin forms two types of salts 1) Stannous salt – in which Tin is divalent 2) Stannic salt – in which Tin is tetravalent. Some of the important compounds are Compounds of Tin 1. Stannous oxide Sn2+O2- 2. Stannous hydroxide Sn(OH)2 3. Stannous chloride SnCl2 4. Stannous fluoride SnF2 5. Stannous sulphate SnSO4 6. Stannous sulphide SnS 7. Stannous iodide SnI2 8. Stannic chloride SnCl4 9. Stannic sulphate SnSO4 10. Stannic sulphide SnS2 11. Stannic iodide SnI4 Table No-8 Tin is used in the preparation of number of alloys. The alloys name compositionpercentage of Tin & use are mentioned in the below Table No. 9.Sl.No Name Percentage & composition Uses1 Solder Sn 67%. Pb 33% In soldering2 Pewter Sn 75%. Pb 25% In making cups, mugs etc.3 Babbit metal Sn 90% Sb7% . Cu 3% For making bearing for machines4 Britannia metal Sn 90%. Sb 8%. Cu 2% For making table wares5 White metal Sn 82%. Sb 12%. Cu 6% For making table wares6 Bell metal Sn 25%. Cu 75%. For making bells.7 Rose metal Sn 28% . Pb 22%. Bi 50% For electric fumes.8 Bronze9 Tinfoil10 Speculum 38
  • Review of Literature. VangaPREPARATION OF TIN STANDARD SOLUTION 87.(5PPm Sn):Dissolve 0.500g of Tin in a mixture of 5ml of water and 25ml of hydrochloric acid & addsufficient water to produce 1000ml. Dilute 1 volume of this solution to 100 volumes with a 2.5% V / V solution of hydrochloric acid immediately before use. DETECTION OF TIN COMPOUNDS Tin compounds can be detected by two method i.e dry test and wet test.Dry test:- 1. Tin compounds heated on charcoal with Na2CO3 & KCN under the reducing blow pipe flame yield malleable white metallic scattered beds which do not mark paper. When the beds are dissolved in dilute HCL and the solution of SnCl2 thus obtained is treated with a mixture of K3Fe(CN)6 and FeCl2 solution. Wet get a blue precipitate. 2. Borax bed test:- Borax bed colored blue by copper salt turns red in the oxidize in flame in presence of Tin or stannous salt.Wet test:-Sl.No Reagents Stannous salt solution Stannic salt solution1 H2S(Hydrogen sulphide) Chocolate brown ppt of Yellow ppt of SnS soluable in SnS solution in concentrated HCL in yellow concentrated HCL & Ammonium sulphide & in yellow Ammonium NaOH or KOH solution. sulphide springly solution in NaOH + KOH solution.2 HgCl2 solution White ppt of Hg2Cl2 No precipitate (mercuric chloride) turning grey if stannous salt be in excess & the mixture is boiled.3 FeCl2 + Freshly Blue ppt of ferrous ferric No precipitate prepared K3(CN)6 cyanide (Turn bull’s blue) solution. Table No. 10 39
  • Review of Literature. VangaDISEASE REVIEW: INTRODUCTION India is a country where more than 80% of its population is living in the villages.The rich heritage of country has depoted in each and every individual of the nation irrespectiveof urban or rural. Dharma,Artha,Kama,& finally Moksha are the four tenents of life according toIndian philosophy.It is also said that one without the issues can not attain the Moksha .Muchimportance has given to the progeny not only to attain moksha but also for the continuation ofhuman race. In a recent survey, it has been reported that female to male ratio insociety is coming down, on one hand we have a couples with 4-5 or 7-8 children. Where as onthe other hand a good number of couples even without single child. The mental agony ofchildless couple can be known by only them. Infertility has great impact on the society from allangles that is social, economical, cultural religious. Male infertility has received less attention,even though it is widely reported. It is reported in population study that 30% of infertilecouples,the problem lies with the males.Other than thegenetic,endocrine,immunological,inflammatory & sexual causes. The seminal abnormality issaid to be the important etiological factor.Normal testicular function is the final out come ofseveral hormonious factors.Of the above said factors i.e genetic,hormonal biochemical,anatomical, environmental variables have been found to be the underlying causes of testiculardysfunction leading to disturbed sperm production. Poor quality of semen is charecterised by low concentratin of sperm with reducedmotility and increased abnormal morphology.As the sperm quality decreases there will be adeciline in the rate of conception also.The down word trend in sperm cocentration maycompromise the fertility potential of future generation.Shukra dosha explained in Ayurveda issimilar to the seminal abnormlity of modern science.Thus the low concentration of sperm isknown as KSHEENA SHUKRA & it is compared with Oligospermia of modern medicine.Inwhich the sperm count is less than 20 miillion /ml.Most of the auothoreties included ksheenashukra among the 8 types of shukra dosha, but Sharangadhara in roga adhikarana adhyaya ofpoorvakhanda while mentioning the shukradhatuja roga he quouted 40
  • Review of Literature. VangaKSHEENA SHUKRA ROGA. By keeping the above point in mind it is necessary to considerthe consolidated aspect of shukravaha srotas to study the Nidana, Rupa, Samprapti etc.ofksheena shukra.As already mentioned anatomical abnormality in genital tract also leads in toinfertility, Hence detail knowledge about the urogenital structure is necessary to know thedisease KSHEENA SHUKRA.HISTORICAL REVIEW:VEDIC PERIOD: In rigvedh there is no explanation about Ksheenashukra, but treatment ofklaibya is mentioned. Atharvanaveda an authentic source of Ayurveda, describes regardingnirvirya purisha & its treatment by vajeekarana. In yajurvaveda and samaveda there is noexplanation about Ksheenashukra.Charaka: Acharya charaka has not included the ksheenashukra in 8 types of shukradushti, butspecific nidana has been explained in chikitsa sthana of vajikarna adhyaya. & in sootrasthana hehas also mentioned various yogas in vajikarna adhyaya.Sushruta: He included ksheenashukra in 8 types of shukradushti, specific nidana, lakshana arementioned in sutrasthana and treatment in kheenabalea adhyaya of chikitsa sthana.Ashtanga sangraha: Acharya Vagbhatha followed the similar sequence of description as perSushruta.Rasaratna samuchchaya: Explained about ksheenashukra nidana in vajikarana adhyaya.Sharangadhara: Sukra dhushti roga’s are explained in poorvakhanda rogagana adhyaya, butnidana & lakshana are not mentioned.Vangashena: Explained Ksheenashukra in vajikarana adhyaya. In other Ayurvedic classics such as Baiishajya ratnavali, Yogaratnakara, Gadanigraha, Bhela samhita, Harita samhita & Chakradatta there is no explanation about Ksheena shukra, But the treatment is mentioned in vajeekarana prakarana.Derivation & definition : The term ksheena shukra consists of two words i,e ksheena & shukra. The word ksheena is originated from Dhatu “ KSHI” with “ KTHO ” pratyaya which means diminished, wasted, exponded, lost, destroyed, worn away, weakened,injure, broken, emaciated, feeble.90 41
  • Review of Literature. Vanga Dalhana commentrator of sushruta samhita explains it as “ Ksheenata heena shaktitwam ” i,e loss of strenth to have a progeny91.The word shukra derived from the dhatu “ SHUCH ” with “ RUN ” pratyaya92.ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF MALE GENITAL TRACT Male genital organs are divided into two headings i,e, Internal male genital organ’sand External genital organ’s 1. SCROTUM (vrushan kosha): It is a cutaneous bag containing the right and left testis, the epididymis and lower part of the spermatic cord. Externally the scrotum is divided into right and left parts by a ridge or raphe. The left half is lower than the right one.It also contains sweat glands, pigmented cells and nerve endings. The scrotal skin is very thin of brownish colour and often thrown into the fold or rague. The scrotum is made up of following structures: Skin, Dartous muscle, External spermatic fascia and internal spermatic fascia. Blood supply: Superior band deep Pudendal arteries Nerve supply: L1 and L32.TESTIS ( vrushan ): The testis is the male gonad. It is suspended in the scrotum by the spermatic cord and left testis is slightly lower than the right one. The testis is oval in shape & compressed from side to side,The average dimension of testis is 4 to 5 cms in length, 2 to 5 cms in diameter, 3cms anterio-posterior diameter.An adult testis weights about 10 to 14 gms.It is two angulies in size and is originated from the essence of mamsa, rakta, kappa & meda’s during the feotal stage.93,94. It has two peshis one kureha & another sevani, venous drainage from veeryavaha sira .95,96,97,98. External features: The testis have 1) 2 poles – Upper & Lower 2) 2 borders – Anterior & poseterior 3) 2 surfaces – Medial & Lateral Covering of the testis: The testis is covered by 3 coats from out side to inside 1) Tunica vaginalis 2) Tunica albuginea 3) Tunica vasculosa 42
  • Review of Literature. VangaInternal structer of the testis : The glanduler part of the testis consist of 200 to 300 lobules. Each lobule contain 2 to 3 seminiferous.The total number of tubules in each testis is 400 to 600 & lenth of each testis is 70 to 80 cm, diameter various from 0.12 to 0.3mm, the tubules join together to form 20 to 30 straight tubules & they all terminate in the Rete testes. Arterial supply – Testicular artery: In ayurveda , formation of shukra is supported by the 4 dhamani & 2 sira for ejaculation of shukra99. Venous drainage – Pampini from plexus Nerve supply – Sympathetic narves from segment T10Applied anatomy : 1) The testis may be absent on one side ( monorchism ) or both sides ( anarchism ) 2) Undiscended testis ( cryptorchidism ).Testis lie in lumber, iliac,inguinal or upper scrotal region. 3) Ectopic testis : The testis may occupy an abnormal position due to deviation from the normal route of descent.It may be under the skin of lower part of abdomen ,under the skin of thigh,in the femoral canal, under the skin of the penis or in the perineum behind the scrotum. 4) Hermophroditism: It is the condition in which an individual shows some features of male & some of a female.In true hermaphroditism both the testis and ovary are present. In pseudohermaphroditism the gonode is of one sex while the external genitle organs are opposite sex. 5) Hydrocele: It is the condition in which fluid occumulates in the processces vaganalis. 6) Varicocele : It is produced by the dilatation of the pampiniform plexus of veins.It is usually left sided (possibly because left testicular vein is longer than the right,enters the left renal vein at a right angle & is crossed by the colon which may compress it when loaded.3. EPIDIDYMIS: 43
  • Review of Literature. Vanga The Epididymis rests close to the testis and is coverd by the tunica albuginea. Its upper end is called as head which is enlarged and is connected to the upper pole of the testis by efferent ductules, middle part is called the body & lower part tail.The body and tail made up of a single duct at the lower end of the tail.This duct becomes continuos with ductus deferenes.It measures about 18 inch long,0.85 cm in diameter.Vasa deferenes extends from the tail of the epididymis runs along its medial side,throuth the inguinal cannel to the neck of the seminal vesicle.It is divided into 5 parts i,e epididymal, scrotal,inguinal,pelvic & ampullar.The wall of the vasa deferens has 3 layers External areolar& Intermediate muscular, Internal mucosal.4. SEMINAL VESICLES They are the paired highly convoluted pyriform glands placed between the posterior surface of the bladder & rectum. Each vesical is about 5 cm long & 3 to 4 mm wide and it is some what pyramidal in shape.It is separated by the bladder & rectum by the recto vesical fascia.It has an 3 coverings i,e External areolar& Intermediate muscular, Internal mucosal.5. EJACULATORY DUCTS One on each side of the median plane are formed by the union of duct of seminal vesical’s with the terminal part of the deferent ductus and are nearly 2 cm long.6. SPERMATIC CARD The spermatic cord is composed of arteries, veins,lymph,vessels, nerves & the deferent ducts.It extends from the deep inguinal ring to the posterior border of the testis. The left spermatic cord is little longer than the right one. It is covered by internal spermatic fascia, cremastic muscle and external spermatic fascia.7. PROSTATE It is an accessory gland of the male reproductive system. The secretions of the gland add bulk to the seminal fluid. It is firm in consistency, It lies in the lesser pelvis 44
  • Review of Literature. Vanga below the neck of the bladder behind lower part of the pubic symphysis and the upper part of the pubic arch, in front of the ampulla of rectum. It measures about 4cms transversely at the base, 3cms vertically and 2cms antero-posteriorly. It weighs about 8gms.COMMON FEATURES 1. Apex- directed downwards. 2. Base 3. Surfaces-anterior, posterior and 2 infero-lateral 4. Lobes- anterior, posterior, median, left and right lateral lobe.CAPSULES OF THE PROSTATE 1.Ttrue capsule- fibro muscular 2.False capsule- layer of pelvic fascia Blood supply- branches of inferior vesicle, medial rectal and internal pudendal arteries. Digital examination of the rectum is very helpful in the diagnosis of an enlarged prostate. Removal of such prostate ( prostatectomy ) relieves the urinary obstruction.FUNCTIONS OF PROSTATE GLAND The prostate gland secretes a thin milky alkaline fluid containing citrate ion, calcium and acid phosphate, a clotting enzyme and a fibrolysin. This fluid add further bulk to the semen, the alkaline characteristic of prostatic fluid is important for successful fertilization of ovum. Because the fluid of the vasa deferens is relatively acidic and vaginal secretions of the female is acidic(PH 3.5-4). Other fluids of ejaculations are probably neutralized by the prostatic juice and greatly enhances the motility and fertility of the sperm.APPLIED ANATOMY 1. Inflammation of the prostate is referred as Prostatitis 2. Prostate is the common site of carcinoma. 3. Senile enlargement of prostate-After the 50years of age the prostate is often enlargened due to benign hypertrophy or due to the formation of an adenoma. This causes the 45
  • Review of Literature. Vanga retention of urine due to distortion of urethra. It is characterized by the dribbling of urine, urgency of micturition.7.MEDHRA (PENIS ): The external genitailia originates in the urogenital sinus & genital tubercle.This tubercle develops in to penis.It is attached to the front & sides of the pubic arch & is made up of 1) Root attached protein 2) Body free protein It is an angle of shukravaha srotas & also one of the bahya shrotas100 It is about 2 inch inlength & has one kurcha one sevani & peshi101 Sushruta mentioned that ligament starts from theneck & heart moves downwords by ending in medhra.102Utpatti of medhra:- During total life the kandaras present in the sroniguhas get nourished fromdhamanis which arise from the lower part of the greeva hridaya from these kandaras the medrais formed 103.Shukra marga:- It is two angulies below the bladder through which both shukra, mootra areexpelled104,105.Root of the penis:- It is situated in the superficial perineal pouch and is composed of threemasses of erective tissues namely two crura and bulb.Body of the penis:- The free portion of the penis is completely developed by the skin. It iscontinuous with the root in front of the lower part of the public symphisis. It is composed ofthree elongated masses of eretile tissues. During the erection of the penis all the three massesbecome engorged with blood, leading to considerable enlargement. These masses are right &left corpora cavernosa and median corpous spongiosum. The penis has a ventral and dorsalsurfaces. The skin covering the penis is very thin and dark in colour. It is loosely connected withthe facial sheeth of the organ, at the neck it is folded to form the prepuce or fore skin. Whichcovers a glans to a various extent and can be retracted backwards to expose the glans. At theunder surface of the glans there is a medium fold of skin called the frenulus. The supports of thebody of the penis are fundi form ligament and the suspensary ligament. 46
  • Review of Literature. VangaBlood supply:- Branches of internal and external pudendal arteries, superficial, deep dorsalvein.Sensory nerve – Pudendal nerve.Atonomic nerve – Sympathetic and parasympathetic S2S3S4.Lymphatic drainage – deep inguinal nodes106,107FUNCTIONS OF SERTOLI CELLS: The sertolic cells of the germinal epithelium also known as the sub tentacular cells. Thespermatids attach to the sertolic cells & sertoli cells converts the spermatids into spermatozoa,by providing the nutritional material, hormones and also possible enzymes that helps inconverting spermatids into spermatozoa. These cells also remove the excess cytoplasma as thespermatides are converted to spermatozoa.MATURATION OF SPERM IN EPIDIDYMIS: The sperm removed from seminiferous tubules are completely nonmotile and theycannot fertilize the ovum. However after the sperm have been in the epididymis for the sametime i.e 18 to 24 hours, they develop the capability of motility. Even the several inhibitoryproteins in the epididymal fluid still prevent actual motility, until after ejaculation along with thesertoli cells. The epithilium of epididymis secret a special nutrient fluid containing hormones,enzymes and special nutrients that may be important or even essential for sperm maturation.FUNCTIONS OF SEMINAL VESSICLES: Seminal vesicles lined with a secretary epithilium that secretes amucoid materialcontaining an abudance of fructose and other nutrient substances, as well as large quantities ofprostoglandins and fibrinogen. During the process of emission each seminal vesicles empties itscontents into the ejaculatory duct shortly after that vasa deferens empties the sperm. This addsbulkness to the ejaculated semen, fructose and other substances in the seminal fluid areconsidered as a nutrient for the ejaculated sperm until one of them fertilizes the ovum. Theprostoglandins are belived to aid fertilization in two ways. 1. By reacting with cervical mucus to make it more receptive to sperm. 2. Possible cause in reverse peristaltic contraction in the uterus and fallopian tubes to move the sperm towards the ovaries .SHUKRA (SEMEN): 47
  • Review of Literature. Vanga Shukra is seventh dhatu and one among the dashapranayathana108. It is also called aschatushpath, because it contains the guna of agni, vayu, pruthvi and mainly jalamahabhuta109.FORMATION OF SHUKRA: According to Kedara kulyanayya rasadhatu is formed from the ahara rasa and further byposhya or nutriet portion. The succeeding dhatus are formed110. Shukra is the sneha bhagawhich is produced as result of majja dhatu paka111.Vayu & Akasha produces porosness in thethe asthi through which shukra comes out like a water oozing out from the new earthen pot.Shukra present all over the body through shukravaha shrotus and finally propelled with forcefrom the sexual act and gets displaced and liquified like a ghee. By physical exertion comes outof the urinary passage like water flowing towards the lower surface112. Authorities have different opinion in number of days for the production of shukra.According to Parashara the completion of dhatu parinama and development of shukracompletes in eight days113. Vagbhata considered that formation of shukra takes place in oneday114. According to Sushruta the total time taken for the completion of rasa into shukracompletes in 1 month115. Arunadatta stated that vrishyadravyas Ex: milk, mamsa etc. containsmainly nutrients that nourishes the shukra due to inherent power “prabhava” present in them andthey instently increases the shukra116.SPERMATOGENESIS: It is the process of production of sperm by stimulation of interior pituitary glandotropichormones.PHASES OF SPERMATOGENESIS: 1. Spermato cytogenesis. 2. Meiosis 3. Spermatogenesis. 1. Spermato cytogenesis: Spermatogonia are large round cells lies close to the basel membrane. In man three types of spermatogonia can be distinguished and are termed as 48
