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MADHURA-TRIPHALA IN THE MANAGEMENTOF IRON DEFICIENCY ANAEMIA, Patil Ramgonda. S.DRAVYAGUNA, SHRI. J. G. C. H. SOCIETY’S

MADHURA-TRIPHALA IN THE MANAGEMENTOF IRON DEFICIENCY ANAEMIA, Patil Ramgonda. S.DRAVYAGUNA, SHRI. J. G. C. H. SOCIETY’S
AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, GHATAPRABHA.

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Tirphal in pandu, dg Tirphal in pandu, dg Document Transcript

  • “A CLINICAL EVALUATION OF MADHURA-TRIPHALA INTHE MANAGEMENTOF IRON DEFICIENCY ANAEMIA” By Dr. Patil Ramgonda. S. A dissertation submitted to the Rajjiiv Gandhii Uniiversiitty of Healltth Sciiences,, Ra v Gandh Un vers y of Hea h Sc ences Karnattaka,, Bangallore . Karna aka Banga ore In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of AYURVEDA VACHASPATHI - M.D (AYURVEDA) In DRAVYAGUNA Under the guidance of Dr. SUBHASH.V.BAGADE BAMS., MD (Ayu). Co-guide Dr. Sanjeev. L. Athani. BAMS., MD (AYU) SHRI. J. G. C. H. SOCIETY’SAYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, GHATAPRABHA. 2010
  • RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, KARNATAKA, BANGALORE. SHRI. J. G. C. H. SOCIETY’S AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, GHATAPRABHA. POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF DRAVYAGUNA Certificate by the guide This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “A ClinicalEvaluation of Madhura-Triphala in the Management of Irondeficiency Anaemia” is a bonafide research work done by Dr. PatilRamgonda. S. in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree ofAyurveda Vachaspathi – M.D (Ayurveda) in DRAVYAGUNA. Signature of the Guide Prof. Dr. Subhash Bagade. Date: BAMS., MD (Ayu) Asst.prof. Department of Dravyaguna Place: Ghataprabha Shri. J. G. C. H. Society’s Ayurvedic Medical College, Ghataprabha.
  • RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, KARNATAKA, BANGALORE. SHRI. J. G. C. H. SOCIETY’S AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE , GHATAPRABHA. POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF DRAVYAGUNA Certificate by the co-guide This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “A ClinicalEvaluation of Madhura-Triphala in the Management of Irondeficiency Anaemia” is a bonafide research work done by Dr. PatilRamgonda. S. in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degreeof Ayurveda Vachaspathi – M.D (Ayurveda) in DRAVYAGUNA. Signature of the co- guide Dr.Sanjeev. L. Athani BAMS, MD (Ayu) Date: Lect. Department of Dravyaguna Shri. J. G. C. H. Society’s Place: Ghataprabha Ayurvedic Medical College, Ghataprabha.
  • RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, KARNATAKA, BANGALORE. SHRI. J. G. C. H. SOCIETY’S AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, GHATAPRABHA. POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF DRAVYAGUNA Endorsement by the HOD, Principal/Head of the institution This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “A ClinicalEvaluation of Madhura-Triphala in the Management of Irondeficiency Anaemia” is a bonafide research work done by Dr. PatilRamgonda. S. under the guidance of Dr. Subhash Bagade AssistantProfessor. Department of Dravyaguna.Seal and signature of the HOD Seal and signature of the Principal Dr.Mayuresh Agate Prof. Dr.J.K.Sharma BAMS., MD (Ayu) MD (Ayu)Prof. HOD, Department of Dravyaguna Shri. J. G. C. H. Society’s AyurvedicShri. J. G. C. H. Society’s Ayurvedic Medical College, Ghataprabha.Medical College, Ghataprabha.Date:Date: GhataprabhaPlace:Place: Bidar
  • RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, KARNATAKA, BANGALORE. SHRI. J. G. C. H. SOCIETY’S AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, GHATAPRABHA. POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF DRAVYAGUNA Declaration by the candidate I here by declare that this dissertation/ thesis “A ClinicalEvaluation of Madhura-Triphala in the Management of Irondeficiency Anaemia” is a bonafide and genuine research work carriedout by me under the guidance of Dr. Subhash Bagade Asst Professor.Department of Dravyaguna.Date: Signature of the candidatePlace: Ghataprabha. Dr. Patil Ramgonda. S.
  • RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, KARNATAKA, BANGALORE. SHRI. J. G. C. H. SOCIETY’S AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE , GHATAPRABHA. POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF DRAVYAGUNA Copyright Declaration by the candidate I here by declare that the Rajiv Gandhi University of HealthSciences, Karnataka shall declare the rights to preserve, use anddisseminate this dissertation/ thesis in print or electronic format foracademic/ research purpose. Signature of the candidate Date: Place: Ghataprabha Dr. Patil Ramgonda S.
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish to record my gratitude towards the reverend President His Holiness ShriJagadguru Gurusiddeshwara Mahaswamiji, Murusavira Matha, Hubli. And ShriB.R.Patil, Chairman, Shri. J. G. Co-op. Hospital Society and Research centre,Ghataprabha, for their noble support. I am very much indebted to my esteemed and respected guideAsst Prof. Dr.Subhash Bagade, M.D(Ayu), Registrar P.G. faculty, Department ofDravyaguna, for providing an opportunity to carry out this work under his ableguidance. I will be ever grateful for his invaluable guidance, constructive suggestions,love and affection and thought provoking ideas in every stage of this work. I consider it a great privilege to record my deepest sense of gratitude to mymentor and co-guide Dr.Sanjeev Athani, MD (Ayu), PG. Department of Dravyaguna,Shri. J.G.C.H.Society’s Ayurvedic Medical College and Research centre,Ghataprabha for his all timely support. It is my duty to thank and profound sense of respect to Dr.B.K.H.Patil, CEO,Shri. J. G. Co-op. Hospital Society and Research centre, Ghataprabha for providingme an opportunity in the institution for my Post Graduate Studies. I also express mysincere gratitude to and offer my sincere thanks to Dr.C.S.Banakar, MedicalSuperintendent for his kind support and co-operation. I also express my sincere gratitude to and offer my sincere thanks toDr. J.K.Sharma, Principal, Shri. J.G.C.H.Society’s Ayurvedic Medical College andResearch centre, Ghataprabha for their scholarly influence during my study. I offer my sincere thanks to Dr. Mayuresh Agte, HOD Dravyaguna Dpt. Shri.J.G.C.H.Society’s Ayurvedic Medical College and Research centre, Ghataprabha fortheir scholarly influence during my study. I take this opportunity to convey my thanks to my teachers Dr.C.S.Maladkar,Dr.K.P.Pattnaik, Dr.S.D.Byadigi, Dr.Arun Naragund, Dr.Raghvendra Kolachi.Dr.S.B.Chougula, Dr.Prabhakar Naik, and also thank Mr.S.B.Chalageri, Librarian, i
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTand all the other technical and non-technical staff of the college for their co-operationand help. In this precious moment I appreciate the efforts of my parents Shri.Shivgonda.B.Patil. and Sou. Mahadevi.S.Patil, my younger brother Dr.Raygonda andmy younger sister Dr.Vaishali as they are cause for me to take this noble professionand shaped me into what I am today. I have not been able to find words enough toexpress my sentiments of love, respect, and gratitude for them. I, in this special moment, should be very thankful to Mr.Rajshakar Patil,Mr.Shivangouda Patil, Dr.Girish Deshmukha, Dr.Varun, Dr.Yashawant, Dr.SantoshM, Mr.Kallappa S, Mr.Pramod K, Mr.Siddusing H, Mr.Ganesh M, and my dearfriends for their advice not only in this work but throughout my entire P.G. Studies. My special acknowledgements to all my senior colleagues, Dr.Manjunath L,Dr.Rahul Y, Dr.Shridhar, Dr.Shivashankarprasad, my colleagues Dr. Laxman Dr. Yatiand my Junior colleagues Dr.Appanna, Dr.Mosin and Dr.Vinayaka for theirwonderful co-operation during my entire course. Lastly I acknowledge my thanks to those who have directly or indirectlyextended their support for the completion of my work. Dr Ramgonda. Patil. ii
