Vangabhasma oligospermia rs001-gdg


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Preparation Physico – chemical analysis of vanga bhasma and its clinical evaluation in Kseena sukra (oligospermia) - Dr. K.S.Santoji, Department of rasashastra, Post graduate studies and research center, Shri D. G. Melmalagi Ayurvedic Medical College, Gadag

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Vangabhasma oligospermia rs001-gdg

  1. 1. Department of Post Graduate D.G.M.Ayurvedic Medical College &Studies in RASASHASTRA Post Graduate cum Research Center Gadag –582103 Dist: Gadag J.S.V.V. SAMITE’S DECLARATION I here by declare that this dissertation entitled “ THE PREPARATION, PHYSICO- CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF VANGA BHASMA AND ITS CLINICAL EVALUATION IN KSHEENASHUKRA (Oligosparmia) ” is a bonafide and genuine research work carried out by me under the guidance of Dr.M.C.Patil. Professor & HOD, Department of Post Graduate Studies in Rasashastra, D. G. M Ayurvedic Medical College & Post Graduate cum Research Center Gadag –582103 Date: Dr.Kalakappa.S.Santoji P.G.Schalor, Place: Gadag. Dept. of Rasashastra, D.G.M.Ayurvedic Medical College & Post Graduate cum Research Center Gadag –582103
  2. 2. Department of Post graduate D.G.M.Ayurvedic Medical College &Studies in RASASHASTRA Post Graduate cum Research Center Gadag –582103 Dist: Gadag J.S.V.V. SAMITE’S CERTIFICATE I here by declare that this dissertation entitled “THE PREPARATION, PHYSICO- CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF VANGA BHASMA AND ITS CLINICAL EVALUATION IN KSHEENASHUKRA (Oligospermia)” is a bonafide and genuine research work done by Dr.Kalakappa.S.Santoji in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Ayurveda Vachaspati (M.D) in Rasashastra of Rajiv Gandhi University of Health sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka. Date: Guide Place: Gadag. Dr.M.C.Patil. M.D.(RS) Head of the department Rasashastra D.G.M.Ayurvedic Medical College & Post Graduate cum Research Center Gadag –582103
  3. 3. Department of Post graduate D.G.M.Ayurvedic Medical College &Studies in RASASHASTRA Post Graduate cum Research Center Gadag –582103 Dist: Gadag J.S.V.V. SAMITE’S CERTIFICATEI here by declare that this dissertation entitled “THE PREPARATION, PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF VANGA BHASMA AND ITS CLINICAL EVALUATIONIN KSHEENASHUKRA(Oligospermia)” is a bonafide and genuine research workdone by Dr.Kalakappa.S.Santoji in partial fulfillment of the requirement for thedegree of Ayurveda Vachaspati (M.D) in Rasashastra of Rajiv Gandhi University ofHealth sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka.Date: Co-GuidePlace: Gadag. Dr.Girish.N.Danappagoudar M.D.(RS). Lecturer Rasashastra D.G.M.Ayurvedic Medical College & Post Graduate cum Research Center Gadag –582103
  4. 4. ENDORSMENT BY THE HOD, PRINCIPAL/HEAD OF THE INSTITUTATION J.S.V.V. SAMITE’S ENDORSEMENTI here by declare that this dissertation entitled “THE PREPARATION, PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF VANGA BHASMA AND ITS CLINICAL EVALUATIONIN KSHEENASHUKRA(Oligospermia)” is a bonafide and genuine research workdone by Dr.Kalakappa.S.Santoji under the guidence of Dr.M.C.Patil Professor,HOD Department of Post Graduate Studies & Dr.Girish.N.DanappagoudarLecturer, Department of Rasashastra, Post Graduate Studies in D.G.M.AyurvedicMedical College, Gadag.Seal & Signature of the HOD. Seal & Signature of the Principal:Name : Name:Date: Date:Place: Gadag. Place:
  5. 5. COPYRIGHT I here by declare that the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences,Karnataka shall have the rights to preserve, use and disseminate this dissertation inprint or electronic format for academic / research purpose.Date: Dr.Kalakappa.S.Santoji P.G.Schalor, Dept. of Rasashastra D.G.M.AyurvedicPlace: Gadag Medical College & Post Graduate cum Research Center Gadag –582103© Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka
  7. 7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT My father & mother is the only Inspiration. This work carries some sweatmemories to express & record about some distinguished personalities by whom I had beeninspired during the course of this thesis.I express my deep sense of gratitude to my respected guide Prof.Dr.M.C.Patil. MD(Ayu)Head of Dept. of RS, DGMAMC & PGSRC, Gadag. He has been very kind to guide me in thepreparation of thesis & for who extraordinary efforts, tremendous encouragement & mostvaluable thought provoking critical suggestions, made me to complete this work. I am extremely greatful & obliged to my co-guide Dr.Girish .N.Danappagiudar.MD(Ayu). Lecturer in Rasashastra, PG studies & Research center DGMAMC,Gadag, for patiently going through the draft of thesis & correcting with precious remarks whichhave been very useful. I am thankful to Dr.G.B.Patil principal, DGMAMC, PGSRC,Gadag, forproviding all necessary facilities for this research work. I wish to convey thanks to my teacher Prof.Dr.R.K.GachchinamathHOD,Rasashastra dept,(UG) DGMAMC, Gadag, for being kind & affectionate through hisvaluable suggestions & advises. It gives me immense pleasure to express my gratitude to Dr. Dilipkumar B.MD (Ayu). Asst. Prof. PGSRC for kind advise encouragement during the study. I acknowledge the valuable help given to me by my best friends Dr.Jagadish Mitti MD(Ayu). Lecturer & Dr. Shashikant Nidagundi MD(Ayu) Lecturer, fortheir support during my PG study. I am greatful for the support and advise given by Dr. S.H.Doddamani MD(Ayu). Asst. Prof. PGSRC. DGMAMC, Gadag, during my clinical trail and encouraged meall the time during this work.
  8. 8. I express my deep gratitude to Dr. B.M.Mulkipatil MD (Ayu), Lecture,PGSRC, Gadag, for his fullhanded whole hearted, co-operation and suggestions in thisstudy, for which I will be ever greatful to him. I wish to convey thanks to all UG & PG lectures of DGMAMC, Gadag, fortheir timely help & constant co-operation during my PG work. I sincerely thank my beloved classmates Dr. K.M.Jaggal, Dr. P. KoteshwarRao, Dr. V.S.Hiremath, Dr. R.B.Paattanashetti, for their deep co-operation and involvementin the study. I am also thankful to scholars of PG Dept. of Rasashastra who have directlyor indirectly helps my thesis work. & expected their co-operation & support during my PGwork. I am glad to express my heartiest thanks to Dr. Chandur Medical pharma .J.T.College Gadag, having helped me in carrying out analytical works, and for giving kindsuggestions. I wish to convey my thanks to beloved librarian, Sri. V.M.Mundinamani,Asst. S.B.Sureban for providing many valuable references in the study. I am thankful to Sri.B.S.Tippanagouda, Lab technician, who extended this co-operation in investigations. I tender my sincere thanks to Nandakumar, statistician for his help instatistical evaluation & results. I wish to thank the physicians , House surgeons, Hospital staff, nurses &non teaching staff for their timely assistance in completion of this work. Let me express my thanks to all patients, those were on trial for theirconsent for enrolling in this clinical study & obedience to advises. I am highly indebted to my beloved parents brothers sisters & other familymembers for their love & affection rendered through out my career.