  • Review of Literature. Vanga dark type A, light type A, light type B these three type shows little difference in size or in their cytoplasm. The dark type A spermatogonium has dark nucleoplasma and a large pale stating nuclear vacuole. The light type A spermatogonium has a spherical or ellipsoid nucleus with very fine chromatin granules and one or two irregular nuclei attach to the interior of the nuclear envelope. Its cytoplasma is homogeneous and pale staining. The type A spermatogonium under goes a series of changes , which gives rise to the other type A spermatogonium. Some of the spermatogonia remain dormant to serve as a stem cells for future cycles of spermatogonial renewal and spermatogenesis and others processed to transform through recognizable intermediates into type B spermatogonia. The type B spermatogonium has a spherical nucleus with chromatin granules of varying size along the nuclear envelope and contains centrally located single nucleus obtained with chromatin granules. The division of type B spermatogonia produces primary spermatocytes. 2.Meiosis:- The primary spermatocytes at first resemble the spermatogonic form which they arise and pass through Prophase , Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase meiotic cell division and the resulting daughter cells are called secondary spermatocytes which again divides mitotically to form spermatides. 3.Spermatogenesis:- It is the sequence of developmental events by which spermatides transformed into mature sperm. The main feature of this process involve elaboration of a nuclear cap from the golgi complex, condensation of nucleous formation of motile flagellum and extensive shedding of the cytoplasma.HORMONAL FACTORS THAT STIMULATES SPERMATOGENESIS: 1. Testosterone hormone secreted leyding cells located in the intersitum of the testis is essential for growth and division of the germinal cell in forming sperm. 2. Luteininzing hormone (LH ) secreted from anterior pituitary gland stimulates the leyding cells to secrete testosterone. 3. Follicle stimulating hormone secreted from anterior pitutory stimulates sertoli cells for conversion of spermatides to sperm. 4. Estrogen come from leyding cells helps in spermatogenesis. 5. Growth hormone promotes early division of the spermatogonia. 49
  • Review of Literature. Vanga Shukra pramana: The quantity of the shukra in the body is ½ anjali which is measured in one’s own anjali.SHUKRA KARMA: The main karma of the shukra is garbha utpadana or beejartha, The beeja must havethe capacity to produce a plant & then only it can be termed as beeja.In the same mannershukra also has the capacity to produce the garbha, hence garbhotpadana is the principle &vital karma of shukra, another karma of shukra is Harsha or it can be called asdwajapraharsha,this is related to both body and mind due to desire of sex and collection ofshukra in the testes create sort of tension which causes the erection & ejaculation.Preeti—This will be under manobhava here preeti means the interest in the opposite sexdesirous to sexual urgeChyavanam—After the ejaculation of shukra during inter course psychologically the personwill feels the satisfaction and fulfillments of coitus. It occurs at the stage of resolution. Theother karma’s of shukra are Dehabala and Dhairya117,118.PRESENCE OF SHUKRA IN THE BODY:- Shukra is present all over the body. It is not directly visible like juice in the sugarcane. Ghee in the butter and oil in the tila seed. As the shukradhara kala is present all overthe body. So the shukra is present in whole body119,120. The potency of a man does not depend upon the semen which is secreted by the testis butthe potency depends upon the gonadotrophic hormones of the anterior pituitary gland. Thesehormones circulating through out the body stimulates the testis to produce spermatozoa.These hormones can be taken as a sarva shareera gata shukra in one aspect.STRUCTURE OF THE HUMAN SPERMATOZOON:- Each sperm is about 0.06 millimeter. The mature spermatozoon consists of head, neck,body & tail. Head:- The head of the human spermatozoon is oval in shape and measures about 4.5cmlength & 2.5 to 3.5mm in diameter, composed of nucleous & very thin cytoplasma & 50
  • Review of Literature. Vangacovered by cell membrane. Anterior 2/3part of the head os covered by thick cap calledAcrosome, mainly formed by golgi apparatus. This contains a number of enzymes similar tolysosomes present in typical cell., included nyaluronidase which can digest proteoglycanfilaments of tissue and powerful proteolytic enzymes which can digest the sperm to fertilizethe ovum. Neck:- The neck is short weak segment and connects the head with middle piece. Theproximal centriole fits in the depression of the head and is the junction of head & neck.Where as distal centriole lies between the neck and middle piece.Body (middle piece):- It is cylindrical in form has a length of 5.7cm and a thickness of about 1m middlepiece is rich in mitochondria and longitudinal fibrils.Tail:- Can be divided in to main piece and end piece.Main piece: It is about 45cm long and about ½ cm thick gradually tapering towards the endpiece. It is composed of circumferentially oriented dense fibrous sheath. Which helps at themoment of the spermatozoa by shortening and lengthening these fibers. It contain enzymeATP also helps in moment of spermatozoa.Endpiece: It is about 5 cm long contains minimum matrix & covered by cytoplasm &plasma membrane. Normal sperm moves straight line at a velocity of 1.4 mm/min 120,122.STAGES OF MALE SEXUAL ACT:-Erection:- The most important physical sign of sexual excitation in men is erection of thepenis which usually occurs within a few seconds after sexual stimulation starts. Erection is caused by the parasympathetic impulses that pass from the sexualportion of the spinal cord to the penis. This results in the dilation of or pennis and arteriolesof penis, thus allowing arterial blood to build up high blood pressure in the penis is 51
  • Review of Literature. Vanga witnessed. At the same time deep dorsal vein of the penis is constricted by swollen corpous cavernosa, resulting into decreased out flow of blood & maintaining the hardening & stiffening of penis. Lubrication:- During sexual stimulation pare sympathetic impulses in addition to promoting the erection also stimulates the urethral glands & bulbo - urethral glands to secrete the mucus. This mucus flow through the urethra during inter-course to aid in the lubrication of coitus. Ejaculation:- It is divided into emission & ejaculation proper. Emission is the passing secretion’s of seminal vesicles, prostate, bulbo-urethral and accessing glands along with sperm of the testis. From the epididyms and vasadeferns into the urethra by contraction of smooth muscle pleasure is obtained by sudden vas jerk contraction of smooth muscle of vasa deferentia ejaculatory ducts, and seminal vesicles. This response is by the hypogastric sympathetic nerves from the spinal cord of L1 --L2. Ejaculation proper is the rhythmic contraction urethral pubic floor muscles has a result of sympathetic flow of first & second lumber spinal nerves of the hypogastric plexus. Which leads to the flow of semen from urethra to exterior. This entire period of emission and ejaculation is called the male orgasm.Penile flaccidity or post ejaculatory stage : In this stage the male sexual excitement disappears entirely with in one to two minutes & secretion ceases.The penis becomes relaxed & decreased in size.123Ejaculated semen: The ejaculated semen during the male sexual act is composed of 10% of fluid & sperm from vasadeferens ,60% of fluid from the seminal vesicle,30% of fluid from prostate gland, small amount from the cowper’s gland & bulbo urethral gland. The seminal vesicle fluid adds bulkness to the semen and helps for the ejection of sperm from the ejaculatory duct & urethra. The average PH of the combined semen is 7.5. The alkaline prostatic fluid 52
  • Review of Literature. Vanganeutralizes the mild acidic nature of the semen. The milky appearance is due to prostaticfluid,seminal vesicle fluid & mucous gland secretion.Acloting enzyme of the prostatic fluidcauses fribinogen of the seminal vesicle fluid to form weak coagulum then dissolves duringthe next 15 to 30 minutes because of prostatic pro- fibrinolysis. At the early minutes afterthe ejaculation the sperm relatively immobile because of the viscosity of coagulum. As thecoagulum dissolves the sperm become relatively high motile. The sperm can live for many weeks in the male genital duct. But once they areejaculated there maximum life span is only 24 to 48 hours at normal body temprature.But atlow temperature semen may be stored for several weeks & when frozen at a temperaturebelow -1000 c sperm can be preserve for years.124,125. QUALITIES OF SHUDDHA SHUKRASL.NO LAKSHANA C.S S.S A.S A.H B.P1 Snigdha + + + + +2 Ghanam / Bahulam + -- + + --3 Pichchilam + _ + _ _4 Madhuram + + + + +5 Avidhani + _ _ _ _6 Dravam _ + _ _ +7 Sphatikabha + + _ _ +8 Madhura ghandhi _ + + + +9 Taila nibham _ + + + +10 Kshoudra nibham _ + + + +11 Soumyam _ _ + - + 53
  • Review of Literature. Vanga12 Guru _ _ + + _13 Shukram _ _ + + _14 Bahu _ _ + + _15 Ghrita nibham _ _ _ + +16 Sheeta _ _ _ _ +17 Balapushtikara _ _ _ _ + Table no-11NIDANA PANCHAKA OF KSHEENA SHUKRA: Ksheena shukra has not been accepted as an independent disease or disorder inclassics & the standard description of nidana Panchaka has not been explained separately inany of the texts. In the pathogenesis of Ksheena shukra there is an involvement of vitiationof shukravaha srotas, so the causes of shukravaha srotodushti can also to be considered asnidan of Ksheena shukra126. The shukravaha srotas is vitiated by1. Indulgence in sexual act at improper time2. Unnatural sexual act3. Suppression of sexual urge4. Excessive sexual indulgence5. Injury by Instruments, Kshara & Agnikarmas In Charaka samhita samanya nidana of shukra dosha is mentioned, these nidana alsocauses the ksheena shukra, which is vitiated by vata & pitta dosha.The nidana’s are clubbed under the following headings:a) Aharajam 1.Asatmya ahara 2.Rooksha, laghu, ushna ahara 3.Excessive intake of tikta, kashaya, amla, lavana ahara 4.Anashanab) Manasika hetu 1. Chinta 2. Shoka 3. Krodha 4. Bhaya 54
  • Review of Literature. Vanga c) Maithunajanya hetu 1. Atimaithuna 2. Akala maithuna 3. Ayoni maithuna 4. Maithuna asevanam 5. Streenam arasadnyatha d) Karma vibhramshajanya hetu 1. Shastra karma vibhramshaja 2. Ksharakarma vibhramshaja 3. Agnikarma vibhramshaja e) Avasthajanya hetu 1.Vruddhavastha 2.Vyadhiavasthaf) Anyahetu 1. Ati vyayama 2. Swapna dosha 3. Vegavarodha 4. Kshata 5. Krushata 6. Kshama The specific nidana of ksheena shukra mentioned in charaka samhita chikitsa sthana127. Ashtanga sangraha uttarasthana129& in Vangasena130. As per the charaka the etiological factors are 1. Chinta 2. Sara 3. Vyadhi karshana 4. Karmakarshana 5. Adhika vyayama Vyadhi karshana: 55
  • Review of Literature. Vanga Vitiation of shukravaha srotas is noticed in the following disease, 1. Pratiloma kshaya 130 2. Shukra nigrahaja udavarta131 3. Mootra krichra132 4. Prameha133 5. Andavriddhi134 6. Mootra shukra135 7. Shukragata masuric136 8. Kushta137 9. Medoroga138 10. Sleepada139 11. Shukragata jwara140Kshata: Kshta or injury is one of the cause, which leads to shukra dushti. Here injury is limited to pelvic organs, testicular torsion may lead to atrophy of the testis & impaired fertility.POORVAROOPA: Poorvaroopa are the premonitory feauters occurring before the exhibition of the main symptoms indicating a disease. No poorvaroopa have been mentioned for ksheena shukra. The lakshanas in the avyakta stage can be taken as poorva roopa of ksheena shukra.ROOPA: The roopa’s are the characteristics manifestations of the clinical feature. Which appeare during the course of the disease by the features the disease can be diagnosed in ayurvedic classics these signs & symptoms have been widely described. According to Charaka the clinical features are 1. Dourbalya 2. Mukha shosha 3. Pandutwa 56
  • Review of Literature. Vanga 4. Sadhana 5. Shrama 6. Kliabya 7. Shukra avisarga Sushruta mentioned the ksheena shukra lakshana in sutra sthana as 1. Medra vrushana vedana 2. Ashakta maithuna 3. Chirat praseka 4. Alpa raktayukta shukra sravaLakshana of Ksheena shukra are enlisted below on different ayurvedic classics141,142,143,144,145 SL.NO LAKSHANAS C.S S.S A.S A.H SH.S V.S 1. Medra vedana _ + _ + _ _ 2. Vrishana vedana _ + + + _ _ 3. Ashakta maithuna _ + _ _ _ _ 4. Chirat praseka _ + + + _ _ 5. Alpa rakta shukra _ + + + _ _ darshana 6. Dourbalya + _ + _ + + 7. Mukhashosha + _ + _ + + 8. Pandutwa + _ + _ + + 9. Sadana + _ + _ + + 10. Shrama + _ + _ _ _ 11. Klaibya + _ + _ + + 12. Shukraavisarga + _ _ _ + + 13. Timiraadrshana _ _ + _ _ _ 57
  • Review of Literature. Vanga 14. Medradaha _ _ + + _ _ 15. Bhrama + _ _ _ + + Table No-12SAMPRAPTI: Samprapti deals with involvement of dosha to the complete manifestation of the disease146.The dosha sanchaya takes place in their respective place at first stage. If nidana sevana furthercontinued the prakopavastha will be attained. The vitiated doshas leads to Jathargnimandyaresulting in to formation of Ama. In the prasaravasta the aggravated doshas along with amadistributes all over the body.these doshas gets lodged where kha vaigunya is present & furtherproduce the disease.147. This process of manifstation is same in all diseases including ksheenashukra. There is no specific samprapti explained for the ksheena shukra in ayurvedic classics, butcharaka described the shukra kshayajanya samprapti in two ways i,e Anuloma kshaya &pratiloma kshaya. The sequnce of decrease in succeeding dhatu precorser dhatu.148. Accordingto the samanya samprapti of Ksheena shukra due to consumption of nidana doshas willaggravate & enter in shukravaha siras ( utpadaka, visarjana ) & leads into kseena shukra.Hencewe can consider the dosha dushya sammucrhana in shukravaha srotomoola.The doshas involvedare vata, pitta & the dushya is shukra.KRIYAKALA IN KSHEENA SHUKRA: Due to asatmya ahara vihara the doshas are vitiated giving rise to improper digestion(agnimandya). Further misconducts & favourable conditions of vitiation leads to ama formationresulting in doshic imbalance. Thus ama enters at the srotomukh a level of dhatuvaha srotaswhich obstructs the transformation of poshaka dhatu to poshya dhatu (sthai dhatu) due to theabnormality of the shukradhatvagni resulting the shukravaha srotomoola vikriti, thus theproduction of shukra is not done properly leading to ksheena shukra.SAMPRAPTIGHATAKA: Dosha – Vata, Pitta 58
  • Review of Literature. Vanga Dushya – Shukra Agni - Jatragni, Dhatvagni Ama - Dhatvagnimandya Udbhava sthana – Amashaya & Pakvashaya Sanchara – Shukravahina sira Adhishtana – Vrushana & medhra Vyakta sthana – Vrushana Rogamarga – Madhyama Srotas – Shukravaha Srotodushti - SangaSADHYASADHYATA: Sadhya sadhyata is indication of prognisis of disease. A disease is considered to be sukhasadhya when it is having minimum poorvaroopa, roopa, on the other hand if the disease ischronic & is presented with complications then it is called asadhya. In classics it has beenmentioned that Ksheena shukra is kashta sadhya because two doshas manifest149, morever vata& pitta prakruti purushas has less shukra. If they are more prone to ksheena shukra thus theprognosis is kashta sadhya.150 If it is beja doshajanya (congenital) then it is asadhya.151 If thepatient is vriddha then the kashta sadhya.UPASHAYA & ANUPASHAYA: According to Madhavakara use of food articles, drugs & life style which helps in bringingabout the equilibrium of dearanged dosha, dhatu & mala are known as upashaya where asanupashaya is a state just opposite to the uspashaya. There is explanation regarding the upashaya & anupashaya for ksheena shukra in classics, wecan consider the pathya & oushadies indicated for ksheena shukra as upashaya. Such asmadhura rasa, guru sheeta gunayukta ahara & keeping away from the worries maintaining ruleof swastha vrutta are the upashayas, where as the intake of or indulgence in the causative factorsare anupashaya.152 59
  • Review of Literature. VangaETIOLOGY ON MODERN VIEW: Different factors may impare or after the normal process of spermatogenesis & cause malein fertility. They are classified under two groups. 1) Congenital 2) Aquired1.CONGENITAL FACTORS:a) Crypto – orchadism: Failure of one or both testis descends in to the scrotum is known as Crypto- orchadism. The descent is usually completed at birth or by end of the first year of life. It is common in child hood. Unilateral crypto-orchadism is associated with Oligospermia, where as bilateral crypto – orchadism usually associated with Oligozoospermia. The undescendent testis can be classified into three catagories: 1) True undescended 2) Retractive testis 3) Ectopic testisb) Germinal cell aplasia : Some patients with germinal cell aplasia have a opposite history & may constitute a specific group in whom their germinal layer is only partly present or completely absent resulting into Oligospermia or Oligozoospermia, but the plama testosteron & LH values are normal & plasma FSH level are elevated.c) Kline felter syndrome: It is characterized by small firm testis, Oligospermia, Gynecomastia & elevated level of plasma gonadotropis in men with two or more X-cromosomes. The common karyotype is either a 47 XXY chromosome pattern is the most frequent. It is the most frequent major abnormality of sexual differentiation. The incidence being around one in 500 men. d) Immotile – cell syndrome: It is an autosomal recessive defect characterized by immotility or poor motility of the cilia of the airways & sperm. The immotile sperm cannot fertizine. The structural abnormality leading to impaired motility of cilia can usually be defined by the microscopic appearance. Kartageners syndrome is a subgroup of the immotile cilia syndrome associated with chronic sinusitis & bronchiectasis. 60