  • ABBREVIATIONS ABBREVIATIONSA.WØû : Ashtanga HrudayacÉ.xÉÇ : Charaka SamhitaÌlÉ.AÉ : Nighantu AdarshaÌmÉë.ÌlÉ : Priya NighantukÉ.ÌlÉ : Dhanvantari NighantuMæü.ÌlÉ : Kaiyadeva NighantupÉÉ.mÉë : Bhava PrakashaqÉ.ÌlÉ : Madanapala NighantuqÉÉ.S : Maadhava DravyagunaUÉ.ÌlÉ : Raja NighantuxÉÑ.xÉÇ : Sushrutha SamhitaxÉÑ.xÉÔ : Sushruta Samhita SutrasthanazÉÉ.ÌlÉ : Shaligrama NighantuA.WØû.ÍcÉ : Ashtanga Hrudaya Chikitsa sthanaA.WØû.E : Ashtanga Hrudaya UttartantraA.H.Sa : Ashtanga Hrudaya ShareeraAPI : Ayurvedic Pharmacopiea of IndiacÉ.ÍcÉ : Charaka Samhita Chikitsa sthanacÉ.xÉ.xÉÑ : Charaka Samhita SutrasthanacÉ.xÉ.ÌuÉ : Charaka samhita vimaana sthanacÉ.xÉ.zÉÉ : Charaka samhita shareera sthanaxÉÑ.xÉÑ.ÍcÉ : Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa sthanaxÉÑ.xÉÑ.zÉÉ : Sushruta Samhita shareera sthanazÉ.Mü.SìÓ / S K D : ShabdakalpadrumaC.D : ChakradattaS.E.M. : Standard Error of Mean‘t’ : Paired ‘t’ test‘p’ : Significant ‘p’ valueB.T. : Before TreatmentA.T. : After TreatmentS.D. : Standard Deviation iii
  • LIST OF TABLES AND GRAPHS LIST OF TABLESSL.NO TABLES1 Showing Gana and varga of Ghambhari.2 Showing important Paryaya nama of the Ghambhari.3 Showing Gunas of Gambhari.4 Showing important Karmas of Gambhari.5 Showing important Prayoga of Gambhari in different Vyadhi6 Showing Vishishta Yoga Of Gambhari7 Characters of Gmelina arborea Linn. Fruit.8 Showing Gana and varga of Draksha.9 Showing important Paryaya nama of the Draksha.10 Showing Guans of Draksha.11 Showing important Karmas of Draksha.12 Showing important Prayoga of Draksha in different Vyadhi13 Showing Vishishta Yoga of Draksha.14 Showing Characters of Vitis venifera Dried Fruit.15 Showing Gana and varga of Kharjura.16 Showing important Paryaya nama of the Kharjura.17 Showing Gunas of Kharjura18 Showing important Karmas of Kharjura.19 Showing important Prayoga of Kharjura in different Vyadhi.20 Showing Vishishta Yoga of Kharjura.21 Characters of Phonex sylvestris Linn fruit.22 Showing clinical features of Anaemia.23 Showing Normal values of HB%24 Showing Grading of Anemia.25 Showing Clinical grading of Anemia.26 Showing Nidana of Panduroga.27 Showing types of Pandu acc to different Authors.28 Showing Vishista Lakshana’s of Pandu.29 Showing List of shamana yogas in pandu30 Showing the Prelimnary Phytochemical Screening. i
  • LIST OF TABLES AND GRAPHS31 Showing results of qualitative chemical tests conducted.32 Showing results of qualitative chemical tests conducted of MadhuraTriphala.33 Showing Physico-Chemical Evaluation of Madhura Triphala33 Showing status of patients registered under the study34 Showing age wise distribution35 Showing occupation of Patients.36 Showing socio-economic status.37 Showing sex wise distribution.38 Showing diet of patients.39 Showing the incidence of symptoms seen in patients selected for the study.40 Presenting change in Alaparaktata.41 Presenting change in Alpamedaska.42 Presenting change in Nisaar.43 Presenting change in Shitilandrya.44 Presenting change in Gatrapida.45 Presenting change in Aruchi.46 Presenting change in Nidranasha.47 Showing mean difference of subjective parameters48 Presenting change in Haemoglobin Percentage. LIST OF GRAPHSSL.NO GRAPHS1 Showing status of patients registered under the study2 Showing age wise distribution3 Showing occupation of Patients.4 Showing socio-economic status.5 Showing sex wise distribution.6 Showing diet of patients.7 Showing the incidence of symptoms seen in patients selected for the study8 Presenting change in Alaparaktata. ii
  • LIST OF TABLES AND GRAPHS9 Presenting change in Alpamedaska.10 Presenting change in Nisaar.11 Presenting change in Shitilandrya.12 Presenting change in Gatrapida.13 Presenting change in Aruchi.14 Presenting change in Nidranasha.15 Showing mean difference of subjective parameters16 Presenting change in Haemoglobin Percentage. SCHEMATIC PRESENTATIONSSL.NO SCHEMATIC PRESENTATIONS 1 Samprapti of Panda roga. LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHSPL.NO LIST OF PHOTOGRHAPHS 1 Morphological characters of the Plant 1. Gemilina arboria flower. 2. Gmelina arboria fruits. 3. Vitis vinifera fruits(Grapes). 4. Vitis vinifera dry fruit (Raisins). 5. Phonex sylvestris tree. 6. Phonex sylvestris fruit. 2 Physico-Chemical Analysis 7. Preparation of Ash. 8. Ash of Madhura Triphala. 9. Modaka of Madhura Triphala. iii
  • INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION Ayurveda, the science of life is as old as the very existence of livingorganisms so that the means of survival was always a matter of quest for them andwill always be. Ayurveda is one of the most ancient systems of life, health and cure.This system of knowledge flourished through over 5000 years and has had anunbroken tradition of practice down the ages update. It is based on its own unique andoriginal concepts and fundamental principles. The basic and applied knowledge ofAyurveda has survived to the present times through its various branches likeDravyaGuna, Kayachikitsa, Shalya Tantra, Shalakya Tantra, Bhaishajya Kalpana,Rasashastra, etc. The branch DravyaGuna deals with various Aushadi Dravyas, whichone helpful to the treating the various diseases afflicting the human body. ‘xÉqÉSÉåwÉ xÉqÉÉÎalɶÉ: xÉqÉkÉÉiÉÑqÉsÉÌ¢ürÉ :| mÉëxɳÉÉAÉiqÉåÎlSìrÉ: qÉlÉ: xuÉxjÉ CirÉÍpÉÌSrÉiÉå’ :|| xÉÑ xÉÑ (15/41) The problem of nourishment is a world wide; it has been assumed massiveproportion in the underdeveloped and developing countries. Most of the countries inAsia are either underdeveloped or developing countries. India is one of them and percapita income in India is very low. An average individual lives below the poverty linehere. Among the different disorders of Nutritional origin, Anemia is one such disorderwhich is due to a large number of causes, including nutritional deficiencies, i.e. lackof essential minerals, vitamins etc in the diet. The commonest type is nutritionaldeficiency anemia observed in practice i.e. Iron deficiency anaemia. Children, adultand females suffer the most from this problem. Iron deficiency is the most commoncause of anemia in the world, especially in menstruating women and the elderly. Irondeficiency occurs in 11% of adolescent females and women of childbearing age.Thecauses of iron deficiency include blood loss, increased requirements relative to intake(as in pregnancy), and decreased absorption (partial gastrectomy and malabsorptionsyndromes) are associated with blood loss, gastrointestinal tract disorders etc. Humans use iron in the hemoglobin of red blood cells, in order to transportoxygen from the lungs to the tissues and to export carbon dioxide back to the lungs.Iron is also an essential component of myoglobin to store and diffuse oxygen inmuscle cells. That oxygen is required for the production and survival of all cells in our 1
  • INTRODUCTIONbodies. Human bodies tightly regulate iron absorption and recycling. Thus iron is suchan essential element of human life, in fact, that humans have no physiologicregulatory mechanism for excreting iron. In the modern medicine, there is good treatment for Anemia withconsiderable result but that is only for acute deficiency Anemias, no significanttherapy is there for chronic Anemias which occurs due to metabolic defects. SoAyurveda can provide better management of this. The disease characterized by Alaparaktata (panduta) of body, Alpamedaska(Balahani), Nissara (Ojokshaya), Shitilindrya (Arohanayasa), which strikinglyresembles with ‘Anaemia’ of modern science is Panda. Dhatu which is affected in thisdisease is Rakta. Knowing its importance, its function in human body is told asJeevana by ancient acharyas and its deficiency leads to lack of nutrition to otherdhatus. Thus leads to above said cardinal symptoms manifesting Pandu. In Ayurveda,Pandu is considered as a specific disease with its own pathogenesis and treatment(Cha. Chi. 16, Su. Utt. 44). Madhuratriphala, which contains fruits of Draksha, Kharjura and Gambhari inequal quantity, is mentioned for the first time by Narahari pandit in Raj nighantu(17thsen AD). As the drug which belongs to this Madhuratriphala have Madhura Rasa,Madhura Vipaka and Sheet Virya, hence they nourishes all the dhatus, specially RaktaDhatu. Because it is a Prakruti Sama Samavaya combination its pharmacologicalproperties are not highlighted by Narahari pandita. Hence an attempt is made in thisstudy to see its efficacy with reference to Iron deficiency Anaemia. 2