  9. 9. I am thankful to computer operator in bringing out the computer presence ofmy thesis in such a elegant way. I express my thanks to all the persons who have helped me directly &indirectly with apologies for my ability to identify them individually. Lastly I prey my deep homage & tribute to my grand parents for the love &affection rendered through out my career.GadagFebruary 2005 Dr: K.S.Santoji
  10. 10. ABBREVIATION1. R.T - Rasa Tarangini2. R.R.S - Rasa ratna Samuchchaya3. R.P.S - Rasa Prakasha Sudhakara.4 A.P - Ayurveda Prakash5. R.A - Rasamritam6. R.J.N.I - Rasa Jala Nidhi7. R.K - Rasa Kamadhenu8. B.R.R.S - Brihat Rasa Raja Sundara9. R.Chu - Rasendra Chudamani10. R.S.S.- Rasendra Sara Sangraha11. M.N - Madhava Nidhana12. K.N - Kaideva Nighantu13. M.N - Madanapala Nighantu14. R.N - Raja Nighantu15. B.P - Bhava Prakasha Nighantu16. S.B.M.M- Siddha Bheshaja Manimala17. Ch.S - Charaka Samhita18. S.S - Sushruta Samhita19. A.S- Ashtanga Sangraha20. A.H - Ashtanga Hridaya21. B.P - British Pharmacopia22. _ Not mentioned.23. + Mentioned
  11. 11. LIST OF TABLESSl.N0. Topic Page. No.1. Synonyms of Vanga 92. Shodhana media according to various authorities. 153. Drugs used in Jarana of Vanga. 174. Pharmacological properties of Vanga. 225. Indication of Vanga bhasma in various diseases. 246. Ores of Tin & their occurrence. 327. Physical properties of Tin 368. Compounds of Tin 389. Alloys of Tin 3810. Detection of Tin compounds 3911. Qualities of Shuddha shukra 5512. Ksheenashukra lakshana 5913. Loss of Vanga in various practicles 7514. Changes during Jarana 7715. Observation of Vanga during puta 8016. Ayurvedic tests of Vanga bhasma 8117. Observation based on age 9118. Observation based on Religion 9219. Observation based on Occupation 9320. Observation based on Socio-Economic status 9421. Observation based on Education 9522. Observation based on Diet 9623. Observation based on Previous illness 97
  12. 12. 24. Observation based on Injury 9825. Observation based on Habit 9926. Observation based on H/O Mastrubution 10027. Observation based on Duration of marriage 10128. Observation based on Previous conception 10229. Observation based on Patients mind during Coitus 10330. Observation based on Sexual desire 10431. Observation based on Ejaculation 10532. Observation based on Ejaculation with Pain /Burning 10633. Observation based on Psychological history 10734. Observation based on Ksheenashukra lakshana 10835. Observation based on Sexual desire (A.T & B.T) 10936. Observation based on Errection (A.T & B.T) 11037. Observation based on Ejaculation (A.T. & B.T) 11138. Observation based on Rigidity (A.T & B.T) 11239. Observation based on Orgasm (A.T. & B.T) 11340. Observation based on Abstinence period 11441. Observation based on Semen volume (A.T. & B.T) 11542. Observation based on Sperm count (A.T. & B.T) 11643. Observation based on Viability (A.T & B.T) 11744. Observation based on Motility (A.T & B.T) 11845. Statistical result 11946. Result 120
  13. 13. LIST OF GRAPHSSl.N0. Topic Page. No.1. Distribution based on age 912. Distribution based on Religion 923. Distribution based on Occupation 934. Distribution based on Socio-Economic status 945. Distribution based on Education 956. Distribution based on Diet 967. Distribution based on Previous illness 978. Distribution based on Injury 989. Distribution based on Habit 9910. Distribution based on H/O Mastrubution 10011. Distribution based on Duration of marriage 10112. Distribution based on Previous conception 10213. Distribution based on Patients mind during Coitus 10314. Distribution based on Sexual desire 10415. Distribution based on Ejaculation 10516. Distribution based on Ejaculation with Pain /Burning 10617. Distribution based on Psychological history 10718. Distribution based on Sexual desire (A.T & B.T) 10919. Distribution based on Errection (A.T & B.T) 11020. Distribution based on Ejaculation (A.T. & B.T) 111
  14. 14. 21. Distribution based on Rigidity (A.T & B.T) 11222. Distribution based on Orgasm (A.T. & B.T) 11323. Distribution based on Abstinence period 11424. Distribution based on Semen volume (A.T. & B.T) 11525. Distribution based on Sperm count (A.T. & B.T) 11626. Distribution based on Viability (A.T & B.T) 11727. Distribution based on Motility (A.T & B.T) 11828. Result 120 LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS 1. Pitara yantra & Vanga 2. Vanga shodana in Taila, Thakra & Gomootra 3. Vanga Shodhana in Kanji, Kulaththa & Haridrayukta Nirgundi swarasa 4. Jarita Vanga 5. Vanga subjected to Puta 6. Vanga bhasma & Capsules
  15. 15. ABSTRACTBack ground: Ksheena shukra is the cause of infertility characterized by low sperm configauration. This isthe resultant of nutritional deficiency, smoking, alcohol consumption, stress, strain, in judicious useof drugs & environmental pollution which leads to psychological problems in couples. In modern sience there are number of drugs for Ksheena shukra (Oligospermia), butthey leads to various complications. Ayurveda too has may herbal, mineral & herbo mineralpreparation which are claiming to be very effective in Ksheena shukra, some of them arevery easy to prepare, some are very difficult to prepare. & even costly also.Rasataranginikara considered Vanga bhasma as a ideal preparation in Ksheena shukra. Thisis to be prepared after classical method of shodhana & marana it is considered to be a goodrasayana & balya.So it is expected to improve the quality & quantity of the Ksheena shukra.Hence the present study is under taken.Objectives: a. Preparation of Vanga bhasma b. Physico-chemical analysis of Vanga bhasma c. Clinical evaluation of vanga bhasma on KSHEENA SHUKRA (OLIGOSPERMIA)METHODS: Pharmaceutical study: a) Vanga shodhna according to Rasatarangini 18 chapter shloka no 11 b) Vanga jarana & marana according to Rasatarangini 18 chapter shloka no 19 to 24 & Rasamrita 23 chapter shloka no. 88 to 94
  16. 16. Analytical study: Vanga bhasma is subjected to physico chemical analysis i.e Assay for Tin, Acid insoluble ash, Loss on 110o c, Loss on ignition 10000 c & physical analysis fineness of partical test including organoleptic character .Clinical study: 26 patients of Ksheena shukra ( Oligospermia ) with confirmed diagnose are taken from the OPD section of P.G.R.C.DGM Ayurvedic medical collage hospital Gadag.Results: 1. Vanga bhasma prepared by following the classical method of Shodhana & Marana is proved as a genuine one. 2. Vanga bhasma is improving the quality & quantity of shukra, which is confirmed by the value of subjective & objective parameter, which has the stastatical ‘p’value < 0.001 3. By the statistical analysis it is comes to know that Vanga bhasma is statistically highly significant for all the subjective & objective parameters of Ksheena shukraInterpretation & Conclusion : 1. The dravyas which are mentioned in the classical procedure of Vanga shodhana & marana definitely convert the Vanga into pure Vanga bhasma & induces the disease curing property 2. Apamarga used for the Vanga jarana definitely reduces the specific gravity of the Vanga with the help of agni & vagorious rubbing with ladle converts the Vanga into Vanga powder. 3. Ayurvedic bhasma pariksha & modern physico-chemical analysis are the confirmative test for the complete formation of bhasma & its genuinity. 4. Vanga bhasma along with Apamarga moola churna & milk is the best remedy for Ksheena shukra.Key words: Ksheena shukra, Oligospermia, Vanga, Shodhana, Jarana, Marana, Physico-chemical analysis,Subjective & Objective criteria, Study duration, Milk