  • Review of Literature. VangaAQUIRED FACTORS: Some systemic disease, drugs, environmental hazards effect on the intra- testicular cells & after its normal function may cause hypogonadism. These factors include environmental hazards. The male reproductive system is highly sensitive to some physical & environmental exposures. It is now becoming clear to many scientists that dozens of both man made & naturel chemicals are capable of mimicking & disturbing the action of sex hormones. The substances include broad classes of chlorinated & non chlorinated components and heavy metals ( Mercury, Inorganic lead, Manganese ) widely used in industrial & house hold products such as paints, detergents, lubricants, cosmetics, textiles, & pesticides, plastics cause the estrogenic in man leading to hypogonadism.Exposure & specific agents: 1) Physical exposures: a) Inorganic lead b) Mercury c) Manganeese 2) Plastic monomers: a) Phthalates b) Bisphenola 3) Pesticides : DDTTesticular abnormalities associated with systematic disease.1. Diabetes mellitus: It is an important cause of sexual dysfunction & it also impaires thefertility in men. Various causes of sexual dysfunction in diabetes are 1. Diabetic neuropathy 2. Diabetic vasculopathy 3. Psychogenic 4. Endocrine causes The fertility is reduced due to the reduction of testosteron level by decreased synthesis in leyding cells. In some patients will have the retrograde ejaculation?2. Chronic renal failure: In chronic renal failure the testicular size is diminished & semen value, sperm dencity, sperm motility are also decreased. Histological changes consists of reduced number of leyding cells. 61
  • Review of Literature. Vanga3. Infective disease : Aquired testicular failure in adult can be due to viral orchity caused by the Mumps virus, Echo virus, Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus & Group bargo virus. Some of orchitis patients converts in to unilateral testiculary atrophy & some may be of bilateral atrophy. It is due to direct effect of the virus on the seminiferous tubules & to ischemia, secondary to pressure & edema with in the tunica albugenia.4. Vascular disturbance : Vericocele is probably the most common treatable cause of male infertility may be of etiological importance in as much as 1/3 of all male infertility. It is caused by retrograde flow of blood into internal spermatic vein that eventuates in progressive often-palpable dilatation of the peritesticular pampiniform plexus of veins. The evidence of varicocele is 10 to 15 % in general population & 20 to 40 % men with infertility. The increased scrotal & testicular temprature is believed to be the cause for poor quality of semen & infertility.5. Endocrinal disorders: a) Disorders of hypothalamus & pituitary can impaire the secretion of gonadotropins & causes the consequence decreased androgen production & defective spermatogenesis. b) The elevated plasma cortisol in the Cushing syndrome can depress LH secretion leading to alteration in the spermatogenesis.6. Sexual transmitted diseases:- The common complication of S.T.D pathogens especially gonorrhea and chalamydia is epididymitis. Acute epididymitis leads to decreased spermatogenesis. Such patients usually have impared sexual development & testicular atrophy.7. Neurological disorder:- The major neurological disease associated with altered testicular function are mytonic dystrophy and paraplegia. In mytonic dystrophy small tests may be associated with abnormalities of both spermatogenesis and leyding cell function. Spinal cord lesions resulting in paraplegia leads to temporary decrease in testosterone level that tend to return to normal but persistent defects in spermatogenesis some patients retain the capacity to obtain erection and ejaculate. 62
  • Review of Literature. Vanga8. Testicular tumour:- Testicular cancer is the most common form of cancer in men between the aged 15 to 44, more than 96% of testicular tumour arise from germ cells. It is common in a person with un-descendent testis. It has two main types of cancer exists. 1. Seminoma 2. Teretoma9. Testicular trauma:- Injury of the tests may result in male infertility especially if the trauma is followed by a reduction in the size of the injured testicles and / or the detection of antisperm in the semen. It is believed that such infertility results not from immune reaction that occurs due to penetration of the sertoli cells. “blood testis barrier” in the testes.10. Radiatilon:- The testes are sensitive to radiation damage decreased secretion of testosterone appears tobe consequence of diminished testicular blood flow. Doses higher than 200mgv causes increase in plasma FSH & LH level and damage to spermatogonia. After about 800mgy oligospermia or azoospermia develops and higher doses obliterate the germinal epithelium. Recovery of the sperm density occurs in a dose related fashion & complete recovery of sperm density might require as long as 5 years.11. Old age : Beginning at about 40 years age mean plasma bio available testosteron concentration decline gradually about 40 % elderly men have low bio – available testosteron level. The cause of the decreased testosteron level likely a decrease number of leyding cells in the testis. There is also a decline seminiferous tubule functions & decreased sperm production in older men.12. Impairment of sperm transport: Disorders sperm transport may cause infertility or oligospermia. The obstruction may be unilateral or bilateral, congenital, acquired. Tuberculosis, Leprosy & gonorrhea are rare causes of aquired obstruction of ejaculatory structures. Congenital defect of vasa deference can occur as an isolated abnormality associated with absence of seminal vesicles. 63
  • Review of Literature. Vanga13. Drugs : The drugs which causes low sperm count are: a. Sedative & antidepressants – Reduced sperm count & diminished semen value has been reported in patients using antipsychotic drugs. The drug sulphasalazine commonly used to treat inflammatory bowel disease causes oligo-astheno-terato spermia. b. Histamine H2 -- Receptor bloking agents. c. Nacrotics – Heroin, Marijunana users reported with low sperm count. d. Antihypertensive agents cause organic & erectile disterbunces. 153,154,155,156. 64
  • Review of Literature. Vanga CHIKITSA IN KSHEENA SHUKRA The principle treatment in any ksheenadhatu is to administer the dravyaswhich are having the same qualities of that dhatus157, 158 . The samanya chikitsa forShukradosha is snehana, swedana, vamana, virechana, niruha, anuvasana followed by uttarabasti.159. Acharya Vagbhata has a advised the same line of treatment for shukra dosha160.The use of virulent medicinal combinations, such as dugda, gritha, various rasayanascombinations as well as yapana vastis is beneficial for the persons suffering fromdathukshaya161. Susruta advised that the vajeekarana therapy to be introduced in Ksheenashukra162. Dulhana quoted the rushyadravyas which are mentioned in vajeekarana adhyayathat they are also shukravriddhikara163. Vasa sneha is indicated in Ksheenashukra 164. Thereare few references in the classics about the administration of shukra, such as consumingnakraretas165, 166 . All the ayurvedic classics indicated the Panchakarma therapy anduttarabasti in shukra dosha and shukra kshaya respectively, & vajeekarana vasti is speciallymentioned. Charaka mentioned that vajeekarana dravyas and formulations, which are usefulin rakta pitta and yoni vyapat, are beneficial in shukra dosha also. Jeevaniya gritha,chavyanaprasha, shilajitu are also useful.167 65
  • Review of Literature. Vanga 66
  • Methodology – Pharmaceutical study METHODOLOGY PHARMACEUTICAL STUDY:Collection of drugs used in the preparation of vanga bhasma: All the raw drugs needed for the preparation for the compound are collected from local market during February 2003 & some drugs are collected from college garden as well as pharmacy section of DGMAMC GADAG. Every drug was identified according to Ayurvedic standards & sample of vanga was certified by Geologist.Pratical study: The things which are mentioned in Ayurveda are better understood by getting the knowledge in two ways i,e Thereotical study & Practicals.Because as saying, as doing is very difficult task. This theory is especially applicable to Rasashastra, because the drugs which are mentioned in Rasashastra are considered as visha or they have visha guna, but after processing i,e shodhana & marana etc.those drugs become ‘Amruta’. So this denotes the importance of practicle knowledge. The processes which are mentioned in the Rasagranthas seems to be very easy, but they will prove difficult during the practical. The Rasashastra mainly deals with drugs like mineral, animal, & herbal origion drugs including their identity, processing & formulations. The process which are mentioned in Rasashastra , helps in converting the inorganic drug into organic i,e “ Vijatiya into Sajatiya.” & enhances the optimum potency of the drug, make the drug palatable & increase the shelf life. A detailed description of the steps taken to prepare the trial drug (are explained under various headings) Vanga bhasma. Preparation of trail drug includes different processes like shodhana, Jarana & Marana. 67
  • Methodology – Pharmaceutical studyPractical no.1:1. Name of the preparation : To perform vanga samanya shodhana in tila taila for 7 times. Date of commencement : 06 – 02 -- 2002 Date of completion : 06 – 02 - 2002 Reference : R.R.S 5/ 132. Equipments : Small iron pan with long handle, cloth Iron vessel with lid having hole about 2 cm.at center ( pithara yantra ), Burner.3. Drugs : 1) Raw vanga – 1 k.g 2) Tila taila -- 5 lt 3) Water -- Q.S4. Procedure : a. Sufficient quantity of taila to immerse the metal was taken in pithara yantra. b. Raw vanga about 1 kg was heated in iron pan till it melts. c. Molten vanga was immediately poured into pitharayantra & allowed for self cooling which took about 15 to 20 minutes. d. Cooled metal was taken out, washed with hot water to remove the oilyness & wiped with cotton & cloth. e. Dried metal was once again subjected to above said procedure for 6 more times, each time fresh taila was taken for the procedure. f. Second process onwards during melting scum with oil was observed on the surface of molten vanga which has been removed by iron spoon.Observations: 1. Time taken for melting was 4.5 minutes on medium flame 2. When molten vanga was poured in tila taila it produced crackling sound. 3. Second process onwards scumm with oil was observed on the surface of molten metal. 68
  • Methodology – Pharmaceutical study 4. Even though after though washing with hot water & wiping with cotton cloth, some oil particles were seen. 5. Colour of the oil becomes slightly blackish. 6. After the above procedure the metal was solid with smooth surface & it cooled with yellow colour / golden colour coating, but the shining is decreased slightly & became hard comparative to raw vanga.Precaution: 1. Melting should be done on medium flame. 2. To avoid the catching of fire whole oil present over the surface of molten metal should be blotted with blotting paper.Result: Intial weight of the metal – 1000 gms Final weight of the metal – 0985 gms Weight loss – 0015 gms 69
  • Methodology – Pharmaceutical studyPractical no. 21. Name of the preparation : Samanya shodhana of vanga in takra for 7 times. Date of commencement : - 7 – 2 – 04 Date of completion :- 7 – 2 –04 Reference – R.R.S 5 / I32. Equipmnts :- Small iron pan with long handle, Cloth Iron vessel with lid having hole of 2 cm.diameter at the center ( pithara yantra ), Burner3. Drugs :- a.Taila shodita vanga – 985 gms b.Takra - 10 ltr c. Water -- q.s4.Procedure : a. Sufficient quantity of takra was taken in pithara yantra. b. Taila shodita vanga was heated in iron pan till it melts. c. Molten vanga was poured immedietly to the pithara yantra & allowed for self cooling. d. Cooled metal was taken out washed with hot water & wiped with cotton cloth. e. Dried metal was once again subjected to above said procedure for 6 more times each time fresh takra was taken for the procedure.5. Observation : a. Time taken for melting was 5-6 minutes on medium flame. b. When molten vanga was poured in takra crackling sound was heard. c. Second time onwards while melting the crackling sound was heard due to presence of water molecules & scum was observed on the surface of molten vanga. d. The colour of takra turned to yellowish & maximum quantity of takra reduced due to evaporation. e. After the above procedure the metal became brittle rough disintegrated surfaced, the shining of metal was increased.6. Precaution: a.Medium flame should be maintained. b. Care should be taken while pouring into takra to avoid explosion.7. Result: Initial weight of metal – 985 gms Final weight of the metal –970 gms Weight Loss – 15 gms 70
  • Methodology – Pharmaceutical studyPractical no. 31. Name of the preparation :- Samanya shodhana of vanga in Gomootra for 7 times. Date of commencement : - 8 – 2 – 04 Date of completion :- 8 – 2 –04 Reference :– R.R.S 5 / I32. Equipmnts :- Small iron pan with long handle, Cloth Iron vessel with lid having hole about 2 cm.at center ( pithara yantra ), Burner3. Drugs :- a.Takra shodita vanga – 970 gms b.Gomootra - 12 ltr c. Water -- q.s4. Procedure : a. Sufficient quantity of Gomootra was taken in pithara yantra. b. Takra shodita vanga was heated in iron pan till it melts. c. Molten vanga was poured immedietly to the pithara yantra & allowed for self cooling. d. Cooled metal was taken out washed with hot water & wiped with cotton cloth. f. Dried metal was once again subjected to above said procedure for 6 more times each time fresh Gomootra was taken for the procedure. g. Scum formation on the surface of molten vanga was removed by iron spoon.5. Observation: a. Vanga melts within 5-6 minutes producing crackling sound. b. Explosive sound was heard when molten vanga poured in gomootra. c. Scum was formed on the surface of molten vanga. d. The colour of Gomootra turned in to blackish & quantity was reduced. e. After the above procedure the metal became brittle, the shining of metal was reduced.6. Precaution: a.Medium flame should be maintained. b.To avoid explosion the lid of the pithara yantra should be sealed properly7. Result Initial weight of metal – 970 gms Final weight of the metal –950 gms Weight loss – 20 gms 71
  • Methodology – Pharmaceutical studyPractical no.41. Name of the preparation :- Samanya shodhana of vanga in Kanji for 7 times. Date of commencement : - 9 – 2 – 04 Date of completion :- 9 – 2 –04 Reference :– R.R.S 5 / I32. Equipments :- Small iron pan with long handle, Cloth Iron vessel with lid having hole of 2 cm.diameter at the center ( pithara yantra ), Burner3. Drugs :- a.Gomootra shodita vanga – 950 gms b.Kanji - 6 ltr c.Water - q.s4. Preparatory procedure: Kanji preparation :- First shali paka should be done with water.Later this pakwashali along with manda is to be taken in an earthen vessel to this mixture 3 parts of water is to be added the mouth of the vessel should be coverd with cloth & allowed for sandhana,after fermentation when amlatwa develops this kanji is to be filterd & stored.5. Procedure : a. Sufficient quantity of Kanji was taken in pithara yantra. b. Gomootra shodita vanga was heated in iron pan till it melts. c. Molten vanga was poured immedietly to the pithara yantra & allowed for self cooling. d. Cooled metal was taken out washed with hot water & wiped with cotton cloth. f. Dried metal was once again subjected to above said procedure for 6 more times each time fresh Kanji was taken for the procedure. g. Scum formation on the surface of molten vanga was removed by iron spoon.6. Observation: a. Explosive sound was heard when molten vanga poured in gomootra. b Second time onwords scum was formed on the surface of molten vanga & was removed by iron spoon. c. The colour of kanji became dark & more quantity was evaporated. e. After the above procedure the metal turned to a shining big granule.7. Precaution: a.Medium flame should be maintained.8. Result: Initial weight of metal – 950 gms Final weight of the metal –920 gms Weight loss – 30 gms 72
  • Methodology – Pharmaceutical studyPractical no.51. Name of the preparation :- Samanya shodhana of vanga in Kulaththa kwatha for 7 times. Date of commencement : - 10 – 2 – 04 Date of completion :- 10 – 2 –04 Reference :– R.R.S 5 / I32. Equipments :- Small iron pan with long handle, Cloth, Burner Iron vessel with lid having hole of 2 cm diameter at the center (pithara yantra ), Burner3. Drugs :- a.Kanji shodita vanga – 920 gms b.Kulattha kwata - 8 ltr c. Water - q.s4. Preparatory procedure : One part of yavakuta choorna of kulattha kwatha was boiled with 16 parts of water in earthen pot over a mrudu agni till liquid is reduced to 1/4 of the original quantity.5. Procedure : a. Sufficient quantity of Kulaththa kwata was taken in pithara yantra. b. Kanji shodita vanga is melted in iron pan on medium flame. c. Molten vanga was poured immedietly to the pithara yantra & allowed for self cooling. d. Cooled metal was taken out washed with hot water & wiped with cotton cloth. f. Dried metal was once again subjected to above said procedure for 6 more times, Each time fresh Kulaththa kwatha was taken for the procedure. 6. Observation: a. Vanga melts within 4-5 minutes producing crackling sound. b. When molten vanga was poured in pithara yantra explosive sound was heard. c.The colour of Kwatha turned in to dark & much quantity was evaporated. d. After the above procedure some part of the vanga became powder form. 7. Precaution: Explosive chances are avoided by sealing the lid of pithara yantra. 8. Result Initial weight of metal – 920 gms Final weight of the metal – 890 gms weight Loss – 40 gms 73
  • Methodology – Pharmaceutical studyPractical No. 61. Name of the preparation :- Vishesha shodhana of vanga in Haridrayukta nirgundi swarasa for 3 times. Date of commencement : - 11 – 2 – 04 Date of completion :- 11 – 2 –04 Reference :– R.R.S 5 / 1562. Equipments :- Small iron pan with long handle, Cloth, Burner Iron vessel with lid having hole of 2 cm diameter at the center ( pithara yantra ), Burner3. Drugs :- a.Samanya shodhita vanga - 890gms b.Nirgundi swarasa - 6 liters c. Haridra churna - 38 grams d. Water - Q.S4. Preparatory procedure : Nirgundi swarasa preparation. Fresh Nirgundi leaves were taken and subjected to mardana till it became fine kalka,laterputapakwa vidhi was followed to obtain swarasa.5. Procedure: a. Two liters of Nirgundi swarasa was mixed with 13 gms of Haridra choorna and was taken in Pithara yantra. b. Samanya shodita vanga is melted in iron pan on medium flame. c. Molten vanga was poured immedietly to the pithara yantra & allowed for self cooling. d. Cooled metal was taken out washed with hot water upto removal of yellowish tinge of metal & wiped with cotton cloth. f. Dried vanga was once again subjected to above said procedure for two more times. Each time fresh Nirgundi swarasa with Haridra choorna was taken. 74