  • AIMS AND OBJECTIVES AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY Review of the literature:  To review both Ayurveda and modern literature of Madhura Triphala from various references.  To review literature of Iron deficiency Anaemia from all ancient Samhita’s and also from recent journals, magazines relating to studies. Collection and identification of genuine species of Draksha, Kharjura and Gambhari:  To collect the drugs from its natural habitat, identify and authenticate the drug botanically, and store it for further study. Preparation of Kalka:  To prepare the churna of the Ghambhari as per the classics.  Prepare Kalka of Draksha and Kharjura and add the Gambhari phala Churna Stir well to form a Homogenous mixture Pharmacognostic and Preliminary phytochemical study of selected drug:  To study the crude drugs under Pharmacognostic scheme and to study the preliminary tests for phytoconstituents. Rakta Vardhaka study of the drug:  The present study is to evaluate the efficacy of the drug in Iron Deficiency Anemia clinically. 3
  • DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARI GAMBHARIHISTORY: Gambhari is one of the ingredient of most famous group Dashamula and inparticularly of Bruhat panchamula. It consists of dried fruit of Gmelina arborea Roxb.(Fam. Verbenaceae), an unarmed tree, found scattered in deciduous forests throughoutthe greater part of the country up to an altitude of 500 m, planted in gardens and alsoas an avenue tree. In Charaka Samhita Ghambhari is included in Shothahara, Virechanopaga andDahaprashamanadi Gana in Sutrasthana. Also in Chikitsasthana it is mentioned as aningredient used in many preparation of Arishta, Kwath, Grutha, Taila, which are usedin various disorders. In Sidhisthana many Basthikalpas are mentioned havingGambhari as an ingredient such as Patala, Agnimantha, Bilwa, Syonyka, Kasmarya,Salaparni, Sneha etc used for Anuvasan basti in Udavarta, and Vibhandha. Sushruta mentioned it under in Brihatpanchamula and Sarivadigana. Eventhough Vagbhata followed Charaka and Sushruta he is first to mentioned it inPhalavarga. Almost all of the Nighantukaras starting from Ancient period to till date havementioned elaborately regarding its Paryays, Guna, Karma, Prayoga and Bheda etc. aÉhÉ – uÉaÉï In Vedas and Ayurvedic treatises, drugs have been classified into eitherVargas or Ganas. Etymologically the Varga means a group of limited number ofDravyas having similar pharmacological actions. Gana consists of large number ofDravyas having similar pharmacological actions. The other word, which is frequentlyused in this connection, is the Skandha, which includes a larger number of Dravyasspecially mentioned with respect to Rasas viz. Madhura skandha etc. The aim of thistype of classification is to summarize the Karma or main use of dravya or dravyas. 4
  • DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARI Table.1 Showing Gana and varga of Ghambhari. aÉhÉ – uÉaÉï cÉ.xÉÇ xÉÑ.xÉÇ A.WØû kÉ.ÌlÉ qÉ.ÌlÉ qÉÉ.Sì Mæü.ÌlÉ pÉÉ.ÌlÉ UÉ.ÌlÉ ÌlÉ.AÉ ÌmÉë.ÌlÉzÉÉåjÉWûU aÉhÉ +ÌuÉUåcÉlÉÉåmÉaÉ aÉhÉ +SÉWûmÉëzÉqÉlÉ aÉhÉ +oÉëÑWèû iÉmÉlcÉÇqÉÔsÉ aÉhÉ + + +xÉÉËUuÉÉÌS aÉhÉ + +AÉæwÉkÉÉÌS uÉaÉï +aÉÑQÕûcrÉÉÌS uÉaÉï + +WûËUiÉMrÉÉÌS uÉaÉï + +ÌlÉaÉÑïhŽÉÌS uÉaÉï +mÉëpÉSìÉÌS uÉaÉï + mÉrÉÉïrÉ lÉÉqÉ A single name is given to many drugs and also a drug may have many names which themselves are called as Paryaya’s. Names and synonyms were the only tools to specify the salient features of the plants. Narahari Pandit the author of Rajanighantu has given seven factors based on which the names were ascribed to the plants. 1. Rudhi (traditional usage) 2. Prabhava (effect) 3. Deshyokti (habitat) 4. Lanchana (morphological characters) 5. Upama (simile) 6. Virya (potency) 7. Itarahvaya (due to other factors). 5
  • DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARI ÌlÉÂÌ£ü1. aÇÉqpÉÉUÏ : aÉÇ aÉÌiÉÇ ÌuÉpÉiÉÏïÌiÉ :|| (pÉÉ ÌlÉ ) It beautiful tree growing fastly.2. MüOèTüsÉÉ : MüOèTüsÉxrÉåuÉ TüsÉqÉxrÉÉ :|| (UÉ ÌlÉ) Fruits are hard in nature.3. MüÉzqÉËU : MüÉzÉiÉå mÉëMüÉzÉiÉå CÌiÉ :|| (pÉÉ ÌlÉ) Beautiful tree like Kumbhe.4.MüÉzqÉÏËU : MüzqÉÏUÌSmÉëSåzÉåwÉÑ eÉÉrÉqÉÉliuÉiÉ :|| (xÉÉå ÌlÉ) Found in Kashmir.5. MÚüwhÉuÉ×liÉÉ : M×üwhÉÇ uÉ×liÉqÉxrÉÉ :|| (pÉÉ ÌlÉ) Blackish colors petiole. .6. ÌmÉiÉUÉåÌWûÍhÉ : iuÉcÉ ÌmÉiÉiuÉÉiÉ : | Yellowish Bark.7. pÉSìmÉhÉÏï : pÉSìÉÍhÉ mÉhÉÉïlrÉxrÉÉ :|| ( pÉÉ ÌlÉ) Beautiful leaves.8 qÉWûÉMÑüÎqpÉ : MÑüÎqpÉxÉSìÓzÉÉ oÉëÑWûiÉÉMüÉU : | (ÌlÉ AÉ) Big tree, with wide steam.9. qÉWûÉMÑüxÉÑqÉMüÉ : qÉWûÎliÉ MÑüxÉqÉÉlrÉxrÉÉ : | (pÉÉ ÌlÉ) Inflorarescence is long.10. uÉÉiÉWûiÉç: uÉiÉÉxrÉ uÉÉiÉlÉÉÍzÉÌlÉ : | ( xÉÉå ÌlÉ) Reduce Vatavyadhi.11. xÉÑTüsÉÉ : zÉÉåpÉlÉÇ TüsÉqÉxrÉÉ :|| (UÉ ÌlÉ) Fruits are wholesome and used as Rasayana.12. xjÉÑsÉiuÉcÉÉ : xjÉÑsÉuÉsMüsÉÉ : | (UÉ ÌlÉ) Bark is thick.13. Í´ÉmÉhÉÏï : ´ÉÏqÉÎliÉ mÉhÉÉïlrÉxrÉÉ :| (pÉÉ ÌlÉ) Leaves are beautiful.14. xÉuÉïiÉÉåpÉSìÉ : xÉuÉïiÉ : MüsrÉÉhÉMüÉUhÉÏ :|| (A ÌlÉ) It useful in many ways. 6
  • DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARI Table.2 Showing important Paryaya nama of the Ghambhari.mÉrÉÉïrÉ lÉÉqÉ cÉ.xÉÇ xÉÑ.xÉÇ A.WØû kÉ.ÌlÉ qÉÉ.Sì qÉ.ÌlÉ Mæü.ÌlÉ pÉÉ.ÌlÉ UÉ.ÌlÉ ÌlÉ.AÉ ÌmÉë.ÌlÉMüÉzqÉrÉÉï + + + + + + + + + + +ÌmÉiÉUÉåÌWûÍhÉ + +qÉkÉÑmÉÍhÉï + + + + +Í´ÉmÉhÉÏï + + + + +xÉuÉïiÉÉåpÉSìÉ + +MüÉzqÉrÉÉï + + + + +MüOèTüsÉÉ + + + +WûÏUÉ + + + + +MüÉzqÉrÉÉï + + + + +aÉÇqpÉÉUÏ + + + + + + + + + + +M×üwhÉuÉ×liÉÉ + + + + + + +pÉSìèmÉÍhÉïMÑüqpÉËU + + + + +xjÉÑsÉiuÉcÉÉ +xÉSìÓRûiuÉcÉÉ + +qÉkÉÑqÉÌiÉ +qÉåÍkÉÌlÉ + + +xÉÑTüsÉÉ +xÉTüsÉÉ +qÉÌWû +qÉkÉÑUxÉÉ +qÉWûMÑüxÉÑÍqÉMüÉ + +ÌuÉSÉËUÍhÉ + +ÍxÉlkÉÑmÉÌlÉï + +xÉÑpÉSìÉ + +MÑüqÉÑSÉ +aÉÉåmÉpÉSìÉ + + + +ͤÉËUÍhÉ + +qÉWûÉpÉSìÉ +xuÉpÉSìÉ + + +M×üwhÉÉ + + 7
  • DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARI aÉÑhÉ MüqÉÉïÍpÉxiÉÑ AlÉÑqÉÏrÉliÉå lÉÉlÉÉ SìurÉ´ÉÉrÉÏ aÉÑhÉÉ: | (xÉÑ.xÉÔ.43) The gunas of a dravya are inferred based on the pharmacological actions of that Dravya. The word Guna here indicates Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka, Karma and Prabhava if any. Table.3 Showing Gunas of Gambhari. cÉ.xÉÇ xÉÑ.xÉÇ A.WØû kÉ.ÌlÉ qÉÉ.Sì qÉ.ÌlÉ Mæü.ÌlÉ pÉÉ.ÌlÉ UÉ.ÌlÉ ÌlÉ. ÌmÉë.ÌlÉ aÉÑhÉ AÉ qÉkÉÑU + + + + UxÉ AÉqsÉ + + + + + MüwÉÉrÉ + + + + ÎxlÉakÉ + + + + aÉÑhÉ aÉÑ + + + + + xÉU + + uÉÏrÉï ÍzÉiÉ + + + + + + ÌuÉmÉÉMü qÉkÉÑU + + + + + uÉÉiÉWûU + + + + + +SÉåwÉblÉiÉÉ ÌmɨÉWûU + zÉÉåjÉWûU + + U£üÌmɨÉWûU + + + + MüqÉï rÉiÉç MÑüuÉïÎliÉ iÉiÉç MüqÉï | (cÉ.xÉÔ.26) The effect of Dravya seen on the body is called as Karma. The Karma is independent of its own to bring out the action of the Dravya. Pharmacological action of a drug is defined as the action which is aimed to obtain a specific therapeutic effect. Table.4 Showing important Karmas of Gambhari. MüqÉï cÉ.xÉÇ xÉÑ.xÉÇ A.WØû kÉ.ÌlÉ Mæü.ÌlÉ qÉ.ÌlÉ qÉÉ.Sì pÉÉ.ÌlÉ UÉ.ÌlÉ ÌmÉë.ÌlÉ ÌlÉ.AÉ UxÉÉrÉlÉ + + + + + + + + oÉ×ÇWûhÉ + + + + + SÏmÉlÉ + + aÉëÉWûÏ + + + + AÉqÉWûU + + + + AzÉïWûU + + + + 8
  • DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARIpÉåSMü + +¾Òû± + +euÉUlÉÉzÉMü + + + + + +MåüwrÉ + + +M×üÍqÉWûU +¤ÉiÉlÉÉzÉMü + + +¤ÉrÉlÉÉzÉMü + +qÉåkrÉ +qÉѧÉsÉ + + +mÉÉcÉlÉ + + + +zÉÔsÉWûUzÉÉåjÉWûU + + + + + +´ÉqÉWûU +zÉÑ¢üsÉ + + +̧ÉSÉåwÉWûU + +iÉ×whÉÉWûU + +ÌuÉwÉSÉåwÉWûUuÉ×wrÉ + + +xiÉÇpÉlÉ + + mÉërÉÉåerÉ A…¡û LuÉÇ qÉɧÉÉ mÉërÉÉåerÉ A…¡û: Gambhari being a Tree, it is used all part. For the purpose of medicine the following parts are mainly concerned. 1. mÉ§É 2. mÉÑwmÉ 3. TüsÉ 4. qÉÔÑsÉ 5. iuÉMü 6. oÉÏeÉ qÉɧÉÉ: An ideal Matra is that quantity of the medicine which can bring upon the aggravated doshas into normal state and not to show any adverse effect on the dhatus. This particular quantity of the medicine is also called Prayoga Matra. The Matra of the medicine varies according to age, sex, strength of the patient and according to doshas involved. 9
  • DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARI The word posology is derived form the Greek word “Posos” means how much and “logos” means science, which means it is a branch of medical science which deals with doses or quantity of drugs which can be administered to produce the required pharmacological actions. Decocation (Kwath)- 50-100ml. Fruit (Phala)- 10-20gm. mÉërÉÉåaÉ The Gambhari useful in various disease conditions as shown as in table below. Table.5 Showing important Prayoga of Gambhari in different Vyadhi mÉërÉÉåaÉ cÉ.xÉÇ xÉÑ.xÉÇ A.WØû kÉ.ÌlÉ qÉÉ.Sì qÉ.ÌlÉ Mæü.ÌlÉ pÉÉ.ÌlÉ UÉ.ÌlÉ. ÌlÉ.AÉ ÌmÉë.ÌlɤÉrÉ + + + + +MüÉqÉsÉÉ +U£ürÉÉåÌlÉ + +SÉWû + + + + + +zÉÔsÉ + + + + +iÉ×wlÉÉ + + + + + +qÉ×cÉÉï + + + + +ESÉuÉïiÉ + + + + +ÌuÉoÉÇkÉ + + +euÉU + + + + + + + + +U£üÌmɨÉç + + + +qÉѧɢÑücNèû + + +mÉëqÉåWû + + + + +AzÉï + + + +MüÉxÉ + + + + +AmÉxqÉÉU + + + + + +aÉÑsqÉ + + + + + + + + +EU:¤ÉiÉ + + + + +¾ûiÉzÉÑsÉ + + + + + + +ElqÉÉS + + + + + +pÉëqÉ + + + +ÎmsÉWûÉ + + +zÉÑ¢üSÉåwÉ + + + + +AÉqÉzÉÔsÉ + + + + 10
  • DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARI´ÉqÉ + + +ÌuÉwÉ + + +ÌuÉSìSÏ + + + +AÌiÉxÉÉU + + +ZÉÍsÉirÉ + +mÉÉÍsÉirÉ +mÉÉhQÕû + + + + + + AÉqÉÌrÉMü mÉërÉÉåaÉ 1. Patala, Agnimantha, Bilwa, Syonyka, Kasmarya, Salaparni, Prishanaparni, Katakari, Bala, Gokshura, Bruhati, Eranda, Punarnawa, Yava, Kulatha, Kola, Guduchu, Madana, Palasa, Lavana and Sneha. These may be used for Anuvasan basti in Udavarta, and Vibhandha. 2. The Kasmarya fruit will be used in preparation of Bramya-rasayana. 3. The flower of Kovidara, Kashmarya, and Shalamali, are also used in Raktapitta condition. 4. Ghee 640gm should be cooked with milk and sugar cane juice 2-5 lit, Kashmarya juice eight time and Jivaneeya Gana 10gm each as paste. It used in Apasmar vyadhi. 5. The patient should be fomented with water boiled with VasaPatra, Kashmarya patra, and Arjaka, bathed with tepid water heated in the sun and pasted with aromatic substances in Vataja shoth. 6. The Kashaya prepared in Dadhisara (cream) and soured with fruit of Kashamarya, Amalaki, and Karbudara, Gunjanaka, Shalamali, Kshirini, should be administered in Raktaarsha. 7. Oil prepared with the juice of Guduchi, Draksha, Gambhari etc. alleviates Vatarakta. 8. Ghee 640gm cooked with Kashmarya, Triphala, Draksha, Kasamarda, Parushaka, Punarnava, Haridra, Daruharidra, Kakanasa etc.. Alleviate Vatajayoniroga. 9. Paste of Kashmarya, Madhuka, macerated with cows milk used in Vatarakta. 10. In Shonitameha decoction of Guduchi, seeds of Tindhuka, Kashamarya, and Kharjura, added with Honey is used. 11
  • DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARI 11. Draksha, Aragwadha, Kashamarya, decoction used in Pittajajwara. 12. Rasa of Dantiphala, is mixed with 4 pala of Gambhari and Draksha Rasa it cures Panduroga. 13. Kashmaryadi Taila used in Phalithya condition. 14. The Swarasa of Gmbhari Patra along with milk internally used for Shojaka disease. 15. In Grishama Rutu the Gambhari Patra swarasa with milk useful in Shirashoola as a local application. For Sthanapushti the Gambhariphalarasa sidhataila will be used for local application. 16. Gambharimula kwath will be used in Jwara, Apachana, and Shotha etc. 17. Juice of tender leaves with cow milk and sugar candy is given in Gonorrhea, also it can prevent abortion. Table.6 Showing Vishishta Yoga Of Gambhari.PREPARATION INDICATION REFERENCEKashmaryadi Kwath. Pittaja jwara, Kasa. Bhi Rt (5/117).Kashamaryadi sheetkashya. Daha, Mutraghata, Bai Rt (20/ 3).Kashamaryharalayam. Kshaya, Krushata. Bai Rt (73/56).Madhukadi sheetkashya. Daha, Trushana, Murcha. Bai Rt (5/166).Lajoudakam, Pittaja Trushana etc. Bai Rt (20/5).Krushanadi leha. Rajayakshama, Kshaya. Bai Rt ( 14/ 13). 12
  • DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARI REFERENCES cÉUMü xÉÇÌWûiÉÉ: 1. mÉÉOûsÉÉcÉç AÎalÉqÉljÉÇ cÉ ÌoÉsuÉ zÉÉålrÉMüÉqÉåuÉÇ cÉ : | MüÉzqÉrÉï zÉÉsÉmÉÌlÉï cÉ mÉëÑzlÉmÉÌlÉï ÌuÉÌSkÉMüÉqÉç : || cÉ xÉÑ ( 2/11) 2. Sì¤ÉÉMüÉzqÉrÉï mÉÂwÉMüÉprÉqÉÉsÉMüÉ ÌuÉÍpÉiÉÌMü MÑücÉsÉÉ : | oÉSU MühOûmÉÏsÉÑÌlÉiÉÏ SzÉåqÉÉÌlÉ ÌuÉUåcÉlÉÉåmÉaÉiÉÏ pÉuÉÎliÉ : || cÉ xÉÑ (4/24) 3. mÉÉOûsÉÉAÎalÉqÉjÉÇ zrÉÉålrÉMüÉoÉÏsuÉMüÉzqÉUÏ MülOûMüÉUÏMüÉ : | oÉëÑWûÌiÉ zÉÉsÉmÉÌlÉï mÉëÑzÉlÉmÉÌlÉï aÉÉå¤ÉÑËUMüÉ CÌiÉ SzÉåqÉÉlÉÏ ¤uÉrÉjÉÑ WûUÉÍhÉ pÉuÉÌiÉ : || cÉ xÉÑ (4/38) 4. sÉÉeÉÉcÉlSèÇlÉMüÉzqÉërÉïTüsÉÉ qÉkÉÑMü zÉMïüUÉÌlÉsÉÉåcÉxÉsÉÉåzÉÏUxÉÉËUuÉÉ : | aÉÑQÒûcÉÏÌWûUoÉåUÉÍhÉ SzÉåqÉÉÌlÉSÉWûmÉëzÉqÉlÉÉÌlÉ pÉuÉÎliÉ : || cÉ xÉÑ (4/41) 5. qÉëÑSÒMüÉå¹åhÉÎx§ÉUɧÉåh....................................... ........................mÉrÉxÉÉ ¢ÑüzÉUÉ xÉÌmÉïMüÉzqÉrÉï ̧ÉTüsÉÉ UxÉqÉ: || cÉ xÉÑ (13/66) 6. iÉÉxuÉåuÉ SìurÉxÉrÉÉåaÉÇ MüUhÉiÉÉåmÉUÏxÉZÉårÉÉxÉÑ rÉjÉÉmÉjÄrÉ cÉiÉÑUzÉÏiÉÏ ÌlÉoÉÉåkÉ : | iɱiÉÉ- xÉÑUÉxÉÉæÌuÉUÉiÉÑxÉÉåSMüqÉæUrÉqÉåSMükÉÉlrÉÉqsÉÉ; wÉQûkÉÉlrÉÉxÉuÉÉ pÉuÉÎliÉ : | qÉëÑ̲MüÉ- ZÉeÉÑïUMüÉzqÉrÉïkÉluÉUÉeɧÉÑlÉzÉÑlrÉ mÉÂzÉMüÉpÉrÉÉqÉsÉMüÉ qÉëÑaÉÍsÉÎlSMüeÉÉqoÉÑlÉç : | ÌmÉsÉÑwrÉMÑücÉsÉoÉSUMüMïühSÒÌmÉsÉÑ-ÌmÉërÉÉsÉ mÉlɱçrsÉÉåkÉëÉAµÉjÉmÉsYzÉÌmÉiÉlÉÉå ESÒqoÉUÉeÉqÉÉåSÉ :| ´ÉÑaÉÉOûMüÉ zÉÉÍsÉÌlÉ TüsÉÉxÉuÉÉ : || cÉ xÉÑ (25/49) 7. qÉkÉÑU oÉëÑWûlÉÇuÉëÑwrÉ ZÉeÉÑïUaÉÑ ÍzÉiÉsÉqÉÇ : | ¤ÉrÉåAÍpÉbÉÉiÉå SÉWåû cÉç uÉÉiÉÌmɨÉå cÉ iÉ̲SqÉÇ : || cÉ xÉÑ (27/127) 8. AÉqsÉmÉÂwÉÉMüÉ SìɤÉÉ oÉSUÉhrÉÉÂMüÉÍhÉcÉ : | ÌmɨÉwsÉåzqÉ mÉëMüÉåÌmÉÍhÉMülÉÉåïokÉÑÌlÉMÑüNûÉlrÉÉÌmÉ : || cÉ xÉÑ (27/132) 9. ÌuÉSÉËUaÉlkÉÉ oÉëÑWûÌiÉ mÉëÑwlÉmÉÌlÉï ÌlÉÌSaÉkÉMüÉqÉ : | 13
  • DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARI aÉlkÉÌmÉÌS µÉSì¹ÉmÉrÉÇqÉ aÉhÉqÉÇ..................: | ÌoÉsuÉÉÎalÉqÉljÉÇzÉÉålrÉÉMü MüzqÉrÉï mÉÉiÉÍsÉoÉsÉÉ : | mÉurÉï µÉiÉxrÉ: uÉëÑ̲ÌlêuÉMüÉ pÉËUMüÉåzÉËU : || cÉ ÍcÉ (1/63-64) 10. MüÉzqÉrÉïTüsÉÇ U£ÇüxÉÉaÉëÌWûMüU£üÌmɨÉmÉëzÉqÉlÉÉlÉÉqÉç :|| cÉ ÍcÉ ( 25/39) 11. U£üÉÌiÉxÉÉUå- MüzqÉrÉÉï: TüsÉmÉÑwmÉÉå uÉÉ ÌMüÎlcÉSÉqÉsÉ xÉ zÉMïüUÉ : || cÉç ÍcÉ (19/80) 12. aÉpÉåï zÉÑwMåü iÉÑ uÉÉiÉålÉ oÉÉsÉÉlÉÉcÉÌmÉ zÉÑwrÉiÉÉqÉ : | ÍxÉiÉÉMüÉzqÉërÉïqÉkÉÑMüÉ: ÌWûiÉqÉÑjÉÉmÉlÉå mÉrÉ : || cÉç ÍcÉ ( 28/61) 13. uÉÉiÉU£åü- ÍxÉ®Ç (iÉæsÉÇ) qÉkÉÑMüMüÉzqÉrÉïxÉæuÉÉ uÉÉiÉU£ülÉÑiÉ : || cÉ ÍcÉ (26/114) 14. MÇüxÉå ͤÉUå¤ÉÑUxÉrÉÉå: MüÉzqÉrÉÉïzOåûaÉÑhÉåUxÉå : | MüÉÌwÉïMæüeÉÏuÉlÉÏrÉæNû bÉëÑiÉmÉëxjÉÇ ÌuÉmÉÉcÉrÉåiÉ : | uÉÉiÉÌmɨÉÉåipÉuÉÇ ¤ÉÏmÉëmÉxqÉÉUÇ ÌlÉrÉcNûÌiÉ : || cÉ ÍcÉ ( 10/ 29-30) 15. MüÉzqÉrÉï̧ÉTüsÉÉSì¤ÉÉMüÉxÉqÉSÉï mÉÂwÉMüÉ : | mÉÑlÉlÉïuÉÉ ²ÏUÌlÉMüÉMüÉlÉÉxÉcÉUå zÉiÉÉuÉrÉÉï .....: || cÉ ÍcÉ ( 30/52) xÉÑ´ÉÑiÉ xÉÇÌWûiÉ 1. xÉÉËUuÉÉ ...........MüÉzqÉËUTüsÉÇ.......... EÍzÉUcÉåÌiÉ : | xÉÉËUuÉÉÌS: ÌmÉmÉÉxÉÉblÉÉå U£üÌmɨÉWûUÉå aÉhÉ : | ÌmɨÉeuÉUÉåmÉëzÉqÉlÉÉå ÌuÉwÉåzÉÉSWûlÉÉzÉlÉqÉÇ : || xÉÑ xÉÑ ( 38/40) 2. qÉkÉÑMüMüÉzqÉrÉïmÉsÉÉzÉiÉæsÉÉÌlÉ qÉkÉÑUMüwÉÉrÉÉÍhÉ MüTüÌmɨÉmÉëzÉqÉlÉÉÌlÉ : || xÉÑ xÉÑ (45/121) 3. ¾ÒûkrÉ qÉѧÉÌuÉpÉlkÉblÉÇ ÌmɨÉÉxÉëÑaÉuÉÉiÉlÉÉzÉlÉqÉÇ : | MåüzrÉÇ UxÉÉrÉlÉÇ qÉåkrÉ MüzqÉërÉï TüsÉÇqÉÑcÉirÉå : || xÉÑ xÉÑ (46/184) 4. MüÉzqÉrÉïiÉæsÉÉlÉÏ qÉkÉÑUMüwÉÉrÉÉÍhÉ MüTüÌmɨÉmÉëzÉqÉlÉÉÌlÉ : || xÉÑ xÉÑ ( 45/76) 5. MüÉzqÉrÉï qÉkÉÑMüiÉmÉïhÉÇ MüsMüÉåuÉÉ : || xÉÑ ÍcÉ (5/12) 6. zÉÉåÌlÉiÉqÉåÌWûlÉÇ aÉÑQÒûcÉÏÌiÉlSÒMüÉzqÉrÉïZÉeÉÑïUMüwÉÉrÉÉ qÉkÉÑÍqÉ´ÉÇ : || xÉÑ ÍcÉ ( 11/9) 7. SÉWû§ÉÑwhÉÉÎluÉiÉå ÌmɨeuÉUå- ....................MüÉzqÉrÉïxjÉuÉÉmÉÑlÉ: | MüwÉÉrÉæ: zÉMïüUÉrÉÑ£åü : ....................: || xÉÑ E ( 39/156) 8. aÉqpÉËUMüÉTüsÉÉÇ mÉYuÉ xÉÑwMÇüqÉÑxiÉå̲iÉqÉç mÉÑlÉÇ : | 14
  • DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARI ¤ÉÏUålÉÇ zÉÏiÉÌmɨÉblÉÇ xuÉÌSiÉÉmÉjrÉÇxÉåuÉlÉÉ : || (cÉ¢üS¨É)  A¹ÉÇaÉ WØûSrÉ 1. TüsÉÇ iÉÑ............ xÉUÇ MüÉzqÉrÉïeÉÇ ÌWûqÉqÉç : | zÉ¢ÑülqÉŅ̃uÉoÉlkÉblÉ MåüzrÉ qÉåkrÉÇ UxÉÉrÉlÉqÉç : || A Wû xÉÑ (6/122) 2. xÉÉËUuÉÉåzÉÏU MüÉzqÉrÉï qÉkÉÑMüÍzÉÍzÉUɲrÉqÉç : | rÉÎziÉmÉÂwÉMüWûÎliÉ ÌmɨÉÉAxÉÑYeuÉïU : || A Wû xÉÑ (15/11) 3. SìɤÉÉÌuÉSÉËUMüÉzqÉrÉïqÉÉxÉÉÇlÉÉ uÉÉ UxÉærÉÑiÉÉlÉ : | zÉÑ® MüÉå¹xrÉ rÉÑ‹Ï¨É ÌuÉkÉÏoêWÒûWûhÉÇ SÏmÉlÉÇ : | ¾ÒûkrÉÉÌlÉcÉɳmÉÉlÉÉÌlÉ uÉÉiÉb³ÉÉÌlÉ sÉbÉÑÌlÉ cÉ : || A Wû ÍcÉ (5/4) 4. ÍzÉiÉmÉëqÉåWûÉ qÉlÉrÉ:xÉåMüÉ urÉeÉlÉqÉÉÂiÉÉ : | ÍxÉiÉÉSìɤÉɤÉÑZÉeÉÑïUÉMüzqÉrÉÉïxuÉUxÉ mÉrÉÇ : || A Wû ÍcÉ (7/10) 5. aÉpÉåï zÉÑwMåüiÉÑ uÉÉiÉålÉÇ uÉÉsÉÉÇlÉÉ cÉ ÌuÉzÉÑwrÉiÉÉqÉ : | ...................................... ÌMüÎlcÉiÉÉqsÉ zÉMïüUÉ : || A Wû ÍcÉ (21/22) 6. SÎliÉmɧÉUxÉå MüÉåwhÉå MüzqÉrÉÉï‹ÍsÉqÉmsÉÑiÉqÉ : | SìɤÉÉ‹ÍsÉ uÉÉ qÉÑÌSiÉÇ iÉiÉç ÌmÉoÉåiÉ mÉÉhQÒûUÉåaÉÎeÉiÉ : || A Wû ÍcÉ (26/6)kÉluÉliÉUÏ ÌlÉbÉhOÒû: MüÉzqÉrÉÉï MüzqÉËU ÌWûUÉ MüzqÉrÉÉåï AkÉmÉÑlÉïÌmÉ : | ´ÉÏmÉÌlÉï xÉuÉïiÉÉåpÉSìÉ aÉqpÉËU ¢ÑüzÉluÉëÑiÉÉMüÉ : | ´ÉÏmÉÌlÉï xuÉUxÉå ÌiÉ£üÉ aÉÑÂwlÉÉ U£üÌmɨÉÎeÉiÉ : | ̧ÉSÉåwÉ ´ÉqÉSÉWûÌiÉïeuÉU §ÉÑwlÉÉÌuÉwÉÉeÉrÉiÉç : || (114-115)  MæürÉSåuÉ ÌlÉbÉhOÒû: (AÉæwÉÍkÉ uÉaÉï) MüTüÌmɨÉWûUÇ iÉxrÉÉ: TüsÉÇ ÎxlÉakÉ ÌWûqÉÇ aÉÑ : | xuÉSÒmÉÉMü UxÉ ¾ÒûkrÉ MüwÉÉrÉÉqsÉÇ UxÉÉrÉlÉqÉç : || oÉëÑWûhÉçÇ zÉÑ¢üsÉÇ MåüzrÉ qÉåkrÉÇ qÉÔ§ÉÌuÉoÉlkÉlÉÑiÉ : | 15
  • DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARI WûlrÉɲÉiɧÉÑwhÉÉSÉWûÌmɨÉU£ü¤ÉiÉ ¤ÉrÉÉlÉÇ : || (32-34) pÉÉuÉmÉëMüÉzÉ ÌlÉbÉhOÒû: (aÉÑQÒûcrÉÌS uÉaÉï) aÉqpÉËU pÉSìmÉlÉÉï cÉ ´ÉÏmÉlÉÏï qÉkÉÑmÉhÉÏïMüÉ : | MüÉÎzqÉËU MüÉzqÉËU WûÏUÉ MüÉzqÉrÉï: ÌmÉiÉUÉåÌWûhÉÏ : | iÉiTüsÉÇ oÉëÑWûlÉçÇ uÉëÑwrÉ aÉÑ MåüwrÉ UxÉÉrÉlÉÇ : | uÉÉiÉÌmÉ¨É §ÉÑwhÉÉ U£ç ¤ÉrÉ qÉ賈 ÌuÉoÉlSlÉÑiÉ : || (15-17) UÉeÉ ÌlÉbÉhOÒû: (mÉëpÉSìÉÌS uÉaÉï) xrÉiÉ MüÉzqÉrÉï: MüÉzqÉËU¢ÑüwhÉuÉëÑliÉÉ : | ÌWûUÉ pÉSìÉ xÉuÉïiÉÉåpÉÌSìMüÉcÉ : | ´ÉÏmÉÌlÉï xrÉÉiÉ ÍxÉlSÒmÉÌlÉï xÉÑpÉSìÉ : | MüqpÉÉËU xÉÉ MüOûTüsÉÉ pÉSìmÉlÉÉåïÌlÉ : || (35) MÑüqÉÑSÉcÉ aÉÉåmÉpÉSìÉ ÌuÉSÉËUÌlÉ ´ÉÏËUhÉÏ qÉWûÉpÉSìÉ : | qÉkÉÑmÉÌlÉï xuÉpÉSìÉ ¢ÑüzÉhÉÉ µÉåiÉÉcÉ UÉåÌWûÍhÉ xÉëÑ¹Ï : || (36) xjÉÑsÉiuÉcÉÉ qÉkÉÑqÉÌiÉ xÉÑTüsÉÉ qÉåÌShÉÏ qÉWûÉMÑüqÉÑSÉ : | qÉÉSuÉ SìurÉ aÉÑhÉ (ÌuÉÌuÉkÉÉæwÉÍkÉ uÉaÉïÈ) MüÉzqÉrÉï iÉÑuÉUÉ ÌiÉ£üÉ uÉÏrÉÉåïwlÉÉ qÉkÉÑUÉ aÉÑ : | ÌSmÉlÉÏ mÉÉcÉlÉÏ qÉåkrÉÉ pÉåÌSÌlÉ pÉëqÉzÉÉåwÉÎeÉiÉ : | uÉÉiÉÌmɨÉiÉÔwÉÉU£ü ¤ÉrÉqÉÔ§ÉÌuÉoÉÇkÉlÉÑiÉ : || ÌmÉërÉÌlÉbÉhOÒû: (WûËUiÉYrÉÉÌS uÉaÉï) MüÉzqÉrÉï: MüÉzÉqÉËU cÉæuÉ aÉqpÉÉËU cÉÉÌmÉ lÉÉqÉiÉ : | ..................................................oÉSUxÉͳÉpÉqÉÇ : | ...............................................UxÉÉrÉlÉqÉ ..........: || (21-23) 16
  • DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARI MODERN DRUG REVIEWCLASSIFICATION:According to Benthem and Hooker’s system of classification-Kingdom PlantaeDivision Spermatophyte.Sub division Diacoliledance.Class Sympetalae.Order Lamioleates.Family Verbenacea.Genus Gemelina.Species Arboria VERNACULAR NAMES The drug is universally know and accepted by its scientific name. Butstill the knowledge of the names in both local and the regional languages is veryimportant to procure the drug from the regions of its availability.Sanskrit : Kashamari, Gambhari.Assamese : GomariBengali : Gamargachha, GambarEnglish : Coomb tree, cashmere tree.Gujrati : SeevanHindi : GambhariKannada : Seevani, Shivani, HannuKashmiri : Gumar.Malayalam : Kumbil, KumizhuMarathi : SivanOriya : Gambhari, BhodroparnniPunjabi : KhambhariTamil : Perunkurmizh, KomizhpazhamTelugu : Gumaditeku 17
  • DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARI MORPHOLOGY:Family: VerbenaceaeThere are about 70 genera species 750 in this familyDistribution: Found throughout India, from foot of north- west Himalaya to Chittagong and throughout Deccan Peninsula.Habits: Trees, Shrubs more rarely herbs.Leaves: Opposite, or whorled, simple, stipules.Flowers: Often brightly colored, Hermaphrodite (rarely polygamous), usually irregular. Calyx inferior, gamosepalous, persistent, tubular or cup- shaped, 5-4 lobed or toothed. Corolla gamopetalous; tube usually cylindrical or dialated above, often curved; limb 2 lipped or sub equally lobed.Stamens: 4, didynamous, inserted on the corolla tube.Filaments: free.Anthers: 2-celled, opening by longitudinal slits. Disk usually inconspicuous.Ovary: 2-4 celled. Entire or 4 lobed.Ovules: variously attached, 2 in each cell.Style: Terminal, stigma usually entire, less commonly 2-or more lobed.Fruit : usually more or less drupaceous, 2-4 or 1celled; mesocarp juicy,fleshy or dry ; endocarp usually bony.Seeds: Erect or pendulous, separate in distinct cells; albumen 0 in the Indian genera; embryo straight; radicle inferior. Genus: Gmelina.Habit: Tree or shrub unarmed or spinous; young shoots usually tomentose.Leaves: Opposite, entire or toothed, some time more or less lobed.Flowers: Large, yellow or brownish in small or panicled cymes with narrow bracts.Stamens: Didynamous subexserted another cells along pendulous.Filaments: free or connate below,Anthers: oblongOvary: 4 celledStyle: Slender. 18
  • DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARIStigma: Shortly 2 fid.Seeds: Erect or pendulous, separate in distinct cells.Species: Gmelina arborea Linn:Habit: Gambhari consists of dried fruit of Gmelina arborea Roxb. (Fam. Verbenaceae), an unarmed tree, found scattered in deciduous forests throughout the greater part of the country upto an altitude of 500 m, planted in gardens and also as an avenue tree.Leaves: Broadly ovate, acuminate, entire, glabrous, cordate or sometime termcate and shortly cemeate.Flowers: Large, yellow-brownish in small or panicled cymes with narrow bracts.Fruit : A drupe, ovoid, crinkled, black, 1.5-2.0 cm long, sometimes with portion of attached pedicel, two seeded, sometimes one seeded; taste, sweetish sour.Calyx: 5cm broadly companulate anesely fulvous- hairy teeth small triangular acuteCorolla: Browenish yellow, densely hairy outside reaching 3.8cm long, 5 lobed 2 lipped.Capsule: Globose, membranous.Seeds: Seed ovate, 0.5-1 cm long, 0.4-0.6 cm wide, light yellow, surface smooth, seed coat thin, papery; taste, oily. 19
  • DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARIPHARMACOGNOSY: Table.7 Characters of Gmelina arborea Linn. Fruit. Characters Gmelina arborea Linn. Fruit. Macroscopic Shape Drupe, Ovoid, crinkled, black, Size 1.5-2.0 cm long. Colour Black, crinkled, Taste. Sweetish sour. Microscopic Pericarp. Differentiated in to single layer epicarp. Mesocarp. Multylayerd, fleshy. Endocarp. Hard and Stony. Epicarp. Single layerd, theen walled cells.CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS: Gmelofuran-a, furanosesquiterpenoid, ssquiterpene, cerylalcohol,hentriacontanol-1, b-sitosterol, n- octacosanol, gmelinol, apiosylskimmin-a,apiofuranodyl (1.0.7)- umbelliferone (root); cluytyl ferulate, n-octacosanol,gmelanone, arborial, 2-0- methyal arboreol, 2-0- ethyal arboreol, isoarboreol, 4-hydroxysesamin, 1,4- dihydroxysesamin (gummsdiol), 2- piperonyl-3-(hydroxymethyl)-4 (~hydroxy-3-,4methylenedioxybenzyl) - 4-hydroxytetrahydroxyfluron (I) 4-epigummadiol-4-glucoside, 1,4-dihydroxy -2, 6-dipiperonyl-3, 7-dioxybicyclo [3,3,0] –octane, gmelanone, palmitic, oleic and linoleicacids, stigmastirol, stigmastinol, campesterol, ~-2-stostirol, butulinol(hertwood)luteilin, apigenin, quercetin, hentriacontanol, b-sitosterol, quercetogenin and otherflavons (leaf).PHARMACOLOGY:Hypoglycaemic, Antiviral. The Rasayana (anabolic) effect of fruit of G.arborea was studied in rabbitsusing electrophoretic analysis of serum fraction, body weight and physical behaviors 20
  • DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARIas parameters. An increase in percentage of ~2 and ~-globulin frsction, gain in bodyweight and alertness in physical behaviors was observed after treatment with the drug. In the clinical study, effect of Dashamula, of wich G. arborea is one of theconstituent, on management of sensory and motor disorder pertaining to sympatheticand parasympathetic outflow among the patient presenting with primary nurologicaldisorders have been investigated. Significant improvement in nerve conductionvelocity was observed. The pattern of ‘H’ reflex also improved in all these patientsalong with clinical response.CULTIVATION: It is planted in gardens and avenues. The tree prefers moist, fertile soil withgood drainage. Natural reproduction takes place in rainy season soon after the drupesfalls to the ground. Alternating heat and moisture are necessary to stimulate thegermination. Artificial reproduction may be carried out by direct sowing or bytransplanting. Direct sowing in lines, 3-4m apart, with a distance of 30cm between theplants has given the good results. Dibbling of seeds with spacing of 2x2m andbroadcast sowing also give satisfactory result for transplanting purposes. Seeds aresown in drills in nursery beds shortly before rains. Seedlings are transplanted in thefirst rainy season when 8-10cm high. If the plants are to be kept for a year in thenursery, they are pricked out to20cm apart in the first rains and planted out in the nextrainy season with the stem pruned down to 5cm and the root trimmed to 30cm aspacing of 2x2m is ordinarily suitable. The rate of growth is fast and tree is welladopted as coppice. It has been found suitable for plantation on waste lands.Micro propagation of G.arborea was tried through auxiliary bud culture. Theepicromic and crown regions of a6 year old plant were used to initiate shoot cultures.Explant from the epicormic regions produced 2.7(average) shoot lets /explant whencultured on McCown’s medium for woody plants rooted on IBA (1.5mg/l)supplemented McCown’s medium within 7-9 days of culture.ADULTERANTS / SUBSTITUTES: Roots of Gmelina asiatica Linn. are used as substitute to Gmelina arborea. 21
