“A CLINICAL EVALUATION OF MADHURA-TRIPHALA INTHE MANAGEMENTOF IRON DEFICIENCY ANAEMIA”                               By   ...
RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES,              KARNATAKA, BANGALORE.              SHRI. J. G. C. H. SOCIETY’S   ...
RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES,              KARNATAKA, BANGALORE.              SHRI. J. G. C. H. SOCIETY’S   ...
RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES,               KARNATAKA, BANGALORE.               SHRI. J. G. C. H. SOCIETY’S ...
RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES,              KARNATAKA, BANGALORE.                 SHRI. J. G. C. H. SOCIETY’S...
RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES,              KARNATAKA, BANGALORE.              SHRI. J. G. C. H. SOCIETY’S   ...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                             ACKNOWLEDGEMENT        I wish to record my gratitude towards the reverend Pres...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTand all the other technical and non-technical staff of the college for their co-operationand help.       In...
ABBREVIATIONS                    ABBREVIATIONSA.WØû                :   Ashtanga HrudayacÉ.xÉÇ               :   Charaka Sa...
LIST OF TABLES AND GRAPHS                             LIST OF TABLESSL.NO                                    TABLES1      ...
LIST OF TABLES AND GRAPHS31      Showing results of qualitative chemical tests conducted.32      Showing results of qualit...
LIST OF TABLES AND GRAPHS9        Presenting change in Alpamedaska.10       Presenting change in Nisaar.11       Presentin...
INTRODUCTION                                  INTRODUCTION       Ayurveda, the science of life is as old as the very exist...
INTRODUCTIONbodies. Human bodies tightly regulate iron absorption and recycling. Thus iron is suchan essential element of ...
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES               AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY   Review of the literature:          To review both Ayurv...
DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARI                                   GAMBHARIHISTORY:       Gambhari is one of the ingredient of most ...
DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARI                                 Table.1 Showing Gana and varga of Ghambhari.         aÉhÉ – uÉaÉï  ...
DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARI                                  ÌlÉÂÌ£ü1. aÇÉqpÉÉUÏ :         aÉÇ aÉÌiÉÇ ÌuÉpÉiÉÏïÌiÉ :|| (pÉÉ ÌlÉ...
DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARI  Table.2 Showing important Paryaya nama of the Ghambhari.mÉrÉÉïrÉ lÉÉqÉ     cÉ.xÉÇ xÉÑ.xÉÇ   A.WØû ...
DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARI                                                                           aÉÑhÉ                    ...
DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARIpÉåSMü                                                                         +   +¾Òû±            ...
DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARI               The word posology is derived form the Greek word “Posos” means how much  and “logos” ...
DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARI´ÉqÉ                       +                                            +            +ÌuÉwÉ         ...
DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARI   11. Draksha, Aragwadha, Kashamarya, decoction used in Pittajajwara.   12. Rasa of Dantiphala, is ...
DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARI                                          REFERENCES cÉUMü xÉÇÌWûiÉÉ:    1. mÉÉOûsÉÉcÉç AÎalÉqÉljÉÇ...
DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARI         aÉlkÉÌmÉÌS µÉSì¹ÉmÉrÉÇqÉ aÉhÉqÉÇ..................: |         ÌoÉsuÉÉÎalÉqÉljÉÇzÉÉålrÉÉMü M...
DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARI              ¤ÉÏUålÉÇ zÉÏiÉÌmɨÉblÉÇ xuÉÌSiÉÉmÉjrÉÇxÉåuÉlÉÉ : ||     (cÉ¢üS¨É)    A¹ÉÇaÉ WØûSrÉ   ...
DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARI    WûlrÉɲÉiɧÉÑwhÉÉSÉWûÌmɨÉU£ü¤ÉiÉ ¤ÉrÉÉlÉÇ : || (32-34) pÉÉuÉmÉëMüÉzÉ ÌlÉbÉhOÒû: (aÉÑQÒûcrÉÌS u...
DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARI                        MODERN DRUG REVIEWCLASSIFICATION:According to Benthem and Hooker’s system of...
DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARI                                 MORPHOLOGY:Family: VerbenaceaeThere are about 70 genera species 750...
DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARIStigma:    Shortly 2 fid.Seeds:     Erect or pendulous, separate in distinct cells.Species: Gmelina ...
DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARIPHARMACOGNOSY:                  Table.7 Characters of Gmelina arborea Linn. Fruit.       Characters ...
DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARIas parameters. An increase in percentage of ~2 and ~-globulin frsction, gain in bodyweight and alert...
DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARIPhotos:          Photo No 1.Gemilina arboria fiower          Photo No 2. Fruts of Gmelina arboria   ...
DRUG REVIEW - DRAKSHA                                                 DRAKSHA   HISTORY                     Draksha is wel...
DRUG REVIEW - DRAKSHA                                                      mÉrÉÉïrÉ lÉÉqÉÌlÉÂÌ£ü    1. qÉײÏMüÉ :        q...
DRUG REVIEW - DRAKSHA      UxÉÉsÉÉ                                            +           +                              +...
DRUG REVIEW - DRAKSHAmÉÑ̹                          +                  +       +     +      +ÂÍcÉMüÉUxÉ                   ...
DRUG REVIEW - DRAKSHA  Table.12 Showing important Prayoga of Draksha in different VyadhimÉërÉÉåaÉ      cÉ.xÉÇ   xÉÑ.xÉÇ A....
DRUG REVIEW - DRAKSHAAÉqÉÌrÉMü mÉërÉÉåaÉ1. The preparation with Draksha, Sariva, fried paddy, Pippali, honey and Shunthi, ...
DRUG REVIEW - DRAKSHA15. Roots of Danti, Dravanti, along with Maricha, Vishvabheshaja, Mridvika,   Chitaraka, are socked i...
DRUG REVIEW - DRAKSHAREFERENCES: cÉUMü xÉÇÌWûiÉÉ:1.    AjÉ TüsÉ uÉaÉï-      §ÉçwhÉÉ SÉWû euÉU µÉÉxÉ U£ü ÌmɨÉç ¤ÉiÉ ¤ÉrÉÉ...
DRUG REVIEW - DRAKSHA4. SìɤÉÉUxÉålɤÉÑUxÉålÉ uÉeÉÌmÉ cÉÔhÉïç ÌmÉoÉåiÉÌmÉ WûËUiÉÌMüiÉÉqÉç : |      qÉkÉÑMüeÉqoÉÑAeÉÑïlÉÉuÉ...
DRUG REVIEW - DRAKSHA       SìɤÉÉqsÉÉåYzÉlÉÉ xÉUÉ aÉÑÌuÉï uÉÉiÉÎblÉ MüTüÌmɨÉSÉ : || (301)  3. U£üÌmɨÉeuÉUµÉÉxÉ §ÉÑwhÉÉS...
DRUG REVIEW - DRAKSHA                         MODERN DRUG REVIEWCLASSIFICATIONAccording to Benthem and Hooker’s system of ...
DRUG REVIEW - DRAKSHA                                 MORPHOLOGYFamily:       VITACEAE:              There are about 11 ge...
DRUG REVIEW - DRAKSHAGenus:       Vitis Linn.Habit:        Shrubs usually cirrhose sarmentose often climbing to a great he...
DRUG REVIEW - DRAKSHAPHARMACOGNOSY:Mature dried fruit, a berry, is sticky and pulpy, dark brown to black in colour, oblong...
Tirphal in pandu, dg
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MADHURA-TRIPHALA IN THE MANAGEMENTOF IRON DEFICIENCY ANAEMIA, Patil Ramgonda. S.DRAVYAGUNA, SHRI. J. G. C. H. SOCIETY’S
AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, GHATAPRABHA.

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Tirphal in pandu, dg

  1. 1. “A CLINICAL EVALUATION OF MADHURA-TRIPHALA INTHE MANAGEMENTOF IRON DEFICIENCY ANAEMIA” By Dr. Patil Ramgonda. S. A dissertation submitted to the Rajjiiv Gandhii Uniiversiitty of Healltth Sciiences,, Ra v Gandh Un vers y of Hea h Sc ences Karnattaka,, Bangallore . Karna aka Banga ore In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of AYURVEDA VACHASPATHI - M.D (AYURVEDA) In DRAVYAGUNA Under the guidance of Dr. SUBHASH.V.BAGADE BAMS., MD (Ayu). Co-guide Dr. Sanjeev. L. Athani. BAMS., MD (AYU) SHRI. J. G. C. H. SOCIETY’SAYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, GHATAPRABHA. 2010
  2. 2. RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, KARNATAKA, BANGALORE. SHRI. J. G. C. H. SOCIETY’S AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, GHATAPRABHA. POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF DRAVYAGUNA Certificate by the guide This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “A ClinicalEvaluation of Madhura-Triphala in the Management of Irondeficiency Anaemia” is a bonafide research work done by Dr. PatilRamgonda. S. in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree ofAyurveda Vachaspathi – M.D (Ayurveda) in DRAVYAGUNA. Signature of the Guide Prof. Dr. Subhash Bagade. Date: BAMS., MD (Ayu) Asst.prof. Department of Dravyaguna Place: Ghataprabha Shri. J. G. C. H. Society’s Ayurvedic Medical College, Ghataprabha.
  3. 3. RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, KARNATAKA, BANGALORE. SHRI. J. G. C. H. SOCIETY’S AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE , GHATAPRABHA. POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF DRAVYAGUNA Certificate by the co-guide This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “A ClinicalEvaluation of Madhura-Triphala in the Management of Irondeficiency Anaemia” is a bonafide research work done by Dr. PatilRamgonda. S. in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degreeof Ayurveda Vachaspathi – M.D (Ayurveda) in DRAVYAGUNA. Signature of the co- guide Dr.Sanjeev. L. Athani BAMS, MD (Ayu) Date: Lect. Department of Dravyaguna Shri. J. G. C. H. Society’s Place: Ghataprabha Ayurvedic Medical College, Ghataprabha.
  4. 4. RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, KARNATAKA, BANGALORE. SHRI. J. G. C. H. SOCIETY’S AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, GHATAPRABHA. POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF DRAVYAGUNA Endorsement by the HOD, Principal/Head of the institution This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “A ClinicalEvaluation of Madhura-Triphala in the Management of Irondeficiency Anaemia” is a bonafide research work done by Dr. PatilRamgonda. S. under the guidance of Dr. Subhash Bagade AssistantProfessor. Department of Dravyaguna.Seal and signature of the HOD Seal and signature of the Principal Dr.Mayuresh Agate Prof. Dr.J.K.Sharma BAMS., MD (Ayu) MD (Ayu)Prof. HOD, Department of Dravyaguna Shri. J. G. C. H. Society’s AyurvedicShri. J. G. C. H. Society’s Ayurvedic Medical College, Ghataprabha.Medical College, Ghataprabha.Date:Date: GhataprabhaPlace:Place: Bidar
  5. 5. RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, KARNATAKA, BANGALORE. SHRI. J. G. C. H. SOCIETY’S AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, GHATAPRABHA. POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF DRAVYAGUNA Declaration by the candidate I here by declare that this dissertation/ thesis “A ClinicalEvaluation of Madhura-Triphala in the Management of Irondeficiency Anaemia” is a bonafide and genuine research work carriedout by me under the guidance of Dr. Subhash Bagade Asst Professor.Department of Dravyaguna.Date: Signature of the candidatePlace: Ghataprabha. Dr. Patil Ramgonda. S.
  6. 6. RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, KARNATAKA, BANGALORE. SHRI. J. G. C. H. SOCIETY’S AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE , GHATAPRABHA. POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF DRAVYAGUNA Copyright Declaration by the candidate I here by declare that the Rajiv Gandhi University of HealthSciences, Karnataka shall declare the rights to preserve, use anddisseminate this dissertation/ thesis in print or electronic format foracademic/ research purpose. Signature of the candidate Date: Place: Ghataprabha Dr. Patil Ramgonda S.