  • Methodology – Pharmaceutical study 6. Observation: a. Vanga melts within 4-5 minutes producing crackling sound. b. When molted vanga was poured in pithara yantra more explosive sound was heard. c. Scum formation on the surface of molten vanga was removed by iron spoon. d. The colour of swarasa turned in to dark green & much quantity was reduced. e. After this procedure the vanga became throny, brittle & most of it became powder. 7.Precautions: Because of throny surface proper care should be taken while removing the metal from shodhana media. 8. Result Initial weight of metal – 890 gms Total loss – 150gms. Final weight of the metal – 850 gms Total weight of shodhita vanga – 850grm. weight Loss – 40 gms Loss of vanga in various practicalsSl.No Name of media Intial wt of Final wt of Loss of wt of Physical appearance used metal(gms) metal(gms) metal(gms)1 Tila taila 1000 985 15 Solid smooth surface with yellow coating2 Takra 985 970 15 Brittle rough surface with shining3 Gomutra 970 950 20 Brittle rough surface but shining decreased.4 Kanji 950 920 30 Some part become granular with shining.5 Kulaththa kwatha 920 890 30 Some part become coarse powder.6 Nirgundi swarasa 890 850 40 Granular and throny surface. with haridra churna Table No-13 75
  • Methodology – Pharmaceutical studyPractical No.71. Name of the preparation :- Jarana of vanga . Date of commencement : - 15 – 2 – 04 Date of completion :- 15 – 2 –04 Reference :– R.R.S 3 / 86-932. Equipments :-Big iron pan with long handle, Cloth, Burner, big steel vessel, chalani.3. Drugs :- a.Shodhita vanga - 850gms b.Apamarga panchanga churna – 425 gms. c Water - Q.S4. Procedure: a. Vishesha shodhita vanga about 850gms was taken in big iron pan and melted on medium flame. b. After complete melting of vanga pinch of Apamarga panchanga churna was added & agitated properly with long handle iron ladle. c. When the yava kuta churna of Apamarga was completely burn, some more amount of Apamarga added and agitated properly. The process in continued until complete vanga is converted into powder. d. After complete conversion of metal into powder, it was collected at the center of the iron pan & covered with an earthern sharava and intense heat (teevragni) was given for three hours and when the powder was resembles like a red lotus / burning charcoal. Then the heat was stopped and allowed for self cooling. e. Next day swanga sheeta powder was collected and weighted, The weight of the powder was 920 gms. The colour of jarita vanga powder was dark grey. f. After the jarana, vanga powder was sieved with 80 number sieve to separate carbon pieces Apamarga choorna.5. Post procedure: Washing of jaritha vanga. a. Above said powder was taken in big stainless steel vessel and sufficient water was added and stirred properly. b. The mixture was kept for three hours for complete sedimentation. 76
  • Methodology – Pharmaceutical study c. The supernatent water was separated by slow filteration. The same process was repeated upto complete removal of kshara. d. PH test was carried out after each washing. e. After complete removal of kshara, powder was dried . 6. Observation: During Jarana a. By sprinkling Apamarga churna over molten vanga it burns with thick fumes while agitating and molten vanga gradually converted into powder. b. When the complete vanga converted into powder the whole powder becomes red hot like red lotus by giving teevragni. c. Time takes for complete conversion of vanga jarana was five hours. d. During washing- First time decanted water shows blue colour on PH paper, the colour of the PH paper gradually dulled after successive washing and at the end the decanted water did not show change in the colour of PH paper. 7. Precaution: a. Procedure should be carried out on medium flame initially & on intence flame at the end. b. During procedure proper care of ventilation should be taken to avoid suffocation by the smoke emitted. c. Proper sieving should be done to separate unburnt substance from the jarita vanga. d. While washing care should be taken not to allow over flow of vanga powder while decanting supernatent water which is mixed with kshara. 8. Result: Initial weight of vanga metal – 890 gms Weight gain – 40 gms Final weight of the vanga metal – 850 gms Colour of powder - Grey Consistancy - Smooth Changes during Jarana Colour Colour after Touch Touch Weight Weight No,of hoursbefore jarana jarana before jarana after jarana before jarana after jarana taken for procedureWhite silvery Blackish gray Mettalic and Coarse 850 gms 920 gms 5.30 minutes more malleable powder Table No14 77
  • Methodology – Pharmaceutical studyPractical No.81. Name of the preparation :- Marana of jarita vanga . Date of commencement : - 04 – 3 – 04 Date of completion :- 20 – 3 –04 Reference :– Rasamruta 3 / 86-932. Equipments :- 1. Khalva yantra, 2. Mrut sharava of diameter is 12 angula 3. Cowdanga cake 4. Match box 5. Cotton cloth – 2 meters 6. Jute thread – 85 cm3. Drugs :- a.Jarita vanga - 850gms b.Kumari swarasa – 425 gms. c.Gopi chandana -- 250 gms d. Vanophala -- 500 e. Water _ Q.S4. Procedure :- A. Bhavana & preparation of chakrikas. a. Jarita vanga was taken in khalva yantra & triturated with kumari swarasa. b. Trituration was continued till the appearance of kalka roopa. c. Kalka dravya was made in to chakrikas of size 4 cm width & 0.5 cms thickness & kept for drying in a plastic sheet under shadow. B. Preparation of sharava samputa: Two equal sized mruta sharava were taken, the borders of both sharavas are rubbed on stone with sand & water to bring uniformity on the sharavas border. a. Dried chakrikas were arranged in two layer in the sharava which was covered with another sharava of same size. b. A jute thread of 85 cms length smeared with gopi chandana past was fixed to fill the gap between the two sharava & sealing was done. 78
  • Methodology – Pharmaceutical study c. Gopi chandana smeared cloth was uniformality pasted over the sandhis of sharava for sandhibandhana made it air tight & kept for drying. d. After complete drying another layer was done & dried.C. Puta preparation: a. A pit of Ardhagaja puta measuring about 30 angulas lenth, breadth & height was made & 375 vanopalas were arrangd at the center, dried sharava samputa was kept & covered with 125 vanophalas & fire was given lighting camphor balls at 4 corners of pit at the lavel of sealed sharava samputa. b. After self cooling sharava samputa was taken out, sandhi bandhana was scraped & opened carefully & the chakrikas were collected & weighed.D. Observation : a. During mardana with kumari swarasa, initially the mixture was hard, as the procedure continued mixture becomes homologus & become easy for mardana. b. Time taken for complete burning was 10 – 11 hours. c. After the first puta the weight of the vanga was reduced to 50 gms & some powder was adherent to the bottom of sharava which could not be removed. d. After the first puta the weight of the vanga was reduced to 50 gms. e. After the first puta the chakrikas becomes soft to touch fragile & there was no remarkable change in colour.E. Precaution : a. Each time the size & shape of chakrikas were maintained b. Before applying gopichandana thread & cloth were made wet. c. Care should be taken to avoid the gap between two sharavas. d. Gopi chandana smeared cloth should be applied in such way that after complete drying of the previous one, another coating should be made .Note:Preparation of capsules – 125 mg of Vanga bhasma filled in capsules and despensed. 79
  • Methodology – Pharmaceutical study Practical 9 to14: The same procedure of practical No.8 was adopted to further practicals. The observation in the wt and physical properties after each puta are explained in the followingDate No of puta Swarasa added Weight of Weight of Change Change in Change in in each vanga vanga bhasma in wt.(In colour Luster & bhavana bhasma afterputa in gms) Touch before gms. In Time puta in ml taken (hours) gms.4-03-04 I 400 6 850 800 50 Dark grey More lusterous course powder7-03-04 II 400 5 800 760 40 Dark grey Less lusterous course powder10-03- III 400 4 760 740 20 Dark grey Less04 lusterous course powder13-03- IV 380 3 .1/2 740 715 25 Dark grey No lusterous04 fine powder16-03- V 350 3 .1/2 715 700 15 Light grey No lusterous04 fine powder19-03- VI 300 3. 1/2 700 690 10 Light grey No lusterous04 fine powder22-03- VII 280 3 690 675 15 Light grey Very fine04 powder Table No -15 80
  • Methodology – Pharmaceutical study ANALYTICAL STUDY The metallic & mineral preparation of ayurvedic pharmacopoeia should be analyzed forphysical& chemical properties to confirm the genuinity & safety before administration to thepatients. Hence it is essential to adopt modern analytical methodology for betterunderstanding & interpretation of physico - chemical changes occurred during the process. In the present study sample is collected at the completion of the preparation &subjected to modern analytical methods i,e chemical analysis at Indian bureau of mines oredressing division, Nagpur and at Indian Bureau of mines regional ore dressing laboratoryBangalore. Some physical analysis done is at J.T Pharmacy college Gadag, like finess of particletest, Flow rate of vanga bhasma, Disintegration of capsules & Organoleptic characters.Vangabhasma also assessed according to the Ayurvedic parameters also. Shows Ayurvedic tests of Vanga bhasma Name of the Varitaratwa Rekhapurnatwa Shlakshnatwa Nischandra sample Vanga bhasma + + + + Table No-16Chemical anlysis: 1) Tin assay 2) Loss on 1100 c 3) Loss on ignition at 10000 c 4) Acid soluble ash1) Tin assay: Preparation of sample for analysis: Take a weighed quantity of sample transferred to a 300 ml Kjeldahl flask. Add 25 ml of concentrated Nitric acid allow initial reaction to subside. Then add cautiously 10 to 20 ml concentrated Sulphuric acid. When reaction has quietened, heat cautiously avoiding foaming rotate the flask occasionally to prevent caking of sample upon glass explosed to 81
  • Methodology – Pharmaceutical study flame. Maintain oxidizing conditions through out the digestion by adding small quantity of nitric acid. Whenever mixture turns to brown or darkens, continue digestion until organic matter is destroyed & SO3 fumes are copiously evolved.Cool slightly & add 75 ml of water & 25 ml of saturated ammonia oxalate. Solution to assist in expelling oxides of nitrogen.Evaporate again until white fumes appear. Cool, & dilute with water 200 ml in volumetric flaskTin ( Gravimetric ): Reagents: 1. Wash solution mix 100 ml of saturated ammonium alkali solution with 50 ml of glacial acid & 850 ml of water 2. Ammonium polysulphide solution – Pass H2S gas into 200 ml of ammonia solution in bottle immersed in ice water until gas is no longer absorbed & 200 ml ammonia & dilute with water to 1 lt. Digest this solution with 25 gms of flowers of sulphar several hours & filter.Procedure: Take the above prepared solution, add ammonia until just alkaline, then 5ml of HCL ( + 3). Dilute with 100 ml of water. Heat the solution to 950 c & pass in a slow stream of 0 H2S. Digest for one hour at 95 c & let stand 30 minutes longer.Filter & wash the precipiatate of SnS alternatively with 3 portions each of the wash solution & hot H2O. transfer filter & precipiatate to 100 ml beaker, add 10 to 20 ml of the ammonium polysulphide solution.Heat to boiling & filter.Treat content of the beaker with two additional portion of hot ammonium polysulphide solution & wash, filter with hot water. Acidify combined filtrate and washings with dilute acetic acid (1+9), digest on hot plate for one hour, let stand overnight and filter through double 11 cm paper. Wash 2, alternatively with 2 portions each of the wash solution and hot water and dry thoroughly in weighed porcelain cruicible.Ignote over Bunsen flame, very gently at first to burn of paper and convert the sulphide to oxide, then cover the cruicible and heat strongly to mettallic Tin using factor 0.7877. 82
  • Methodology – Pharmaceutical study 02) Loss on drying 110 : One gms of vanga bhasma accurately weighed, heated on electric oven up to 1100 c & again weighed. The difference in weighed was calculated & the result is attached.3) Loss on ignition at 10000 c : One gms of vanga bhasma accurately weighed was taken in a previously dried & weighed porcelain crucible heated on an electrically heated muffle furnace at 10000 c for about one hour. It was cooled & weighed, from the weight of ash obtained the ash value was calculated. (d–a) Ash value = --------------- c ( d – a ) = weight of ash c= weight of sample4) Acid insoluble ash: The ash obtained was taken with dilute HCL filtered through whatman no. 42 filter paper. The residue was washed with hot water till it was free from chloride. The residue was taken in a crucible, dried & ignited at a low temprature. Calculated the percentage of acid insoluble ash with reference to the moisture free drug.5) The finess of partical test: It can be possible to use the ordinary microscope for particle size measuring in the range of 0.2 micro meter to about 100 micro meter. According to microscope method the fine powder was sprinkled on the slide covered with covering slip & placed on a mechanical stage. In initially standardization of mino meter was carried out by coinciding the lines of both oculo minometer style minometer & standarised by using the formula SM -------- X 10 = m OM In the next step, the style minometer was removed & the mounted slide was placed on a mechanical stage & focused. The particles are measured alops an orbitarily choosen fixed lines covered by the particals using the oculominometers. The size of the partical was calculated using the standard value. 83
  • Methodology – Pharmaceutical study6) Flow property : Vanga bhasma is very fine powder so to maintain the actual dose and for better dispensing, it is filled in a hard galatin capsules prior to doing the capsulation bhasma is subjected to flow property test i,e “ Angle of repose ” by which we can analyse either the powder having very good flow property, good property or a bad flow property. Angle of repose :- It is the maximum angle that can be obtained between the free standing surface of a powder heap & the horizontal plane i,e tan Q = 2h / D Where D is the diameter of the circle & ‘h’ is the hight of the powder heap This test involve the hollow cylinder half is filled with vanga bhasma with one end sealed by transparent plate. The cylinder is rotated about its horizontal axis until the powder surface cascades. The curved wall is lined with sand paper to prevent prefenential slip at this surface. If the value comes between 200 – 400 indicates reasonable flow potential.7) Flow rates : A simple indication of the ease with which a material can be induced to flow is given by application of a compressibility index “ I ” I= [1 – V ] x 100 Vo Where ‘ v ‘ is the volume occupied by sample of the powder after being subjected to a standardized tapping procedure. Vo = volume before tapping procedure In this procedure one measuring cylinder is taken & is filled with vanga bhasma. The level of the vanga bhasma should be noted. Then at a height of 2 cm continuous 10 tapping should be done, after that the level of the vanga bhasma in the cylinder is once again noted & the value ‘I ’ is calculated with respect to the Vo & V value. If the value ‘ I ’ is below 15% usually having good fluorides. 84
  • Methodology – Pharmaceutical study8. Disintegration test for capsules: The disintegration test determines whether the capsules disintegrates within the universal accepted time when placed in a liquid medium. The apparatus used for disintegration test contains a horizontal strip with clamp at one end is screwed to a shaft. The basket having 6 tubes of 75 to 80 mm long, 21 to 25 mm internal diameter & with wall thickness of about 2 mm. The lower end with disc of stainless steel wire gauze of 10 sieve is fixed to the clamp. One liter glass beaker filled with 1% of HCL is kept under the basket. The HCL in the beaker is maintained to a constant 37 0 c temperature + 20 c by means of thermostat fitted on the front panel. The shaft with the basket moves vertically up & down through a distance of 5 cm. At the highest position of the basket the wire gauze remains at 2.5 cm below the upper surface of the 1% HCL & at the lower position it remains 2.5 cm up from the bottom of the basket. The upward & downward movement of the shaft & basket is adjusted at a rate 30 times / minutes. Disintegration is consider to be achieved when no residue remains on the disc. It is observed that vanga bhasma capsules completely disintegrated within 3 min. 85
  • Methodology – Pharmaceutical study CLINICAL STUDY: This clinical study was conducted after proper understanding of classical explanations, observations & management of Ksheena shukra i.e Oligospermia. For this clinical study clinical symptompses & the management of Ksheena shukra are taken into consideration. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: 1. Preparation of vanga bhasma. 2. Physico- chemical analysis of vanga bhasma. 3. Clinical- evaluation of vanga bhasma on KHINA SHUKRA (Oligospermia).THE MATERIALS ARE STUDIED AS UNDER: 1. Literary: Literary aspect of the study regaurding the drug was collected from the Rasatarangini, Rasamrita, Rasaratna samuchchaya etc Rasa granthas & modern inorganic chemistry & processed in pharmacy section of P.G.R.C.DGM Ayurvedic medical collage according to the classical methods. 2. Literary aspect of disease was collected from the various ayurvedic classics, magazines & journals.The information regarding the disease is updated from internet search. 4. Patients: The patients with confirmed diagnosis of KSHINA SHUKRA (Oligo spermia)after semen analysis were selected from the O.P.D. Section of P.G.R.C.D.G.M. Ayurvedic medical college hospital Gadag.By conducting a repeted camp for male infertility. Methods of collection of data: a. Exclusive Criteria: 1) Cryptorchitism 2) Germinalaplasia 3) Varicocel 4) Vasadeferena block 5) Testicular carcinoma 6) Dibetes mellitus 7) Hypopitutarism 8) S.T.D 9) HIV 10) Untreated Torsion of testi 11) The patients aged below 20 & above 50 are excluded. 86
  • Methodology – Pharmaceutical studyb. Inclusive criteria i) Patients aged between 20-50 year’s will be taken ii) Patients having classical signs and symptoms of KSHINA SHUKRA (Oligo spermia primary) will be selected with the sperm count of less than of normal limit for the study is 5 to 20 million/ML.c. Study design: Patients of kshina shukra with confirmed diagnosis selected as for simple random sampling method with pretest and post test design all patients will be assigned to a single group.d. Sample size: 30 patients of Ksheena shukra ( Oligospermia ) selected as a single group.e. Posology :125 mg – vanga bhasma bid per day. Anupan – Milk & Apamarga mula churna.f. Duration of treatment : 45 days.g. Follow up : 15 days.h. Assesment of result: 1. Subjective parameters: The signs & symptoms explained in the standard Ayurvedic texts & by sexual scoring 87
  • Methodology – Pharmaceutical study The sexual scoring which has given as follows:S.No. Complaints Grade S.No. Complaints GradeI Ejaculation III Erection No Ejaculation on penetration 0 No erection at all 0 Ejaculation without penetration 1 Erection with artificial methods 1 Ejaculation with penetration at 2 Erection but unable to penetrate 2 improper time. Initial difficulty but able to 3 Early ejaculation with less 3 penetrate quantity of semen Erection with occasional failures 4 Ejaculation at proper timing with 4 Erection whenever desired 5 less quantity. Normal ejaculation with normal timings 5II Sexual Desire IV Rigidity No interest at all 0 Unable to maintain erection 0 Lack of interest 1 Some loss in erection but able to act Interest in sex but no activity. 2 Able to continue the act 1 Interest only on demand of 3 Able to continue the act without 2 partner getting the desired effect 3 Self and partner normal interest 4 Able to continue the act till the Excess interest. desire fulfills 4 5 Able to continue the act to get the perfect orgasm 5V Orgasm No enjoyment at all 0 Lack of enjoyment 1 Enjoyment in 25% of act 2 Enjoyment in 50% of act 3 Enjoyment in 75% of act 4 Enjoyment in 100% of act 5 88