  • DRUG REVIEW - GAMBHARIPhotos: Photo No 1.Gemilina arboria fiower Photo No 2. Fruts of Gmelina arboria 22
  • DRUG REVIEW - DRAKSHA DRAKSHA HISTORY Draksha is well known drug since Vedic period. Mainly in Atharvaveda the Draksha in mentioned under the name of Krushana for management of Apachita Vyadhi, Rajayakshama, Kilasa, and Phalita. Also mentioned it as Balya, Pushatikaraka, Shukravardhaka, Mamsavardhaka, Rasa poshanakara properties. Draksha is recommended as the best among the fruits recommended in Ayurveda. Charaka considered it under Kasahara, Jwarahara, Snehopaga, and Verachanopaga Ganas. Sushruta consider under Kakolyadi, and Parushakadi gana. Its synonyms such as Harahura, Madhurasa indicate that this drug was in use since olden days in the preparation of Madya. According to Charaka it is used as Trushnahara, also in Madyajanyavikara, Rajyakshma, Daha, Jwara, Swasha, Rakatapita, Urakshata, Swarabheda. Etc. In Chikitsa sthana use of the Draksha is found in Pittija Gulma, Pandu, Halimak, Trushna etc. Sushruta mentioned the use of Draksha in Jwara chikitsa; Draksha is best among all Phalavarga. Its use is also mentioned in Pittajagranti, Arbuda and Bastikarma. Vagbhata also consider that Draksha is useful in Raktapitta, Madyaja chardi, Brhama and Trushana. Etc. aÉhÉ - uÉaÉï Table.8 Showing Gana and varga of Draksha.aÉhÉ – uÉaÉï cÉ.xÉÇ xÉÑ.xÉÇ A.WØû kÉ.ÌlÉ qÉ.ÌlÉ qÉÉ.Sì. Mæü.ÌlÉ pÉÉ.ÌlÉ UÉ.ÌlÉ ÌlÉ.AÉ ÌmÉë.ÌlÉxlÉåWûÉåmÉaÉ +ÌuÉUcÉlÉÉåmÉaÉ +MüÉxÉWûU +euÉUWûU +MüÉMüÉåsrÉÉÌS +mÉÂwÉMüÉÌS +TüsÉ uÉaÉï + + + + +AÉqÉëÉÌS uÉaÉï + +AÉåwÉkÉÏ uÉaÉï +ÌmÉmÉsrÉÉÌS uÉaÉï +SìɤÉÉÌS uÉaÉï + + 23
  • DRUG REVIEW - DRAKSHA mÉrÉÉïrÉ lÉÉqÉÌlÉÂÌ£ü 1. qÉײÏMüÉ : qÉëÑSlÉÌiÉ zÉËUUqÉç, zÉËUU qÉSïuÉqÉç sÉÌiÉiÉUiÉ: qÉ×±iÉå uÉÉ :|| (pÉÉ ÌlÉ) This brings Mrudatwa to the body hence name Mrudwika. 2. aÉÉåxiÉÌlÉ : aÉÉå: xiÉlÉ CuÉÉM×üiÉÉã:|| (pÉÉ ÌlÉ) Fruit’s shape resembles that of Gosthana. 3. SìɤÉÉ : SìÉQè¤rÉiÉå MüÉQè¤rÉiÉå CÌiÉ ‘SìÉÍ¤É MüÉQè¤ÉÉrÉÉqÉç :|| (pÉÉ ÌlÉ) It is having sweet taste. 4.xuÉÉÌS: xuÉÉSÕÌlÉ TüsÉÉlrÉxrÉÉ :|| (pÉÉ ÌlÉ) It is having good taste. 5.qÉkÉÑÒUxÉÉ : qÉÎbuÉuÉ qÉkÉÑU UxÉÉåAzrÉ : || (pÉÉ ÌlÉ) It is very sweet similar to madhu. 6. rɤqÉblÉÏ : UÉeÉrɤqÉÉhÉÇ WûliÉÏÌiÉ :|| (zÉoScÉÎlSìMüÉ) The one which, cures the Rajayakshama. 7. oÉëÑWûÍhÉ : kÉiÉÑuÉÍkÉïÌlÉ :|| (Mãü ÌlÉ) It nourishes the body. 8. aÉÑcNûTüsÉÉ : aÉÑcNåû TüsÉÉlrÉxrÉÉ :|| (UÉ ÌlÉ) The fruit appears in bunches. 9. TüsÉÉå¨ÉqÉÉ : TüsÉåwÉÔ¨ÉqÉÉ ´Éå¹É AiÉ LuÉ cÉUMü: TüsÉuÉaÉï mÉëjÉqÉ mÉPûÌiÉ :|| (Mæü ÌlÉ) It is regarded as best one 10. E¨ÉUÉmÉjÉÉ : E¨ÉUÉmÉjÉå eÉÉiÉÉ :|| (A ÌlÉ) Mostly grows in high attitude of northern region. 11. WûÉUWÕûUÉ : WûÉUWÕûU: qɱÇ, iÉSjÉïqÉÑmÉrÉÑ£üÉ :|| (pÉÉ ÌlÉ) Using for preparing wine.Table.9 Showing important Paryaya nama of the DrakshamÉrÉÉïrÉ lÉÉqÉ cÉ.xÉÇ xÉÑ.xÉÇ A.WØû kÉ.ÌlÉ qÉ.ÌlÉ qÉÉ.Sì Mæü.ÌlÉ pÉÉ.ÌlÉ UÉ.ÌlÉ ÌlÉ.AÉ ÌmÉë.ÌlÉSìɤÉÉ + + + + + + + +M×whÉÉ + + +ÌmÉërÉÉsÉÉ + +iÉmÉÎxmÉërÉÉ + + +MüÉzÉqÉÏËUMüÉ + 24
  • DRUG REVIEW - DRAKSHA UxÉÉsÉÉ + + + + MüUqÉÌSïMüÉ + + xuÉSÒTüsÉÉ + + + qÉkÉÑUxÉÉ + + qÉëÑSÌuÉMüÉ + + + + + + WûÉUWÒûUÉ + + + + + aÉÉåxiÉÌlÉ + + + + + MüÌmÉzÉÉ + TüsÉÉåiÉqÉÉ + + + xuÉÉÌS + + + + oÉëÑWûhÉÏ + + qÉkÉÑrÉÉålÉÏ + + qÉkÉÑxÉqpÉuÉÉ + + qÉkÉÑTüsÉÉ + + + aÉÑQûÉ + + aÉÑNûÉTüsÉÉ + aÉÑhÉ Table.10 Showing Guans of Draksha aÉÑhÉ cÉ.xÉÇ xÉÑ.xÉÇ A.WØû kÉ.ÌlÉ qÉ.ÌlÉ qÉÉ.Sì Mæü.ÌlÉ pÉÉ.ÌlÉ UÉ.ÌlÉ ÌmÉë.ÌlÉ qÉkÉÑU + + + + + + + + + + UxÉ AÉqsÉ + + ÎxlÉakÉ + + + + zÉÏiÉ + + + + + + aÉÑhÉ qÉ×SÕ + + aÉÑ + + + + uÉÏrÉï zÉÏiÉ + + + + + + + + + + ÌuÉmÉÉMü qÉkÉÑU + + + + + + ÌmɨÉuÉkÉïMü + SÉåwÉblÉiÉÉ MüTüuÉkÉïMü + + + + + + + + MüqÉï Table.11 Showing important Karmas of DrakshaMüqÉï cÉ.xÉÇ xÉÑ.xÉÇ A.WØû kÉ.ÌlÉ qÉÉ.Sì qÉ.ÌlÉ Mæü.ÌlÉ pÉÉ.ÌlÉ UÉ.ÌlÉ ÌmÉë.ÌlÉ ÌlÉ.AÉoÉ×WûhÉÇ + + + + + + + + + +uÉ×wrÉ + + + + + + +MÇüš + + + + +lÉå§rÉ + +oÉsrÉ + + + + + + 25
  • DRUG REVIEW - DRAKSHAmÉÑ̹ + + + + +ÂÍcÉMüÉUxÉ + + + +´ÉqÉWûU + +UåcÉlÉ +xÉëѹèÌuÉlqÉÑ§É +iÉ×ÎmiÉ + +xlÉåWûlÉ + + + +qÉѧÉsÉ + +xÉÉÉUMü + + +xÉÇliÉmÉïlÉ + + + + + + + SìɤÉÉ pÉåS Raj Nighantukara mentioned four types of Draksha according to their stages.  Bala draksha.  Tarun draksha.  Vruddhaka draksha.  Manuka (dried Draksha) mÉërÉÉåerÉ A…¡û LuÉÇ qÉɧÉÉ mÉërÉÉåerÉ A…¡û: Draksha being a herb, it is used as Phala when it is fresh and dry form. For the purpose of medicine the following parts are mainly concerned.  Manuka  Draksha qÉɧÉÉ: 1. MüsMü – 10-20 gm 2. xuÉUxÉ- 20- 40 ml mÉërÉÉåaÉ The various disorders in which the Draksha is used mainly are Vatavyadhi, Pittavikaras, etc. and also in various disease conditions as shown in the following table. 26
  • DRUG REVIEW - DRAKSHA Table.12 Showing important Prayoga of Draksha in different VyadhimÉërÉÉåaÉ cÉ.xÉÇ xÉÑ.xÉÇ A.WØû kÉ.ÌlÉ qÉÉ.Sì qÉ.ÌlÉ Mæü.ÌlÉ pÉÉ.ÌlÉ åUÉ.ÌlÉ ÌlÉ.AÉ ÌmÉë.ÌlÉU£üÌmÉiÉ + + + + + + + + +EU¤ÉiÉ + +mÉÉÇQÒû + + +¤ÉrÉ + + + + + + + + +xuÉUpÉåS + + + + +euÉU + + + + + + + + +µÉÉxÉ + + + + + +iÉ×whÉÉ + + + + + + + + + +SÉWû + + + + +MüÉxÉ + + +uÉÉiÉU£ü + +MüÉqÉsÉÉ + + + +qÉѧÉM×¶É + + +zÉÉåwÉ + +qÉSÉirÉrÉ + + + +uÉÉiÉÌmɨÉç + +qÉÑNûÉï + +¤ÉiÉ + +ÌuÉxÉmÉïNûÌSï + +qÉÉåWû + +aÉëWûÌlÉ + +ÌuÉoÉlS + + +aÉÑsqÉ + + +mÉëqÉåWû +¾ÒûSìÉåaÉ + + +UÉeÉrɤÉqÉÉ + + + 27
  • DRUG REVIEW - DRAKSHAAÉqÉÌrÉMü mÉërÉÉåaÉ1. The preparation with Draksha, Sariva, fried paddy, Pippali, honey and Shunthi, alleviates Trushna.2. Mantha (saturated drink) with Draksha, Kharjura, Vrakshamla, Parushaka, and Amalaki fruits alleviates the Madatyaya vikaras.3. Seeds of Kapikachchu, Pippali, fruits of Draksha, Kharjura, Shatawari, Shringataka, each 80gm, should be boiled in milk and water each 640ml, till 640 ml remains, this should be filtered with clean cloth and added with sugar, Vamshalochana and fresh ghee each 80 gm. This should be taken mixed with honey keeping diet of boiled Shashtika rice. It acts as best Vajikarana properties.4. Water boiled and cooled with Kharjura, Draksha, Madhuka (flowers), and Parushaka, cooled it and used for Urdhwaga Raktapitta.5. One who suffering from Kasa, Asthishoola, should take the Draksha, Madhuka, Tugakshiri, Pippali, and Bala mixed with ghee and honey.6. Madhuka, Musta, Mrudvika, Kashmarya, Parushaka (fruits of these three), Trayamana, Usira, Triphala and Katukarohini, all together kept over night in water and taken in the morning this alleviates Jwara.7. Decocation of Vasa, Mrudvika, Haritaki, added with sugar and honey, alleviates Swasha, Kasa and Raktapiita.8. In Rajayakshma Draksha, Kharjura, Pippali, Haritaki, Shringi and Duralabha, this formulation should be taken along with honey and ghee.9. Old ghee 640gm cooked with paste of dried grapes 320gm alleviates Kamala, Gulma, Pandhu, Jwara, Prameha, Udararoga.10. Manjista, Draksha, Haridra, Bala(root), Loha-bhasma, Lodhra, with these jaggary should be prepared for those suffering from Pandu roga.11. Ghee, juice of sugarcane, Draksha, milk, sugar, should be given to him to induce vomiting by this alimentary tract and chest becomes purified by Shodhana.12. Draksha also used for the subsiding the Jwara.13. Parushaka, Draksha, Katphala, Dadima, and Triphala etc included in Parushakadi gana mitigate Vata disorders.14. Draksha and Madhuka, it cures the disorders of Kapha, and it also helps in Malahara properties. 28
  • DRUG REVIEW - DRAKSHA15. Roots of Danti, Dravanti, along with Maricha, Vishvabheshaja, Mridvika, Chitaraka, are socked in Gomutra for 7 days and converted in powder it act as a Kapha-Pithahara.16. Mridvika, Sharkara, Amalaki, is best used for the reducing Bhrama, and Trushna.17. Draksha decoction also used for Raktapiita, Kshyaya, Swarabheda, Jwara, Trushana, Mutrakrucha, and Vibhanda.18. Haritaki churna should be drink along with Draksha Swarasa for Piitaja Granthi chikitsa19. The preparation of Mridvika, Amalaki, Nagara, Badara, Sariva, Musta, Chandana, mixed with honey it cures Trushna, Chardi, Daha, Jwara, and Pittaja disorders.20. Phanta prepared from Madhukapushpa, Mridvika, Tiktaka, Triphala, Ghambhari, consumed at proper time it will cure all types of fever.21. Medicated ghee prepared with Kharjura, Draksha, Parushaka, Madhuka, and Pipali it cures Kasa, Jwara and Swasha.22. The juice of Draksha and Amalaki is best for patient suffering from Pandhu and Kamala.23. For Rasnadi Basti the paste of Madhanaphala, Saindhava, Indrayava, soup of meet, honey, Draksha, are used for Basti karma.24. In vaginal disorders Draksha and Kashamrya will be used. Table.13 Showing Vishishta yoga of Draksha.PREPARATION INDICATION REFERENCEDraksharista. Urakshata, Shwasa, Swarabheda, Sh Sam 10/43.Drakshadi kwath Vata jwara, Trushna, Daha. A.S. 13/3Traushanadi ghruta, Kasa, Jwara, Gulma, Kamala, Arsha, Ch ci 18/39Parushaka grutha Vata-rakta, Arsha, Pittaja-Jwara, Ch ci 29/59.Sukumar grutha Vrudhi, shotha, Arsha etc. A H ci 2/44Drakshadi phanta Trushna. Jwara etc A H ci 6/72Chitrakadi leha Kasa, Hrudroga, Gulma etc. Ch. Chi 18/154Vidari Gruta Mutraghaata. Bhi Rat (35/30). 29