  7. 7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish to record my gratitude towards the reverend President His Holiness ShriJagadguru Gurusiddeshwara Mahaswamiji, Murusavira Matha, Hubli. And ShriB.R.Patil, Chairman, Shri. J. G. Co-op. Hospital Society and Research centre,Ghataprabha, for their noble support. I am very much indebted to my esteemed and respected guideAsst Prof. Dr.Subhash Bagade, M.D(Ayu), Registrar P.G. faculty, Department ofDravyaguna, for providing an opportunity to carry out this work under his ableguidance. I will be ever grateful for his invaluable guidance, constructive suggestions,love and affection and thought provoking ideas in every stage of this work. I consider it a great privilege to record my deepest sense of gratitude to mymentor and co-guide Dr.Sanjeev Athani, MD (Ayu), PG. Department of Dravyaguna,Shri. J.G.C.H.Society’s Ayurvedic Medical College and Research centre,Ghataprabha for his all timely support. It is my duty to thank and profound sense of respect to Dr.B.K.H.Patil, CEO,Shri. J. G. Co-op. Hospital Society and Research centre, Ghataprabha for providingme an opportunity in the institution for my Post Graduate Studies. I also express mysincere gratitude to and offer my sincere thanks to Dr.C.S.Banakar, MedicalSuperintendent for his kind support and co-operation. I also express my sincere gratitude to and offer my sincere thanks toDr. J.K.Sharma, Principal, Shri. J.G.C.H.Society’s Ayurvedic Medical College andResearch centre, Ghataprabha for their scholarly influence during my study. I offer my sincere thanks to Dr. Mayuresh Agte, HOD Dravyaguna Dpt. Shri.J.G.C.H.Society’s Ayurvedic Medical College and Research centre, Ghataprabha fortheir scholarly influence during my study. I take this opportunity to convey my thanks to my teachers Dr.C.S.Maladkar,Dr.K.P.Pattnaik, Dr.S.D.Byadigi, Dr.Arun Naragund, Dr.Raghvendra Kolachi.Dr.S.B.Chougula, Dr.Prabhakar Naik, and also thank Mr.S.B.Chalageri, Librarian, i
  8. 8. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTand all the other technical and non-technical staff of the college for their co-operationand help. In this precious moment I appreciate the efforts of my parents Shri.Shivgonda.B.Patil. and Sou. Mahadevi.S.Patil, my younger brother Dr.Raygonda andmy younger sister Dr.Vaishali as they are cause for me to take this noble professionand shaped me into what I am today. I have not been able to find words enough toexpress my sentiments of love, respect, and gratitude for them. I, in this special moment, should be very thankful to Mr.Rajshakar Patil,Mr.Shivangouda Patil, Dr.Girish Deshmukha, Dr.Varun, Dr.Yashawant, Dr.SantoshM, Mr.Kallappa S, Mr.Pramod K, Mr.Siddusing H, Mr.Ganesh M, and my dearfriends for their advice not only in this work but throughout my entire P.G. Studies. My special acknowledgements to all my senior colleagues, Dr.Manjunath L,Dr.Rahul Y, Dr.Shridhar, Dr.Shivashankarprasad, my colleagues Dr. Laxman Dr. Yatiand my Junior colleagues Dr.Appanna, Dr.Mosin and Dr.Vinayaka for theirwonderful co-operation during my entire course. Lastly I acknowledge my thanks to those who have directly or indirectlyextended their support for the completion of my work. Dr Ramgonda. Patil. ii
  9. 9. ABBREVIATIONS ABBREVIATIONSA.WØû : Ashtanga HrudayacÉ.xÉÇ : Charaka SamhitaÌlÉ.AÉ : Nighantu AdarshaÌmÉë.ÌlÉ : Priya NighantukÉ.ÌlÉ : Dhanvantari NighantuMæü.ÌlÉ : Kaiyadeva NighantupÉÉ.mÉë : Bhava PrakashaqÉ.ÌlÉ : Madanapala NighantuqÉÉ.S : Maadhava DravyagunaUÉ.ÌlÉ : Raja NighantuxÉÑ.xÉÇ : Sushrutha SamhitaxÉÑ.xÉÔ : Sushruta Samhita SutrasthanazÉÉ.ÌlÉ : Shaligrama NighantuA.WØû.ÍcÉ : Ashtanga Hrudaya Chikitsa sthanaA.WØû.E : Ashtanga Hrudaya UttartantraA.H.Sa : Ashtanga Hrudaya ShareeraAPI : Ayurvedic Pharmacopiea of IndiacÉ.ÍcÉ : Charaka Samhita Chikitsa sthanacÉ.xÉ.xÉÑ : Charaka Samhita SutrasthanacÉ.xÉ.ÌuÉ : Charaka samhita vimaana sthanacÉ.xÉ.zÉÉ : Charaka samhita shareera sthanaxÉÑ.xÉÑ.ÍcÉ : Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa sthanaxÉÑ.xÉÑ.zÉÉ : Sushruta Samhita shareera sthanazÉ.Mü.SìÓ / S K D : ShabdakalpadrumaC.D : ChakradattaS.E.M. : Standard Error of Mean‘t’ : Paired ‘t’ test‘p’ : Significant ‘p’ valueB.T. : Before TreatmentA.T. : After TreatmentS.D. : Standard Deviation iii
  10. 10. LIST OF TABLES AND GRAPHS LIST OF TABLESSL.NO TABLES1 Showing Gana and varga of Ghambhari.2 Showing important Paryaya nama of the Ghambhari.3 Showing Gunas of Gambhari.4 Showing important Karmas of Gambhari.5 Showing important Prayoga of Gambhari in different Vyadhi6 Showing Vishishta Yoga Of Gambhari7 Characters of Gmelina arborea Linn. Fruit.8 Showing Gana and varga of Draksha.9 Showing important Paryaya nama of the Draksha.10 Showing Guans of Draksha.11 Showing important Karmas of Draksha.12 Showing important Prayoga of Draksha in different Vyadhi13 Showing Vishishta Yoga of Draksha.14 Showing Characters of Vitis venifera Dried Fruit.15 Showing Gana and varga of Kharjura.16 Showing important Paryaya nama of the Kharjura.17 Showing Gunas of Kharjura18 Showing important Karmas of Kharjura.19 Showing important Prayoga of Kharjura in different Vyadhi.20 Showing Vishishta Yoga of Kharjura.21 Characters of Phonex sylvestris Linn fruit.22 Showing clinical features of Anaemia.23 Showing Normal values of HB%24 Showing Grading of Anemia.25 Showing Clinical grading of Anemia.26 Showing Nidana of Panduroga.27 Showing types of Pandu acc to different Authors.28 Showing Vishista Lakshana’s of Pandu.29 Showing List of shamana yogas in pandu30 Showing the Prelimnary Phytochemical Screening. i
  11. 11. LIST OF TABLES AND GRAPHS31 Showing results of qualitative chemical tests conducted.32 Showing results of qualitative chemical tests conducted of MadhuraTriphala.33 Showing Physico-Chemical Evaluation of Madhura Triphala33 Showing status of patients registered under the study34 Showing age wise distribution35 Showing occupation of Patients.36 Showing socio-economic status.37 Showing sex wise distribution.38 Showing diet of patients.39 Showing the incidence of symptoms seen in patients selected for the study.40 Presenting change in Alaparaktata.41 Presenting change in Alpamedaska.42 Presenting change in Nisaar.43 Presenting change in Shitilandrya.44 Presenting change in Gatrapida.45 Presenting change in Aruchi.46 Presenting change in Nidranasha.47 Showing mean difference of subjective parameters48 Presenting change in Haemoglobin Percentage. LIST OF GRAPHSSL.NO GRAPHS1 Showing status of patients registered under the study2 Showing age wise distribution3 Showing occupation of Patients.4 Showing socio-economic status.5 Showing sex wise distribution.6 Showing diet of patients.7 Showing the incidence of symptoms seen in patients selected for the study8 Presenting change in Alaparaktata. ii
  12. 12. LIST OF TABLES AND GRAPHS9 Presenting change in Alpamedaska.10 Presenting change in Nisaar.11 Presenting change in Shitilandrya.12 Presenting change in Gatrapida.13 Presenting change in Aruchi.14 Presenting change in Nidranasha.15 Showing mean difference of subjective parameters16 Presenting change in Haemoglobin Percentage. SCHEMATIC PRESENTATIONSSL.NO SCHEMATIC PRESENTATIONS 1 Samprapti of Panda roga. LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHSPL.NO LIST OF PHOTOGRHAPHS 1 Morphological characters of the Plant 1. Gemilina arboria flower. 2. Gmelina arboria fruits. 3. Vitis vinifera fruits(Grapes). 4. Vitis vinifera dry fruit (Raisins). 5. Phonex sylvestris tree. 6. Phonex sylvestris fruit. 2 Physico-Chemical Analysis 7. Preparation of Ash. 8. Ash of Madhura Triphala. 9. Modaka of Madhura Triphala. iii