  • Methodology – Pharmaceutical study2. Objective parameter : Semen analysis before & after treatment. Overall assessment : For the assessment grades we fixed depend upon the condition. Overall assessment is made taking into consideration both subjective & objective. Considering all the above parameters are graded into four groups depend upon the response to the vanga bhasma. The overall score was considered as 24 based on the subjective & objective parameters excluding the dosha & shukradushti assessment. Out of 24 scores depend upon the scoring of the indivisual patient grading was done as fallows: Grade Score range Marked improved 19 to 24 Moderate improved 13 to 84 Improved 7 to 12 Not responded/Static 1 to 6 89
  • Methodology – Pharmaceutical study 90
  • Observation & Result OBSERVATIONS As an observational clinical study 30 patients of well diagnosedKsheenashukra patients where selected from OPD of D.G.M.A.M.C. and Hospital PGDepartment Gadag. In which four patients are dropped from the clinical trail beforecompleting the study duration, so only 26 patients were taken and the data collected hasbeen thoroughly evaluated. The collective data is grouped into 18 categories i.e1. Observation based on age.2. Observation based on religion.3. Observation based on occupation.4. Observation based on socio economical status.5. Observation based on education6. Observation based on diet.7. Observation based on previous illness.8. Observation based on scrotal injury.9. Observation based on habit.10. Observation based on history of Mastrubution.11. Observation based on duration of Marriage.12. Observation based on Previous Conception.13. Observation based on patients mind during coitus14. Observation based on sexual desire.15. Observation based on ejaculation.16. Observation based on ejaculation with pain/burning17. Observation based on psychological history.18. Observation based on Ksheenashukra lakshana. Results are assessed on the basis of variation in the subjective &objective assessment criteria, before & after the treatment. i.e subjective signs &symptoms, objective semen analysis. 90
  • Observation & Result Observations of patients based on age Sl.No Age in years Number of patients % 1 21-30 3 11.5 2 31-40 16 61.5 3 41-50 7 26.9 Table No - 17. In the present observation maximum number of patients 16 ( 61.5 % ) belongs to the age group 31 to 40, 7 patients ( 26.9 % ) comes under the age group 41 to 50 & 3 patients ( 11.5 % ) belongs to the age group 21 to 30 years. Distribution based on Age 80 61.5 Percentage 60 26.9 Number of patients 40 16 11.5 7 % 20 3 0 21-30 31-40 41-50 Age Graph-1 91
  • Observation & Result Observation of patients based on religion Sl.No Religion Number of patients % 1 Hindu 20 76.9 2 Muslim 2 7.6 3 Christian Table No - 18 0 0 4 Others 4 15.3 Observation of patients based on religion: Pr esent study explainsHindu, Muslim & other communities are reported with problem of Ksheena shukra. Itdoes not mean that Christians are not having this problem.The area in which studyundertook has 3 groups of populations. Out of 26 patients 20 Patients (76.9 %) belongsto Hindu religion, 2 patients ( 7.6 %) belongs to Muslim religion & 4 patients ( 15.3 %)fall under the other religions. Distribution based on Religion 100 76.9 Number of Percentage 80 patients 60 % 40 20 15.3 20 2 7.6 0 0 4 0 Hindu Muslim Christian Others Religion Graph-2 92
  • Observation & Result Observation of patients based on Occupation Sl.No Occuption Number of patients % 1 Labour 11 42.3 2 Clerical 6 23 3 Intelectual 9 34.6 Table No - 19 In this study we consider the 3 catagories of occupation for the convenience ofstudies. Out of 26 patients ( 76.9 %) belong to the labor, 6 patients ( 23 % ) belongs toclerical & 9 patients (34.6) belong to the intellectual cadre. Excess of physical &psychological activity groups are affected with the problem Ksheena shukra. Distribution based on Occupation 60 Percentage 42.3 34.6 40 23 20 11 6 9 0 Labour Clerical Intelectual Number of patients Occupation % Graph-3 93
  • Observation & Result Observation of patients based on socio economic status Sl.No Status Number of patients % 1 Poor 9 34 2 Middle 16 61 3 Higher 1 3 Table No-20. It refers to the physical & psychological status of an individual patient. Out of 26 patients16 patients ( 61 % ) belong to middle class, 9 patients ( 34 % ) belong to poor class & only 1% belongs to high class family. So middle class people show more incidence of Ksheenashukra. Disribution based socio economic condition 80 61 Percentage 60 34 Number of patients 40 16 20 9 3 % 1 0 Poor Middle Higher Socio-economic Graph-4 94
  • Observation & Result Observation of patients based on education Sl.No Education Number of patients % 1 Under education 5 19 2 Good education 20 76 3 Highly qualified 1 3 Table 21 Even though there is no specific relation to the disease education, awarnes tothe ayurvedic treatment & faith is observed in this study. It explins that good educated 20patients (76.9 % ), under educated 5 patients ( 19.2 % ) & 1 patients ( 3 % ) highlyqualified are reported. Distribution based on education 76 80 Percentage 60 Education 40 19 20 Number of 20 0 5 0 0 1 3 patients % 0 1 2 3 4 Education Graph-5 95
  • Observation & Result Observation of patients based on diet Sl.No Diet Number of patient % 1 Vegetarian 11 42 2 Mixed 15 57 Table No-22 Food always play important role in each disease, in this study 11 patients( 42 % ) vegetarian & 15 patients ( 57 % ) belongs to the mixed diet. Distribution based on diet 57 60 Percentage 42 40 Number of patient 11 15 % 20 0 Vegetarian Mixed Diet Graph-6 96
  • Observation & Result Observation of patients based on previous illness Sl.No Pre-illness Number of patients % 1 Mummps 0 0 2 Typhoid 13 50 3 S.T.D 0 0 4 Epididymo rchitis 0 0 5 Others 2 7.6 6 None 11 42.6 Table- 23 The above table shows the percentage of history of previous illness 13 patients (50 %)having the history of typhoid 2 patients ( 7.6 % ) having the history of orchitis & 11 patientshaving the history of other previous illness. No patients were reported with history of mumps& STD. Distribution based on previous illness Number of patients 60 50 50 42.6 Number 40 of 30 patients 20 13 11 7.6 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 % 0 tis d rs e ps D i on ho T. e hi m th rc S. N p um O Ty o M y m id id Previous illness Ep Graph-7 97
  • Observation & Result Observation of patient based on Scrotal injury Sl.No Scrotal injury Number of patients % 1 Present 3 11 2 Absent 23 88 Table- 24 In this study 20 patients ( 88 % ) reported with scrotal injury at erlier days & 3 patients( 11 % ) does not having any history of scrotal injury. Disribution based on scrotal injury 100 88 Percentage 80 60 Number of patients 40 23 % 20 3 11 0 Present Absent Scrotal injury Graph-8 98
  • Observation & Result Observation of patients based on habits Sl.No Habits Number of patients % 1 Alcohol 8 30 2 Tobacco cheving 13 50 3 Smoking 5 19 4 None 0 0 Table -25 In this observation 8 patients ( 30 % ) having the habit of alcohol consuption, 13patients ( 50 % ) having the tobacco chewing habit & 5 patients ( 19 % ) having smokinghabit.It does’t mean that Ksheena shukra only occurs in above metioned habit havingpatients, because these are the pre disposing factors. Distribution based on Habits 60 50 Number of patients 50 40 30 Number 30 19 of 20 13 8 5 patients 10 0 0 % 0 Alcohol Tobacco Smoking None cheving Habits Graph-9 99
  • Observation & Result Observation of patients based on Masturbation Sl.No Masturbation Number of patient % 1 Present 8 30 2 Absent 18 69 Table -26 In this study 18 patients (69% ) with the history of mastrubation & 8 patients(30% ) does not having any history of Mastrubation. Distribution base on history of Masturbution 80 69 Percentage 60 Number of 40 30 18 patient 20 8 % 0 Present Absent History of Masturbation Graph-10 100
  • Observation & Result Observation of patients based on duration of Marriage Sl.No Duration in year Number of patient % 1 1 9 34 2 1 to 3 3 11 3 3 to 5 6 23 4 More than 5 8 30 Table -27 In the presence study out of 26 patients 9 ( 34 % ) patients were having theduration of marriage 1 year, & 3 patients ( 11 % ) having the duration of marriage 1 to3 years, 6 patients ( 23 % ) having the marriage duration 3 to 5 years & 8 patients( 30 % ) having the duration of marriage more than 5 years. Distribution based on Marriage 40 34 30 Percentage 30 23 Number of 20 11 patient 9 6 8 10 3 % 0 1 1 to 3 3 to 5 More than 5 Duration of Marriage Graph-11 101
  • Observation & Result 102
  • Observation & Result Observation of patients based on previous Conception Sl.No H/O Conception Number of patient % 1 Abortion 7 26 2 Miscarriage 0 0 3 None 19 73 Table-28 Out of 26 patients 7 patients ( 26 % ) reported with a history of abortion, nopatients were reported with a history of miscarriage & 19 patients ( 73 % ) reportedwithout history of conception. Distribution based on H/O Conception 80 73 Percentage 60 40 26 19 Number of 20 7 patient 0 0 0 % Abortion Miscarriage None H/O Conception Graph-12 102
  • Observation & Result Observation of patients based on mind during Coitus Sl.No Mind Number of patient % 1 Interested 14 53 2 Casual 12 46 Table-29 Mind is the important element to have aproper desire & orgasm.It isnot only for proper release of semen .Out of 26 patients 14 patients(53 %)having casual mind & 12 patients ( 46 % ) having casual mind. Distribution based on mind during Coitus 60 53 46 Percentage 40 Number of patient 20 14 12 % 0 Interested Casual Mind during Coitus Graph-13 103
  • Observation & Result Classification of patients based on sexual desireSl.No Sexual desire Number of Patients % 1 Normal 4 15.3 2 Decreased 21 80.7 3 Increased 1 3 Table-30 Out of 26 patients 21 patients ( 80.7 % ) reported with decrease sexualdesire, one patient ( 3% ) reported increase sexual desire & 4 patients( 15.3 % ) having the normal sexual desire. Distributin based on sexual desire 100 80.7 Percentage 80 60 Number of Patients 40 15.3 21 20 4 1 3 % 0 Normal Decreased Increased Sexual desire Graph-14 104
  • Observation & Result Classification of patients based on Ejaculation Sl.No Ejaculation Number of patients % 1 Normal 3 11 2 Premature 7 26 3 Retrograde 0 7 4 Delayed 16 61 Table-31 In this observations 16 patients ( 61 % ) belongs to thegroup delayed ejaculation, 7 patients ( 26 % ) having the complaint of premature ejaculation, 3 patients ( 11 % ) with normal ejaculation & nopatients were reported with retrograde ejaculation. Distribution based on Ejaculation 70 61 Percentage 60 50 40 26 30 16 Number of 20 11 7 7 patients 10 3 0 0 % d e e al e ur ad m ay at or gr el em N ro D et Pr R Ejaculation Graph-15 105
  • Observation & Result Classification of patient based on Ejaculation associated with pain, burning & weakness Sl.No Associated Number of patients % 1 Pain 4 15 2 Burning 0 0 3 Weakness 22 84 Table-32 Out of 26 patients 22 patients ( 84 % ) complaints weakness, 4 patients ( 15 % ) complaints pain & no patients are reported with complaint of burning. Distribution based on Ejaculation associated with 100 84Percentage 50 Number of 15 22 patients 4 0 0 0 % Pain Burning Weakness Ejaculation associated Graph-16 106
  • Observation & Result Classification based on psychological History Sl.No P. History Number of patients % 1 Stress 12 46 2 Strain 10 38 3 Anger 0 0 4 Fear 4 15 5 Jealous 0 0 Table-33 The observations shows 19 patients ( 46 % ) were suffering from stress, 10patients (38% ) were suffering from strain, 4 patients ( 15 % ) were suffering from fear& no patients are reported with anger & jealous. Distribution based on psycological history 50 46 38 40 30 Number of % 20 12 15 patients 10 10 4 % 0 0 0 0 0 Stress Strain Anger Fear Jealous Psycological history Graph-17 107
  • Observation & Result Observation based on Ksheena shukra lakshana Sl.No Lakshana Number of patient B.T % Number of patient A.T % 1 M.V.Vedana 10 38 0 0 2 Maithuna ashakti 7 26 2 7.6 3 Ch.Shukra prasheka 7 26 1 3.8 4 Al.Shukra shrava 9 34 1 3.8 5 Sarakta shukra 0 0 0 0 6 Klaibya 0 0 0 0 7 M.V . Dhumayam 0 0 0 0 8 Aprasheka 0 0 0 0 9 Pandu 12 46 0 0 10 Dourbalya 12 46 0 0 11 Mukhashosha 6 23 0 0 12 Shrama 10 38 0 0 Table-34 The above table shows the number & percentage of patientscomplaining the Ksheena shukra lakshanas before the treatment & after the treatment.Before the treatment 10 patients ( 38%) were having the complaint Medra vrushana vedana& after the treatment all the patients are get relief from the above complaint, 7 patients (26% ) reported with complaint Maithunashakti, after the treatment 5 patients ( 19.2%) getrelief from the above complaint & only 2 patients ( 7.6 % ) still having the same complaint.7patients ( 26 % ) having the complaint Chirat shukra praseka before the treatment & afterthe treatment only 1 patient (3% ) still having the same complaint. Before the treatment 9patients ( 34% ) having the complaint Alpa shukra srava, after the treatment only 1 patient(3%) still having the same complaint. Before the treatment 12 patients ( 46 % ) having thecomplaint Pandu, after the treatment no patients having the same complaint.Before thetreatment 12 patients ( 46 % ) having the complaint Dourbaly, after the treatment no patientshaving the same complaint. Before the treatment 6 patients (23 % ) having the complaintMukha shosha, after the treatment no patients having the same complaint. Before thetreatment 10 patients (38 %) having the complaint Shrama, after the treatment no patientshaving the same complaint. In the present study no patients were reported with a complaint sarakta shukrasrava,klaibya, medra vrushana dhumayama & apraseka. 108
  • Observation & Result Observation of patient based on Sexual DesireGrade Number of patients B.T % Number of patients A.T % 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 15 0 0 2 16 61 0 0 3 6 23 11 42 4 0 0 14 53 5 0 0 1 3 Table-35 The above table shows the number & percentage of the patients with achief complaint sexual desire before & after the treatment. Before the treatment 4 patients (15%) belong to the grade 1, after the treatment no patients were belonging to the same grade.Before the treatment 16 patients (61 %) belong to the grade 2, after the treatment no patientswere belonging to the same grade. Before the treatment 6 patients (23 %) belong to the grade3, after the treatment 11 patients (42 %) were belonging to the same grade. No patients werebelonging to the grade 0 before & after the treatment Before the treatment no patients belongsto the grade 4,but after the treatment 14 patients ( 53 %)were belongs to the same grade.Before the treatment no patients belongs to the grade 5, after the treatment 1 (3 %) patientwere belong to the same grade. By the observation it comes to know that after the treatment11 patients got the sexual desire grade 3, 14 patients got the grade 4 & 1 patient got the grade5. Distribution based on sexual desire Grade 80 Number of 61 Percentage 60 53 patients B.T 42 % 40 23 15 16 11 14 20 4 00 36 400 50013 00000 1 2 00 Number of 0 patients A.T 1 2 3 4 5 6 % Grade Graph-18 109
  • Observation & Result Observation of patients base on ErectionGrade Number of patients B.T % Number of patients A.T % 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 3 0 0 2 16 61 0 0 3 8 30 6 23 4 1 3 18 69 5 0 0 2 7 Table-36 The above table shows the number & percentage of the patients with a chiefcomplaint of erection before & after the treatment. Before the treatment 1 patient (3 %)belongs to the grade 1, after the treatment no patients were belonged to the same grade.Before the treatment 16 patients (61 %) belong to the grade 2, after the treatment no patientswereBelonging to the same grade. Before the treatment 8 patients (30 %) belong to the grade 3,after the treatment 6 patients (23%) were belonging to the same grade. Before the treatment1 patient (3 %) belongs to the grade 4, after the treatment 18 patients ( 69%) were belongsto the same grade. Before the treatment no patients belongs to the grade 5, after thetreatment 2 patients (7%) were belongs to the same grade. & no patients were included inthe grade 0 before & after the treatment. Distribution based on Erection Grade 80 69 61 Number of Percentage 60 patients B.T 40 30 23 % 16 18 20 0 0 00 0 1 13 00 2 00 38 6 4 13 5 0 02 7 0 Number of 1 2 3 4 5 6 patients A.T % Grade Graph-19 110
  • Observation & Result Observation of patients based on EjaculationGrade Number of patients B.T % Number of patients A.T % 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 3 0 0 2 19 73 0 0 3 6 23 9 34 4 0 0 13 50 5 0 0 4 15 Table-37 The above table shows the number & percentage of the patients with achief complaint of Ejaculation before & after the treatment. Before the treatment 1 patient(3 %) belongs to the grade 1, after the treatment no patients were belonging to the samegrade. Before the treatment 19 patients (73 %) belong to the grade 2, after the treatment nopatients were belongs to the same grade. . Before the treatment 6 patients (23 %) belong tothe grade 3, after the treatment 9 patients (34%) were belonging to the same grade. Beforethe treatment no patients belong to the grade 4, after the treatment 13 patients (50%) werebelonging to the same grade. Before the treatment no patient belongs to the grade 5, afterthe treatment 4 patients (15%) were belonging to the same grade. It shows the gradualincreasing of the grades after the treatment. Distribution based on Ejaculation Grade 80 73 Percentage 60 50 Number of 34 patients B.T 40 23 19 15 % 20 9 4 13 00000 11300 2 00 36 00 5004 0 Number of 1 2 3 4 5 6 patients A.T % Grade Graph-20 111
  • Observation & Result Observation of patients based on RigidityGrade Number of patients B.T % Number of patients A.T % 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 23 88 0 0 3 3 11 13 50 4 0 0 12 46 5 0 0 1 3 Table-38 The above table shows the number & percentage of the patients with achief complaint of Rigidity before & after the treatment. Before the treatment 23 patients(88 %) belong to the grade 2, after the treatment no patients were belonging to the samegrade. Before the treatment 3 patients (11 %) belongs to the grade 3, after the treatment 13patients (50%) were belongs to the same grade. Before the treatment no patient belongs tothe grade 4, after the treatment 12 patients (46%) were belongs to the same grade. Nopatients were belongs to the grade 5 before the treatment, but after the treatment 1 patient(3%) belongs to the same grade.No patients were belongs to the grade o & 1 either before orafter the treatment. It shows the gradual increasing of the grades after the treatment. Distribution based on Rigidity 88 Grade 100 Percentage 80 Number of 60 50 46 patients B.T 40 23 % 13 11 4 12 5 3 20 00000 10000 2 00 33 00 001 0 Number of patients A.T 1 2 3 4 5 6 % Grade Graph-21 112