  18. 18. Introduction INTRODUCTION: Ayurveda is the most ancient system of medicine. Which is (mostly) based onits own fundamental principles theories or concepts. Which are deeply rooted into the oldestscriptures of Hindu veda i.e “Atharvanaveda”. It is an encylopedia of ancient eternal medicalwisdom in spite of its antiquity. (3,000 years old) it is being practicing even today all over theworld. Rasashastra, one of the branch of Ayurveda which is well developed byNagarjuna. Hence he is known as pioneer of Rasashastra. He practiced Ayurveda by usingrasa dravya’s i.e metals, minerals, gems etc, to achieve the aims of Rasashastra.i.eLohasiddhi & Dehasiddhi. Now Rasashastra holds topmost place in Ayurveda due to itsunique preparation’s – Rasabhasma’s, Kharaliya rasayana, Pottali Rasayana, Parpati rasayana,Kupipakwa rasayana and their utility. Bhasma’s are the unique solid dosage form of Ayurvedic preparation.Preparation of bhasma involves number of steps - shodhana, jarana then marana. In thesesteps minerals, metals, gems are processed with herbal / animal origin drugs. So that maritabhasma should posses desired pharmacological action. Standard bhasma should benishchandra, varitara, rekhapoorna & apunarbhava etc. Absorption, Assimilation, Excretion ofsuch bhasma is very quick and helps in faster recovery within a short period. In the same wayall moorchita rasayanas have nearly the same characters.Historical review: History reveals metals and minerals are therapeutically used from Rigvedaperiod. In samhita kala Charaka, Sushruta & Vagbhata practiced metals, minerals, gems as atherapeutic. Preparations of Vanga are practiced by our rasavaidyas since good old days. It is adrug of mineral origin described in Ayurveda. It can be used as a single drug or incombination either with mineral drug or with herbal drugs in certain diseases. It wasspecifically recommended for Prameha & Ksheenashukra. It was prescribed as a best rasayanawhile explaining its efficacy in shukrakshaya. Rasavaidyas have described veryauthentically.i.e 1
  19. 19. Introduction “ VANGA BHAKSHATO NARASYA NA BHAVIAT | SWAPNEPI SHUKRA KSHAYAM || ” Rasatarangini-19 chapter.Many rasa vaidyas called vanga as shukrala dhatu, vrushya which indicates its main use .According to Rasaupanishat- “SARVESHAMEVA LOHANAM BALAVAN VANGA MUCHETE” Rasaratna samuchchayakara are while highlighting the efficacy of Vanga bhasma, hementioned “Godheko tanga aour adamiko vanga”. So in this way Vanga bhasma is veryeffective in shukrakshaya and shukrameha. According to Indian maetriamedica Vangabhasmais best drug in sexual disability and impotency. The dream and desire for progeny is never ending. Every body wants to keep thefamily tree growing. There is a myth amongest the people that is more of a womens problem.In fact a male is also equally prone to the problem. Our society, having the reputation of maledomination, if a couple fails to conceive, the women is blamed and put fault. Inability toconceive can lead to psychological as well as social problem. The person without progeny iscondemned and neglected in society. It is cleared by charakas words that the man alone lookslike a tree having only one branch shadeless, fruitless and with foul smell. According to WHO survey in 1996, 15% of couple experience relative orabsolute infertility in which male infertility is 8%. Who are suffering from sexual dysfunctionover 75% of men with infertility, have poor semen quality. So most common cause for maleinfertility is Ksheenashukra (Oligospermia). The WHO static of year 1967 research reveais that 18% of infertility is due to males.Where the sperm count is less than 20 million / ml and motility less than 4 hours afterejaculation. Common lakshanas of the Ksheenashukra are medravedhana, vrushanavedhana, maithunashaktata, chiratpraseka, alparakta shukradarshana, dourbalya, mukashosha,pandutwa, sadana, shrama etc. General investigation used to diagnose the disease are HB%,RBS, Semen analysis, fructose study and serum hormonal study. According to modern science Oligospermia or sexual disability may be due tomental disturbance, as secondary in Diabetes mellitus, Multiple sclerosis and some timesdeformity in Endocrinal glands, which play an important role in reproduction. So treatment is 2
  20. 20. Introductionalso according to the causes and hormonal replacement. But modern drug shows number ofcomplications like metabolic disturbance and carcinogenic effect in long run. Vanga bhasma shows multidimensional properties i.e dose is very smallduration is short, economic, and best balyadravya, dhatu sthoulyakara keeping in view of theabove facts it was felt to conduct a study to analyisis the efficacy of vanga bhasma by clinicaltrails. Here the objective cretiria for assessing the drug efficacy is qualitative and quantitativechange in the semen. The present work----- THE PREPARATION, PHYSICO – CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF VANGABHASMA AND ITS CLINICAL EVALUVATION IN KSHEENASHUKRA(OLIGOSPERMIA). This desertation is presented in 7 chapters i.e Chapter Content 1. Introduction 2. Objectives 3. Literary review a. Drug review 1. Cocept of Vanga in Ayurveda view 2. Concept of Vanga in Modern view b. Disease review 1. Shareera ( Anatomy & physiology) 2. Nidana ( Pathology ) 3. Chikitsa ( treatment ) 4. Methodology 1. Pharmaceutical study 2. Analytical study 3. Clinical study 5. Results 1. Observation 2. Result 6. Discussion 7. Summary & Conclusion 3
  21. 21. Introduction OBJECTIVES Vanga bhasma is indicated in many disorders like Mootra margagata vikara, Twakavikara, Pradara roga and in Ksheenashukra. It is necessary to establish its efficacy by clinicalstudy with support of Ayurvedic as well as modern parameters, in order to evaluate geneunityof Vanga bhasma, so the present study is planned. The main aim & objectives of the study areas fallows. 1. Preparation of Vanga bhasma. 2. Physico-chemical analysis of Vanga bhasma. 3. Clinical evaluation of Vanga bhasma on Ksheena shukra (Oligospermia). 4
  22. 22. Review of Literature. Vanga DRUG REVIEWVANGA IN AYURVEDIC CONCEPT Metals are familiar to Indian physicians since antiquity. Including their differentcharacters & uses . This is well substantiated & data has been well documented in Vedas & wefind plenty of references pertaining to various metals like Swarna, Rajata, Loha, Trapu (vanga). Vanga is a metallic drug used in many form. In ancient times it was beingliberally used in coating the other metals & hardening the soft metals by observing the factors,the history of vanga can be classified into four periods 1. Vedic period 2. Samhita period 3. Rasashastra period 4. Nigantu period 1. Vedic period: The word “Trapu” has been mentioned to the metal vanga in (Yajurveda & Atharvanaveda) the Vedas and it is derived from the Sanskrit root “Tap” meaning a sense of Ashma. Rigveda also mentions about metals like gold, silver and bronze (which is an alloy of tin (vanga). In Athervana veda vanga is correlated with other dhatus. In this veda loha’s are compared with the colour of the dhatus. Ex: Flesh has the colour of shyama (Iron), blood has the colour of loha, totally it has the colour of tin & has the smell of lead. 2. Samhita period:- The official books of Ayurveda i.e Charaka samhita, Sushruta samhita & Ashtanga sangraha mentioned Vanga as one among the pancha loha i.e Suvarna, Rajata, Tamra, Vanga & Seesaka. In Charaka samhita, Sutrastana under dinacharya topic, while explaining the oral hygiene mentions that tongue scraper is to be made up of loha’s like Suvarna, Rajata, Tamra, Vanga & Seesaka etc. In charaka chikitsa sthana under kushta chikitsa, while explaining the mandala kushta chikitsa, the external application is made up of Loha choorna, Trapu choorna with Gomootra1. In Sushruta samhita, Uttara tantra 12 chapter refers to the use of Vanga choorna , Shilajatu, 5
  23. 23. Review of Literature. Vanga Rasanjana, Tuthya, Kaseesa. Loha, Trapu choorna, Kamalapatra, kshara, chandana choorna with honey as varti for Anjana in disease Raktabishandya. In the same chapter Vanga choorna with Swarna, Lavana, Ratana choorna, Kukkutanda twak choorna , Lashuna etc are prescribed as Lekhananjana2. Ashtanga sangraha 14 chapter, while explaining the treatment for diseases of Netrasandhi & mandala. Anjana is prepared out of powder of precious minerals like Tamra, Loha, Seesa, Trapu, Manashila, Samudralavana, Kukkutanda, Saindhava choorna with honey is mentioned3.3. Rasashastra period :- The period in between 8-9 A.D is the golden period for Rasashastra. In this period the father of Rasashastra, i.e lord. Nagarjuna has developed the science to the maximum extent. So during the Nagarjuna period the usage of preparations from metals & minerals was in full swing. The description of of vanga loha along with its synonyms, properties, purification therapeutric uses etc have been described extensively all most texts of Rasa shastra texts where Vanga loha is explained in detail. 1. Rasahridaya tantra 10 century 2. Rasarnava 12 century 3. Rasendra chintamani 14 century 4. Rasaprakasha sudhakara 14 century 5. Rasa ratna samuchchaya 14 century 6. Rasendra sara sangraha 14 century 7. Rasa kamadhenu. 17 century 8. Ayurveda prakash 17 century 9. Rasajalanidhi 20 century 10. Rasatarangini 20 century 11. Rasayoga sagara 20 century 12. Rasamritum 20 century 6