  • DRUG REVIEW - DRAKSHAREFERENCES: cÉUMü xÉÇÌWûiÉÉ:1. AjÉ TüsÉ uÉaÉï- §ÉçwhÉÉ SÉWû euÉU µÉÉxÉ U£ü ÌmɨÉç ¤ÉiÉ ¤ÉrÉÉlÉ:| uÉÉiÉÌmÉ¨É ESÉuÉiÉï xuÉUpÉåSÉ qÉSÉirÉrÉqÉç:|| cÉ. xÉÑ (27/ 125.)2. qÉljÉ: ZéeÉÑïUqÉëÑ̲MüÉ uÉëѤÉÉqsÉÉÎqsÉMüÉSÉÌSqÉå:| mÉÂzÉMüÉ:xÉÉqÉsÉYrÉrÉÑ£üÉå qɱÌuÉMüÉUÉlÉÑiÉÉ: || cÉ xÉÑ (23/38)3. ÌuÉQÇûaÉÌmÉmÉÍsÉqÉÔsÉ ÍzÉaÉëÑpÉåuÉUåcÉlÉå cÉç: | iÉ¢ü ÍxÉkSèrÉuÉÉaÉÑxrÉÉiÉ Ì¢üÍqÉblÉ xÉÑuÉÎUçcÉïMüÉ : || cÉ xÉÑ ( 2/23)4. AjÉ qɱ uÉaÉï- kÉÉiÉYrÉÉrÉÍpÉÌwÉiÉÉå ¾û±Éå ÂyzÉÉå UÉåcÉlÉÉÌSmÉlÉÉå : | qÉÉÎkuÉMüuÉ³É cÉÉiÉÑzÉlÉÉå qÉëÑ̲MüÉxÉÑUÉxÉÉuÉÉ : || cÉ xÉÑ (27/ 188)5. AéiqÉaÉÑmiÉÉ TüsÉçÇqÉÉwÉÉlÉ ZÉeÉÑïUÉÍhÉzɨÉÉuÉËUqÉ : | ¤ÉëÑaÉÉOûMüÉÍhÉ qÉëÑ̲MüÉ xÉÉkÉrÉåiÉ mÉëxÉÑiÉÉåÎlqÉiÉÉ : || cÉ ÍcÉ (2/14)6. eÉsÉÇZÉeÉÑïUÉqÉëÑ̲MüÉ:qÉSÒMüÉå: xÉmÉÂwÉMüÉå: | ¤ÉëÑiÉÍzÉiÉ: mÉërÉÉYixrÉå i§ÉmÉhÉÉjÉ: || cÉ ÍcÉ (3/ 205)7. bÉëÑiÉ qÉëÑ̲MüÉ ZÉeÉÑïUÉMüzÉM`üU ¤ÉÉæSìxÉÇqÉrÉÑ£çüqÉç : | xÉÌmÉmÉÍsÉMüÉ uÉåxuÉãrÉMüÉxÉxuÉÉxÉ euÉëUÉmÉWûqÉ: || cÉ ÍcÉ (8/96)8. mÉÑUÉhÉxÉãÌmÉwÉ: mÉëxjÉÉå SìYzÉÉkÉãmÉëxjÉÉå xÉÉÍkÉiÉç: | MüÉqÉsÉÉaÉÑsqÉÉmÉÉhQÒû uÉÌiÉïqÉåWûÉåSUÉmÉWûqÉç: || cÉ ÍcÉ (16/52) xÉÑ´ÉÑiÉ xÉÇÌWûiÉ1. qÉѧÉUÉåkÉeÉÉESÉuÉirÉï—SìɤÉÉUxÉqÉjÉÉÌmÉ uÉÉ : || xÉÑ E (55) ̧ÉTüsÉÉcÉåÌiÉmÉÂwÉMüÉËUirÉwÉ aÉhÉÉå ÌlÉsÉÌuÉlÉzÉlÉqÉç : || xÉÑ xÉÑ (38/43)2. ÌmɨÉmÉëoÉsÉå SìɤÉÉMåüiÉMüiÉTüsÉÇ mÉrÉxrÉÉqÉÇ kÉÑMücÉlSlÉ : | MüÉzqÉrÉïMüwÉÉrÉÉ zÉMïüUÉ qÉkÉÑqÉkÉÑU mÉÉrÉårÉiÉ: || xÉÑ ÍcÉ (5/8)3. rÉwÉirÉÉWûÍqÉÍxÉÍxÉlkÉÑ EiÉTüsÉÉÌlÉlSuÉuÉÉrÉå : | UxÉÉlelÉqÉÇUxɤÉéåSìSìɤÉÉ xÉÉåÌuÉUxÉÇrÉÑYirÉæ : || xÉÑ ÍcÉ (37/72) 30
  • DRUG REVIEW - DRAKSHA4. SìɤÉÉUxÉålɤÉÑUxÉålÉ uÉeÉÌmÉ cÉÔhÉïç ÌmÉoÉåiÉÌmÉ WûËUiÉÌMüiÉÉqÉç : | qÉkÉÑMüeÉqoÉÑAeÉÑïlÉÉuÉåiÉxÉÉlÉÉqÉ iuÉÉÎakÉ mÉëSåWûÉlÉÉqÉuÉcÉÉUrÉåiÉ : || xÉÑ ÍcÉ ( 18/9)5. iÉSåuÉZÉhQûqÉëÑSÌuÉMüÉ zÉMïüUÉxÉÌWûiÉÇqÉç mÉÑlÉÇ : | xÉÉqsÉxÉÌiÉYzÉ xÉÌWûqÉmÉÉlÉMÇüirÉqÉ : || xÉÑ xÉÑ (48/389) A¹ÉÇaÉ WØûSrÉ1. mÉjrÉÉqÉsÉMÇüqÉëÑSÌuÉMüÉ mÉOûÉåÍsÉqÉëÑSzÉMïüUÉ : | bÉëÑiÉÉSÏurÉÉåSMü¤ÉÏUÇ ¤ÉÉåSìSÉÌQûqÉÉ xÉÉåkÉuÉqÉÇ: || A Wû xÉÑ (842)2. xÉMüÉxÉxuÉÉxÉmÉÉΤuÉiÉÉå uÉÉiÉzsÉåwqÉÉåi§Uå euÉUå :| qÉkÉÑMümÉÑwmÉqÉëÑSuÉÏMüɧÉÉrÉqÉÉlÉÉ mÉÂwÉMüqÉç :|| A Wû ÍcÉ (1/67).3. bÉëÑiÉÇ ZéeÉÑïUÉ qÉëÑ̲MüÉqÉkÉÑMåü xÉmÉÂwÉMæüü : | xÉÌmÉmmÉÍsÉMüÉ uÉæxuÉrÉïMüÉxɵÉÉxÉ euÉUmÉWûqÉçÇ : || A Wû ÍcÉ (5/18).4. SÉWûSÏwÉÑ Ì§ÉuÉëѨMüsMüÉqÉëÑ̲MüÉ uÉÉËUhÉÉÌmÉoÉåiÉ: | iÉ̲kÉÌmɨɢÑüSÉiÉÉlÉç WûiuÉÉSÉWûÌSMüÉlÉç eÉrÉiÉå : || A Wû Mü (5/26).5. mÉOûÉåsÉqÉÑxiÉÉ qÉëÑ̲MüÉaÉÑQÒûcÉÏ Ì§ÉTüsÉÉå SìuÉqÉÇ :|| ÍzÉzÉÉåxiÉÑ zÉMïüUÉ ¤ÉéåSìå: xÉiÉiÉÇÌiÉÍqÉUÉiÉÑUÉ : || A W E (13/19) kÉluÉliÉUÏ ÌlÉbÉhOÒû: (AÉqÉëÉSÏ uÉaÉï) SìɤÉÉ cÉÉÂTüsÉÉ ¢ÑüwhÉÉ ÌmÉërÉÉsÉÉ iÉÉmÉxÉÌmÉërÉÉ : | MüÉzqÉÏËUMüÉ ÌuÉÌlÉÌSìwOûÉ UxÉÉsÉÉ MüUqÉïÌSMüÉ : || (49) SìɤÉÉ ¾è±UxÉÉ xuÉrÉÉï qÉkÉÑUÉ ÎxlÉakÉÉzÉÏiÉsÉÉ : | U£üÌmÉ¨É euÉU µÉÉxɧÉÑwÉhÉÉ SÉWû ¤ÉrÉÉmÉWûqÉ : || (50) MæürÉSåuÉ ÌlÉbÉhOÒû: (AÉæwÉÍkÉ uÉaÉï) 1. SìɤÉÉTüsÉÉåiÉqÉÉxuÉÉÌS WûÉUWÒûËUcÉç oÉëÑWûÌlÉ : | qÉkÉÑrÉÉåÌlɶÉÂTüsÉÉ UxÉÉsÉÉ qÉkÉÑ xÉqÉÇpÉuÉÉ: || (268) 2. AÉqÉÉxÉÉqsÉÉaÉÑhÉÉ aÉÑÌuÉï xÉÉåuÉÉqsÉÉ U£üÌmɨɢÑüiÉÉ : | 31
  • DRUG REVIEW - DRAKSHA SìɤÉÉqsÉÉåYzÉlÉÉ xÉUÉ aÉÑÌuÉï uÉÉiÉÎblÉ MüTüÌmɨÉSÉ : || (301) 3. U£üÌmɨÉeuÉUµÉÉxÉ §ÉÑwhÉÉSÉWû qÉSÉirÉlÉÉ : | iɲaÉÉåxiÉÌlÉMüÉ SìɤÉÉxuÉÉSÏuÉëÑwÉiÉqÉÉ qÉiÉÉ : || (304) pÉÉuÉmÉëMüÉzÉ ÌlÉbÉhOÒû: (AÉqÉëmÉsÉÉSÏ uÉaÉï) Sì¤ÉÉmÉYuÉÉUxÉÉzÉÏiÉÉ cÉYzÉÑzÉÉoÉëÑWûÍhÉ aÉÑ : | xuÉSÒmÉÉMüUxÉÉxuÉrÉÉïiÉÑuÉUÉ ´ÉѹÉuÉÏhqÉѧÉÉ : MüÉå¹qÉÉÂiÉÉ¢ÑüiÉÉ uÉëÑwrÉÉ MüTümÉÑ̹mÉëSÉ : || (111) UÉeÉ ÌlÉbÉhOÒû: (AÉqÉëÉSÏ uÉaÉï) 1. AlrÉÉ MüÌmÉsÉSìɤÉÉ qÉëÑ̲MüÉaÉÉåxiÉlÉÏcÉç MüÌmÉsÉTüsÉÉ : | AqÉëÑiÉUxÉÉ SÏbÉïTüsÉÉ qÉkÉÑuÉÎssÉ cÉ : || (102) 2. aÉÉåxiÉÌlÉ qÉkÉÑUÉ ÍzÉiÉÉ ¾Òû±ÉcÉç qɱWïûwÉÏÍhÉ : | SÉWû qÉÑcNûÉï euÉU µÉÉxÉ-§ÉÑwÉhÉɾèsÉÉxÉ lÉÉÍzÉlÉÏ : || (104) 3. AlrÉÉ xÉÉ MüÉMüÍsÉSìɤÉÉeÉqoÉÑMüÉcÉç TüsÉÉåiÉqÉÉ : | sÉbÉÑSì¤ÉÉ cÉç ÌlÉëÌoÉïeÉÉ xÉÑuÉëÑiÉÉ ÂÍcÉMüÉËUÌlÉ : || (106) 32
  • DRUG REVIEW - DRAKSHA MODERN DRUG REVIEWCLASSIFICATIONAccording to Benthem and Hooker’s system of classification-Kingdom PlantaeSubkingdom TracheobiontaSuper division SpermatophytaDivision MagnoliophytaClass VitacedaSubclass VitadaeOrder vitalesFamily VitaceaeGenus Vinifera L.Species Vitis vinifera Linn.VERNACULAR NAMESEnglish: Dry grap’s, Raisins.Hindi: Munkka.Kannada: -Draksha.Marathi: Draksha, Anguar.Gujarati: . Drakh, Darakh.Punjabi: . Munaca.Bengali: -.Maneka.Malayalam: - .Munthringya.Tamil: - Drakshai, Kottai, Drakshai.Urdu: - Munaqqa.Assam -Dakh, Munaqqa.Arabic: - Mewis, Sabib, Anaib.Persian: -Angur.Oriya: - drakya, Gostoni.Sind: - Drakh.Telgu: - Drakshakottai,Sanskrit: - Mrdvika, Gostani 33
  • DRUG REVIEW - DRAKSHA MORPHOLOGYFamily: VITACEAE: There are about 11 genera species 450 in this familyDistribution: Extensively cultivated in north western India. In Punjab, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Delhi, Andrapradesh, etc, also in meddle east and southern European countries.Habits: A large, perennial tendril climber; tendrils leaf opposed often bifid,Leaves: Simple, rotund-cordate or orbicular-cordate, dentate, 3-7 lobed, 10-12 cm across, glabrous above, tomentose beneath.Flowers: Regular hermaphrodite or unisexual in pedicled umbelled or spicate cymes usually opposites the leaves; peduncles often transformed in to tendril or tendril bearing calyx small entire 4-5 lobed. Petals 4-5 valved free or connate caducous. Stamens 4-5 opposite the petals inserted at the base of the disk 2-6 celled ovules 1-2 inch cell ascending anthropus style.Fruit: A berry, sticky and pulpy, dark brown to black, oblong or oval, sometimes spherical, 1.5-2.5cm wide; outer skin irregular wrinkled forming ridges and furrows; usually contain 1-4 seed, 4-7mm long, ovoid rounded to triangular or simply ovoid, brown to black; odour, sweetish and pleasant; taste, sweet.Stamens: 4-5 opposite;Filaments: free or connateOvary: usually sunk in the disk 2-6celld.Ovules: 2 or more from the inner angles of the cells anatropous (rarely orthotropous); 34
  • DRUG REVIEW - DRAKSHAGenus: Vitis Linn.Habit: Shrubs usually cirrhose sarmentose often climbing to a great height very rarely erect.Leaves: Simple or compound, (vary rarely 2 pinnate)Flowers: Small, some times polygamous umbellate cymose paniculate leaf opposed (very rarely axillary) usually towards the end of branchesCalyx: Short entire or 4-5 lobes, petals 4-5 free or calyptrately cohering apex.Stamens: 4-5 inserted below the margin of the disk; anthers free,Filaments: free or connate below;Ovary: 2 celled short.Seeds: few, compressed;Species: Vitis vinifera LinnHabit: A large deciduous climber, tendrils long, bifid.Leaves: 7.5-1.5 cm. long, orbicular-cordate, more or less deeply(3)5-lobed, Margin irregularly and coarsely toothed, glabrous or nearly so above, clothed beneath with deciduous grey tomentum, thin, membranous; petiole 3.8-7.5 cm.long.Flowers: Green, inflorescene leaf opposed of panicled cymes; peducle sometimes bearing an unbranched tendril below the flowers.Petals : 5, cohering at the apex.Ovary : 5, hypogynous glands adnate to the base.Style : Very short, thick.Seed : 2-4, pear shaped, with a discoidal tubercle on the back from wich a low ridges run over the top and down the ventral face. 35