  13. 13. INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION Ayurveda, the science of life is as old as the very existence of livingorganisms so that the means of survival was always a matter of quest for them andwill always be. Ayurveda is one of the most ancient systems of life, health and cure.This system of knowledge flourished through over 5000 years and has had anunbroken tradition of practice down the ages update. It is based on its own unique andoriginal concepts and fundamental principles. The basic and applied knowledge ofAyurveda has survived to the present times through its various branches likeDravyaGuna, Kayachikitsa, Shalya Tantra, Shalakya Tantra, Bhaishajya Kalpana,Rasashastra, etc. The branch DravyaGuna deals with various Aushadi Dravyas, whichone helpful to the treating the various diseases afflicting the human body. ‘xÉqÉSÉåwÉ xÉqÉÉÎalɶÉ: xÉqÉkÉÉiÉÑqÉsÉÌ¢ürÉ :| mÉëxɳÉÉAÉiqÉåÎlSìrÉ: qÉlÉ: xuÉxjÉ CirÉÍpÉÌSrÉiÉå’ :|| xÉÑ xÉÑ (15/41) The problem of nourishment is a world wide; it has been assumed massiveproportion in the underdeveloped and developing countries. Most of the countries inAsia are either underdeveloped or developing countries. India is one of them and percapita income in India is very low. An average individual lives below the poverty linehere. Among the different disorders of Nutritional origin, Anemia is one such disorderwhich is due to a large number of causes, including nutritional deficiencies, i.e. lackof essential minerals, vitamins etc in the diet. The commonest type is nutritionaldeficiency anemia observed in practice i.e. Iron deficiency anaemia. Children, adultand females suffer the most from this problem. Iron deficiency is the most commoncause of anemia in the world, especially in menstruating women and the elderly. Irondeficiency occurs in 11% of adolescent females and women of childbearing age.Thecauses of iron deficiency include blood loss, increased requirements relative to intake(as in pregnancy), and decreased absorption (partial gastrectomy and malabsorptionsyndromes) are associated with blood loss, gastrointestinal tract disorders etc. Humans use iron in the hemoglobin of red blood cells, in order to transportoxygen from the lungs to the tissues and to export carbon dioxide back to the lungs.Iron is also an essential component of myoglobin to store and diffuse oxygen inmuscle cells. That oxygen is required for the production and survival of all cells in our 1
  14. 14. INTRODUCTIONbodies. Human bodies tightly regulate iron absorption and recycling. Thus iron is suchan essential element of human life, in fact, that humans have no physiologicregulatory mechanism for excreting iron. In the modern medicine, there is good treatment for Anemia withconsiderable result but that is only for acute deficiency Anemias, no significanttherapy is there for chronic Anemias which occurs due to metabolic defects. SoAyurveda can provide better management of this. The disease characterized by Alaparaktata (panduta) of body, Alpamedaska(Balahani), Nissara (Ojokshaya), Shitilindrya (Arohanayasa), which strikinglyresembles with ‘Anaemia’ of modern science is Panda. Dhatu which is affected in thisdisease is Rakta. Knowing its importance, its function in human body is told asJeevana by ancient acharyas and its deficiency leads to lack of nutrition to otherdhatus. Thus leads to above said cardinal symptoms manifesting Pandu. In Ayurveda,Pandu is considered as a specific disease with its own pathogenesis and treatment(Cha. Chi. 16, Su. Utt. 44). Madhuratriphala, which contains fruits of Draksha, Kharjura and Gambhari inequal quantity, is mentioned for the first time by Narahari pandit in Raj nighantu(17thsen AD). As the drug which belongs to this Madhuratriphala have Madhura Rasa,Madhura Vipaka and Sheet Virya, hence they nourishes all the dhatus, specially RaktaDhatu. Because it is a Prakruti Sama Samavaya combination its pharmacologicalproperties are not highlighted by Narahari pandita. Hence an attempt is made in thisstudy to see its efficacy with reference to Iron deficiency Anaemia. 2
  15. 15. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY Review of the literature:  To review both Ayurveda and modern literature of Madhura Triphala from various references.  To review literature of Iron deficiency Anaemia from all ancient Samhita’s and also from recent journals, magazines relating to studies. Collection and identification of genuine species of Draksha, Kharjura and Gambhari:  To collect the drugs from its natural habitat, identify and authenticate the drug botanically, and store it for further study. Preparation of Kalka:  To prepare the churna of the Ghambhari as per the classics.  Prepare Kalka of Draksha and Kharjura and add the Gambhari phala Churna Stir well to form a Homogenous mixture Pharmacognostic and Preliminary phytochemical study of selected drug:  To study the crude drugs under Pharmacognostic scheme and to study the preliminary tests for phytoconstituents. Rakta Vardhaka study of the drug:  The present study is to evaluate the efficacy of the drug in Iron Deficiency Anemia clinically. 3
  16. 16. DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARI GAMBHARIHISTORY: Gambhari is one of the ingredient of most famous group Dashamula and inparticularly of Bruhat panchamula. It consists of dried fruit of Gmelina arborea Roxb.(Fam. Verbenaceae), an unarmed tree, found scattered in deciduous forests throughoutthe greater part of the country up to an altitude of 500 m, planted in gardens and alsoas an avenue tree. In Charaka Samhita Ghambhari is included in Shothahara, Virechanopaga andDahaprashamanadi Gana in Sutrasthana. Also in Chikitsasthana it is mentioned as aningredient used in many preparation of Arishta, Kwath, Grutha, Taila, which are usedin various disorders. In Sidhisthana many Basthikalpas are mentioned havingGambhari as an ingredient such as Patala, Agnimantha, Bilwa, Syonyka, Kasmarya,Salaparni, Sneha etc used for Anuvasan basti in Udavarta, and Vibhandha. Sushruta mentioned it under in Brihatpanchamula and Sarivadigana. Eventhough Vagbhata followed Charaka and Sushruta he is first to mentioned it inPhalavarga. Almost all of the Nighantukaras starting from Ancient period to till date havementioned elaborately regarding its Paryays, Guna, Karma, Prayoga and Bheda etc. aÉhÉ – uÉaÉï In Vedas and Ayurvedic treatises, drugs have been classified into eitherVargas or Ganas. Etymologically the Varga means a group of limited number ofDravyas having similar pharmacological actions. Gana consists of large number ofDravyas having similar pharmacological actions. The other word, which is frequentlyused in this connection, is the Skandha, which includes a larger number of Dravyasspecially mentioned with respect to Rasas viz. Madhura skandha etc. The aim of thistype of classification is to summarize the Karma or main use of dravya or dravyas. 4
  17. 17. DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARI Table.1 Showing Gana and varga of Ghambhari. aÉhÉ – uÉaÉï cÉ.xÉÇ xÉÑ.xÉÇ A.WØû kÉ.ÌlÉ qÉ.ÌlÉ qÉÉ.Sì Mæü.ÌlÉ pÉÉ.ÌlÉ UÉ.ÌlÉ ÌlÉ.AÉ ÌmÉë.ÌlÉzÉÉåjÉWûU aÉhÉ +ÌuÉUåcÉlÉÉåmÉaÉ aÉhÉ +SÉWûmÉëzÉqÉlÉ aÉhÉ +oÉëÑWèû iÉmÉlcÉÇqÉÔsÉ aÉhÉ + + +xÉÉËUuÉÉÌS aÉhÉ + +AÉæwÉkÉÉÌS uÉaÉï +aÉÑQÕûcrÉÉÌS uÉaÉï + +WûËUiÉMrÉÉÌS uÉaÉï + +ÌlÉaÉÑïhŽÉÌS uÉaÉï +mÉëpÉSìÉÌS uÉaÉï + mÉrÉÉïrÉ lÉÉqÉ A single name is given to many drugs and also a drug may have many names which themselves are called as Paryaya’s. Names and synonyms were the only tools to specify the salient features of the plants. Narahari Pandit the author of Rajanighantu has given seven factors based on which the names were ascribed to the plants. 1. Rudhi (traditional usage) 2. Prabhava (effect) 3. Deshyokti (habitat) 4. Lanchana (morphological characters) 5. Upama (simile) 6. Virya (potency) 7. Itarahvaya (due to other factors). 5