  24. 24. Review of Literature. Vanga4. Nighantu period :- Nighantu have good contribution for Ayurveda, following are the some of nighantus in which the Vanga is described extensively. Dhanvantari nighantu Madanapala ” Raja ” Saligram nighantu Bhavaprakash ” Shodal ” Synonyms of Vanga Synonyms play an important role in samskrit literature. Some times they indicate morphological structure, habitat, pharmacological property, availability & therapeutic value of the drugs, even synonyms facilitates to identify the drug properly. Following are the some important synonymes of vanga collected from different texts and their meanings. 1. Abheer :- Which gives confidence. 2. Banga :- Which was transported from Bangladesha in olden days. 3. Chippata:-Which melts easily. 4. Ghana:- Gains solid state very quickly. 5. Kasteera:- Shaining metal. 6. Kurupy:- If Vanga exposes to atmosphere for longer period it becomes dull. 7. Nagabhava:- Its properties are similar to Naga. 8. Nagaja:-It occurs along with lead ores. 9. Pichchata:- Which melts easily. 10. Puspa:- Molten vanga attains shape of flowers after pouring in liquid media. 11. Pootiganda:-Emits foul smell on heating. 12. Ranga:- Used for dyeing process. 13. Rangaka:- Used for dyeing process. 14. Roupya shastra:- Destroys the metallic properties of silver. 15. Simhala:- Occurs in Simhala desha. 16. Shukraloha:-Represents shukragraha, useful in shukravikara. 7
  25. 25. Review of Literature. Vanga17. Shweta:- White coloured metal.18. Swarnabhava:- Used in alchemy process of gold.19. Swarnaja:- Tin also occurs in gold mines.20. Shwetaroupya:-Looks like silver.21. Trapu:- Which melts easily.22. Trapusa:- Which melts easily.23. Vanga:- Also available in Vangadesha.24. Vangaka:- Also available in Vangadesha.25. Aneela:-Hydrogen is liberated when molten vanga is poured into the liquid.26. Chakra.27.Aleemaka.28.Neelika. VERNACULAR NAME Latin – Stannum Sanskrit – Vangam Kannada – Tavara Hindi – Ranga, Kathala English – Tin, pewter caly. Arbian – Rusas Abruz Barma – Khai,maphyn Douch – Kathil Malayalam – Vellithium Marathi – Kathil, Kaloi Persian – Urziz Telugu – Vangamu 8
  26. 26. Review of Literature. Vanga Synonymes of Vanga Table No.1Sl.No Name R.T R.R.S R.A A.P R.J. N R.K Mad.N D.N R.N K.N1 Vangaka + + + +2 Ranga + + + + + + +3 Shukralaha + +4 Kurupya + + +5 Trapu + + + + + + + + +6 Trapusha + + +7 Vanga + + + + + + + +8 Pichchata + + + + + + +9 Aleemaka +10 Vanga + +11 Gurupatraka + +12 Hima + + +13 Kasteera + +14 Mrudu vanga + +15 Nagaja +16 Pushpa +17 Pootigandha +18 Simhala +19 Shweta20 Abheera +21 Mukhabhushana +22 Shwetaroupya +23 Rupashankha24 Nigata25 Tiraka +26 Karati +27 Ganam + +28 Trapuka29 Aneela +30 Gurashresta +31 Lavana +32 Surati +33 Neelaka +34 Manduka +35 Madhura +36 Dashaahyam +37 Sheta38 Sheeta +39 Trapuka + +40 Kharati + 9
  27. 27. Review of Literature. VangaPRAPTI STHANA :- Usually Vanga is not available in muktavasta (Native form), but is in theform of oxide known as Vanga pathara (Tinstone). In India it is found in less quantity in Bihar.Specially in Burma & Bangla desh it is available in large quantity . So in olden days Vanga wasimported from vangadesha (Bangla desha) hence called as Banga, Vanga also found in Simhaladesha (Srilanka) hence Simhala. Vanga has been found in native form in Bolivia, Sayaberia &also found in nature in yougika form (mixed) i.e it contains Gandhaka (Sulphur) Silika, Loha(Iron), Tamra (copper) etc. by applying heat to this yougika form in presence of charcoal vangacould be separated. Vanga is also avialable abundantly in Malasia & Tennaserim.DESCRIPTION :- ±dg®dPdaTdz§Sd £dd«T®da›da ¡d¯dQ±df±dI¶a | ¬ddîUµaŸdz£dy «d£dZ ±d§£dQd£d®ddye›deT±daªd®dZ || Ad.§d 3/2 According to ancient classics vanga is one among the sapta dhatus and belongs topootiloha group. It melts quickly on heating and produces bad smell (Loathsome) while beingmelted. Vanga is metal like silver malleable having low melting point. When molten vangapoured in liquid media it takes the shape of flowers and the properties of vanga are same as thatof Naga. Vanga is commonly used for coating copper & bronze vessels and in preparation ofdyes. In alchemy, vanga is used to convert lower metals into higher metals. The efficacy of vanga bhasma in shukra kshaya prameha etc. has been extensivelydescribed in ayurvedic classics, as • “ Vangam bhakshayato narasya na bhuvet swapneapi shukra krayam” || R.T • “ Simha yatha hastiganam nithanti tathaiva vanga akhila mehavargam” || R.TBHOUTIKA GUNAS OF VANGA :- Varna (colour) – Sweta Sparsha (Touch) – Mrudu snigdha Apekshita gurutwa – 118.7 10
  28. 28. Review of Literature. Vanga 0 Melting point – 232 C Boiling point – 22700CVanga is softer than gold, harder than lead.Lighter than lead & malleable metal.VANGA BEDHA :- šdgTšda e«dÚdI¶a Ÿdye£d Ùfe®dQa ®da›da «dgŸSd£dy | šdjT £dÎd ›dgPdz: ÚdyÝa e«dÚdI¶a ¦d eUµ£da «d£d«dŠ || T.¤d.-18µ In ayurvedic literature two varieties of vanga have been described4 . 1) Khuraka vanga 2) Mishraka vanga. In these two Khuraka vanga is said to be better than Mishraka vanga for medicalpurpose. Some Acharyas are having openion of Mishraka vanga is unfit to use in medicine. In Rasakamadhenu, Rasarnavam, Vanga is classified in two types based on its 5colour . 1) Shweta vanga 2) Krishna vangaAmong these two shweta vanga is laghu, mrudhu, snigdha, is supposed to be best one.CHARACTERS OF EACH KIND OF VANGA :- ¥d®d¬da «dmQg¬da e±¦d›¥da Q„h£dQ„d®d«dŠ ±d›ddzT®d«dŠ | e¦d¯Sd©Qa šdŠj¶T®d®d¦›dZ ±SddQ e«dÚdI¶ ¯Sdd«dd¯dgªTI¶a || T.T.±d- 5/152 1) Khuraka vanga:- Khuraka vanga is white in colour, smooth to touch, melts easily on heating , heavy in weight. When melts it will not produce much sound 6. 2) Mishraka vanga:- Q„d®dy Ae£d I¶£dfPda TŠm´d£®d¦Sd¥dd£dge«deÚd£da | ¥dg±dTa I¶Mµf¦dŸdz®d e«dÚdI¶a ®d¦›d«dgŸSd£dy || T.£d.-27/8 Mishraka vanga does not melt easily, it is rough to touch when mixed with other metals like loha it becomes dull black (ash) in colour and hard in nature 7. 11
  29. 29. Review of Literature. VangaGRAHYA VANGA LAKSHANA:-šdgTI¶dT®Sd¶¯dg¸¶¬ddîUµa «ddTPddSd §TŠ¯d¯Sd£dy |e«dÚdI¶ UyµSd«ddSd£®d£d T±d£daÎda e®dŸd´d£dy || T.£d-18/5 Khuraka vanga is supposed to be good for medicinal use , where as mishrakavanga is not so useful 8 . Various references explain that the vanga which is having following charactersis best one i.e vanga must be shweta , mrudhu, swachcha, snigdha,sheetala, easily melting &easily malleable. CONCEPT OF SHODHANA AND MARANA Invention of metal brought a great change in the life style of early man. As he went oninvesting various metals, he understood their uses and utilized them for various purposes. Whenobserved medicinal values in metals he started using them as medicine. During samhita period metals were used only in the form of raja (choorna) but after the8th century a scientific study of metals was carried out for their therapeutic values. Till lastcentury even in western medical sciences, metals are used for therapeutic purposes but afterobserving some of their toxic effects, the usage of some metals was ceased. Rasavaidyas too had the knowledge of toxic effects of metals and minerals but wereusing rasoushadhis, were are free from adverse effects by virtue of unique procedures (shodhana& marana) adopted by them in detoxifying the metals, these procedures not only make a mineralor metal free from the toxic effects but also make them to absorbable and therapeuticallyeffective with a minimum dose for a maximum and quick result. Hence Rasoushadhis arewidely used by Ayurvedic physicians without the fear of adverse effects.A¬§d «ddÎddî§dSddye›d£®dd£dŠ AèŸdyT§T±da›d£ddZ |´d§T«ddTdy›SdQdSd£®dd£dŠ Adz°d¥dªãdye¥dI¶TdyT±dZ || T.±dd.±da While preparing medicine, Ayurvedic acharyas were of opinion that when a medicine isadministered in a particular disease it should only cure that disease but should not cause anyother diseases or adverse effect. 12