  • Observation & Result Observation based on Orgasm Grade Number of patients B.T % Number of patients A.T % 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 19 0 0 2 21 80 2 7 3 0 0 10 38 4 0 0 13 50 5 0 0 1 3 Table-39 The above table shows the number & percentage of the patients with achief complaint of Orgasm before & after the treatment. Before the treatment no patients belongsto the grade 0, after the treatment no patients were belongs to the same grade. Before the treatment5 patients (19 %) belong to the grade 1, after the treatment no patients were belonging to the samegrade. Before the treatment 21 patients (80 %) belong to the grade 2, after the treatment 2 patients(7%) were belongs to the same grade. Before the treatment no patients belong to the grade 3, afterthe treatment 10 patients (38%) were belonging to the same grade. Before the treatment no patientsbelong to the grade 4, after the treatment 13 patients (50%) were belonging to the same grade.Before the treatment no patients belong to the grade 5, after the treatment 1 patients (3%) werebelong to the same grade. It shows the gradual increasing of the grades after the treatment. Distribution based on Orgasm 100 80 Grade Percentage 80 Number of 60 50 patients B.T 38 % 40 19 21 Number of 10 13 20 00000 15 00 2 27 300 400 50013 patients A.T % 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Grade Graph-22 113
  • Observation & Result Observation based on Abstinence period Days No, of patient B.T % % % 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 3 7 26 26 15 4 11 42 42 80 5 8 30 30 3 Table-40 The above table shows the number & percentage of the patients with aAbstinence period before & after the treatment. Before the treatment 7 patients (26%) having the 3days abstinence period, after the treatment 4 patients (15%) were having the same abstinenceperiod. Before the treatment 11 patients (42%) having the 4 days abstinence period, after thetreatment 21 patients (80%) were having the same abstinence period. Before the treatment 8patients (30%) having the 5 days abstinence period, after the treatment 1patient (3%) having thesame abstinence period. It shows reduction in the abstinence period after the treatment. Distribution based on Obstinance period 100 Days Percentage 80 60 No, of patient B.T 40 % 20 No, of patient 0 A.T 1 2 3 4 5 % Days Graph-23 114
  • Observation & Result Observation of patients based on Sperm volume Volume in ml No, of patients B.T % No, of patient A.T % 0.5 1 3 0 0 1 7 26 0 0 1.5 17 65 3 11 2 1 3 12 46 2.5 0 0 11 42 Table-41 The above table shows the number & percentage of the patients with asemen volume before & after the treatment. Before the treatment 1 patient (3%) has the semenvolume 0.5 ml & after the treatment no patients has the same semen volume. Before thetreatment 7 patient (26%) having the semen volume 1ml & after the treatment no patient hasthe same semen volume.Before the treatment 17 patients (65%) has the semen volume 1.5 ml & after the treatment 3patients (11%) having the same semen volume. Before the treatment 1 patient (3%) has thesemen volume 2 ml & after the treatment 12 patients (46%) having the same semen volume.Before the treatment no patients having the semen volume 2.5 ml & after the treatment 11patients (42%) having the same semen volume. It shows that after the treatment semen volumeis gradually increased. Distribution based on sperm value 80 Volume in ml 65 Percentage 60 46 No, of 42 patients B.T 40 26 17 % 20 7 11 12 11 0.5 3 0 0 1 1 0 0 1.5 3 213 2.5 0 0 No, of patient 0 A.T 1 2 3 4 5 % Volume Graph-24 115
  • Observation & Result Observation of patient based on sperm count Sperm/million No, of patient B.T % No, of patient A.T % 8 _10 18 69 0 0 11_13 4 15 0 0 15_18 4 15 0 0 20_30 0 0 2 7 30_40 0 0 11 42 40_50 0 0 5 19 50_75 0 0 8 30 Table-42 The above table shows the number & percentage of the patients with a Spermcount before & after the treatment. Before the treatment 18 patients (69%) has the sperm count 8 to10 million / ml & after the treatment no patients has the same sperm count. Before the treatment 4patients (15%) has the sperm count 11 to 13 million / ml, 4 patients (15%) with the sperm count 15to 18 million before the treatment & after the treatment no patients were having the same spermcount. Before the treatment no patients were reported with the sperm count 20 to 30, 30 to 40, 40 to50 & 50 to 75 million / ml & after the treatment 2 patients (7%) having the same sperm count 20 to30, 11 patients (42 %) were having the sperm count 30 to 40, 5 patients ( 19% ) were having thesperm count 40 to 50 & 8 patients (30%) were having the sperm count 50 to 75. Distribution based on sperm count 80 69 No,of patient B.T Percentage 60 42 % 40 30 18 15 15 19 No, of 20 11 8 00 4 00 4 00 0027 00 005 00 patient A.T 0 % 8 _10 11_13 15_18 20_30 30_40 40_50 50_75 Sperm million Graph-25 116
  • Observation & Result Observation based on Viability No, of patient B.T % No, of patient A.T % 2 7.6 0 0 12 46.1 16 61 12 46.1 10 38 Table-43 The above table shows the number & percentage of the patients with a Sperm viabilitybefore & after the treatment. Before the treatment 2 patients (7.6 %) having the spermviability 40 to 60 % & after the treatment no patients has the same sperm viability. Beforethe treatment 12 patients (46 %) having the sperm viability 60 to 85 % & after thetreatment 16 patients (61%) has the same sperm viability. Before the treatment 12 patients(46 %) having the sperm viability 85 to 95 % & after the treatment 10 patients(38%) hasthe same sperm viability’s by the observation it is comes to know that viability increasedafter the treatment Distribution based on Vaibility 80 No, of patients 61 No, of 60 46.1 46.1 patient B.T 38 % 40 20 12 16 12 10 No, of 2 7.6 0 0 patient A.T 0 % 40-60 60-85 85-95 Sperm % Graph-26 117
  • Observation & Result Observation of patients based on Motility Sperm motility No of patients B.T % No, of patients A.T % 30_40 17 65.3 0 0 40_60 8 30.7 21 88.7 60_80 1 3.8 5 19.2 Table-44 The above table shows the number & percentage of the patients with a Spermmotility before & after the treatment. Before the treatment 17 patients (65.3 %) having thesperm motility 30 to 40 & after the treatment no patients has the same sperm motility.Before the treatment 8 patients (30.7 %) having the sperm motility 40 to 60 & after thetreatment 21 patients(88.7 %) has the same sperm motility. Before the treatment 1 patients(3.8 %) having the sperm motility 60 to 80 & after the treatment 5 patients(19.2%) has thesame sperm motility. So by the observation it is comes to know that motility increased afterthe treatment. Distribution based on motility 100 88.7 No, of patients No of 80 65.3 patients B.T 60 % 40 30.7 17 21 19.2 8 No, of 20 0 0 1 3.8 5 0 patients A.T % 30_40 40_60 60_80 Motility in % Graph-27 118
  • Observation & Result Statistical result after the Treatment.S.No Parameter Mean S.D S.E t.value P.value Remarks 1 Abstinence 0.769 0.429 0.084 9.15 < 0.001 Highly significant period 2 Semen volume 0.807 0.285 0.056 14.41 < 0.001 Highly significant 3 Sperm count 44.26 13.83 2.71 16.33 < 0.001 Highly significant 4 Viability 5.65 8.423 1.652 3.42 < 0.001 Highly significant 5 Motility 17.46 9.802 1.922 9.084 < 0.001 Highly significant 6 Sexual Desire 1.5 0.812 0.159 9.43 < 0.001 Highly significant 7 Erection 1.5 0.509 0.1 15.0 < 0.001 Highly significant 8 Ejaculation 1.615 0.697 0.136 11.875 < 0.001 Highly significant 9 Rigidity 1.423 0.503 0.098 14.52 < 0.001 Highly significant 10 Orgasm 1.692 0.679 0.133 12.72 < 0.001 Highly significant Table-45 All the parameters with in the group shows highly significant accept the parameter liquification time, assume that the treatment is not responsible for increase or decrease in the observations, for this we used paired ‘t’ test. The parameter count shows highly significant than the other parameters (by comparing the ‘t’value) & also it is having uniform effect (by comparing co-efficient of variation). The mean effect of count is more than the other parameter & it is having more variation. The effect of desire & erecting is same even though the differ in variation, the parameter viability shows not having stable effect in the group. 119
  • Observation & Result Result S.No No.of Patients % Result 1 8 30 Marked improved 2 11 42 Moderate improved 3 5 19 Improved 4 2 7 No change Table-46Result: With above observation the results are comes in this way i.e out of 26 patients 8 patients are improved markedly,11 patients are improved moderately, 5 patients are improved & 2 patients are resulted as a no change. No change 7% Result Marked improved Improved 19% 30% 1 2 3 4 42 Moderate improved 42% Graph-28 120
  • Discussion DISCUSSION The study entitled “ The preparation, physico chemical analysis of vanga bhasma & it’s clinical evaluation in Ksheena shukra ( Oligospermia ) is presented in 4 parts. 1) Literary study 2) Pharmaceutical study 3) Analytical study 4) Clinical study1. Literary study : Literary study explained under two headings i,e Drug review & disease review. In drug review vanga is discussed according to ayurvedic as well as modern concept. Vanga know to Indians since vedic period as a coating & alloying metal. During samhita period it was used to prepare anjana patra, Jihwanirlekhana yantra, as it is not affected by any medias under normal temprature. It is also used as external application in kushta & Netravyadhis. But its internal therapeutical uses starts after rasashastra period only. In all rasa texts it is described under pootiloha because of its low melting point & processing bad smell during molten stage. Vanga has many synonymes among them “Kastira” ( Castira ) is one. Which gives the same meaning of the greak word “Kassiters”. So the synonyme castira indicates the eastern origion of metal. Vanga bhasma is mainly indicated in Ksheena shukra & Madhumeha. According to modern chemistry Tin is a soft ductile white lustrous metal first as a” Kassitors.” Remains called it “ Stannum ” from which modern symbol “ Sn ” has been derived in 4th century, Tinstone is called “ Steam tin”. Earliast known object made of pure tin are a “ Ring piligrim bottle” found in Egyptian. The majore ore of Tin is Tinstone ( SnO2) Which contains 3.5 to 10% Tin. Tin belongs to IV A elements in periodic table with maximum valency of 4.The low melting point of a Tin “ 2320 c” is considered as a non metallic character. So due to this reason some of the modern authorities consider Tin as “ non metal ”. But except its low melting point other characters are favourable to prove 121
  • Discussion the Tin as a metal. According to modern authorities Tin is used for wrapping cigarrates & other food materials. Under disease review Ayurvedic concept of Ksheena shukra & modern concept of Oligospermia is discussed. There is no direct reference to Ksheena shukra in vedas but treatment about kliabya & nirveerya purusha is explained in Rigvedha & Atharnava veda. The first direct refference about ksheena shukra is in Charak samhita, who mentioned nidana, lakshana & treatment for the same. Sushruta & Ashtanga sangrhakar included Ksheena shukra in 8 types of shukra dushti & treatment in vajikarana. Vangasena & Rasavagbhata mentioned about Ksheena shukra regarding nidana & treatment, but Sharangadhara considered Ksheena shukra as a separate disease entity. The lakshanas of Ksheena shukras are Medra, Vrushana vedhana, Maithunaashakti, Chirat praseka, Alpa shukra darshana, Sarakta shukra darshana, Pandu, Mukhashosha, Shrama etc. According to modern science, Oligospermia is defined as a condition where the sperm count is less than 20 million / ml, It comes to know that Ksheena shukra may occur as a primary disease & secondary disease also. So treatment should be planed according to the causes.2. Pharmaceutical study: Most of the metals & minerals found in yogika avastha, i,e mixed with some other drugs / admixtures. So some of them may be unwanted & some of them may be toxic in nature. Shodhana not only intended to remove the impurities or toxic material, but also makes the metal suitable for further procedure & enhances its potency. In present study samanya shodhana was carried out by doing nirvapana inTila taila, Takra, Gomutra, Kanji, Kulaththa kwatha for 7 times in each. & vishesha shodhana with nirvapana in Haridrayukta Nirgundi swarasa for 3 times. In the above said medias Tila taila is neutral where as other medias contain several acidic compounds, hence some of them are acidic in nature. During processing with these drugs the organic acids act slowly on metal, & helps in attainment of brittleness. Actually 122
  • Discussionvanga is neutral towards organic acids in normal temprature, but when it is in molten stage( 2320 c) it readily reacts with organic acids present in the shodhana medias. Scum was observed in molten surface, this is because of high temprature moltenTin reacts with external air ( steam) & liberates hydrogen forming stannous oxide (scum).Explosive sound is produced because Melting & pouring Sn SnO2 + H2 In shodhana media ( aqueous in nature) When molten metal was poured in shodhana media, it breaks the water molecules &releases hydrogen gas immediately this produces explosive sounds. The intensity of sounddepends upon the concentration of hydrogen gas released at that time. At the same timeoxygen is reacts with the metal forms stannus oxide i,e SnO2. Vishesha shodhana is intended to bring diseases specification to drug. In vangavishesha shodhana, Nirgundi & Haridra are used where Nirgundi is best vatashamaka & inrasagranthas while mentioning the vanga in various diseases with different anupana,Haridra/ Kasturi/ Jatiphala are to be given along with vanga bhasma in Ksheena shukra.So Haridra used for shodhana not only converts vanga into shodhita form but also helpfulin Ksheena shukra, as it has a vatashamaka property. In this way Nirgundi & Haridrahelps to metigate the vata & pitta dosha along with Vangabhasma, Hence Nirgundi &Haridra are selected for this procedure.Jarana: In this procedure Vanga is converted into powder form, for this vanga is subjected tomelting, & adding yavakuta churna of Apamarga, rubbing vagoriously with iron ladle.Due to continous heat ( > 4000 c ) specific gravity of metal is going to decrease & massvolume increase hence metal may loose its metallic bonds. The ash particles of Apamargawhich are non burning in nature may take position in between metallic bonds. Then metalwill loose its toughness which leads to brittelness. Rubbing with iron ladle vagoriously creat a pressure on brittle elements converting intopowder form. This is irreversible phenomenon. Weight gain after jarana may be due to presence of ash ( potassium non burning innature) contributed by Apamarga. 123
  • DiscussionMarana: Number of drugs are prescribed as a bhavana dravyas for vanga marana. In this study kumari was selected as a bhavana dravya because, it is having best pittashamaka property & a good binding agent. Ksheena shukra is a resultant of vitiated vata & pitta, so the kumari was selected for the Marana. It is observed that there is reduction in quantity of kumari swarasa & bhavana kala on subscequent putas. It may be due to some chemical reaction between vanga powder & kumari swarasa. It is observed that after the third puta some part of the vanga metal might be converted into bhasma, which could not require further reaction so there may be gradual reduction in requirment of kumari swarasa & bhavana kala, up to the fourth puta course nature & lusterous was disappeared, after the fourth puta up to the fourth puta coarse nature & lustrous was disappeared, after fourth puta vanga powder gradually turns into fine powder and at the 5 to 7 puta fine is turned in to very fine powder of grayish colour. Loss of lustourness might be due to conversion of inorganic into organic non metallic nature of vanga (vijatiya is completely converted into sajatiya).Vanga passes rekhpurnathwa at5 puta but it do not pass varitara pariksha,so once again it is subjected to2 more puta then it passed the varitara pariksha.3. Analytical study : Ayurvedic organoleptic tests of bhasma proved the total conversion of vanga into bhasma.The bhasma pariksha like ,varitaratwa ,rekapurnatwa ,shlakshnatwa, confirmes the microfine nature of bhasma & gatarasatwa test indicates complete loss of metallic taste, vanga bhasma was subjected to the test “Loss on drying 1100c”.It was evident that weight loss is very minimum i.e 0.06 which indicacates bhasma is completly free from the moisture. To conform the complete conversion of Vanga into Vangabhasma sample is subjected to “Loss on ignition at 10000 c” after performing the test it is observed that there is no weight loss in the drug. So it indicates Vanga is completely converted into Vanga bhasma. To confirm the geneunity of vanga bhasma, sample was subjected to “ Acid insoluble ash ” test. Which proved that sample has very least acid insoluble ash value 20.43 which indicates siliceous matter is very low & bhasma is genieun one. 124
  • Discussion When the sample (vanga bhasma) is subjected to test assay for Tin. The value obtained indicates this sample contains 78.12% organic Tin. To confirm the “ Rekhapurnatwa ” / “ Shookshmatwa ” of bhasma. Vanga bhasma was subjected to “ Finess of particle test ”. This test was done in microscope. it is evident that the partical size of Vanga bhasma is Arithmetic mean 114.6 micrometer, mean volume surface diameter 118.66 micrometer. So by this test it is known that vanga bhasma particle’s are very fine in nature, which is able to enter into the small capillaries & rate of absorption of drug is directly propotional to the particle size of drug. As the vanga bhasma particle size is very fine so the absorption is also quick. The dose of vanga bhasma is only 125 mg bid, so it is difficult to dispense this much small quantity of drug. To over come from this problem Vanga bhasma is capsulated & dispensed. Before doing the capsulation it is tested either drug is fit for capsulation are not, is acessed by the simple physical test i.e flow property of the drug by “ Angle of repose & flow rate ” by compressability index “ I ”. Vanga bhasma has a good flow property because the angle of repose Tan 0 = 25.65 + 0.95& Flow rate “ I” has the value 7.38%, so Vanga bhasma has good flow rate so it can be filled in a hard gelatine capsules. As the Vanga bhasma is filled in a capsule, so to evaluate the disintegration time of the capsules was checked by the apparatus called disintegrater.By the observation it is evident that capsules are disintegrate within 15 minutes. So vanga bhasma is expected distribute quickly all over the body as it has a very fine particles & disintegration time is also very small.4. Clinical study: In this study 26 % patients of Ksheena shukra were selected & clinically evaluated, on observation it is found that some factors are very important from the point of view of clinical study. Medical history: It helps to diagnose the cause of male infertility, so physician should take careful complete medical history regarding long term medication, any previous surgeries, chronic illness & question should be asked about childhood illness & development of viral disorders such as mumps, orchitis. Testicular injury or torsion, undescended testis, Orchiopexy physician should enquire about onset of puberty & recent 125