  18. 18. DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARI ÌlÉÂÌ£ü1. aÇÉqpÉÉUÏ : aÉÇ aÉÌiÉÇ ÌuÉpÉiÉÏïÌiÉ :|| (pÉÉ ÌlÉ ) It beautiful tree growing fastly.2. MüOèTüsÉÉ : MüOèTüsÉxrÉåuÉ TüsÉqÉxrÉÉ :|| (UÉ ÌlÉ) Fruits are hard in nature.3. MüÉzqÉËU : MüÉzÉiÉå mÉëMüÉzÉiÉå CÌiÉ :|| (pÉÉ ÌlÉ) Beautiful tree like Kumbhe.4.MüÉzqÉÏËU : MüzqÉÏUÌSmÉëSåzÉåwÉÑ eÉÉrÉqÉÉliuÉiÉ :|| (xÉÉå ÌlÉ) Found in Kashmir.5. MÚüwhÉuÉ×liÉÉ : M×üwhÉÇ uÉ×liÉqÉxrÉÉ :|| (pÉÉ ÌlÉ) Blackish colors petiole. .6. ÌmÉiÉUÉåÌWûÍhÉ : iuÉcÉ ÌmÉiÉiuÉÉiÉ : | Yellowish Bark.7. pÉSìmÉhÉÏï : pÉSìÉÍhÉ mÉhÉÉïlrÉxrÉÉ :|| ( pÉÉ ÌlÉ) Beautiful leaves.8 qÉWûÉMÑüÎqpÉ : MÑüÎqpÉxÉSìÓzÉÉ oÉëÑWûiÉÉMüÉU : | (ÌlÉ AÉ) Big tree, with wide steam.9. qÉWûÉMÑüxÉÑqÉMüÉ : qÉWûÎliÉ MÑüxÉqÉÉlrÉxrÉÉ : | (pÉÉ ÌlÉ) Inflorarescence is long.10. uÉÉiÉWûiÉç: uÉiÉÉxrÉ uÉÉiÉlÉÉÍzÉÌlÉ : | ( xÉÉå ÌlÉ) Reduce Vatavyadhi.11. xÉÑTüsÉÉ : zÉÉåpÉlÉÇ TüsÉqÉxrÉÉ :|| (UÉ ÌlÉ) Fruits are wholesome and used as Rasayana.12. xjÉÑsÉiuÉcÉÉ : xjÉÑsÉuÉsMüsÉÉ : | (UÉ ÌlÉ) Bark is thick.13. Í´ÉmÉhÉÏï : ´ÉÏqÉÎliÉ mÉhÉÉïlrÉxrÉÉ :| (pÉÉ ÌlÉ) Leaves are beautiful.14. xÉuÉïiÉÉåpÉSìÉ : xÉuÉïiÉ : MüsrÉÉhÉMüÉUhÉÏ :|| (A ÌlÉ) It useful in many ways. 6
  19. 19. DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARI Table.2 Showing important Paryaya nama of the Ghambhari.mÉrÉÉïrÉ lÉÉqÉ cÉ.xÉÇ xÉÑ.xÉÇ A.WØû kÉ.ÌlÉ qÉÉ.Sì qÉ.ÌlÉ Mæü.ÌlÉ pÉÉ.ÌlÉ UÉ.ÌlÉ ÌlÉ.AÉ ÌmÉë.ÌlÉMüÉzqÉrÉÉï + + + + + + + + + + +ÌmÉiÉUÉåÌWûÍhÉ + +qÉkÉÑmÉÍhÉï + + + + +Í´ÉmÉhÉÏï + + + + +xÉuÉïiÉÉåpÉSìÉ + +MüÉzqÉrÉÉï + + + + +MüOèTüsÉÉ + + + +WûÏUÉ + + + + +MüÉzqÉrÉÉï + + + + +aÉÇqpÉÉUÏ + + + + + + + + + + +M×üwhÉuÉ×liÉÉ + + + + + + +pÉSìèmÉÍhÉïMÑüqpÉËU + + + + +xjÉÑsÉiuÉcÉÉ +xÉSìÓRûiuÉcÉÉ + +qÉkÉÑqÉÌiÉ +qÉåÍkÉÌlÉ + + +xÉÑTüsÉÉ +xÉTüsÉÉ +qÉÌWû +qÉkÉÑUxÉÉ +qÉWûMÑüxÉÑÍqÉMüÉ + +ÌuÉSÉËUÍhÉ + +ÍxÉlkÉÑmÉÌlÉï + +xÉÑpÉSìÉ + +MÑüqÉÑSÉ +aÉÉåmÉpÉSìÉ + + + +ͤÉËUÍhÉ + +qÉWûÉpÉSìÉ +xuÉpÉSìÉ + + +M×üwhÉÉ + + 7
  20. 20. DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARI aÉÑhÉ MüqÉÉïÍpÉxiÉÑ AlÉÑqÉÏrÉliÉå lÉÉlÉÉ SìurÉ´ÉÉrÉÏ aÉÑhÉÉ: | (xÉÑ.xÉÔ.43) The gunas of a dravya are inferred based on the pharmacological actions of that Dravya. The word Guna here indicates Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka, Karma and Prabhava if any. Table.3 Showing Gunas of Gambhari. cÉ.xÉÇ xÉÑ.xÉÇ A.WØû kÉ.ÌlÉ qÉÉ.Sì qÉ.ÌlÉ Mæü.ÌlÉ pÉÉ.ÌlÉ UÉ.ÌlÉ ÌlÉ. ÌmÉë.ÌlÉ aÉÑhÉ AÉ qÉkÉÑU + + + + UxÉ AÉqsÉ + + + + + MüwÉÉrÉ + + + + ÎxlÉakÉ + + + + aÉÑhÉ aÉÑ + + + + + xÉU + + uÉÏrÉï ÍzÉiÉ + + + + + + ÌuÉmÉÉMü qÉkÉÑU + + + + + uÉÉiÉWûU + + + + + +SÉåwÉblÉiÉÉ ÌmɨÉWûU + zÉÉåjÉWûU + + U£üÌmɨÉWûU + + + + MüqÉï rÉiÉç MÑüuÉïÎliÉ iÉiÉç MüqÉï | (cÉ.xÉÔ.26) The effect of Dravya seen on the body is called as Karma. The Karma is independent of its own to bring out the action of the Dravya. Pharmacological action of a drug is defined as the action which is aimed to obtain a specific therapeutic effect. Table.4 Showing important Karmas of Gambhari. MüqÉï cÉ.xÉÇ xÉÑ.xÉÇ A.WØû kÉ.ÌlÉ Mæü.ÌlÉ qÉ.ÌlÉ qÉÉ.Sì pÉÉ.ÌlÉ UÉ.ÌlÉ ÌmÉë.ÌlÉ ÌlÉ.AÉ UxÉÉrÉlÉ + + + + + + + + oÉ×ÇWûhÉ + + + + + SÏmÉlÉ + + aÉëÉWûÏ + + + + AÉqÉWûU + + + + AzÉïWûU + + + + 8
  21. 21. DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARIpÉåSMü + +¾Òû± + +euÉUlÉÉzÉMü + + + + + +MåüwrÉ + + +M×üÍqÉWûU +¤ÉiÉlÉÉzÉMü + + +¤ÉrÉlÉÉzÉMü + +qÉåkrÉ +qÉѧÉsÉ + + +mÉÉcÉlÉ + + + +zÉÔsÉWûUzÉÉåjÉWûU + + + + + +´ÉqÉWûU +zÉÑ¢üsÉ + + +̧ÉSÉåwÉWûU + +iÉ×whÉÉWûU + +ÌuÉwÉSÉåwÉWûUuÉ×wrÉ + + +xiÉÇpÉlÉ + + mÉërÉÉåerÉ A…¡û LuÉÇ qÉɧÉÉ mÉërÉÉåerÉ A…¡û: Gambhari being a Tree, it is used all part. For the purpose of medicine the following parts are mainly concerned. 1. mÉ§É 2. mÉÑwmÉ 3. TüsÉ 4. qÉÔÑsÉ 5. iuÉMü 6. oÉÏeÉ qÉɧÉÉ: An ideal Matra is that quantity of the medicine which can bring upon the aggravated doshas into normal state and not to show any adverse effect on the dhatus. This particular quantity of the medicine is also called Prayoga Matra. The Matra of the medicine varies according to age, sex, strength of the patient and according to doshas involved. 9
  22. 22. DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARI The word posology is derived form the Greek word “Posos” means how much and “logos” means science, which means it is a branch of medical science which deals with doses or quantity of drugs which can be administered to produce the required pharmacological actions. Decocation (Kwath)- 50-100ml. Fruit (Phala)- 10-20gm. mÉërÉÉåaÉ The Gambhari useful in various disease conditions as shown as in table below. Table.5 Showing important Prayoga of Gambhari in different Vyadhi mÉërÉÉåaÉ cÉ.xÉÇ xÉÑ.xÉÇ A.WØû kÉ.ÌlÉ qÉÉ.Sì qÉ.ÌlÉ Mæü.ÌlÉ pÉÉ.ÌlÉ UÉ.ÌlÉ. ÌlÉ.AÉ ÌmÉë.ÌlɤÉrÉ + + + + +MüÉqÉsÉÉ +U£ürÉÉåÌlÉ + +SÉWû + + + + + +zÉÔsÉ + + + + +iÉ×wlÉÉ + + + + + +qÉ×cÉÉï + + + + +ESÉuÉïiÉ + + + + +ÌuÉoÉÇkÉ + + +euÉU + + + + + + + + +U£üÌmɨÉç + + + +qÉѧɢÑücNèû + + +mÉëqÉåWû + + + + +AzÉï + + + +MüÉxÉ + + + + +AmÉxqÉÉU + + + + + +aÉÑsqÉ + + + + + + + + +EU:¤ÉiÉ + + + + +¾ûiÉzÉÑsÉ + + + + + + +ElqÉÉS + + + + + +pÉëqÉ + + + +ÎmsÉWûÉ + + +zÉÑ¢üSÉåwÉ + + + + +AÉqÉzÉÔsÉ + + + + 10
  23. 23. DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARI´ÉqÉ + + +ÌuÉwÉ + + +ÌuÉSìSÏ + + + +AÌiÉxÉÉU + + +ZÉÍsÉirÉ + +mÉÉÍsÉirÉ +mÉÉhQÕû + + + + + + AÉqÉÌrÉMü mÉërÉÉåaÉ 1. Patala, Agnimantha, Bilwa, Syonyka, Kasmarya, Salaparni, Prishanaparni, Katakari, Bala, Gokshura, Bruhati, Eranda, Punarnawa, Yava, Kulatha, Kola, Guduchu, Madana, Palasa, Lavana and Sneha. These may be used for Anuvasan basti in Udavarta, and Vibhandha. 2. The Kasmarya fruit will be used in preparation of Bramya-rasayana. 3. The flower of Kovidara, Kashmarya, and Shalamali, are also used in Raktapitta condition. 4. Ghee 640gm should be cooked with milk and sugar cane juice 2-5 lit, Kashmarya juice eight time and Jivaneeya Gana 10gm each as paste. It used in Apasmar vyadhi. 5. The patient should be fomented with water boiled with VasaPatra, Kashmarya patra, and Arjaka, bathed with tepid water heated in the sun and pasted with aromatic substances in Vataja shoth. 6. The Kashaya prepared in Dadhisara (cream) and soured with fruit of Kashamarya, Amalaki, and Karbudara, Gunjanaka, Shalamali, Kshirini, should be administered in Raktaarsha. 7. Oil prepared with the juice of Guduchi, Draksha, Gambhari etc. alleviates Vatarakta. 8. Ghee 640gm cooked with Kashmarya, Triphala, Draksha, Kasamarda, Parushaka, Punarnava, Haridra, Daruharidra, Kakanasa etc.. Alleviate Vatajayoniroga. 9. Paste of Kashmarya, Madhuka, macerated with cows milk used in Vatarakta. 10. In Shonitameha decoction of Guduchi, seeds of Tindhuka, Kashamarya, and Kharjura, added with Honey is used. 11
  24. 24. DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARI 11. Draksha, Aragwadha, Kashamarya, decoction used in Pittajajwara. 12. Rasa of Dantiphala, is mixed with 4 pala of Gambhari and Draksha Rasa it cures Panduroga. 13. Kashmaryadi Taila used in Phalithya condition. 14. The Swarasa of Gmbhari Patra along with milk internally used for Shojaka disease. 15. In Grishama Rutu the Gambhari Patra swarasa with milk useful in Shirashoola as a local application. For Sthanapushti the Gambhariphalarasa sidhataila will be used for local application. 16. Gambharimula kwath will be used in Jwara, Apachana, and Shotha etc. 17. Juice of tender leaves with cow milk and sugar candy is given in Gonorrhea, also it can prevent abortion. Table.6 Showing Vishishta Yoga Of Gambhari.PREPARATION INDICATION REFERENCEKashmaryadi Kwath. Pittaja jwara, Kasa. Bhi Rt (5/117).Kashamaryadi sheetkashya. Daha, Mutraghata, Bai Rt (20/ 3).Kashamaryharalayam. Kshaya, Krushata. Bai Rt (73/56).Madhukadi sheetkashya. Daha, Trushana, Murcha. Bai Rt (5/166).Lajoudakam, Pittaja Trushana etc. Bai Rt (20/5).Krushanadi leha. Rajayakshama, Kshaya. Bai Rt ( 14/ 13). 12