  30. 30. Review of Literature. Vanga Keeping the above in consideration various shodhana & marana procedure are explainedin Rasa shastra classics9.MERITS:- 1. These procedures involve physico-chemical action in order to activate the inorganic substances (may be from neerindriya state to sendriya state). 2. These procedures not only remove the toxic effects of a drug but also the various herbs used to act on metals, so as to enhance the pharmacological action of a drug.SHODHANA 10 :- DeÔÝzTdz°d¥dzZ ±ddØa e¸¶Sd£dy §dy°d¦ddeQI¶a | «d¬de®deŸJµ¦£d¤dy Sdd£dg ¯ddy¥d¦da £deQUµdyŸŸSd£dy || T.£d-2/52 µ Shodhana is a process by which impurities are removed from a substance byimplementing prescribed methods like mardana etc. This indicates by shodhana, impurities &toxic qualities are removed from the drug and to induce certain qualities which are essential forfurther procedures.Classification:- Shodhana has been divided into two. 1. Samanya shodhana 2. Vishesha shodhana. Vanga has an explosive tendency, while pouring in shodhana dravya it may cause injury, to avoid this, one special apparatus is designed and this is known as Pithara yantra. Pithara yantra:- It contains mainly one metal (loha) bhanda & is covered with iron or mud lid having 2 cms hole at its center. 1. Samanya shodhana of vanga11:- The common procedure for group of dravya or metal is called Samany shodhana. £dz¬dy £d¸y¶ ›d®dd«dgÎdy UµT¦dd¬dy Ig¶¬¬d£Sd¡dy | ¸¶«dde¦d°dyŸSd£d§£da Q„d®dy Q„d®dy £dg ±d§£d¥dd || ±®dPdd‰eQ¬ddyUµ§dÎddPdda ¯dgeÔTy°dda §d‚¯d±Sd£dy || T.T.±d 5/13 In this Vanga is melted and poured in medias like Tila taila (Sesame oil), Takra (Butter milk), Gomootra (Cow’s urine), Aranala/kanjika (Weak organic acid), Kulaththa (Horse gram decoction), 7 times in each media. 13
  31. 31. Review of Literature. Vanga2. Vishesha shodhana:- Generally samanya shodhana is planted to remove certain impurities but Vishesha shodhana is a plan to induce certain therapeutic values in particular drug. In rasagranthas various vishesha shodhana procedures are mentioned for vanga. But all this can be grouped into two types. i. Swedana ii. Nirvapana. i. Swedana :- It is carried out in dolayantra containing choornodaka for 3 hours12,13. ii. Nirvapana :-Vanga is melted and poured in shodhana media mentioned below for 7 times were each time fresh drava dravya is to be taken.14 to 23 14
  32. 32. Review of Literature. Vanga Shodhana media according to different authoritiesSl. Drug R.T R.A R.R.S R.P.S A.P R.chu B.R.R.Su R.Sa.Sa R.K R.J.No Ni1 Sudha jala +2 Arka + + + dugdha3 Haridra+Nir + + + + + + gundi swarasa4 Takra + +5 Kumari + + swarasa6 Nirgundi + + swarasa7 Bhallataka + taila8 Kanji +9 Gomootra +10 Snuhi + + ksheera11 Bhrungaraja + swarasa12 Mutra varga +13 Amla varga +14 Kshara + varga Table no.2 15
  33. 33. Review of Literature. VangaMARANA: «ddTSd£dy ¦d¯Sd£dy ªd±«df¸¶fSd£dy Be£d | Marana means “killing” and converting a metal into non reversible and final form i,e bhasma.DEFINITION: The processes by which a metals, minerals or any hard substance is subjected to soaking, drying and ignition to convert bhasma is known as Marana.This marana process converts metals into fine state of smaller molecules and makes them so light as to be highly absorbable and assimilated after oral administration. 1) Marana is process by which metal looses its original state (metallic) still retains its originality (medicinal value) 2) By marana process drug is converted into a biologically acceptable form. This process consists of two stages : 1) .Bhavana: Mardana with some drava dravya for a specific period 2) Putapaka:Subjectig the drug for agnikarma at different temprature.MARANA OF VANGA: As the melting point of vanga is low, it melts readly when subjected to puta after shodhana, so does not reduce to bhasma.This in convenience can be rectified by following a unique method .i,e adding yavakuta choorna of some antagonistic drugs like Apamarga, Ashwatwak, Kukkutanda twak choorna etc.on molten metal slowly and agitating then rubbing with iron ladle vigoriosly, by this molten metal is converted into powder form, this procedure is known as Jaarana by modern Ayurvedic scholars (Damodar joshi & C.B.jaw). Here the word jarana refers to jeerna or shitilata of metallic state of a metal.This may be called as intermediate procedure or conversion phase, for this procedure various drugs of herbal, mineral and animal origion are mentioned.The list of such drugs are as follows : 16
  34. 34. Review of Literature. VangaDrugs used for jarana of vangaHERBAL DRUGS MINERALS ANIMAL1. Apamarga 1.Abhraka 1.Karkata shringa2. Ashwatha 2.Haratala 2.Kukkutanda twak3. Arka 3.Karpura 3.Mukta shukti4. Babbula 4.Makshika 4.Shanka5.Bhallataka 5.Manashila 5.Varatika6.Chincha 6.Parada7.Haridra 7.Saindhava8.Jeeraka 8.Shilajatu9.Palasha 9.Tankana10.Punarnava 10.Suryakshara11.Pippali12.Snuhi kshira13.Tila14.Vata twak15.Yavanika16.Vanya karpas Table no.3Only after jarana pootilohas should be subjected to further procedure . Marana mainly consists of following steps: 1) Bhavana 2) Formation of chakrikas (pellets) 3) Arranging the chakrikas in sharava 4) Sealing of sharava (sandhi bhandhana) 5) Puta (Heating) 17
  35. 35. Review of Literature. VangaA.Bhavana: Jarita vanga is mixed with kumari swarasa or shatavari swarasa & triturated well inkhalva yantra for a specified period till the liquid added is dried and mass attaines semisolidstate.B.Formation of chakrika: When mass attains semisolid state then it is made into chakrikas of uniform size, shape& thickness, then dried in shadow.C.Arranging chakrikas in sharava: Dried chakrikas are kept in earthen sharava and another sharava of same size is placedin inverted form over the first sharava.D.Sealing the sharava: The gap between the two sharava to be sealed by means of cloth smeared with mud ormultanimitti for seven times & dried.This sealing is done to avoid the entry of air and loss ofmaterial, now this apparatus is called as sharava samputa.E.Putam: The dried sharava samputa is to be kept in a pit filled with layers of cowdung cakes.More cowdung cakes are placed at the sides, bottom and over the samputa then it subjected toheating.The size of pit & number of cowdung cakes depends upon the substances selected forputa.Generally ardha gaja puta for 7 times is advised for vanga. After the first puta chakrikas are removed out and subjected to mardana with kumariswarasa and once again chakrikas are made and dried in shadow. Then chakrikas are sealed insharava samputa & subjected to puta.Some acharyas mentioned preparing the pottali instead ofpreparing the sharava samputa & it is to be kept in chincha kshara then it is subjected to puta. Various methods of marana have been explained in classics which are listed below: th1.One part of vanga & 1/16 part of parada to be taken in a iron vessel & subjected to agni. When vanga starts to melt, then add shodhita Haratala little by little & stirr continuously by means of vanyakarpas stick till vanga is reduced to powder.24,252.Vanga is subjected to Jarana with Apamarga panchanga churna/Ashwath twak when it completely undergoes Jarana, wash it with water. Then add Kumari swarasa, triturate it well, when it attains semisolid state made into chakrikas & put in sharawa samputa. Then subjected to Ardhagaja pata, the same process is repeated for 7 times.26 to 31 18