  • Discussionmedical history like infection, high fever, venereal diseases, tuberculosis etc. Physicianalso enqures about family history.Aharatmaka hetu: Asatmya ahara sevana, rooksha, laghu, tikta, kashaya & lavana rasaatisevana leads to shukra dushti. Most of these rasas having least dhatu poshana guna somay causes Ksheena shukra. Consumption of alcohol, tobacco chewing, smoking causesdamage in leyding cells of the testis resulting into less production of sperm or alter thespermatogenesis. It is observed that most of the patient having the above mentionedhabits. Consumption of asatmya ahara i.e incompertability of food or regimens convertsinto endotoxine & definite the alter the dhatu utpatti.Viharatmaka hetu : Excessive intercourse, intercourse at improper time, intercourse inother than the vagina or perverted sexual activities are all found in persons who are havingthe very poor will power or satva bala these persons are much prone to get sexual diseaseor simple genital track infection, excessive vyayama leads to dhatu kshaya.Manasika hetu: Stress & exercise can interrupt the normal production of hormones fromthe hypothalamus & the pituitary. The natural narcotics released by the brain to minimizethe pain & stress, this may block the normal release of GnRH. Which is essential formaintaining the spermatogenesis in male. In present study psychological factors havingthe significant values as more patients fall under the stress category.Demographic: It was observed in the study that many patients are of the age group 31 to40 years, & that too having a history of 3 to 5 years duration of marriage. This is clearevidence that the discussed diet & psyco-social, economical factors of distribution in theobservations & results sections are establishing. When patients were classified as per occupation. They mainly belongs to eitherlabour group or to the intellectual group. Where strain, stress plays an important role.Many middle class people recorded to have the urge to reach the higher economicalcondition & to utilize the ultramodern equipments which causes more stress & strain. 126
  • Discussion Present medicament i.e Vanga bhasma offered good values to the patients with such above said classifications & works ultimately to improve the semen count. The clinical assessment observations, reveals there was significant reduction in chief complaints like sexual desire, erection, ejaculation, rigidity & orgasm. Which was statistically significant at the rate P < 0.001 & even objective parameters also statistically significant with the same P value.Probable mode of action of vanga bhasma: In the present study an effort has been made to discuss the probable mode of action of vanga bhasma on ksheena shukra (oligospermia).The pharmco dynamic properties of vanga bhasma is as follows. Due to tikta rasa, kashyarasa ,sheetavirya ,laghu guna & rooksha guna vangabhasma mitigates pitta . By virtue of its lavanarasa ,ushna guna it mitigates vata &also by its balya guna . The drugs which are used in the shodhana ,jarana & marana have the property of vata & pitta shamaka guna ,as the ksheenashukra is a resultant of vitiated vata & pitta. In the prsent study vanga bhasma is given with milk as anupana the milk has madhura rasa .snigdha guna & sheeta virya .Which mitigates the vitiated vata & pitta dosha. It is medhya, vrishya, rasayana & shukra doshanashaka, Milk is a shukra vardhaka & also is pathya for the vata pittajavyadhi. Hence vanga bhasma & milk is the best remedy for ksheena shukra, which enhances the quality & quantity of shukra. 127
  • Discussion CONCLUSION1. Metals hold the precious place in the Rasashastra & they are having definite therapeutic value in bhasma form, as the bhasma is the end product of the metal, which is obtained after the several processes like, shodhana, jarana & marana.2. During pharmaceutical procedure i.e shodhana, the medias used for shodhana certainly have a role in detoxifying the metal. Making the metal suitable for the next process and may induce the special disease curing property.3. Jarana of vanga with apamarga panchanga churna definitely helps to convert the vanga into vanga powder.4. During marana, bhavana with kumari swarasa helps to convert the vanga powder into fine powder and may induce the pittashamaka guna.5. By the phisico-chemical study it is evident that, the prepared vanga bhasma is genuine one and for convenience it can be dispensable in capsule form.6. As the vanga bhasma & anupana dravya has vata-pitta shamaka properties & reduction in the subjective signs & symptoms of Ksheenashukra patients it is proved that vanga bhasma is a good remedy for Ksheenashukra.7. The statistical result evidence proved that, the vanga bhasma is highly significant for all the subjective and the objective parameters with P value < 0.001. So it is very good remedy for Ksheenashukra (Oligospermia). 128
  • Discussion SCOPE OF THE STUDY1. In this study how the Vanga bhasma is having the Shukra janana property is not accessed by the modern view. So it is better to establish this point in further study. 2. As the vanga bhasma has shukra janana property. So further study on Azospermia can be taken.3.For better understanding about the structural variation of vanga bhasma, during and after the pharmaceutical procedure respective samples at various stages are to be analyzed for crystallographic structure using respective instruments. 129
  • Discussion SUMMARY The present study entitled “The preparation of psysico-chemical analysis of vanga bhasma and its clinical evaluation in Ksheena shukra”. (Oligospermia). In this study an attempt was made to prepare genuine vanga bhasma by following the classical procedures, its geneniuty was confirmed by physico-chemical analysis, and its clinical efficacy was checked by clinical study.1. In the introduction part aims & objectives of the Rasashastra, importance of bhasma, different rasamurchana, description of Ksheena shukra & necessity for the assortment of this research work is explained in brief.2. Aims & Objectives of the present study are mentioned in the Objective chapter.3. Review of Literature is dealt in two main headings i.e. Drug Review and Disease Review. a) The chapter Drug review deals about the concept of vanga both in ayurveda & modern view, i.e about the first reference of vanga, its first material, occurance, synonyms according to different authorities, grahya & agrahy lakshana, classification, pharmacological properties and pharmaceutical processes according to different acharyas i.e shodhana, jarana and marana, including its indication in different diseases with various anupana is explained in detail. b) Next part of the chapter deals about the modern view of tin and its reactions with chemicals including detection of tin compound is explained. c) Disease review deals about etomology, definition of Ksheena shukra direct and indirect references including its historical background, nidana, roopa, samprapti and line of treatment according to various authorities. d) In the same chapter next part deals about the modern concept of Ksheena shukra i.e. Oligospermia starting from definition, causative factors, signs & symptoms and treatment. 130
  • Discussion 3. METHODOLOGY:- It deals about pharmaceutical, analytical & clinical study. a. In pharmaceutical study detail explanation about vanga shodhana, jarana, marana is explained. b. The analytical study deals about chemical analysis of vanga bhasma carried out in Ore dressing division Nagapur & at Indian bureau of mines regional Ore dressing laboratory Bangalore. b. In clinical study, repeated special camps was conducted by post graduate department of Rasashastra. D.G.M.A.M.C and Hospital Gadag. The patients of Ksheenashukra after the complete diagnose were selected. The clinical study was done administering vanga bhasma 125 mg bid with anupana. Milk for 45 days and the patients were accessed for the same. 4. Results: Patients were observed on the basis of various angle i.e. demographic and various disease relevant points. The patients were assessed according to the subjective & objective criteria and results are given with the help of statistical values P & S.D etc.5. Discussion: First drug & disease discussion has been done in both the view i.e ayurvedic as well as modern aspect. In the part of pharmaceutical discussion. rationalities behind shodhana, jarana & marana were discussed appropriately. In analytical discussion role of physico-chemical analysis of vanga bhasma is discussed and in clinical discussion, discussion about the Ksheenashukra patients as well as probable mode of action of vanga bhasma in Ksheena shukra is explained. 6. Conclusion: The essence of the research work has been reported. 131
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  • Bibliography131. Sushrutacharya Sushruta samhita chapter 55 Uttara tantra shloka 15, Kaviraj ambhikadatta shastri 8th edition, Varanasi; chawkhambha Sanskrit samsthana; 2000 pp-407.132. Agnivesha Charaka samhita chapter 26th Uttara tantra shloka 42, Sri Satya narayana shastri 10th edition, Varanasi; chawkhambha surabharati academy; 1982 pp -725.133. Agnivesha Charaka samhita chapter 57th Uttara tantra shloka 20 to 21, Sri Satya narayana shastri 10th edition, Varanasi; chawkhambha surabharati academy; 1982 pp - 426.134. Agnivesha Charaka samhita chapter 6th Chikista sthana shloka 8, Sri Satya narayana shastri 10th edition, Varanasi; chawkhambha surabharati academy; 1982 pp -229.135. Acharya Madhava Madhava nidana 2nd vol chapter 37th shloka 1, Yadunandana upadhyaya 27th edition, Varanasi Chawkhambha Sanskrit bhavan; 1998 pp-56.136. Sushrutacharya Sushruta samhita chapter 5th Nidana sthana shloka 27, Kaviraj ambhikadatta shastri 8th edition, Varanasi; chawkhambha Sanskrit samsthana; 2000 pp-250.137. Acharya Madhava Madhava nidana 2nd vol chapter 54th shloka 20 to22, Yadunandana upadhyaya 27th edition, Varanasi Chawkhambha Sanskrit bhavan; 1998 pp-189 to 190.138. Sushrutacharya Sushruta samhita chapter 15th sutra sthana shloka 32, Kaviraj ambhikadatta shastri 8th edition, Varanasi; chawkhambha Sanskrit samsthana; 2000 pp-72.139. Acharya Madhava Madhava nidana 2nd vol chapter 38th shloka 1, Yadunandana upadhyaya 27th edition, Varanasi Chawkhambha Sanskrit bhavan; 1998 pp-77.140. Acharya Madhava Madhava nidana 2nd vol chapter 2nd shloka 48 Yadunandana upadhyaya 27th edition, Varanasi Chawkhambha Sanskrit bhavan; 1998 pp-123.141. Agnivesha Charaka samhita 17th chapter sutra shloka 69 , Kashinath shastri 18th edition, Varanasi Chawkhambha Sanskrit samsthana; 1997 pp-349.142. Sushrutacharya Sushruta samhita chapter 15th sutra sthana shloka 13, Kaviraj ambhikadatta shastri 8th edition, Varanasi; chawkhambha Sanskrit samsthana; 2000 pp-58.143. Shri Vagabhata charya Ashtanga sangraha sutra 19th chapter shloka 10, Dr Ravidatta tripati 2nd edition, Varanasi; Chawkhambha Sanskrit pratistana; 2001 pp-362.144. Vagabhatacharya Ashtanga hridayam sutra sthana11th chapter shloka 20, L.R.Bhattachary 3rd edition, Bangalore; Indian system of medicine and Homeopathi board; 1992 pp-190 to 191.
  • Bibliography145. Acharya Vanga sena Vanga sena Vajikarana chapter shloka 106 to 107, Kaviraj Saligramji vaishya 2nd edition, Mumbai Shri Krishnadas prakashana 1996; pp- 965.146. Vagbhatacharya Ashtanga sangraha chapter 1st Nidana sthana shloka 8, K.R.Srikantha moorty 1st edition,Varanasi; chawkhambha orientalia; 1995 pp-6.147. Sushrutacharya Sushruta samhita chapter 25th sutra sthana shloka 19, Kaviraj ambhikadatta shastri 8th edition, Varanasi; chawkhambha Sanskrit samsthana; 2000 pp-102.148. Agnivesha Charaka samhita chapter 30th Uttara tantra shloka 184 to 187, Sri Satya narayana shastri 10th edition, Varanasi; chawkhambha surabharati academy; 1982 pp –864 to 865.149. Agnivesha Charaka samhita chapter 2th Sharira sthana shloka 4, Sri Satya narayana shastri 10th edition, Varanasi; chawkhambha surabharati academy; 1982 pp -344.150. Agnivesha Charaka samhita 10th chapter sutra shloka 11 to 20 , Kashinath shastri 18th edition, Varanasi Chawkhambha Sanskrit samsthana; 1997 pp-204 to 205.151. Agnivesha Charaka samhita 30th chapter Chikitsa sthana shloka 191, Kashinath shastri 18th edition, Varanasi Chawkhambha Sanskrit samsthana; 1997 pp-867.152. Agnivesha Charaka samhita 3rd chapter Chikitsa sthana shloka 5 to11, Kashinath shastri 18th edition, Varanasi Chawkhambha Sanskrit samsthana; 1997 pp-75 to 80.153. Harisons Harisons principles of internal medicine chapter 339th, Jean D, Willson and James, E – Griffin, International edition pp-2126 to 2129.154. Dr S.Das A manual of clinical surgery chapter 39th, 3rd edition Culcutta; old mayors court; 1988 pp-392 to 393.155. Dr Guyton Human physiogy and Mechanism of diseases chapter 54th Martin J 5th edition Amerika; International edition library of Congress Cataloging publication; 1992 pp- 606 to 611.156. Agnivesha Charaka samhita 1st chapter sutra sthana shloka 44, Kashinath shastri 18th edition, Varanasi Chawkhambha Sanskrit samsthana; 1997 pp-14.157. Acharya Sushruta Sushruta samhita sutra 15th chapter shloka 15, Vaidya Jadavaji Trikamaji 4th edition, Varanasi; Chawkhambha Sanskrit samsthana pp-70.158. Acharya Sushruta Sushruta samhita Sharira sthana 2nd chapter shloka 10, Vaidya Jadavaji Trikamaji 4th edition, Varanasi; Chawkhambha Sanskrit samsthana pp-345.
  • Bibliography159. Vagbhatacharya Ashtanga sangraha chapter 1st Chikitsa sthana shloka 15, K.R.Srikantha moorty 1st edition,Varanasi; chawkhambha orientalia; 1996 pp-7.160. Agnivesha Charaka samhita chapter 30th Uttara tantra shloka 200 to 202, Sri Satya narayana shastri 10th edition, Varanasi; chawkhambha surabharati academy; 1982 pp –867 to 868.161. Acharya Sushruta Sushruta samhita Sarira 2nd chapter shloka 9, Vaidya Jadavaji Trikamaji 4th edition, Varanasi; Chawkhambha Sanskrit samsthana pp-345.162. Sushrutacharya Sushruta samhita sutra sthana 23rd chapter shloka 40 to 47, Kaviraj Kunjala Vol 2 edition 4, Varanasi Chawkhambha Sanskrit series office; 1991 pp-512.163. Agnivesha Charaka samhita chapter 23rd sutra sthana shloka 40 to 47, Sri Satya narayana shastri 10th edition, Varanasi; chawkhambha surabharati academy; 1982 pp –272 to 273.164. Agnivesha Charaka samhita chapter 25th sutra shloka 40, Sri Satya narayana shastri 10th edition, Varanasi; chawkhambha surabharati academy; 1992 pp –467 to 469.165. Sushrutacharya Sushruta samhita Chikitsa sthana 26th chapter shloka 9, Kaviraj Kunjala Vol 2 edition 4, Varanasi Chawkhambha Sanskrit series office; 1991 pp-513.166. Agnivesha Charaka samhita chapter 30th Chikitsa shloka 146 to 148, Sri Satya narayana shastri 10th edition, Varanasi; chawkhambha surabharati academy; 1992 pp –862.
  • Bibliography
  • Master chart-1 . Demographic Data of Vanga bhasma on Ksheena shukra. S.No OPD Age Religion Occuption S.Eco-status Education Ahara Result No. H M C O 1 2 3 S1 S2 S3 E1 E2 E3 V Mx a b c d 1 3814 38 + + + + + + 2 4544 35 + + + + + + 3 1264 31 + + + + + + 4 1480 30 + + + + + + 5 1507 30 + + + + + + 6 1354 45 + + + + + + 7 2037 40 + + + + + + 8 2065 38 + + + + + + 9 2084 45 + + + + + + 10 2112 42 + + + + + + 11 2121 44 + + + + + + 12 2239 35 + + + + + + 13 2347 42 + + + + + + 14 2391 34 + + + + + + 15 2392 35 + + + + + + 16 2499 45 + + + + + 17 2596 34 + + + + + + 18 2611 39 + + + + + + 19 2618 35 + + + + + + 20 2705 32 + + + + + + 21 3284 31 + + + + + + 22 3287 29 + + + + + 23 3286 31 + + + + + + + 24 3435 38 + + + + + + 25 3437 38 + + + + + + 26 3488 32 + + + + + + H-Hindu, M-Muslim, C-Christian, O-Others, 1- Labor, 2-Clerical, 3-Intelectual, S1-Poor, S2-Middle, S3- Higher, E1-Undereducated, E2- Educated, E3-Highly qualified, V-Vegetarian, Mx-Mixed diet. a-Marked improved, b-Moderate improved, C-Improved,D-No change.
  • Master chart-2 Chief complaints in Ksheena shukra and effect of Vanga bhasma.Sl. OP Desire Erection Ejaculation Rigidity Orgasm ResultNo D. No 0 15 30 45 60 0 15 30 45 60 0 15 30 45 60 0 15 30 45 60 0 15 30 45 60 a b c d1 3814 3 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 4 4 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 4 4 2 2 3 3 3 +2 4544 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 2 2 3 4 4 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 4 4 +3 1264 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 4 2 2 4 5 5 2 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 3 3 +4 1480 2 2 3 4 4 2 2 3 3 4 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 2 2 3 3 3 +5 1507 1 2 3 4 4 2 3 3 4 4 1 2 3 4 4 2 2 2 3 3 1 2 2 3 3 +6 1354 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 1 1 2 2 2 +7 2037 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 4 4 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 4 4 2 2 3 4 4 +8 2065 2 2 3 4 4 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 4 4 2 2 3 4 4 2 2 3 4 4 +9 2084 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 1 1 2 2 2 +10 2112 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 3 3 +11 2121 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 2 2 3 4 4 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 3 3 +12 2239 3 3 4 4 4 2 2 3 4 4 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 4 4 2 2 3 3 3 +13 2347 2 2 3 4 4 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 2 2 3 4 4 2 2 3 4 4 +14 2391 1 2 2 3 3 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 2 2 2 3 3 1 2 3 4 4 +15 2392 2 2 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 4 2 2 3 4 4 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 4 4 +16 2499 2 2 3 4 4 2 2 3 4 4 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 +17 2596 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 4 4 2 2 3 4 4 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 4 4 +18 2611 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 2 2 3 4 4 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 +19 2618 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 4 4 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 +20 2705 1 2 3 4 4 2 2 3 4 4 3 3 4 5 5 2 2 3 4 4 2 2 3 4 4 +21 3284 2 2 3 4 4 3 3 4 5 5 3 3 4 5 5 3 3 4 4 4 2 2 3 4 4 +22 3287 3 3 4 5 5 4 4 5 5 5 3 3 4 4 4 2 2 4 4 4 2 2 3 5 5 +23 3286 1 2 3 4 4 2 2 3 4 4 3 3 4 4 4 3 3 4 5 5 2 2 3 4 4 +24 3435 2 2 3 4 4 2 2 3 4 4 2 2 3 4 4 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 4 4 +25 3437 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 4 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 4 4 2 2 3 4 4 +26 3488 3 3 3 4 4 2 3 3 4 4 2 2 4 5 5 2 2 4 4 4 1 2 3 4 4 +27 Total 8 11 5 2 0-60=Days, 1-5=Grading, a=Markedly improved, b=Moderate improved, c=Improved, d=No change.