  25. 25. DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARI REFERENCES cÉUMü xÉÇÌWûiÉÉ: 1. mÉÉOûsÉÉcÉç AÎalÉqÉljÉÇ cÉ ÌoÉsuÉ zÉÉålrÉMüÉqÉåuÉÇ cÉ : | MüÉzqÉrÉï zÉÉsÉmÉÌlÉï cÉ mÉëÑzlÉmÉÌlÉï ÌuÉÌSkÉMüÉqÉç : || cÉ xÉÑ ( 2/11) 2. Sì¤ÉÉMüÉzqÉrÉï mÉÂwÉMüÉprÉqÉÉsÉMüÉ ÌuÉÍpÉiÉÌMü MÑücÉsÉÉ : | oÉSU MühOûmÉÏsÉÑÌlÉiÉÏ SzÉåqÉÉÌlÉ ÌuÉUåcÉlÉÉåmÉaÉiÉÏ pÉuÉÎliÉ : || cÉ xÉÑ (4/24) 3. mÉÉOûsÉÉAÎalÉqÉjÉÇ zrÉÉålrÉMüÉoÉÏsuÉMüÉzqÉUÏ MülOûMüÉUÏMüÉ : | oÉëÑWûÌiÉ zÉÉsÉmÉÌlÉï mÉëÑzÉlÉmÉÌlÉï aÉÉå¤ÉÑËUMüÉ CÌiÉ SzÉåqÉÉlÉÏ ¤uÉrÉjÉÑ WûUÉÍhÉ pÉuÉÌiÉ : || cÉ xÉÑ (4/38) 4. sÉÉeÉÉcÉlSèÇlÉMüÉzqÉërÉïTüsÉÉ qÉkÉÑMü zÉMïüUÉÌlÉsÉÉåcÉxÉsÉÉåzÉÏUxÉÉËUuÉÉ : | aÉÑQÒûcÉÏÌWûUoÉåUÉÍhÉ SzÉåqÉÉÌlÉSÉWûmÉëzÉqÉlÉÉÌlÉ pÉuÉÎliÉ : || cÉ xÉÑ (4/41) 5. qÉëÑSÒMüÉå¹åhÉÎx§ÉUɧÉåh....................................... ........................mÉrÉxÉÉ ¢ÑüzÉUÉ xÉÌmÉïMüÉzqÉrÉï ̧ÉTüsÉÉ UxÉqÉ: || cÉ xÉÑ (13/66) 6. iÉÉxuÉåuÉ SìurÉxÉrÉÉåaÉÇ MüUhÉiÉÉåmÉUÏxÉZÉårÉÉxÉÑ rÉjÉÉmÉjÄrÉ cÉiÉÑUzÉÏiÉÏ ÌlÉoÉÉåkÉ : | iɱiÉÉ- xÉÑUÉxÉÉæÌuÉUÉiÉÑxÉÉåSMüqÉæUrÉqÉåSMükÉÉlrÉÉqsÉÉ; wÉQûkÉÉlrÉÉxÉuÉÉ pÉuÉÎliÉ : | qÉëÑ̲MüÉ- ZÉeÉÑïUMüÉzqÉrÉïkÉluÉUÉeɧÉÑlÉzÉÑlrÉ mÉÂzÉMüÉpÉrÉÉqÉsÉMüÉ qÉëÑaÉÍsÉÎlSMüeÉÉqoÉÑlÉç : | ÌmÉsÉÑwrÉMÑücÉsÉoÉSUMüMïühSÒÌmÉsÉÑ-ÌmÉërÉÉsÉ mÉlɱçrsÉÉåkÉëÉAµÉjÉmÉsYzÉÌmÉiÉlÉÉå ESÒqoÉUÉeÉqÉÉåSÉ :| ´ÉÑaÉÉOûMüÉ zÉÉÍsÉÌlÉ TüsÉÉxÉuÉÉ : || cÉ xÉÑ (25/49) 7. qÉkÉÑU oÉëÑWûlÉÇuÉëÑwrÉ ZÉeÉÑïUaÉÑ ÍzÉiÉsÉqÉÇ : | ¤ÉrÉåAÍpÉbÉÉiÉå SÉWåû cÉç uÉÉiÉÌmɨÉå cÉ iÉ̲SqÉÇ : || cÉ xÉÑ (27/127) 8. AÉqsÉmÉÂwÉÉMüÉ SìɤÉÉ oÉSUÉhrÉÉÂMüÉÍhÉcÉ : | ÌmɨÉwsÉåzqÉ mÉëMüÉåÌmÉÍhÉMülÉÉåïokÉÑÌlÉMÑüNûÉlrÉÉÌmÉ : || cÉ xÉÑ (27/132) 9. ÌuÉSÉËUaÉlkÉÉ oÉëÑWûÌiÉ mÉëÑwlÉmÉÌlÉï ÌlÉÌSaÉkÉMüÉqÉ : | 13
  26. 26. DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARI aÉlkÉÌmÉÌS µÉSì¹ÉmÉrÉÇqÉ aÉhÉqÉÇ..................: | ÌoÉsuÉÉÎalÉqÉljÉÇzÉÉålrÉÉMü MüzqÉrÉï mÉÉiÉÍsÉoÉsÉÉ : | mÉurÉï µÉiÉxrÉ: uÉëÑ̲ÌlêuÉMüÉ pÉËUMüÉåzÉËU : || cÉ ÍcÉ (1/63-64) 10. MüÉzqÉrÉïTüsÉÇ U£ÇüxÉÉaÉëÌWûMüU£üÌmɨÉmÉëzÉqÉlÉÉlÉÉqÉç :|| cÉ ÍcÉ ( 25/39) 11. U£üÉÌiÉxÉÉUå- MüzqÉrÉÉï: TüsÉmÉÑwmÉÉå uÉÉ ÌMüÎlcÉSÉqÉsÉ xÉ zÉMïüUÉ : || cÉç ÍcÉ (19/80) 12. aÉpÉåï zÉÑwMåü iÉÑ uÉÉiÉålÉ oÉÉsÉÉlÉÉcÉÌmÉ zÉÑwrÉiÉÉqÉ : | ÍxÉiÉÉMüÉzqÉërÉïqÉkÉÑMüÉ: ÌWûiÉqÉÑjÉÉmÉlÉå mÉrÉ : || cÉç ÍcÉ ( 28/61) 13. uÉÉiÉU£åü- ÍxÉ®Ç (iÉæsÉÇ) qÉkÉÑMüMüÉzqÉrÉïxÉæuÉÉ uÉÉiÉU£ülÉÑiÉ : || cÉ ÍcÉ (26/114) 14. MÇüxÉå ͤÉUå¤ÉÑUxÉrÉÉå: MüÉzqÉrÉÉïzOåûaÉÑhÉåUxÉå : | MüÉÌwÉïMæüeÉÏuÉlÉÏrÉæNû bÉëÑiÉmÉëxjÉÇ ÌuÉmÉÉcÉrÉåiÉ : | uÉÉiÉÌmɨÉÉåipÉuÉÇ ¤ÉÏmÉëmÉxqÉÉUÇ ÌlÉrÉcNûÌiÉ : || cÉ ÍcÉ ( 10/ 29-30) 15. MüÉzqÉrÉï̧ÉTüsÉÉSì¤ÉÉMüÉxÉqÉSÉï mÉÂwÉMüÉ : | mÉÑlÉlÉïuÉÉ ²ÏUÌlÉMüÉMüÉlÉÉxÉcÉUå zÉiÉÉuÉrÉÉï .....: || cÉ ÍcÉ ( 30/52) xÉÑ´ÉÑiÉ xÉÇÌWûiÉ 1. xÉÉËUuÉÉ ...........MüÉzqÉËUTüsÉÇ.......... EÍzÉUcÉåÌiÉ : | xÉÉËUuÉÉÌS: ÌmÉmÉÉxÉÉblÉÉå U£üÌmɨÉWûUÉå aÉhÉ : | ÌmɨÉeuÉUÉåmÉëzÉqÉlÉÉå ÌuÉwÉåzÉÉSWûlÉÉzÉlÉqÉÇ : || xÉÑ xÉÑ ( 38/40) 2. qÉkÉÑMüMüÉzqÉrÉïmÉsÉÉzÉiÉæsÉÉÌlÉ qÉkÉÑUMüwÉÉrÉÉÍhÉ MüTüÌmɨÉmÉëzÉqÉlÉÉÌlÉ : || xÉÑ xÉÑ (45/121) 3. ¾ÒûkrÉ qÉѧÉÌuÉpÉlkÉblÉÇ ÌmɨÉÉxÉëÑaÉuÉÉiÉlÉÉzÉlÉqÉÇ : | MåüzrÉÇ UxÉÉrÉlÉÇ qÉåkrÉ MüzqÉërÉï TüsÉÇqÉÑcÉirÉå : || xÉÑ xÉÑ (46/184) 4. MüÉzqÉrÉïiÉæsÉÉlÉÏ qÉkÉÑUMüwÉÉrÉÉÍhÉ MüTüÌmɨÉmÉëzÉqÉlÉÉÌlÉ : || xÉÑ xÉÑ ( 45/76) 5. MüÉzqÉrÉï qÉkÉÑMüiÉmÉïhÉÇ MüsMüÉåuÉÉ : || xÉÑ ÍcÉ (5/12) 6. zÉÉåÌlÉiÉqÉåÌWûlÉÇ aÉÑQÒûcÉÏÌiÉlSÒMüÉzqÉrÉïZÉeÉÑïUMüwÉÉrÉÉ qÉkÉÑÍqÉ´ÉÇ : || xÉÑ ÍcÉ ( 11/9) 7. SÉWû§ÉÑwhÉÉÎluÉiÉå ÌmɨeuÉUå- ....................MüÉzqÉrÉïxjÉuÉÉmÉÑlÉ: | MüwÉÉrÉæ: zÉMïüUÉrÉÑ£åü : ....................: || xÉÑ E ( 39/156) 8. aÉqpÉËUMüÉTüsÉÉÇ mÉYuÉ xÉÑwMÇüqÉÑxiÉå̲iÉqÉç mÉÑlÉÇ : | 14
  27. 27. DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARI ¤ÉÏUålÉÇ zÉÏiÉÌmɨÉblÉÇ xuÉÌSiÉÉmÉjrÉÇxÉåuÉlÉÉ : || (cÉ¢üS¨É)  A¹ÉÇaÉ WØûSrÉ 1. TüsÉÇ iÉÑ............ xÉUÇ MüÉzqÉrÉïeÉÇ ÌWûqÉqÉç : | zÉ¢ÑülqÉŅ̃uÉoÉlkÉblÉ MåüzrÉ qÉåkrÉÇ UxÉÉrÉlÉqÉç : || A Wû xÉÑ (6/122) 2. xÉÉËUuÉÉåzÉÏU MüÉzqÉrÉï qÉkÉÑMüÍzÉÍzÉUɲrÉqÉç : | rÉÎziÉmÉÂwÉMüWûÎliÉ ÌmɨÉÉAxÉÑYeuÉïU : || A Wû xÉÑ (15/11) 3. SìɤÉÉÌuÉSÉËUMüÉzqÉrÉïqÉÉxÉÉÇlÉÉ uÉÉ UxÉærÉÑiÉÉlÉ : | zÉÑ® MüÉå¹xrÉ rÉÑ‹Ï¨É ÌuÉkÉÏoêWÒûWûhÉÇ SÏmÉlÉÇ : | ¾ÒûkrÉÉÌlÉcÉɳmÉÉlÉÉÌlÉ uÉÉiÉb³ÉÉÌlÉ sÉbÉÑÌlÉ cÉ : || A Wû ÍcÉ (5/4) 4. ÍzÉiÉmÉëqÉåWûÉ qÉlÉrÉ:xÉåMüÉ urÉeÉlÉqÉÉÂiÉÉ : | ÍxÉiÉÉSìɤÉɤÉÑZÉeÉÑïUÉMüzqÉrÉÉïxuÉUxÉ mÉrÉÇ : || A Wû ÍcÉ (7/10) 5. aÉpÉåï zÉÑwMåüiÉÑ uÉÉiÉålÉÇ uÉÉsÉÉÇlÉÉ cÉ ÌuÉzÉÑwrÉiÉÉqÉ : | ...................................... ÌMüÎlcÉiÉÉqsÉ zÉMïüUÉ : || A Wû ÍcÉ (21/22) 6. SÎliÉmɧÉUxÉå MüÉåwhÉå MüzqÉrÉÉï‹ÍsÉqÉmsÉÑiÉqÉ : | SìɤÉÉ‹ÍsÉ uÉÉ qÉÑÌSiÉÇ iÉiÉç ÌmÉoÉåiÉ mÉÉhQÒûUÉåaÉÎeÉiÉ : || A Wû ÍcÉ (26/6)kÉluÉliÉUÏ ÌlÉbÉhOÒû: MüÉzqÉrÉÉï MüzqÉËU ÌWûUÉ MüzqÉrÉÉåï AkÉmÉÑlÉïÌmÉ : | ´ÉÏmÉÌlÉï xÉuÉïiÉÉåpÉSìÉ aÉqpÉËU ¢ÑüzÉluÉëÑiÉÉMüÉ : | ´ÉÏmÉÌlÉï xuÉUxÉå ÌiÉ£üÉ aÉÑÂwlÉÉ U£üÌmɨÉÎeÉiÉ : | ̧ÉSÉåwÉ ´ÉqÉSÉWûÌiÉïeuÉU §ÉÑwlÉÉÌuÉwÉÉeÉrÉiÉç : || (114-115)  MæürÉSåuÉ ÌlÉbÉhOÒû: (AÉæwÉÍkÉ uÉaÉï) MüTüÌmɨÉWûUÇ iÉxrÉÉ: TüsÉÇ ÎxlÉakÉ ÌWûqÉÇ aÉÑ : | xuÉSÒmÉÉMü UxÉ ¾ÒûkrÉ MüwÉÉrÉÉqsÉÇ UxÉÉrÉlÉqÉç : || oÉëÑWûhÉçÇ zÉÑ¢üsÉÇ MåüzrÉ qÉåkrÉÇ qÉÔ§ÉÌuÉoÉlkÉlÉÑiÉ : | 15
  28. 28. DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARI WûlrÉɲÉiɧÉÑwhÉÉSÉWûÌmɨÉU£ü¤ÉiÉ ¤ÉrÉÉlÉÇ : || (32-34) pÉÉuÉmÉëMüÉzÉ ÌlÉbÉhOÒû: (aÉÑQÒûcrÉÌS uÉaÉï) aÉqpÉËU pÉSìmÉlÉÉï cÉ ´ÉÏmÉlÉÏï qÉkÉÑmÉhÉÏïMüÉ : | MüÉÎzqÉËU MüÉzqÉËU WûÏUÉ MüÉzqÉrÉï: ÌmÉiÉUÉåÌWûhÉÏ : | iÉiTüsÉÇ oÉëÑWûlÉçÇ uÉëÑwrÉ aÉÑ MåüwrÉ UxÉÉrÉlÉÇ : | uÉÉiÉÌmÉ¨É §ÉÑwhÉÉ U£ç ¤ÉrÉ qÉ賈 ÌuÉoÉlSlÉÑiÉ : || (15-17) UÉeÉ ÌlÉbÉhOÒû: (mÉëpÉSìÉÌS uÉaÉï) xrÉiÉ MüÉzqÉrÉï: MüÉzqÉËU¢ÑüwhÉuÉëÑliÉÉ : | ÌWûUÉ pÉSìÉ xÉuÉïiÉÉåpÉÌSìMüÉcÉ : | ´ÉÏmÉÌlÉï xrÉÉiÉ ÍxÉlSÒmÉÌlÉï xÉÑpÉSìÉ : | MüqpÉÉËU xÉÉ MüOûTüsÉÉ pÉSìmÉlÉÉåïÌlÉ : || (35) MÑüqÉÑSÉcÉ aÉÉåmÉpÉSìÉ ÌuÉSÉËUÌlÉ ´ÉÏËUhÉÏ qÉWûÉpÉSìÉ : | qÉkÉÑmÉÌlÉï xuÉpÉSìÉ ¢ÑüzÉhÉÉ µÉåiÉÉcÉ UÉåÌWûÍhÉ xÉëÑ¹Ï : || (36) xjÉÑsÉiuÉcÉÉ qÉkÉÑqÉÌiÉ xÉÑTüsÉÉ qÉåÌShÉÏ qÉWûÉMÑüqÉÑSÉ : | qÉÉSuÉ SìurÉ aÉÑhÉ (ÌuÉÌuÉkÉÉæwÉÍkÉ uÉaÉïÈ) MüÉzqÉrÉï iÉÑuÉUÉ ÌiÉ£üÉ uÉÏrÉÉåïwlÉÉ qÉkÉÑUÉ aÉÑ : | ÌSmÉlÉÏ mÉÉcÉlÉÏ qÉåkrÉÉ pÉåÌSÌlÉ pÉëqÉzÉÉåwÉÎeÉiÉ : | uÉÉiÉÌmɨÉiÉÔwÉÉU£ü ¤ÉrÉqÉÔ§ÉÌuÉoÉÇkÉlÉÑiÉ : || ÌmÉërÉÌlÉbÉhOÒû: (WûËUiÉYrÉÉÌS uÉaÉï) MüÉzqÉrÉï: MüÉzÉqÉËU cÉæuÉ aÉqpÉÉËU cÉÉÌmÉ lÉÉqÉiÉ : | ..................................................oÉSUxÉͳÉpÉqÉÇ : | ...............................................UxÉÉrÉlÉqÉ ..........: || (21-23) 16
  29. 29. DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARI MODERN DRUG REVIEWCLASSIFICATION:According to Benthem and Hooker’s system of classification-Kingdom PlantaeDivision Spermatophyte.Sub division Diacoliledance.Class Sympetalae.Order Lamioleates.Family Verbenacea.Genus Gemelina.Species Arboria VERNACULAR NAMES The drug is universally know and accepted by its scientific name. Butstill the knowledge of the names in both local and the regional languages is veryimportant to procure the drug from the regions of its availability.Sanskrit : Kashamari, Gambhari.Assamese : GomariBengali : Gamargachha, GambarEnglish : Coomb tree, cashmere tree.Gujrati : SeevanHindi : GambhariKannada : Seevani, Shivani, HannuKashmiri : Gumar.Malayalam : Kumbil, KumizhuMarathi : SivanOriya : Gambhari, BhodroparnniPunjabi : KhambhariTamil : Perunkurmizh, KomizhpazhamTelugu : Gumaditeku 17
  30. 30. DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARI MORPHOLOGY:Family: VerbenaceaeThere are about 70 genera species 750 in this familyDistribution: Found throughout India, from foot of north- west Himalaya to Chittagong and throughout Deccan Peninsula.Habits: Trees, Shrubs more rarely herbs.Leaves: Opposite, or whorled, simple, stipules.Flowers: Often brightly colored, Hermaphrodite (rarely polygamous), usually irregular. Calyx inferior, gamosepalous, persistent, tubular or cup- shaped, 5-4 lobed or toothed. Corolla gamopetalous; tube usually cylindrical or dialated above, often curved; limb 2 lipped or sub equally lobed.Stamens: 4, didynamous, inserted on the corolla tube.Filaments: free.Anthers: 2-celled, opening by longitudinal slits. Disk usually inconspicuous.Ovary: 2-4 celled. Entire or 4 lobed.Ovules: variously attached, 2 in each cell.Style: Terminal, stigma usually entire, less commonly 2-or more lobed.Fruit : usually more or less drupaceous, 2-4 or 1celled; mesocarp juicy,fleshy or dry ; endocarp usually bony.Seeds: Erect or pendulous, separate in distinct cells; albumen 0 in the Indian genera; embryo straight; radicle inferior. Genus: Gmelina.Habit: Tree or shrub unarmed or spinous; young shoots usually tomentose.Leaves: Opposite, entire or toothed, some time more or less lobed.Flowers: Large, yellow or brownish in small or panicled cymes with narrow bracts.Stamens: Didynamous subexserted another cells along pendulous.Filaments: free or connate below,Anthers: oblongOvary: 4 celledStyle: Slender. 18