  36. 36. Review of Literature. Vanga3.Vanga is subjected to agni in iron vessel, when it melts, add ¼ part of parada & ½ part of shodita haratal triturate it well till it becomes fine choorna. Then it is subjected to bhavana with Arka dugdha & made into chakrika. Put such chakrika in shrava samputa which contains Ashwatha twak, then it is subjected to puta. Such process is repeated for two times.324. Foils of pointed vanga are to be smeared with Haratala and Arka ksheera / Palasha swarasa subjected to laghu putam with the ashes of bodhi & chincha.33 to 395. Apamarga jarita vanga is subjected to marana with the chincha kshara in Ardha gajaputa. Such two puta converts the vanga in to bhasma.406. Shodhita vanga is subjected to Jarana with Palasha, Haratala, Ajwana, Sorakashilajatu, Apamarga. Then it is put in gajaputa along with chincha bark. Such two ardha gajaputa definitely converts vanga into bhasma.417. Vanga is converted into bhasma, it is subjected to puta along with 20 parts of Atasichurna & Ajavana, & for second puta it is mixed with ¼ part of Haratal & equal quantity of kshara’s, by such putas vanga will be converted into bhasma.428. Vanga is converted into bhasma, if it is subjected to Ardhgajaputa along with Ashwath, Chincha bark choorna, Tila by such 10 putas convert Vanga into bhasma.439.Vanga is converted into vanga bhasma when it processed with equal quantity of Haridra & ¼ part of Kalmisora & then kept in sharava samputa, subjected for gajaputa. Such processes repeated for two times.4410.Vanga is put in an iron pan subjected to heat, when it melts , add ¼ part of haratal & 1/8 part parada, triturate with Agastya vruksha dandu till it is converted into bhasma.4511.Surya kshara jarita vanga is mixed with equal quantity of haratal, subjected to mardana with nimbu swarasa. Then chakrikas are made & put into the sharava samputa, subjected to gajaputa. Such 10 gajaputas convert vanga into bhasma.4612.Vanga bhasma can be prepared by subjecting to jarana with equal quantity of Haridra, Ajavana, Jeera, Chincha & Ashwaththa. Then it is subjected puta, it is definitely converted into bhasma.47,4813. Leaves of vanga are reduced to ashes, if they are subjected to puta, after having been smeared with Haritala rubbed with juice of palasha.49 19
  37. 37. Review of Literature. Vanga14.Vanga is reduced to ashes if it is subjected to agni made of Chincha, Palasha, Ashwaththa wood after having been mixed with oil or essence of Bhallataka and wrapped with a piece of cloth.5015. Vanga is incinerated if subjected to putam for seven times after having been mixed with Haritala and rubbed with Arka dugdha, dry barks of Ashwaththa tree being placed on all sides of the vanga while confined with in the samputa.5116. Vanga bhasma can be prepared, if it is subjected to heat by Putam, after having been smeared with a paste made of Makshika and Haratala duly rubbed with the Palasha patra swarasa.52TESTS FOR BHASMA:-In Rasashastra some tests have been specified to confirm the standards of prepared vangabhasma. The test are divided into –1.Test for physical nature: 2.Test for chemical nature:* Varitaratwa * Niruttha* Unamatwa * Apunarbhava* Rekha poornatwa * Gata rasatwa* Anjana sadrasha sukshmatwa *Vishesha varnotpatti.* Mrudutwa & Shlakshnatwa.TEST FOR PHYSICAL NATURE:53 These indicates fineness and other physical properties of bhasma. 1) Varitara:- According to this test, a properly prepared vanga bhasma when sprinkled over water in a beaker, it floats on the surface and does not sink., it is known as Varitara. By means of puta, the practical of bhasma become light and attain a state of fine consistency and they can not break the surface tension of water as it happens normally. 2) Unmatwa:- This test is similar to the test of Varitaratwa with little modification after testing the Varitaratwa of bhasma, small food grains are directly placed over the layer of bhasma. Which is floating over the water and if food grains don’t sink and continue to float , then the bhasma is supposed to the quality of Unmatwa. This is an advanced test of Varitaratwa & denotes more Laghuthwa. 20
  38. 38. Review of Literature. Vanga 3) Rekha poornatwa:- This is an another test which indicates the fineness of bhasma. Here the bhasma when held in between the thumb and index fingers rubbed, if bhasma enters the furrows of fingers, the test known as Rekhapoornatwa. This indicates that the particles of bhasma have attained fine state that they could be easily absorbed into the system when administered. 4) Anjana sadrusha sukshmatwa:- Little amount of bhasma is used in eyes as anjana, if bhasma causes irritation to the eye then bhasma should be further subjected to some more putas. This test shows whether all particles of bhasma have reached the required state of fineness. 5) Mrudutwa & Sookshmatwa:- Physical properties of bhasma should be Mrudu & Sookshma to touch. This is due to the fineness of bhasma particles and bhasma does not prove positive, this indicates the bhasma needs more putas.TEST FOR CHEMICAL NATURE 54:- These are some test for bhasmas in which chemical action & reaction areexpected. Here Niruthathwa and Apunarbhavatwa are important tests. Both these tests indicatesthe non-attainment of original form of the metal.1. Apunarbhavata:- If marita bhasma is mixed with mitra panchaka dravyas (Ghrita, Madhu, Guggula, Gunja & Tankana) enclosed in sharava samputa & heated at the temperature same as while preparing bhasma. If this process do not yield orignal metal then bhasma is considered to be Apunarbhavatwa.2. Niruthathwa:- In this test specified quantity of pure silver and vanga bhasma is placed in a crucible and subjected to agni karma. If bhasma is apakwa then free particals get deposited on silver & silver weight increases. If bhasma is pakwa their will be no change in weight of the silver.3. Nichandratwa:- Chandrika is the natural luster of a metal, absence of luster indicates conversion of metal into bhasma form. For this test small quantity of vanga bhasma is taken in between index & thumb finger rubbed vigorously & exposed to sunlight and viewed very carefully for presence of metallic luster, indicates apakwatha of bhasma, so needs more puta.4. Gatarastwa:- After completion of marana process, generally the bhasma will be tasteless. This is to be tested by tounge, if taste is present indicates apakwata of bhasma. 21
  39. 39. Review of Literature. Vanga 5. Vishishta varnotpatti:- Means the attainment of an appropriate colour. In the contest of preparation vanga bhasma the attainment of colour is white / whitish yellow colour. Characteristics of incinerated vanga:- Properly incinerated vanga should be laghu, sheeta and ruksha. Bad effects of improperly prepared vanga bhasma:- Unpurified and not properly incinerated vanga bhasma, if taken internally not only causes following diseases, but also shortens the longevity. Ashmari, Shwayathu, Meha, Kushta, Kshaya, Bagandhara, Gulma, Pandu, Mootrakruchra, Jwara etc. Antidote of impurified bhasma:- Meshashringi choorna + Honey should be given for 3 to 4 days or till disappearance of toxic effect.55 PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES:Sl. Name of Lavana Katu Tikta Kasha Ushna Sheet Katu Lagh She Ushna Ruksha SaraNo classics ya a u eta1 R.T + + + + + + + + + +2 R.R.S + + + + +3 R.J.N + + + +4 R.K + + + + + +5 R.P.S + +6 A.P + + +7 R.A +8 R.Ch + + +9 R.S.S + + + + +10 B.R.R.S +11 M.M +12 D.N + + + +13 R.N + + + + +14 K.N + + + + Table no.4 22
  40. 40. Review of Literature. Vanga Rasa, Guna, Veerya, Vipaka and Prabhava these are the five basic parameters to evaluatethe pharmacological action of drug. Pharmacological properties of vanga have been explainedsystematically in classics as follows- Pharmacological properties of vanga according to various authoritiesBy observing the above table vanga bhasma is having the following properties-Rasa – Tikta, Lavana, . Guna – Rooksha, LaghuVirya – In rasa classics there are two opinions regarding the virya of vanga. Some Acharyasmentioned virya of vanga as ushna and others as a sheeta virya, but Rasataranginikar clarifies bythe giving the following qutation .®d¦›dd ›da¥ddeQSddy›dy¦d «ddeT£da £dg°Pd£dda ©dm¡dy£dŠ |´ddTdeQ¦dda «dm£dŸŸdyUµa ¯df£d£dd Sde£d e¦dªd‰±«da || T.±d-27/45If vanga marana is done along with Gandhaka, Haratala etc. Then vanga obtains Ushna virya. Ifvanga is incinerated along with Apamarga kshara, Chincha kshara etc. Then it obtains Sheetavirya.Vipaka:- All the Rasashastra classics have agreed that the vipaka of vanga bhasma is Katu.ACTION OF VANGA BHASMA ON DOSHAS:- Due to its tikta - kashaya rasa and rooksha & laghuguna it metigates pitta(pittashamaka). lavana rasa & ushna veerya metigates vata.ACTION OF VANGA BHASMA ON DHATU AND UPADHATU:- Rasa dhatu – Kantikaraka, dahaprashamana, varnya. Rakta dhatu – Raktadoshanashka. Mamsa dhatu – Vriddikara. Medha dhatu – Medhahara Asti dhatu – Balakara Shukra dhatu – Shukra vardhaka Artava – Artava vikaranashaka. 23