  • Master chart-3 History of previous illness and Habits, of Ksheenashukra patient S.No OPD.No A B C D E F G H I J K L M 1 2 3 1 3814 - + - - - - - - - - - - - + - - 2 4544 - + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 1264 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + - 4 1480 - + - - - + - - - - - - - - + - 5 1507 - + - - - - - - - - - - - + - + 6 1354 - - + - - - - - - - - + - + - - 7 2037 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + - 8 2065 - + - - - - - - - - - - + - - - 9 2084 - + + - - + - - - - - - - + - + 10 2112 - - - - - + - - - - - - - - + - 11 2121 - + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 12 2239 - - - - - - - - - - - + - - + - 13 2347 - + - - - - - - - - - - - - + + 14 2391 - - - - - + - - - - - - - + - - 15 2392 - - - - - - - - - - - - + - - - 16 2499 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + - 17 2596 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 18 2611 - + - - - + - - - - - - - - - + 19 2618 - - - - - + - - - - - - - - + - 20 2705 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + - 21 3284 - + - - - - - - - - - - - + + - 22 3287 - + - - - - - - - - - + - - + - 23 3286 - - - - + - - - - - - - - - + 24 3435 - - - - - - - - - - - - - + - - 25 3437 - + - - - - - - - - - - - - + - 26 3488 - + - - - - - - - - - - - + - 27 Total 0 13 2 0 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 8 13 5A- Mumps, B-typhoid, C-Tuberculasis D-Thyroid disorder, E – Diabetes mellitus, F – Liver disorder, G – STD, H-Epididymo-orchitis, J-Cryptoorchidisim, K-Varicocele , L – Scrotal injury, M – Other disorders. 1- Alcohol , 2 – Tubbaco chewing, 3 – Smoking.
  • Master chart-4 Sexual history and effect of Vanga bhasma in Ksheenashukra patient.OPD S.S.C H/O D.O.M P.C F.O.C A.O.P S.D E.J EAWNo. N D E M M1 M2 M3 M4 C1 C2 F F2 F F4 P1 P2 S1 S2 S3 E1 E2 E3 E4 A A A 1 3 1 2 33814 + - - - - - + - - - - + - - - + - + - - - - + - - +4544 + - - - - + - - - - - - + - - - - + - - - - + - - +1264 + - - - + - - - + - - - - + - - + - - - + - - - - +1480 + - - + + - - - - - - - - + - - + - - + - - - - - +1507 + - - + + - - - - - - - - + - - - + - - + - - - - +1354 + - - - - - - + - - + - - - + - - + - - - + - + - -2037 + - - - - - + - + - - + - - - - - + - - - - + - - +2065 + - - - - - + - - - - + - - - + - + - - - + - - - +2084 + - - - - - - + - - + + - - + - - + - - - - + + - -2112 + - - + - - - + - - - + - - - - - + - - - - + - - +2121 + - - - - - - + - - - - - + - - - + - - - - + - - +2239 + - - - - + - - + - - - + - - - - + - - - - + - - +2347 + - - - - - - + - - - + - - - - - + - - - - + - - +2391 + - - + + - - - - - - - + - - - - + - - - - + - - +2392 + - - - + - - - + - - - + - - - - + - - + - - - - +2499 + - - - - - - + - - - + - - - + - + - - + - - + - -2596 + - - - - + - - + - - - + - - - - + - - + - - - - +2611 + - - - - - + - - - - + - - - - - + - - - - + - - +2618 + - - - - - - + - - + - - - + - - + - - - - + + - +2705 + - - - + - - - + - - - - + - + - + - - - - + - - +3284 + - - + + - - - - - - - - + - - + - - - - - + - - +3287 + - - + + - - - - - - - - + - - - - + + - - - - - +3286 + - - + - - - + + - - - - + - - + - - + - - - - - +3435 + - - - - - + - - - - - + - - - - + - - + - - - - +3437 + - - - - - + - - - - + - - - + - + - - + - - - - +3488 + - - + + - - - - - - - - + - - - + - - - - + - - +Total 26 0 0 8 9 3 6 8 7 0 3 9 6 9 3 5 4 21 1 3 7 2 14 4 0 2 2
  • S.S.C. Secondary sexual characters. H/O – History of . D.O.M – Duration of marriage, P.C – Previousconception, F.O.C. – Frequency of coitus. A.O.P – Association of pain, S.D- Sexual desire, EJ – Ejaculation, E.A.W– Ejaculation Associated With, N-Normal, D – Delayed, E-Early, M – Mastrbution, M1- 1 year, M2 – 1- 3 year, M3– 3-5 year, M4 - > 5 year, C1- Abortion, C2- Miscarriage, F1 – Every 15 days, F2 – 1-2 times / week, F3 – 3times/week. F4 – 5 times/ week, P1 – Before Coitus, P2 – After Coitus, S1 – Normal, S2 – Decreased, S3 –Increased, E1 – Normal, E2 – Premature ejaculation, E3 – Retrograde Ejaculation, E4 – Delayed Ejaculation, A1 –Pain, A2 – Burning, A3 – Weakness.
  • Master chart-5 Ksheena shukra lakshana & effect of Vanga bhasmaO.P.D. A B C D E F G H I J K L REMARKSNo B.T A.T B.T A.T B. A.T B. A. B. A. B. A. B. A. B.T A.T B.T A. B. A. B. A. B A.T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T .T3814 + - - - - - - - + - - - - - + - + - + - + - - - Moderate imp4544 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,,1264 - - - - + - - - - - - - - - + - + - - - - - - - Marked imp1480 - - - - + - - - - - - - - - + - - - - - - - - - Moderate imp1507 - - - - + - - - - - - - - - - - + - + - - - - - Marked imp1354 + - + + - - - - + - - - - - + - - - - - + - - - Unchanged2037 + - + - - - - - + - - - - - - - + - - - + - - - Moderate imp2065 + - - - - - - - + - - - - - + - - - - - + - - - ,,2084 + - + + - - - - + - - - - - - - + - + - + - - - Unchanged2112 + + - - - - - - + - - - - - - - - - - - + - - - Improved2121 + - + - - - - - + - - - - - + - - - - - + - - - ,,2239 - - - - + - - - - - - - - - - - + - - - - - - - Moderate imp2347 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,,2391 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + - - - - - - - - - Marked imp2392 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + - - - - - - - Moderate imp2499 + - + + - - - - + - - - - - - - - - + - - - - - Improved2596 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + - - - - - - - - - Moderate imp2611 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + - - - - - - - Improved2618 + - + - - - - - + - - - - - - - - - + - + - - - ,,2705 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + - - - - - - - Marked imp3284 - - - - + - - - - - - - - - + - - - - - - - - - ,,3287 - - - - + - - - - - - - - - + - + - - - + - - - ,,3286 - - - - + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,,3435 - - + - - - - - - - - - - - - - + - - - - - - - Moderate imp3437 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + - - - + - + - - - ,,3488 + - - - - + - - - + - - - - + - + - - - - - - - Marked impTotal 10 7 2 7 1 0 0 9 1 0 0 0 0 12 0 12 0 6 0 10 0 0 0. A – Medravrishana, b – Maithuna ashakti c – Chiraath shukra, D-Aprasekha, E-Alpa shukra srava, F- Sa.Rakta sukra srava, g-Medra vrishana Dhumayam, H-Panduta, I – Dourbalya, J- Mukha shosha, K – Sharma, L – Klaiby
  • Master chart-6 Semen analysis and effect of Vanga bhasma on Ksheena shukra. A B C D E F ResultsS.NO OPD B.T A.T B.T A.T B.T A.T B.T A.T B.T A.T B.T A.T a1 a2 a3 a41 3814 3 4 2 2.5 30 30 11 60 75 75 70 80 +2 4544 5 4 1 2.5 30 30 8 48 40 80 40 60 +3 1264 5 4 1.5 2.5 30 30 10 78 75 88 40 65 +4 1480 4 4 1.5 2.5 30 30 9 48 80 80 30 50 +5 1507 4 4 0.5 1.5 30 30 9 68 60 80 40 70 +6 1354 3 4 1.5 2 30 30 9 30 85 80 35 55 +7 2037 4 3 1.5 2 30 30 10 48 95 80 30 45 +8 2065 4 3 1.5 2.5 30 30 12 60 80 85 40 55 +9 2084 5 4 1 2 30 30 9 28 95 85 45 50 +10 2112 3 4 1 2 30 30 8 40 80 85 30 50 +11 2121 5 4 1.5 2 30 30 10 40 85 78 45 65 +12 2239 4 3 1.5 2.5 30 30 15 60 80 85 45 55 +13 2347 4 4 1.5 2 30 30 13 60 85 85 40 55 +14 2391 5 4 1.5 2 30 30 9 70 80 85 40 55 +15 2392 4 4 1.5 2 30 30 10 50 85 85 35 50 +16 2499 3 4 1 1.5 30 30 8 30 85 85 40 50 +17 2596 5 4 1.5 2 30 30 10 55 80 80 40 55 +18 2611 3 4 1.5 2 30 30 11 40 80 80 35 60 +19 2618 4 5 1 1.5 30 30 8 38 85 85 40 50 +20 2705 3 4 1.5 2.5 30 30 10 70 80 80 50 60 +21 3284 4 4 1.5 2.5 30 30 15 68 80 80 45 55 +22 3287 5 4 1.5 2.5 30 30 15 75 85 85 40 60 +23 3286 3 4 1.5 2.5 30 30 18 68 85 85 45 58 +24 3435 4 3 1 2 30 30 8 58 80 80 40 60 +25 3437 5 4 1 2 30 30 8 59 85 85 45 65 +26 3488 4 4 1.5 2.5 30 30 10 75 85 85 45 55 +27 Total 105 101 35 56 780 780 264 1424 2090 2119 1034 1488 8 11 5 2
  • A – Abstinence period(days), B – Volume(ml), C – Liquefaction, D – Count(million/ml), E –Viability(percentage), F – Motility(%), a1 – Marked improved, a2 – Moderate improved, a3 – Improved,a4 – No change.A1 – 50-75(Sperm count/ml), A3 – 30 – 40, (Sperm count /million/ml)A2 – 40-60 (Sperm count million/ml), A4 – 20-30 (Sperm count /million/ml)
  • Special clinical trail proforma for Ksheenashukra Post graduate and research center(Rasashastra) Shri D.G.M. Ayurvedic Medical College,Gadag. Guide : Dr.M.C.Patil Candidate :K.S. Santoji M.D.(Ayu) P.G.Scholar01. Name: Sl.No :02. Father’s Name: O.P.D No. :03.Age : D.O.I:04.Sex : Male D.O.C: Place:05. Religion: Hindu Muslim Christian Others06. Occupation Labour Clirical Intelectual Business Others07. Socio-economical Status: Poor Middle Higher08. Education: Undereducated Educated Higher qualified09. Residential Address: Telephone:10. Result: Well responded Responded Not responded11. Consent: I -------- ---------------------- Exercise my free will in the said study, I have been informed to my satisfaction by attending the purpose of the clinical evaluation and nature of drug treatment. I am also aware of my right to quit at any time during the schedule. Investigator’s Signature Patient’s Signature
  • 12. Chief complaints: Sl.No. Complaints P/A Duration Sexual dysfunction 1. Ejaculation. a) No ejaculation no penetration b) Ejaculation without penetration. c) Ejaculation with penetration at improper time d) Early ejaculation with less quantity of semen. e) Normal ejakulation with normal timings. 2. Chirat shukra presekha Shukra aprasekha. 3. Alpha shukra presekha. 4. Sarakta shukra presekha. 5. Sexual desire. a) No interest at all. b) Lakh of interest. c) Interest in sex but no activity. d) Interest only on demand of partner. e) Self and partner normal interest. f) Excess interest. 6. Maithuna ashakti. 7. Medra vrishan vedhana. 8. Medra vrishan dhumayam.
  • Sl.No. Complaints P/A Duration9. Erection. a) No erection at all. b) Erection with artificial methods. c) Erectin but unable to penetrate. d) Erection with occasional failures. e) Erection whenever desired.10. Shepas Sthabdhata.11. Rigidity. a) Unable to maintain erection. b) Some loss in erection but too act. c) Able to continue the act. d) Able to continue the act without getting the desire effect. e) Able to continue the act till the desirable fulfills. f) Able to continue the act to get the perfect orgasm.12. Orgasm. a) No enjoyment at all. b) Lack of enjoyment. c) Enjoyment in 25% of acts. d) Enjoyment in 50% of acts. e) Enjoyment in 75% of acts. f) Enjoyment in 100% of acts.
  • 13. Associated complaints: Sl.No. Complaints P/A Duration 1 Panduta 2 Dourbalya 3 Mukha shosha 4 Shrama 5 Sadana 6 Others14. Vedana Vrittanta:15. Poorva Vyadhi Vrittanta & Chikitsa Vrittanta: Sl.No Disease Sl.No. Disease 1 Mumps 8 Epididymo-orchitis 2 Typhoid 9 Prostatis 3 T.B. 10 Crypto-orchitis 4 Thyroid disorders 11 Vericoceal 5 D.M. 12 Scrotal injuries 6 H.T. 13 Others 7 Liver disorders0.1 Oushadha Vrittanta.(If any)0.2 Shastra Chikitsa Vrittanta.(If any)16. Kula Vrittanta.
  • 17. Personal History.A) Ahara: Vegetarian Mixed diet Dominent Resen foodB) Nidra: Sukha Alpa Ati VaishamyaC) Vyasana: Smoking Alcohol Tobacco No habitD) Occupational History: 1)Type of employment: 2)Work involving any mental strain:E) Sexual history: a)Adolescence history & Secondary sexual characters: Normal Delayed Early b)Mastrubution: c)Vaiaktika sthiti: a) Number of marriages with duration: i) ii) iii) b) History of previous conception: Abortion -- Miscarriage-- c) Coital history: 1) Frequency of coitus: 2) State of mind during coitus: Interest Not interest Casual During coitus After coitus 3) Association of pain: 4) sexual desire: Normal Decrease Increase Perverted d) Ejaculation: Normal Premature Retrograde Delayed e) Ejaculation associated with : Pain Burning WeaknessF) Psychological history exposure to: Stress Strain Anger Fear Jealously
  • 18. General Examination:- Pulse B.P Temp Resp. rate Height Weight Heart beat rate Jathragni : Manda Teekshna Vishma Sama Ashtasthana pareeksha: • Nadi • Mootra • Mala • Jihwa • Shabda • Sparsha • Drika • Akruti19. Atura bala pareeksha: Prakriti: V P K VP KP VK VPK Sara: Pravara Madhyma Avara Samhanana: Pravara Madhyma Avara Satmya: Pravara Madhyma Avara Satwa: Pravara Madhyma Avara Vyayama shakti: Pravara Madhyma Avara Vaya: Bala Youvana Vrudda Desha: Jangala Anupa Sadharana
  • 20. Systemic Examination: 1) Respiratory System 2) Cardio Vascular System 3) Digestive System 4) Nerous System 5) Male Genetal System Examination:01. Penis:a. Skin: Normal Redness Swelling Phimosis Paraphimosis Smegmab. Urethral meatus : Normal Hypospadis Epispadisc. Bulbocavernous reflex :02.Scrotal examination :a. Skin : Normal Lessfold Nodules Redness Ulcertionb.Pigmentation: Normal Hyper Hypoc. Sac : Lt Normal Sagging Hydroceal Rtd. Hernia : Right Direct Indirect Left Direct Indirecte. Cremastic reflex :
  • 03. Testis: a. Position : Normal Retracted Criptoorchid b. Surface : Smooth Nodular c. Palpation: Normal Retracted Criptoorchid d. Consistency: Firm Soft04. Epididymis: Palpation Tender Nontender05. Spermatic cord: Normal Thickened Vericocale06. Vasa: Palpation Tender Nontender07. Rectum examination: (Prostate gland) a. Concistency: Normal Hard Boggy b. Palpation: Tender Nontender c. Surface: Smooth Nodular Other impressions21. Sroto Pareeksha: Sl.No Srotas Observed lakshana 01. Pranavaha 02. Udakavaha srotas 03 Manovaha srotas 04 Rasavaha srotas 05 Raktavaha srotas 06 Mamsavaha srotas 07 Medovaha srotas 08 Asthivaha srotas 09 Majjavaha srotas 10 Shukravaha srotas 11 Mootravaha srotas 12 Swedavaha srotas 13 Purishavaha srotas
  • 22.Vikrititaha Pareeksha: I) Nidana Sl. No Ahrara P/A S.I No Vihara P/A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. II) Roopam Sl. No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. III) Samprapti Dosha Dushya Adhistana Srotas Srotodushti Rogamarga IV) Upashaya & Anupashaya: V) Upadrava VI) Arishta Lakshanas:VII) Sadhyasadyata:
  • Investigations for inclusive and exclusive criteria 01. Blood HB %-------------- T.C-- ESR --------------- D.C-- RBC -------------- RBS-- V.D.R.L--------- 02. Urine Albumin----------- Sugar-- Microscopic-------23 .Investigation for assessment- Sl.No Investigation for analysis B.T A.T Semen analysis report 01 Collection 02 Method of collection 03 Time of collection 04 Time of examination 05 Appearance 06 Volume 07 Viscosity 08 Liquefaction time 09 PH 10 Semon microscopic 11 a. Total sperm concentration million. 12 b. Sperm Vaibility(%) 13 Sperm motility 14 Fructose test
  • 24. Shukra pareeksha: 01. Varna: Phenila Aruna Krishna Neela Haritha Shyama Gairkodaka Shonita 02. Temperature: Ushna Sheeta 03. Appearance: Bahala Tanu Granthila Drava 04. Liquifaction: Sheegra skandhi Samanya Askandi 05. Odour: Madhu Pooti Mootrapurisha25.Treatment protocol: Name of the drug --- Vanga Bhasma. Dosage—125mg./ b.i.d Anupana- Milk. Date of examination Date Quantity of medicine Comments 15th day 30th day 45th day 60th day Signature of Guide Signature Scholar