  31. 31. DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARIStigma: Shortly 2 fid.Seeds: Erect or pendulous, separate in distinct cells.Species: Gmelina arborea Linn:Habit: Gambhari consists of dried fruit of Gmelina arborea Roxb. (Fam. Verbenaceae), an unarmed tree, found scattered in deciduous forests throughout the greater part of the country upto an altitude of 500 m, planted in gardens and also as an avenue tree.Leaves: Broadly ovate, acuminate, entire, glabrous, cordate or sometime termcate and shortly cemeate.Flowers: Large, yellow-brownish in small or panicled cymes with narrow bracts.Fruit : A drupe, ovoid, crinkled, black, 1.5-2.0 cm long, sometimes with portion of attached pedicel, two seeded, sometimes one seeded; taste, sweetish sour.Calyx: 5cm broadly companulate anesely fulvous- hairy teeth small triangular acuteCorolla: Browenish yellow, densely hairy outside reaching 3.8cm long, 5 lobed 2 lipped.Capsule: Globose, membranous.Seeds: Seed ovate, 0.5-1 cm long, 0.4-0.6 cm wide, light yellow, surface smooth, seed coat thin, papery; taste, oily. 19
  32. 32. DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARIPHARMACOGNOSY: Table.7 Characters of Gmelina arborea Linn. Fruit. Characters Gmelina arborea Linn. Fruit. Macroscopic Shape Drupe, Ovoid, crinkled, black, Size 1.5-2.0 cm long. Colour Black, crinkled, Taste. Sweetish sour. Microscopic Pericarp. Differentiated in to single layer epicarp. Mesocarp. Multylayerd, fleshy. Endocarp. Hard and Stony. Epicarp. Single layerd, theen walled cells.CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS: Gmelofuran-a, furanosesquiterpenoid, ssquiterpene, cerylalcohol,hentriacontanol-1, b-sitosterol, n- octacosanol, gmelinol, apiosylskimmin-a,apiofuranodyl (1.0.7)- umbelliferone (root); cluytyl ferulate, n-octacosanol,gmelanone, arborial, 2-0- methyal arboreol, 2-0- ethyal arboreol, isoarboreol, 4-hydroxysesamin, 1,4- dihydroxysesamin (gummsdiol), 2- piperonyl-3-(hydroxymethyl)-4 (~hydroxy-3-,4methylenedioxybenzyl) - 4-hydroxytetrahydroxyfluron (I) 4-epigummadiol-4-glucoside, 1,4-dihydroxy -2, 6-dipiperonyl-3, 7-dioxybicyclo [3,3,0] –octane, gmelanone, palmitic, oleic and linoleicacids, stigmastirol, stigmastinol, campesterol, ~-2-stostirol, butulinol(hertwood)luteilin, apigenin, quercetin, hentriacontanol, b-sitosterol, quercetogenin and otherflavons (leaf).PHARMACOLOGY:Hypoglycaemic, Antiviral. The Rasayana (anabolic) effect of fruit of G.arborea was studied in rabbitsusing electrophoretic analysis of serum fraction, body weight and physical behaviors 20
  33. 33. DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARIas parameters. An increase in percentage of ~2 and ~-globulin frsction, gain in bodyweight and alertness in physical behaviors was observed after treatment with the drug. In the clinical study, effect of Dashamula, of wich G. arborea is one of theconstituent, on management of sensory and motor disorder pertaining to sympatheticand parasympathetic outflow among the patient presenting with primary nurologicaldisorders have been investigated. Significant improvement in nerve conductionvelocity was observed. The pattern of ‘H’ reflex also improved in all these patientsalong with clinical response.CULTIVATION: It is planted in gardens and avenues. The tree prefers moist, fertile soil withgood drainage. Natural reproduction takes place in rainy season soon after the drupesfalls to the ground. Alternating heat and moisture are necessary to stimulate thegermination. Artificial reproduction may be carried out by direct sowing or bytransplanting. Direct sowing in lines, 3-4m apart, with a distance of 30cm between theplants has given the good results. Dibbling of seeds with spacing of 2x2m andbroadcast sowing also give satisfactory result for transplanting purposes. Seeds aresown in drills in nursery beds shortly before rains. Seedlings are transplanted in thefirst rainy season when 8-10cm high. If the plants are to be kept for a year in thenursery, they are pricked out to20cm apart in the first rains and planted out in the nextrainy season with the stem pruned down to 5cm and the root trimmed to 30cm aspacing of 2x2m is ordinarily suitable. The rate of growth is fast and tree is welladopted as coppice. It has been found suitable for plantation on waste lands.Micro propagation of G.arborea was tried through auxiliary bud culture. Theepicromic and crown regions of a6 year old plant were used to initiate shoot cultures.Explant from the epicormic regions produced 2.7(average) shoot lets /explant whencultured on McCown’s medium for woody plants rooted on IBA (1.5mg/l)supplemented McCown’s medium within 7-9 days of culture.ADULTERANTS / SUBSTITUTES: Roots of Gmelina asiatica Linn. are used as substitute to Gmelina arborea. 21
  34. 34. DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARIPhotos: Photo No 1.Gemilina arboria fiower Photo No 2. Fruts of Gmelina arboria 22
  35. 35. DRUG REVIEW - DRAKSHA DRAKSHA HISTORY Draksha is well known drug since Vedic period. Mainly in Atharvaveda the Draksha in mentioned under the name of Krushana for management of Apachita Vyadhi, Rajayakshama, Kilasa, and Phalita. Also mentioned it as Balya, Pushatikaraka, Shukravardhaka, Mamsavardhaka, Rasa poshanakara properties. Draksha is recommended as the best among the fruits recommended in Ayurveda. Charaka considered it under Kasahara, Jwarahara, Snehopaga, and Verachanopaga Ganas. Sushruta consider under Kakolyadi, and Parushakadi gana. Its synonyms such as Harahura, Madhurasa indicate that this drug was in use since olden days in the preparation of Madya. According to Charaka it is used as Trushnahara, also in Madyajanyavikara, Rajyakshma, Daha, Jwara, Swasha, Rakatapita, Urakshata, Swarabheda. Etc. In Chikitsa sthana use of the Draksha is found in Pittija Gulma, Pandu, Halimak, Trushna etc. Sushruta mentioned the use of Draksha in Jwara chikitsa; Draksha is best among all Phalavarga. Its use is also mentioned in Pittajagranti, Arbuda and Bastikarma. Vagbhata also consider that Draksha is useful in Raktapitta, Madyaja chardi, Brhama and Trushana. Etc. aÉhÉ - uÉaÉï Table.8 Showing Gana and varga of Draksha.aÉhÉ – uÉaÉï cÉ.xÉÇ xÉÑ.xÉÇ A.WØû kÉ.ÌlÉ qÉ.ÌlÉ qÉÉ.Sì. Mæü.ÌlÉ pÉÉ.ÌlÉ UÉ.ÌlÉ ÌlÉ.AÉ ÌmÉë.ÌlÉxlÉåWûÉåmÉaÉ +ÌuÉUcÉlÉÉåmÉaÉ +MüÉxÉWûU +euÉUWûU +MüÉMüÉåsrÉÉÌS +mÉÂwÉMüÉÌS +TüsÉ uÉaÉï + + + + +AÉqÉëÉÌS uÉaÉï + +AÉåwÉkÉÏ uÉaÉï +ÌmÉmÉsrÉÉÌS uÉaÉï +SìɤÉÉÌS uÉaÉï + + 23