  41. 41. Review of Literature. Vanga ACTIONS OF VANGA BHASMA ON SROTAS:- Bahya srotas: Abhyantara srotas: Vrunaropana 1.Pranavaha srotas – Kasa – Swasa Bahyakrimihara 2. Annavaha srotas – Deepana – Pachana Mukha durgandhahara 3. Raktavaha srotas – Rakta shodhaka 4. Mootravaha srotas – Mootra sangrahakara 5. Prajanana ” - Vrushya shukra vardhaka Artava vikara nashaka. 6. Manovaha ,, - Medhya 7. Jnyanendriya ,, - Chakshushya 8. Swedavaha ,, - Swedahara Therapeutic uses:- During samhita period vanga churna was chiefly used for external application in some diseases. In Rasa granthas and Nighantu vanga bhasma is used in various diseases listed as below. Indication of vanga bhasma in various diseasesSl. Diseases R. R.R. R.J. R. A. R. R.Ch R.S. B.R. R.P.S M. D.N R. K.NNo T S N K P A S R.S N N1 Prameha + + + + + + + + + + + + +2 Medhovikara + + + + + + + + +3 Shukrakshaya + + + + + + + + +4 Vruna + + + + +5 Netravikara + + + + +6 Shwetapradara + + + + + + + +7 Pandu + + + + + + + + +8 Kasa + + + + + + +9 Swasa + + + + + +10 Kushta + + +11 Raktapitta + + + + + +12 Shosha + + +13 Agnimandya + + + +14 Krimighna + + + + + + + + + + + +15 Adhmana + +16 Manovikara + +17 Kshaya + +18 Swapnameha + + + +19 Garbhashaya + + chyuti Table no.5 24
  42. 42. Review of Literature. VangaAnupana of vanga in various disease 56,:- 1. Vanga cures bad smell of mouth if it is taken along with Kharpura (Campor). 2. It is nutritive & useful in premature ejaculation if it taken with Jatiphala or Tamboola patraswarasa. 3. In ksheena shukra it is to be used along with Apamarga mula choorna / Tulasi patra swarasa / Haridra / Kasturi / Musli. 4. In pandu roga it should be given with butter milk / ghee. 5. In general weakness given with honey. 6. In amlapitta & rakta pitta it is administered with Haridra. 7. In allivated pitta given along with Sugar candy. 8. To stimulate agni given along with Pippali churna. 9. In prameha given along with Guduchi satwa & Shila jatu. 10. In twak vikara given along with Khadiradi kwatha. 11. In Shweta padara given along with Loha bhasma and Shukti bhasma . 12. In Shwasa given along with Tamra bhasma. 13. In Krimiroga given along with Madhu & Karanja swarasa. 14. In Asthigata jwara given along with Sitopaladi churna, Navaneeta & Madhu. 15. In Gulma given along with Tankana. 16. In Raktapitta given along with Haridra. 25
  43. 43. Review of Literature. VangaDESCRIPTION OF DRUGS USED FOR SHODHANA, JARANA,MARANA &ANUPANA DRAVYA 1. Tila taila57: B°d£I¶°ddSddy «d¥dgTZ ±de£d™£dZ ±da|›TdeUµI¶ e§dÏdI¶ T±£d¤ddy°PdZ | e£d¬ddy e®d§ddIy¶ «d¥dgTdy ©de¬dÝZ e±¦d›¥ddy ®dmPdd¬dy§d¦dH®d§d¤SdZ || Q¦Sd¤ddyAe›¦d«dyœdd¡d¦d¦ddyA¬§d«dgÎd±£®dŸSddyA¤dIy¶¯SddyAe¦d¬dUµd›dgèÜd | E£d¬dy°dg ±d®d‰°®de±d£dZ §T¥dd¦ddy «d¥SdZ e±d£ddyUµf¦d£dT±£d¤dd¦Sdy || ±dg.¯dg 46/39.40 Rasa :- Madhura,Tikta, Kashaya Guna :- Ushna, Teekshna, Sukshma, Vishada, Vyavayi Vipaka :- Madhura, Veerya :- Ushna Doshakarma :- Kapha vata shamaka Karma :- Vrishya, Amapachaka2. Takra58 : £d¸¶a ¬dœdg I¶°ddSdda¬da Qf§d¦da I¶R¶®dd£de¡d£d | ¯ddyR¶dyQTd¯ddz›TUµePd Qdyy°dµ «djÎd›TUµdèeŸd || ›dg¬«d§¬dfUµ œähµ£d®Sdd§dQ›dT §ddPNgµ®dd«dSdd¦dŠ ¡dSdy£dŠ | A.±d 6/69-70 Takra is light, astringent, hot,& digestive stimulent, it allevates Kapha vata. It cures shotha,udara, grahini, arsha, mootragraha, aruchi, gulma, pleeha, ghrita vyapat & pandu roga. According to sushruta, Takra has madhura & amla rasa.3. Gomootra59: ›ddy«djÎda ¬dœdg £df´Pddy°Pda ±d´ddT£®dd£d ®dd£d¬da | ¬dœ®dde›¦dQf§d¦da «dy¥Sd e§dÏd¬da I¶ñR¶®dd£de¡d£dŠ || ±d.±dg 46/218 It is laghu, teekshna, ushna & alkaline, therefore it does not aggrevates vata. It is stimulent, promoter of intellect, aggrevator of pitta & allivator of kapha & vata. It is also used in purgation therapy & asthapana therapy. According to Indian maetriamedica Gomootra contains ammonia in concentrated form it is used in both internal & external medication.It also has an laxative & purgative nature so it is used in various medicinal preparation like Punarnava mandoora, Marichyadi taila.It is a good bio-availability enhancing drug. 26
  44. 44. Review of Literature. Vanga4. Kaanji60: Ig¶¬«dd°d¥dd¦Sd«dPNµdeQ±dae¥d£da I¶deP¡dI¶a e®dQgZ |µ ¯dd.±d.D-10/11 Liqour prepared with the manda of half boiled kulmash dhanya is Kaanji. I¶de¦¡dI¶a ªdyQ£df´Pddy°Pda TdyŸd¦da §ddŸd¦da ¬dœdga | QdUµ¡®dTUµTa ±§d¯d‰|£dŠ §dd¦dd£dŠ Ùd£dI¶ñR¶dñ§dUµ«dŠ | ªdd.§T. 21/2 It is purgative, teekshna, ushna, appetizer,carminative & light.When applied externally it cures daha & fever.When taken internally it allivates vata & kapha61.5. Kulaththa62: D°PdZ Ig¶¬d£Sddy T±d£dZ I¶°ddSdZ I¶Lgµe®d§ddIy¶ I¶ñR¶«ddè£dœ¦dZ | ¯dg¸¶¯«deT ›dg¬«d e¦d¯dQ¦dÜd ±da›TdUµI¶: §df¦d±dI¶d±dUµdeT || ±dg.±dg.46/37 The decoction prepared out of horse gram is ushna,kashya in rasa, katu vipaka , it allivates kapha & vata .It cures shukrashmari, gullma, sangrahani, pinasa and kasa.6. Nirgundi63: Latin name – Vites negundo Family - Verbinaceac Sanskrit -- Sephalika English – Five leaved chaste french tree Kannada - Bile yekki Usefull part – Root, fruit, flower, & leaves Rasa – Tikta, Kashaya & Katu Guna – Rooksha Veerya – Ushna Vipaka – Katu Dosha karma – Vata kapha shamaka 27
  45. 45. Review of Literature. VangaChemical Constituents – Leaves contain a colourless essential oil of the odour of the drug & a resin, Fruits contains an acid resin as astringent organic acid, malic acid, traces of alkaloid & a colouring matter. Actions – Leaves are externally used as a antiparasitic & powerfull discutient internally.Alternative aromatic bitter vermifuge, anodyne. Root is tonic, febrifuge, expectorant & nerving.Dried fruit acts as a vermifuge, flowers are cool & astringent.7. Haridra64: Latin name : Curcuma longa Family : Scitaminaceae English : Saffron turmeric Hindi – Haldi Sanskrit – Rajani, Gouri, Haridra & Nisha Usefull part – Tubers Rasa – Katu, Tikta, Guna – Rooksha Veerya – Ushna Vipaka – Katu Dosha karma – Kapha vata shamaka Chemical constituents – Essential oil, curcuma (C21 H20 O4 ), Yellow colouring matter, Turmeric oil or Turmerol, 24% starch & 30 % albumin. Action – Aromatic, Stimulent, Tonic, Carminative & internally juice is anti helmintic 28
  46. 46. Review of Literature. Vanga8. Apamarga65: Latin name – Achyranthes aspera Family – Amaranthaceae English – Prickly chalf flower Hindi – Chirchta Kannada - Uttarani Sanakrit – Shikari Usefull part – Panchanga Rasa – Katu & Tikta Guna – Laghu, Rooksha & Teekshna Veerya – Ushna Vipaka - Katu Dosha karma – Kapha vata shamaka Chemical constituents – Rich quantity of Kshara & Pottassium. Action – Vedana shamaka, Twak doshahara, Shirovirechaka & Raktashodhaka9. Kumari66: Latin name – Aloe vera Family – Liliaceae English –Indian aloe Hindi – Ghikavar Sanakrit – Kumari Kannada - Lolesara Usefull part – Patra swarasa Rasa – Tikta 29
  47. 47. Review of Literature. Vanga Guna – Rooksha Veerya – Sheeta Vipaka - Katu Dosha karma – Kapha pitta shamakaChemical constituents – Aloin resin 30 to 50 %, Volatile oil & ash 1%, also aloetic & chrysamic acids.Aloin is neutral active priciple obtained by digesting aloes in alcohol boiling, filtering & crystallizing. It occurs in tufts of yellow coloured crystal without any odour.Action – Leaf juice is used in abdominal disorders, warm infestations, dysurea, skindisorders, blood & spleen disorders.10. Godugda: Rasa – Madhura Guna – Snigda Veerya – Sheeta Vipaka - Madhura Dosha karma – Vata pitta shamaka Karma – Bramhana, Vrishya, Madhya, Balavardhaka, Jeevaniya & Asthisandhanakara Rogaghnata – Pandu, Rakta pitta, Yoni roga, Shukra dosha, Mootra roga, Pradara roga etc & it is pathya in vata pittaja vikara67 AÎd ›d®Sda £dg ¡df®d¦dfSda T±ddSd¦da | ´d£d´dfPdeUµ£da «dy¥Sda ©d¬Sda ±£d¦SdI¶Ta ±dTa || Úd«dªT«dQd¬d ¬de´«d±®dd±dI¶d±dde£dÎdgLµ ´dgQZ | ¡dfPd‰¡®dTa «djÎd¸g¶ŸJ…µa T™£de§dÏda Ÿd ¦dd¯dSdy£d || A.ähµ.±dg - 5/21-22 Cows milk promotes long life it is reguvinator good for those emaciated afterinjury, increases intelligence, strength & breast milk. It cures shrama, kasa, thrishna, jeernajwara, mootra krichra & rakta pitta68,69. 30