  36. 36. DRUG REVIEW - DRAKSHA mÉrÉÉïrÉ lÉÉqÉÌlÉÂÌ£ü 1. qÉײÏMüÉ : qÉëÑSlÉÌiÉ zÉËUUqÉç, zÉËUU qÉSïuÉqÉç sÉÌiÉiÉUiÉ: qÉ×±iÉå uÉÉ :|| (pÉÉ ÌlÉ) This brings Mrudatwa to the body hence name Mrudwika. 2. aÉÉåxiÉÌlÉ : aÉÉå: xiÉlÉ CuÉÉM×üiÉÉã:|| (pÉÉ ÌlÉ) Fruit’s shape resembles that of Gosthana. 3. SìɤÉÉ : SìÉQè¤rÉiÉå MüÉQè¤rÉiÉå CÌiÉ ‘SìÉÍ¤É MüÉQè¤ÉÉrÉÉqÉç :|| (pÉÉ ÌlÉ) It is having sweet taste. 4.xuÉÉÌS: xuÉÉSÕÌlÉ TüsÉÉlrÉxrÉÉ :|| (pÉÉ ÌlÉ) It is having good taste. 5.qÉkÉÑÒUxÉÉ : qÉÎbuÉuÉ qÉkÉÑU UxÉÉåAzrÉ : || (pÉÉ ÌlÉ) It is very sweet similar to madhu. 6. rɤqÉblÉÏ : UÉeÉrɤqÉÉhÉÇ WûliÉÏÌiÉ :|| (zÉoScÉÎlSìMüÉ) The one which, cures the Rajayakshama. 7. oÉëÑWûÍhÉ : kÉiÉÑuÉÍkÉïÌlÉ :|| (Mãü ÌlÉ) It nourishes the body. 8. aÉÑcNûTüsÉÉ : aÉÑcNåû TüsÉÉlrÉxrÉÉ :|| (UÉ ÌlÉ) The fruit appears in bunches. 9. TüsÉÉå¨ÉqÉÉ : TüsÉåwÉÔ¨ÉqÉÉ ´Éå¹É AiÉ LuÉ cÉUMü: TüsÉuÉaÉï mÉëjÉqÉ mÉPûÌiÉ :|| (Mæü ÌlÉ) It is regarded as best one 10. E¨ÉUÉmÉjÉÉ : E¨ÉUÉmÉjÉå eÉÉiÉÉ :|| (A ÌlÉ) Mostly grows in high attitude of northern region. 11. WûÉUWÕûUÉ : WûÉUWÕûU: qɱÇ, iÉSjÉïqÉÑmÉrÉÑ£üÉ :|| (pÉÉ ÌlÉ) Using for preparing wine.Table.9 Showing important Paryaya nama of the DrakshamÉrÉÉïrÉ lÉÉqÉ cÉ.xÉÇ xÉÑ.xÉÇ A.WØû kÉ.ÌlÉ qÉ.ÌlÉ qÉÉ.Sì Mæü.ÌlÉ pÉÉ.ÌlÉ UÉ.ÌlÉ ÌlÉ.AÉ ÌmÉë.ÌlÉSìɤÉÉ + + + + + + + +M×whÉÉ + + +ÌmÉërÉÉsÉÉ + +iÉmÉÎxmÉërÉÉ + + +MüÉzÉqÉÏËUMüÉ + 24
  37. 37. DRUG REVIEW - DRAKSHA UxÉÉsÉÉ + + + + MüUqÉÌSïMüÉ + + xuÉSÒTüsÉÉ + + + qÉkÉÑUxÉÉ + + qÉëÑSÌuÉMüÉ + + + + + + WûÉUWÒûUÉ + + + + + aÉÉåxiÉÌlÉ + + + + + MüÌmÉzÉÉ + TüsÉÉåiÉqÉÉ + + + xuÉÉÌS + + + + oÉëÑWûhÉÏ + + qÉkÉÑrÉÉålÉÏ + + qÉkÉÑxÉqpÉuÉÉ + + qÉkÉÑTüsÉÉ + + + aÉÑQûÉ + + aÉÑNûÉTüsÉÉ + aÉÑhÉ Table.10 Showing Guans of Draksha aÉÑhÉ cÉ.xÉÇ xÉÑ.xÉÇ A.WØû kÉ.ÌlÉ qÉ.ÌlÉ qÉÉ.Sì Mæü.ÌlÉ pÉÉ.ÌlÉ UÉ.ÌlÉ ÌmÉë.ÌlÉ qÉkÉÑU + + + + + + + + + + UxÉ AÉqsÉ + + ÎxlÉakÉ + + + + zÉÏiÉ + + + + + + aÉÑhÉ qÉ×SÕ + + aÉÑ + + + + uÉÏrÉï zÉÏiÉ + + + + + + + + + + ÌuÉmÉÉMü qÉkÉÑU + + + + + + ÌmɨÉuÉkÉïMü + SÉåwÉblÉiÉÉ MüTüuÉkÉïMü + + + + + + + + MüqÉï Table.11 Showing important Karmas of DrakshaMüqÉï cÉ.xÉÇ xÉÑ.xÉÇ A.WØû kÉ.ÌlÉ qÉÉ.Sì qÉ.ÌlÉ Mæü.ÌlÉ pÉÉ.ÌlÉ UÉ.ÌlÉ ÌmÉë.ÌlÉ ÌlÉ.AÉoÉ×WûhÉÇ + + + + + + + + + +uÉ×wrÉ + + + + + + +MÇüš + + + + +lÉå§rÉ + +oÉsrÉ + + + + + + 25
  38. 38. DRUG REVIEW - DRAKSHAmÉÑ̹ + + + + +ÂÍcÉMüÉUxÉ + + + +´ÉqÉWûU + +UåcÉlÉ +xÉëѹèÌuÉlqÉÑ§É +iÉ×ÎmiÉ + +xlÉåWûlÉ + + + +qÉѧÉsÉ + +xÉÉÉUMü + + +xÉÇliÉmÉïlÉ + + + + + + + SìɤÉÉ pÉåS Raj Nighantukara mentioned four types of Draksha according to their stages.  Bala draksha.  Tarun draksha.  Vruddhaka draksha.  Manuka (dried Draksha) mÉërÉÉåerÉ A…¡û LuÉÇ qÉɧÉÉ mÉërÉÉåerÉ A…¡û: Draksha being a herb, it is used as Phala when it is fresh and dry form. For the purpose of medicine the following parts are mainly concerned.  Manuka  Draksha qÉɧÉÉ: 1. MüsMü – 10-20 gm 2. xuÉUxÉ- 20- 40 ml mÉërÉÉåaÉ The various disorders in which the Draksha is used mainly are Vatavyadhi, Pittavikaras, etc. and also in various disease conditions as shown in the following table. 26
  39. 39. DRUG REVIEW - DRAKSHA Table.12 Showing important Prayoga of Draksha in different VyadhimÉërÉÉåaÉ cÉ.xÉÇ xÉÑ.xÉÇ A.WØû kÉ.ÌlÉ qÉÉ.Sì qÉ.ÌlÉ Mæü.ÌlÉ pÉÉ.ÌlÉ åUÉ.ÌlÉ ÌlÉ.AÉ ÌmÉë.ÌlÉU£üÌmÉiÉ + + + + + + + + +EU¤ÉiÉ + +mÉÉÇQÒû + + +¤ÉrÉ + + + + + + + + +xuÉUpÉåS + + + + +euÉU + + + + + + + + +µÉÉxÉ + + + + + +iÉ×whÉÉ + + + + + + + + + +SÉWû + + + + +MüÉxÉ + + +uÉÉiÉU£ü + +MüÉqÉsÉÉ + + + +qÉѧÉM×¶É + + +zÉÉåwÉ + +qÉSÉirÉrÉ + + + +uÉÉiÉÌmɨÉç + +qÉÑNûÉï + +¤ÉiÉ + +ÌuÉxÉmÉïNûÌSï + +qÉÉåWû + +aÉëWûÌlÉ + +ÌuÉoÉlS + + +aÉÑsqÉ + + +mÉëqÉåWû +¾ÒûSìÉåaÉ + + +UÉeÉrɤÉqÉÉ + + + 27
  40. 40. DRUG REVIEW - DRAKSHAAÉqÉÌrÉMü mÉërÉÉåaÉ1. The preparation with Draksha, Sariva, fried paddy, Pippali, honey and Shunthi, alleviates Trushna.2. Mantha (saturated drink) with Draksha, Kharjura, Vrakshamla, Parushaka, and Amalaki fruits alleviates the Madatyaya vikaras.3. Seeds of Kapikachchu, Pippali, fruits of Draksha, Kharjura, Shatawari, Shringataka, each 80gm, should be boiled in milk and water each 640ml, till 640 ml remains, this should be filtered with clean cloth and added with sugar, Vamshalochana and fresh ghee each 80 gm. This should be taken mixed with honey keeping diet of boiled Shashtika rice. It acts as best Vajikarana properties.4. Water boiled and cooled with Kharjura, Draksha, Madhuka (flowers), and Parushaka, cooled it and used for Urdhwaga Raktapitta.5. One who suffering from Kasa, Asthishoola, should take the Draksha, Madhuka, Tugakshiri, Pippali, and Bala mixed with ghee and honey.6. Madhuka, Musta, Mrudvika, Kashmarya, Parushaka (fruits of these three), Trayamana, Usira, Triphala and Katukarohini, all together kept over night in water and taken in the morning this alleviates Jwara.7. Decocation of Vasa, Mrudvika, Haritaki, added with sugar and honey, alleviates Swasha, Kasa and Raktapiita.8. In Rajayakshma Draksha, Kharjura, Pippali, Haritaki, Shringi and Duralabha, this formulation should be taken along with honey and ghee.9. Old ghee 640gm cooked with paste of dried grapes 320gm alleviates Kamala, Gulma, Pandhu, Jwara, Prameha, Udararoga.10. Manjista, Draksha, Haridra, Bala(root), Loha-bhasma, Lodhra, with these jaggary should be prepared for those suffering from Pandu roga.11. Ghee, juice of sugarcane, Draksha, milk, sugar, should be given to him to induce vomiting by this alimentary tract and chest becomes purified by Shodhana.12. Draksha also used for the subsiding the Jwara.13. Parushaka, Draksha, Katphala, Dadima, and Triphala etc included in Parushakadi gana mitigate Vata disorders.14. Draksha and Madhuka, it cures the disorders of Kapha, and it also helps in Malahara properties. 28
  41. 41. DRUG REVIEW - DRAKSHA15. Roots of Danti, Dravanti, along with Maricha, Vishvabheshaja, Mridvika, Chitaraka, are socked in Gomutra for 7 days and converted in powder it act as a Kapha-Pithahara.16. Mridvika, Sharkara, Amalaki, is best used for the reducing Bhrama, and Trushna.17. Draksha decoction also used for Raktapiita, Kshyaya, Swarabheda, Jwara, Trushana, Mutrakrucha, and Vibhanda.18. Haritaki churna should be drink along with Draksha Swarasa for Piitaja Granthi chikitsa19. The preparation of Mridvika, Amalaki, Nagara, Badara, Sariva, Musta, Chandana, mixed with honey it cures Trushna, Chardi, Daha, Jwara, and Pittaja disorders.20. Phanta prepared from Madhukapushpa, Mridvika, Tiktaka, Triphala, Ghambhari, consumed at proper time it will cure all types of fever.21. Medicated ghee prepared with Kharjura, Draksha, Parushaka, Madhuka, and Pipali it cures Kasa, Jwara and Swasha.22. The juice of Draksha and Amalaki is best for patient suffering from Pandhu and Kamala.23. For Rasnadi Basti the paste of Madhanaphala, Saindhava, Indrayava, soup of meet, honey, Draksha, are used for Basti karma.24. In vaginal disorders Draksha and Kashamrya will be used. Table.13 Showing Vishishta yoga of Draksha.PREPARATION INDICATION REFERENCEDraksharista. Urakshata, Shwasa, Swarabheda, Sh Sam 10/43.Drakshadi kwath Vata jwara, Trushna, Daha. A.S. 13/3Traushanadi ghruta, Kasa, Jwara, Gulma, Kamala, Arsha, Ch ci 18/39Parushaka grutha Vata-rakta, Arsha, Pittaja-Jwara, Ch ci 29/59.Sukumar grutha Vrudhi, shotha, Arsha etc. A H ci 2/44Drakshadi phanta Trushna. Jwara etc A H ci 6/72Chitrakadi leha Kasa, Hrudroga, Gulma etc. Ch. Chi 18/154Vidari Gruta Mutraghaata. Bhi Rat (35/30). 29
  42. 42. DRUG REVIEW - DRAKSHAREFERENCES: cÉUMü xÉÇÌWûiÉÉ:1. AjÉ TüsÉ uÉaÉï- §ÉçwhÉÉ SÉWû euÉU µÉÉxÉ U£ü ÌmɨÉç ¤ÉiÉ ¤ÉrÉÉlÉ:| uÉÉiÉÌmÉ¨É ESÉuÉiÉï xuÉUpÉåSÉ qÉSÉirÉrÉqÉç:|| cÉ. xÉÑ (27/ 125.)2. qÉljÉ: ZéeÉÑïUqÉëÑ̲MüÉ uÉëѤÉÉqsÉÉÎqsÉMüÉSÉÌSqÉå:| mÉÂzÉMüÉ:xÉÉqÉsÉYrÉrÉÑ£üÉå qɱÌuÉMüÉUÉlÉÑiÉÉ: || cÉ xÉÑ (23/38)3. ÌuÉQÇûaÉÌmÉmÉÍsÉqÉÔsÉ ÍzÉaÉëÑpÉåuÉUåcÉlÉå cÉç: | iÉ¢ü ÍxÉkSèrÉuÉÉaÉÑxrÉÉiÉ Ì¢üÍqÉblÉ xÉÑuÉÎUçcÉïMüÉ : || cÉ xÉÑ ( 2/23)4. AjÉ qɱ uÉaÉï- kÉÉiÉYrÉÉrÉÍpÉÌwÉiÉÉå ¾û±Éå ÂyzÉÉå UÉåcÉlÉÉÌSmÉlÉÉå : | qÉÉÎkuÉMüuÉ³É cÉÉiÉÑzÉlÉÉå qÉëÑ̲MüÉxÉÑUÉxÉÉuÉÉ : || cÉ xÉÑ (27/ 188)5. AéiqÉaÉÑmiÉÉ TüsÉçÇqÉÉwÉÉlÉ ZÉeÉÑïUÉÍhÉzɨÉÉuÉËUqÉ : | ¤ÉëÑaÉÉOûMüÉÍhÉ qÉëÑ̲MüÉ xÉÉkÉrÉåiÉ mÉëxÉÑiÉÉåÎlqÉiÉÉ : || cÉ ÍcÉ (2/14)6. eÉsÉÇZÉeÉÑïUÉqÉëÑ̲MüÉ:qÉSÒMüÉå: xÉmÉÂwÉMüÉå: | ¤ÉëÑiÉÍzÉiÉ: mÉërÉÉYixrÉå i§ÉmÉhÉÉjÉ: || cÉ ÍcÉ (3/ 205)7. bÉëÑiÉ qÉëÑ̲MüÉ ZÉeÉÑïUÉMüzÉM`üU ¤ÉÉæSìxÉÇqÉrÉÑ£çüqÉç : | xÉÌmÉmÉÍsÉMüÉ uÉåxuÉãrÉMüÉxÉxuÉÉxÉ euÉëUÉmÉWûqÉ: || cÉ ÍcÉ (8/96)8. mÉÑUÉhÉxÉãÌmÉwÉ: mÉëxjÉÉå SìYzÉÉkÉãmÉëxjÉÉå xÉÉÍkÉiÉç: | MüÉqÉsÉÉaÉÑsqÉÉmÉÉhQÒû uÉÌiÉïqÉåWûÉåSUÉmÉWûqÉç: || cÉ ÍcÉ (16/52) xÉÑ´ÉÑiÉ xÉÇÌWûiÉ1. qÉѧÉUÉåkÉeÉÉESÉuÉirÉï—SìɤÉÉUxÉqÉjÉÉÌmÉ uÉÉ : || xÉÑ E (55) ̧ÉTüsÉÉcÉåÌiÉmÉÂwÉMüÉËUirÉwÉ aÉhÉÉå ÌlÉsÉÌuÉlÉzÉlÉqÉç : || xÉÑ xÉÑ (38/43)2. ÌmɨÉmÉëoÉsÉå SìɤÉÉMåüiÉMüiÉTüsÉÇ mÉrÉxrÉÉqÉÇ kÉÑMücÉlSlÉ : | MüÉzqÉrÉïMüwÉÉrÉÉ zÉMïüUÉ qÉkÉÑqÉkÉÑU mÉÉrÉårÉiÉ: || xÉÑ ÍcÉ (5/8)3. rÉwÉirÉÉWûÍqÉÍxÉÍxÉlkÉÑ EiÉTüsÉÉÌlÉlSuÉuÉÉrÉå : | UxÉÉlelÉqÉÇUxɤÉéåSìSìɤÉÉ xÉÉåÌuÉUxÉÇrÉÑYirÉæ : || xÉÑ ÍcÉ (37/72) 30
  43. 43. DRUG REVIEW - DRAKSHA4. SìɤÉÉUxÉålɤÉÑUxÉålÉ uÉeÉÌmÉ cÉÔhÉïç ÌmÉoÉåiÉÌmÉ WûËUiÉÌMüiÉÉqÉç : | qÉkÉÑMüeÉqoÉÑAeÉÑïlÉÉuÉåiÉxÉÉlÉÉqÉ iuÉÉÎakÉ mÉëSåWûÉlÉÉqÉuÉcÉÉUrÉåiÉ : || xÉÑ ÍcÉ ( 18/9)5. iÉSåuÉZÉhQûqÉëÑSÌuÉMüÉ zÉMïüUÉxÉÌWûiÉÇqÉç mÉÑlÉÇ : | xÉÉqsÉxÉÌiÉYzÉ xÉÌWûqÉmÉÉlÉMÇüirÉqÉ : || xÉÑ xÉÑ (48/389) A¹ÉÇaÉ WØûSrÉ1. mÉjrÉÉqÉsÉMÇüqÉëÑSÌuÉMüÉ mÉOûÉåÍsÉqÉëÑSzÉMïüUÉ : | bÉëÑiÉÉSÏurÉÉåSMü¤ÉÏUÇ ¤ÉÉåSìSÉÌQûqÉÉ xÉÉåkÉuÉqÉÇ: || A Wû xÉÑ (842)2. xÉMüÉxÉxuÉÉxÉmÉÉΤuÉiÉÉå uÉÉiÉzsÉåwqÉÉåi§Uå euÉUå :| qÉkÉÑMümÉÑwmÉqÉëÑSuÉÏMüɧÉÉrÉqÉÉlÉÉ mÉÂwÉMüqÉç :|| A Wû ÍcÉ (1/67).3. bÉëÑiÉÇ ZéeÉÑïUÉ qÉëÑ̲MüÉqÉkÉÑMåü xÉmÉÂwÉMæüü : | xÉÌmÉmmÉÍsÉMüÉ uÉæxuÉrÉïMüÉxɵÉÉxÉ euÉUmÉWûqÉçÇ : || A Wû ÍcÉ (5/18).4. SÉWûSÏwÉÑ Ì§ÉuÉëѨMüsMüÉqÉëÑ̲MüÉ uÉÉËUhÉÉÌmÉoÉåiÉ: | iÉ̲kÉÌmɨɢÑüSÉiÉÉlÉç WûiuÉÉSÉWûÌSMüÉlÉç eÉrÉiÉå : || A Wû Mü (5/26).5. mÉOûÉåsÉqÉÑxiÉÉ qÉëÑ̲MüÉaÉÑQÒûcÉÏ Ì§ÉTüsÉÉå SìuÉqÉÇ :|| ÍzÉzÉÉåxiÉÑ zÉMïüUÉ ¤ÉéåSìå: xÉiÉiÉÇÌiÉÍqÉUÉiÉÑUÉ : || A W E (13/19) kÉluÉliÉUÏ ÌlÉbÉhOÒû: (AÉqÉëÉSÏ uÉaÉï) SìɤÉÉ cÉÉÂTüsÉÉ ¢ÑüwhÉÉ ÌmÉërÉÉsÉÉ iÉÉmÉxÉÌmÉërÉÉ : | MüÉzqÉÏËUMüÉ ÌuÉÌlÉÌSìwOûÉ UxÉÉsÉÉ MüUqÉïÌSMüÉ : || (49) SìɤÉÉ ¾è±UxÉÉ xuÉrÉÉï qÉkÉÑUÉ ÎxlÉakÉÉzÉÏiÉsÉÉ : | U£üÌmÉ¨É euÉU µÉÉxɧÉÑwÉhÉÉ SÉWû ¤ÉrÉÉmÉWûqÉ : || (50) MæürÉSåuÉ ÌlÉbÉhOÒû: (AÉæwÉÍkÉ uÉaÉï) 1. SìɤÉÉTüsÉÉåiÉqÉÉxuÉÉÌS WûÉUWÒûËUcÉç oÉëÑWûÌlÉ : | qÉkÉÑrÉÉåÌlɶÉÂTüsÉÉ UxÉÉsÉÉ qÉkÉÑ xÉqÉÇpÉuÉÉ: || (268) 2. AÉqÉÉxÉÉqsÉÉaÉÑhÉÉ aÉÑÌuÉï xÉÉåuÉÉqsÉÉ U£üÌmɨɢÑüiÉÉ : | 31
  44. 44. DRUG REVIEW - DRAKSHA SìɤÉÉqsÉÉåYzÉlÉÉ xÉUÉ aÉÑÌuÉï uÉÉiÉÎblÉ MüTüÌmɨÉSÉ : || (301) 3. U£üÌmɨÉeuÉUµÉÉxÉ §ÉÑwhÉÉSÉWû qÉSÉirÉlÉÉ : | iɲaÉÉåxiÉÌlÉMüÉ SìɤÉÉxuÉÉSÏuÉëÑwÉiÉqÉÉ qÉiÉÉ : || (304) pÉÉuÉmÉëMüÉzÉ ÌlÉbÉhOÒû: (AÉqÉëmÉsÉÉSÏ uÉaÉï) Sì¤ÉÉmÉYuÉÉUxÉÉzÉÏiÉÉ cÉYzÉÑzÉÉoÉëÑWûÍhÉ aÉÑ : | xuÉSÒmÉÉMüUxÉÉxuÉrÉÉïiÉÑuÉUÉ ´ÉѹÉuÉÏhqÉѧÉÉ : MüÉå¹qÉÉÂiÉÉ¢ÑüiÉÉ uÉëÑwrÉÉ MüTümÉÑ̹mÉëSÉ : || (111) UÉeÉ ÌlÉbÉhOÒû: (AÉqÉëÉSÏ uÉaÉï) 1. AlrÉÉ MüÌmÉsÉSìɤÉÉ qÉëÑ̲MüÉaÉÉåxiÉlÉÏcÉç MüÌmÉsÉTüsÉÉ : | AqÉëÑiÉUxÉÉ SÏbÉïTüsÉÉ qÉkÉÑuÉÎssÉ cÉ : || (102) 2. aÉÉåxiÉÌlÉ qÉkÉÑUÉ ÍzÉiÉÉ ¾Òû±ÉcÉç qɱWïûwÉÏÍhÉ : | SÉWû qÉÑcNûÉï euÉU µÉÉxÉ-§ÉÑwÉhÉɾèsÉÉxÉ lÉÉÍzÉlÉÏ : || (104) 3. AlrÉÉ xÉÉ MüÉMüÍsÉSìɤÉÉeÉqoÉÑMüÉcÉç TüsÉÉåiÉqÉÉ : | sÉbÉÑSì¤ÉÉ cÉç ÌlÉëÌoÉïeÉÉ xÉÑuÉëÑiÉÉ ÂÍcÉMüÉËUÌlÉ : || (106) 32
  45. 45. DRUG REVIEW - DRAKSHA MODERN DRUG REVIEWCLASSIFICATIONAccording to Benthem and Hooker’s system of classification-Kingdom PlantaeSubkingdom TracheobiontaSuper division SpermatophytaDivision MagnoliophytaClass VitacedaSubclass VitadaeOrder vitalesFamily VitaceaeGenus Vinifera L.Species Vitis vinifera Linn.VERNACULAR NAMESEnglish: Dry grap’s, Raisins.Hindi: Munkka.Kannada: -Draksha.Marathi: Draksha, Anguar.Gujarati: . Drakh, Darakh.Punjabi: . Munaca.Bengali: -.Maneka.Malayalam: - .Munthringya.Tamil: - Drakshai, Kottai, Drakshai.Urdu: - Munaqqa.Assam -Dakh, Munaqqa.Arabic: - Mewis, Sabib, Anaib.Persian: -Angur.Oriya: - drakya, Gostoni.Sind: - Drakh.Telgu: - Drakshakottai,Sanskrit: - Mrdvika, Gostani 33
  46. 46. DRUG REVIEW - DRAKSHA MORPHOLOGYFamily: VITACEAE: There are about 11 genera species 450 in this familyDistribution: Extensively cultivated in north western India. In Punjab, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Delhi, Andrapradesh, etc, also in meddle east and southern European countries.Habits: A large, perennial tendril climber; tendrils leaf opposed often bifid,Leaves: Simple, rotund-cordate or orbicular-cordate, dentate, 3-7 lobed, 10-12 cm across, glabrous above, tomentose beneath.Flowers: Regular hermaphrodite or unisexual in pedicled umbelled or spicate cymes usually opposites the leaves; peduncles often transformed in to tendril or tendril bearing calyx small entire 4-5 lobed. Petals 4-5 valved free or connate caducous. Stamens 4-5 opposite the petals inserted at the base of the disk 2-6 celled ovules 1-2 inch cell ascending anthropus style.Fruit: A berry, sticky and pulpy, dark brown to black, oblong or oval, sometimes spherical, 1.5-2.5cm wide; outer skin irregular wrinkled forming ridges and furrows; usually contain 1-4 seed, 4-7mm long, ovoid rounded to triangular or simply ovoid, brown to black; odour, sweetish and pleasant; taste, sweet.Stamens: 4-5 opposite;Filaments: free or connateOvary: usually sunk in the disk 2-6celld.Ovules: 2 or more from the inner angles of the cells anatropous (rarely orthotropous); 34
  47. 47. DRUG REVIEW - DRAKSHAGenus: Vitis Linn.Habit: Shrubs usually cirrhose sarmentose often climbing to a great height very rarely erect.Leaves: Simple or compound, (vary rarely 2 pinnate)Flowers: Small, some times polygamous umbellate cymose paniculate leaf opposed (very rarely axillary) usually towards the end of branchesCalyx: Short entire or 4-5 lobes, petals 4-5 free or calyptrately cohering apex.Stamens: 4-5 inserted below the margin of the disk; anthers free,Filaments: free or connate below;Ovary: 2 celled short.Seeds: few, compressed;Species: Vitis vinifera LinnHabit: A large deciduous climber, tendrils long, bifid.Leaves: 7.5-1.5 cm. long, orbicular-cordate, more or less deeply(3)5-lobed, Margin irregularly and coarsely toothed, glabrous or nearly so above, clothed beneath with deciduous grey tomentum, thin, membranous; petiole 3.8-7.5 cm.long.Flowers: Green, inflorescene leaf opposed of panicled cymes; peducle sometimes bearing an unbranched tendril below the flowers.Petals : 5, cohering at the apex.Ovary : 5, hypogynous glands adnate to the base.Style : Very short, thick.Seed : 2-4, pear shaped, with a discoidal tubercle on the back from wich a low ridges run over the top and down the ventral face. 35
  48. 48. DRUG REVIEW - DRAKSHAPHARMACOGNOSY:Mature dried fruit, a berry, is sticky and pulpy, dark brown to black in colour, oblongor oval, some time spherical, 1.5- 2.5cm long and 0.5-1.5 cm wide. Seeds generally 1-4 in number are 4-7mm in long, ovoid-rounded to triangular or simple ovoid Under Microscope, the fruit shows a single layered epidermis, cells filled withreddish-brown contents; mesocarp pulpy, composed of thin wall irregular cellscontaining prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 13.75-41mu in diameterand some fibrovascular bundles. Seeds consist of testa and endosperm; testacomposed of thick walled yellowish cells; endosperm consisting of angularparenchymatous cells containing oil globules and cluster crystals of calcium oxalate,measuring 11-16mu diameter.Table.14 Characters of Vitis venifera Dried Fruit.Characters Vitis venifera Dried Fruit.MacroscopicShape Oblong or oval, some time sphericalSize 1.5- 2.5cm long and 0.5-1.5 cm wide.Colour Black, crinkled,Taste. Sweetish sour.MicroscopicPericarp. Differentiated in to single layer epicarp.Mesocarp. Multilayered, fleshy.Endocarp. Hard and Stony.Epicarp. Single layered, thin walled cells.CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS: Palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoic, linolenic acids (shoot); isochlorogenic acids,isomer of quercitrin, isomer of rutin, monoglycolipid containing a free amino group ,caffeic, and caffeyeltartaric acid, ellagitannins- brevlagin 1, vitilagin and iso vitaligin(leaves); 16 B-hydroxy-3-oxoolean 12-en-28-oic acid, 3-oxic acid, 16- B-hydroxyolen-12-en(cuticle) ; linolol, geraniol, elemol acetate, @-terpional (essential oil of leaves); 36

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