  48. 48. Review of Literature. Vanga CONCEPT OF TIN (VANGA) IN MODERN VIEWHISTORY:- Tin and its various alloy’s have been known since in ancient time. Homer has mentionedthis metal as a “Kassiteros”. The similarity between Greek word Kassiteros and Samskrit word“Castira” has been used as an argument in favour of the eastern origin of the metal. Romanscalled it “Stannum” from which the modern symbol “Sn” has been derived from the fourthcentury. The meaning of Stannum had changed to “Tin.”70 Tinstone is also known as Steamtin. The earliest known object made of pure Tin are a “Ring piligrim bottle” found inEgyptain. Tomas of 18th dynasty (1580 – 1350 B.C). However Tin ores are not found in Egypt.So Tin must have been imported. The carnish Tin industry was dated back to 360 – 200 B.C.and Tin was imported from cornwall into Itally, after that period Tin was known to SouthAmericans. Indians prior to Europian’s, Tin was not used by them to manufacture articles, butfor the preparation of Bronze with compositions. Hernam cortes found small pieces of Tin usedas a money among the native of taxco. When he arrived in Maxico in 1519. In Roman timesthere are number of evidences that Tinned copper vessels & art of coating other metals, Tin wasused.GEO-CHEMISTRY (OCCURANCE):- This metal is said to occur in native state in Siberia71 in small amount. The principleore of Tin is Tinstone ( Sno2) also known as cassiterite. The mineral ore is found intersphread inrocks especially in Granite. Tin stone contains 3.5 to 10% of Tin.72 It also exits along with thepyrite ore of copper, iron and zinc. But it is rarerly extracted out of them. Tin is more abundentin iron nickel ore of earth than in the crust. At the low temperature crystallized Tin deposits insulphuric minerals. At high temperature, it deposits in oxide crystallized form. Some of the oresof Tin and their occurance are given below. 31
  49. 49. Review of Literature. Vanga Ores of Tin & their occurrence Name Formula OccurrenceCasseterite Sno2 BolviaCylinderite Pb3Sn4Sb2S14 BolviaFranckeite Pb5Sn3Ssssb2S14 BolviaStannete Cu2FeSnS4 Bolvia and Cornwell center UropeArandisite Sn5(OH)8 (Sio4)8 South West AfricaCanfieldite Ag3SnS6 BolviaPlumbastannite Pb2Fe2Sn2Sb2S11 Peru Table no 6Principle suppliers of tin are Boliva, Malaysia, Indonesia, Nigeria, UK, Australia, China,Burma, United states,Japan etc. In India small amount of tin stone is available in Hajaribagh(Bihar)& Orissa.73Extraction:74,75,76 Metallic iron obtained from its ore tinstonewhich contains only 10% metal “SnO2” Therest being worthless gangue meterial siliceous.Tungsten of iron, Manganese, Iron pyrites,Copper, Arscenic. So the extraction of metal from “Tin stone” is carried out in the followingsteps. 1.Concentration of ore 2 Roasting 3 .Electromagnetic separation 4. Smelting 5.Refining1.Concentration of ore . The ore is crushed to a fine powder and is subjected to gravity separation.The oreparticles are washed in a steam of water, when the heavier ore particales settle at the bottom.Thelighter gangue material are washed away. 32
  50. 50. Review of Literature. Vanga2.Roasting: (Calcination) The concentrated ore is roasted in a large furnace then the impurities such as Arscenic,Sulphar, Antimony, Bismuth are converted in to oxides & volatilise away. The sulphides ofCopper and iron present in the ore are oxidized to their respective sulphates. S + O2 SO2 4As + 3O2 2As2O3 FeS + 2O2 FeSO4 4Sb + 3O2 2Sb2O3 CuS + 2O2 CuSO4The roasted ore is cooled & extracted with dilute sulphuric acid when copper & iron sulphatesare washed off. The tin oxide is relatively much more concentrated is called black tin.3.Electromagnetic separation: The heavier impurities like tungstates of iron & magnetic which are not separated bygravity separation are separated by magnetic separation.these impurities are slightlymagnetic.The crushed roasted ore is dropped on the belt moving around pulleys one of which ismagnetic. The magnetic material by virtue of its attraction to the magnetic pulley, falls directlybelow it while the non magnetic impurities away from it.4.Smelting: The roasted ore is mixed with anthracite in the ratio of 1: 4 & is subjected to heat in areverberatory furnace, when tin oxide is reduced to the metal. SnO2 + 2C = Sn + 2COA small amount of lime is added as flux. The molten metal is tapped out of the furnace.5.Refining: The refining of tin is done by a number of methods. 1) Liquation : The crude metal is heated on the inclined hearth of reverbratory furnace.When tin metal flows down leaving behind iron & copper. 33
  51. 51. Review of Literature. Vanga 2) Poling : The molten metal is stirred with the loggs of green word poles.Which iron & copper oxidised to their respective oxides.Tin so obtained is about 99% pure. 3) Electrolysis: Blocks of impure tin metal ore suspended in the electrolytic bath of fluosilicic acid and tin sulphate cathode is very pure tin metal plate or wire on passing the current tin metal deposits on the cathode the metal thus obtained is 99.9% pure. _______ Crushed in ______ ______ Washed with Mining of Ore Powdered Orewater stamp mills Rich Ore Floating process Dil. H2SO4 Roasting Black Tin Tin oxide Very Rich Ore CuSO4.FeSO4 Elimination S.As elimination Magnetic seperation Impure Tin metal PureTin Ore rich inTin Smelting Refining by Slag elimination 1. Liquation 2. Poling 3. Electrolysis Flow chart of extraction of Tin: 34
  52. 52. Review of Literature. VangaProperties of Tin 78,79,80 Tin is a soft ductile silver white lustrous metal which is readily extracted down.Theductility of tin is greatest 1000 c to 2000 c the metal is brittle enough to be powderd, but harderthan the lead,softer than zinc. It has a low elastic limit. When bent the cast metal emits acrackling sound called the “cry of tin”.This is caused by the grinding the crystals of the metalagainst one another within the bar when bent.The metal has two allotropic modifications.In theusual commercial form it is white metal.But when exposed to temprature below 130 c forsufficient time it becomes brittle and can be readly crushed to gray powder, spontaneously ifkept in cold climate for years it is named as tin peste or tin disease or tin plague. Tin melts at 2320 c & boils at 22600 c volatilazation occurs at 12000 c. It is autocatalytic & single grane of gray in contact with piece of white metal below transition tempraturewill start transformation.The transition temprature is given below.Gray (cubic) 180C White tetragonal 1700C white rhombic 2320C Liquid. α Sp.G.7.8 Sp.G.7.56 βGray Tin is called alpha Tin has diomand cubic structre. White tin is crystal is called as betatetragonal in structure . White tin is stable between 180 c to 1700 c convertion of white to graydoes not takes place accept at much lower temprature . 35
  53. 53. Review of Literature. Vanga Table shows physical properties of tin811.Atomic number 602.Atomic weight 118.693.Isotopes 112,114,120,122,1244.Electrons 2—8—18—18--45.Density 7.316.Melting point 231.90 c7.Boiling point 22600 c8.Volatilazation 12000 c9.Common oxidation states 0,+2,+4,10.Radious A0 1.40 011.Radious (ionic) A Tetravalent 0.7112.Ionisation potential first (volt) 7.3013.Oxidation potential M M++(volt) +0.13 Table no 7Chemical properties of tin 82,83,841.Action of air : Air has no action on tin at ordinary temprature but when heated to whiteness (1500---16000 c) in presence of oxygen it burns with bright flame giving stannic oxide. Sn + O2 SnO22.Action of halogens & sulphar: If the metal is heated in the atmosphere of chlorine or sulphar vapour. It readlycombines to form stannic chloride& stannic sulphide respectively. Sn + 2Cl2 SnCl2 Sn + 2S SnS2 36
  54. 54. Review of Literature. Vanga3.Action on acids: A) Tin slowly reacts with dilute HCL acid but reaction becomes rapid on heating withconcentrated HCL acid forming stannous chloride & producing hydrogen. Sn + 2HCL SnCl2 + H2 B) Dilute sulphuric acid has no action but concentrated acid dissolves the metal formingstannous sulphate producing hydrogen . Sn + H2SO4 SnSO4 + SO2 + 2H2O C) Dilute nitric acid reacts to forming stannous nitrate & ammonium nitrate 4Sn + 10 HNO3 4Sn (NO2)2 + NH4NO3 + 3H2O D) Hot concentrated nitric acid produces copious fumes of nitrogen dioxide & metastannicacid. Sn + 4HNO3 H2SnO3 + 4NO2 + H2O E) Organic acids have no action on tin4.Action on alkalies:- When metal is heated with alkali solutions it reacts to liberate hydrogen. Sn + 2NaOH + H 2O Na2SnO3 +2H2USES:- 1. Tin is used in the preparation of number of alloys such as solder, Britannia metal etc. 2. It is used in the preparation of collapsible tubes for toothpaste and various ointments. 3. The metal is extensively used in Tinning brass utensils. 4. It is largerly used in forming a protective coating over iron sheets or vessels etc. i.e for Tin plating. 5. Tin amalgam is used in making mirrors. 6. Tin foil used for wrapping cigarettes and other food materials. 7. Tin compounds are used in dyeing industry and as a reducing agent. 8. Tin compounds are having bactericidal, fungicidal activity. 37