  • DRUG REVIEW - DRAKSHAPHARMACOGNOSY:Mature dried fruit, a berry, is sticky and pulpy, dark brown to black in colour, oblongor oval, some time spherical, 1.5- 2.5cm long and 0.5-1.5 cm wide. Seeds generally 1-4 in number are 4-7mm in long, ovoid-rounded to triangular or simple ovoid Under Microscope, the fruit shows a single layered epidermis, cells filled withreddish-brown contents; mesocarp pulpy, composed of thin wall irregular cellscontaining prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate measuring 13.75-41mu in diameterand some fibrovascular bundles. Seeds consist of testa and endosperm; testacomposed of thick walled yellowish cells; endosperm consisting of angularparenchymatous cells containing oil globules and cluster crystals of calcium oxalate,measuring 11-16mu diameter.Table.14 Characters of Vitis venifera Dried Fruit.Characters Vitis venifera Dried Fruit.MacroscopicShape Oblong or oval, some time sphericalSize 1.5- 2.5cm long and 0.5-1.5 cm wide.Colour Black, crinkled,Taste. Sweetish sour.MicroscopicPericarp. Differentiated in to single layer epicarp.Mesocarp. Multilayered, fleshy.Endocarp. Hard and Stony.Epicarp. Single layered, thin walled cells.CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS: Palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoic, linolenic acids (shoot); isochlorogenic acids,isomer of quercitrin, isomer of rutin, monoglycolipid containing a free amino group ,caffeic, and caffeyeltartaric acid, ellagitannins- brevlagin 1, vitilagin and iso vitaligin(leaves); 16 B-hydroxy-3-oxoolean 12-en-28-oic acid, 3-oxic acid, 16- B-hydroxyolen-12-en(cuticle) ; linolol, geraniol, elemol acetate, @-terpional (essential oil of leaves); 36
  • DRUG REVIEW - DRAKSHA3-monoglucosides of delphinidin, cynidin, petinudium, glycosides, malic acid, tannicacid, dehydroascorbic acid, cholesterol, glucose, fructose, galactose, mannose,arabinose, rhamonose, and amino acid like alanine, arginine and praline (fruit);quercetin-3-glucoside, (+) catechin, (-) epecatechin, (+) gallactocatachin,procyanidins B1 & B2, oleanolic acid, B-sistosterol glucoside, semi drying oilcontaining palmitic, steric, olic, and linolicacids along with sistopherol tocopherol(seeds); cis-1-(5-methyl-5-methylethylhydrofron-2-yl) -1-methyl ethyl O-beta- D-afiofuracinosyl-1-(1 to 6) beta-D-glucopyraanoside.PHARMACOLOGY: Antifungal, angiotensin-converting enzymes (ACE) activity, tumor inhibitory,anti ulcer, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, wound healing, antimutagenic, antiherpitic,cardio protective, breast cancer suppressor, antibacterial.CULTIVATION & PROPAGATION: Grapes grow on wide range of soils, from sandy to clay loams, shallow to verydeep soils. From highly calcareous to non-calcareous and from very low to very deepsoils, from highly fertility soils. Grape vines are invariably propagated by stemcuttings, through reproduction by seeds, layers or grafts may be done for specialpurposes, Cuttings should always be taken from healthy, vigorous vines having wellmaturated cane. Cuttings are usually taken from the prunings during august-November. They should be 40-50cm long and over 8mm thick 3-5 buds each. In thenursery, the cuttings are planned in well-drained soil. Generally 90 days are requiredfor satisfactory rooting. Cutting planted after 20 days storage in one part of soil plusthree part of sand media have been reported good for survival and root and shootgrowth. The rooted cuttings with the fresh leaves are planted at side in pits ortrenches. The side shoots are systematically remove to ensure rapid growth of mainsteam. Heavy irrigation, application of farmyard manure and fertilizers are necessaryfor the growth grapevines. The vine may commence to yield fruits in the second orthird year of its planting. 37
  • DRUG REVIEW - DRAKSHAPHOTOS: Photo No 3. Vitis vinifera Fruits (Grapes) Photo No 4. Vitis vinifera dry fruit (Raisins) 38
  • DRUG REVIEW - KHAJURA KHARJURA The Kharjura it is also commonest fruit in traditional use as a nutritional properties. In Charak Samhita Sutrasthana mainly Kharjura explained for reference of Madathaya, Aruchi, Raktapita, Rajayakshama, etc disorders. Also in Chikitsasthana mentioned about treatment of Kasa, Visarpa, Trushana, etc. In Susharuta Samhata also indicates the Kharjura as a treatment aspect of Shonitameha, Bhagandara, Hikka, Kasa etc. and included in Phala varga. In Ashatanghrudya it mentioned under treatment of Mada, Murcha, Hrudroga, Arsha, Gulma, and included in Kashaya dravya varga. Almost all of the Nighantukaras starting from ancient period to till date have mentioned elaborately regarding its Guna Karma, Prayoga and Bheda etc. Bhavaprakasha and Priya nighantu are included Kharjura in Phalavarga and Raja nighantu and Dhanvantari nighantu explained under Amadi varga. Madhava Dravyagunakara it includes under Phala varga, Shaka varga, and Srashata varga. Now days Kharjura fruit is being used as cooling, oleaginous, cardiotonic, fattening, cardiac disorder etc. aÉhÉ – uÉaÉï- Table.15. Showing Gana and varga of Kharjura.aÉhÉ – uÉaÉï cÉ.xÉÇ xÉÑ.xÉÇ A.WØû kÉ.ÌlÉ qÉ.ÌlÉ Mæü.ÌlÉ qÉÉ.Sìè. pÉÉ.ÌlÉ UÉ.ÌlÉ ÌlÉ.AÉ ÌmÉë.ÌlÉTüsÉ uÉaÉï + + + + +zÉÉMü uÉaÉï +AÉæwÉÍkÉ uÉaÉï +AÉqÉÉÌS uÉaÉï + +´Éå¹ uÉaÉï +ÌuÉUåcÉlÉÉåmÉaÉç aÉhÉ +´ÉqÉWûU +MüwÉÉrÉSìuÉaÉï +MüwÉÉrÉxMükÉ +qÉkÉÑUxMülkÉ +iÉÉsÉÉÌS uÉaÉï. + 39
  • DRUG REVIEW - KHAJURA mÉrÉÉïrÉ lÉÉqÉ ÌlÉÂÌ£ü 1. ZÉeÉÑïUÏ: ZÉeÉÑï:urÉjÉÉ “ZÉeÉï urÉjÉlÉå” ZÉeÉÑïUÉiÉÏ SSÉÌiÉiÉÏ :| xMÇülSxrxÉç mÉÂwÉiuÉÉiÉ.: || (pÉÉ ÌlÉ) It cures all types of Vata disorders, it cures Kshaya. 2. ZÉUxMükÉÉ: ZÉU: mÉÑÂwÉÉ: xMülkÉÉåxrÉÉ : || (A ÌlÉ) Stem is rough in nature. 3. SÒUÉUÉåWûÉ: xMÇülkÉxrÉ ZÉUiuÉÉiÉç ¢ÑücNåûhÉɽirÉå : || (pÉÉ ÌlÉ) Difficulty to climb the tree because of its rough surfcae. 4. SìÓQûMüliÉMüÉ : mɧÉÉhÉÉÇ MühOûÌMüiuÉÉiÉ : || (Mæü ÌlÉ) The leaves are spiny. 5. ÌlÉ:´ÉåhÉÏ : xÉqÉÑWûÉͳÉwMüÉliÉÉ EcÉiuÉÉiÉ : || (kÉ ÌlÉ) It is tall tree. 6. ÌmÉhQûÏ : ÌmÉhQûÉMüÉUTüsÉiuÉÉiÉ | mÉÏhQûÉMüÉUÏAÉxrÉÉxrÉÉiÉÏ: || (ÌlÉ AÉ) Fruit are roundish in shape. 7. xMÇülkÉTüsÉÉ: xMülkÉåMühQåûTüsÉÉÍhÉ xÉlirÉÉxjÉÉ : || (pÉÉ ÌlÉ) Fruits appearing on the trunk 1. xuÉÉSÒTüsÉÉ : xuÉÉSÒÌlÉ TüsÉÉlrÉxrÉÉ : || (Mæü ÌlÉ) The fruits are sweet. 2. xuÉSÒqÉxiÉMüÉ : xuÉÉSÒqÉxiÉMåü zÉÏwÉïpÉÉaÉÉåxrÉÉ : || (pÉÉ ÌlÉ) The top portion is sweet. Table.16 Showing important Paryaya nama of the KharjuramÉrÉÉïrÉ lÉÉqÉ cÉ.xÉÇ xÉÑ.xÉÇ A.WØû kÉ.ÌlÉ qÉÉ.Sì qÉ.ÌlÉ Mæü.ÌlÉ pÉÉ.ÌlÉ UÉ.ÌlÉ ÌlÉ.AÉ ÌmÉë.ÌlÉZÉUxMülkÉÉ +SÒUÉUÉåWûÉ +ÌlÉ:´ÉåhÉÏ +xuÉÉSÒqÉxiÉMüÉ + +´ÉåhÉÏ + +ZÉeÉÑïËUMüÉ +ZÉeÉÑïËUMüÉ uÉëÑ¤É + + +´ÉÏTüsÉÉ + 40
  • DRUG REVIEW - KHAJURAZÉeÉÑïU + + + + + + + + + + +²ÏumÉxÉÇpÉuÉÉ +ÌmÉhQûZÉeÉÑïËUMüÉ + +ZÉeÉëÑï + + + + +xÉÑMühOûMüÉ +xMülkÉTüsÉÉ + + +xuÉÉ̲ +qÉëÑSÒcÉSÉ + + +pÉÑÍqÉZÉeÉÑïËUMüÉ + + +MüÉMüMïüMüOûÏ +SìÓQûMÇüOûMüÉ +ÍxÉÇWûÏ +xuÉÉSÒTüsÉÉ + +xÉÑTüsÉÉ +ZÉeÉÑïËU + + + + + + +rÉuÉlÉå¹É +WûUÏÌmÉrÉÉ +xuÉÉÌS¹ + + +AaÉëeÉ + aÉÑhÉ Table.17 Showing Gunas of KharjuraaÉÑhÉ cÉ.xÉÇ xÉÑ.xÉÇ A.WØû kÉ.ÌlÉ qÉ.ÌlÉ qÉÉ.Sì Mæü.ÌlÉ pÉÉ.ÌlÉ UÉ.ÌlÉ ÌlÉ.AÉ ÌmÉë.ÌlÉ qÉkÉÑU + + + + + + + + +UxÉ MüwÉÉrÉ + + + ÎxlÉakÉ + + + + +aÉÑhÉ aÉÑ + + + + + zÉÏiÉ + + +uÉÏrÉï zÉÏiÉ + + + + +ÌuÉmÉÉMü qÉkÉÑU + + + + + + + + uÉÉiÉWûU + + + + MüTüMüÉUMü + + + + + + + + + +SÉåwÉblÉiÉÉ ÌMüÎgcÉiÉ + + + + ÌmɨÉMüÉUMü 41
  • DRUG REVIEW - KHAJURA MüqÉï Table.18 Showing important Karmas of Kharjura.MüqÉï cÉ.xÉÇ xÉÑ.xÉÇ A.WØû kÉ.ÌlÉ qÉ.ÌlÉ. qÉÉ.Sì Mæü.ÌlÉ pÉÉ.ÌlÉ UÉ.ÌlÉ ÌlÉ.AÉ ÌmÉë.ÌlÉoÉsrÉ + + + + + + + + +AÎalÉuÉkÉïMü + + + + +sÉÇbÉlÉ + +mÉÉcÉlÉ + + + +¾Òû± + + + +zÉÑ¢üsÉ + + + +SÏmÉlÉ +zÉÏiÉsÉ + +qÉѧÉeÉlÉlÉ + + + + +oÉ×ÇWûhÉ + + +iÉmÉïhÉ + ZÉeÉÑïU pÉåS: Kharjura is one of the commonly used fruits and is one among the “Madhura- Triphala” Bhavamishra describes three varieties viz Bhumi kharjurika, Pinda kharjurika, & Chouhara. Raja nighantu mentioned five verities viz,. Kharjura, Pinda Kharjura, Raja kharjura, Madhu kharjura and Bhu kharjura. 1. qÉkÉÑ ZÉeÉÑïU 2. ÌmÉhQû ZÉeÉÑïU 3. pÉÔZÉeÉÑïËU 4. UÉeÉ ZÉeÉÑïU 5. aÉëÉqrÉ ZÉeÉÑïU 6. NûÉåWûÉUÉ mÉërÉÉåerÉ A…¡û LuÉÇ qÉɧÉÉ mÉërÉÉåerÉ A…¡û: 1. TüsÉ 42
  • DRUG REVIEW - KHAJURA qÉɧÉÉ: 1. MüsMü- 10-20 gm 2. TüsÉ – 5 in no. 3. xuÉUxÉ- 20- 40 ml mÉërÉÉåaÉ The various disorders in which the Kharjura is used mainly are Vatavyadhi, Kshya, Trushana, etc. and also in various disease conditions as shown in the following table. Table.19 Showing important Prayoga of Kharjura in different VyadhimÉërÉÉåaÉ cÉ.xÉÇ xÉÑ.xÉÇ A.WØû kÉ.ÌlÉ qÉ.ÌlÉ qÉÉ.Sì Mæü.ÌlÉ pÉÉ.ÌlÉ UÉ.ÌlÉ ÌlÉ.AÉ ÌmÉë.ÌlÉuÉÉiÉurÉÉÍkÉ + + + + + + +qÉSÉirÉrÉ +U£üÌmÉ¨É +MüÉxÉ + + + + +qÉѧɢÑüNûû + +pÉaÉÇSU + + + +zÉÉåÍhÉiÉqÉåWû + + + + + + +AÂcÉÏ + + + + +ÌWûMüMüÉ + + +µÉÉxÉ + + +¤ÉrÉ + + + + + +¤ÉiɤÉrÉ + + + + +MüÉxÉ + + + +SÉWû + +´ÉqÉ + +pÉëÉÎliÉ + +zÉÔsÉ + + + + +ÎeÉhÉïeuÉU + +qÉÔcNûÉï + + + + + +AÂÍcÉ + + +MÑü¹ + + +zÉÉåjÉ + +AÎalÉqÉÉl± + + 43
  • DRUG REVIEW - KHAJURA AÉqÉÌrÉMü mÉërÉÉåaÉ 1. Talapralamba (tender top portion of tala stem) alleviates wound and pain in chest. Kharjura and fruit of Tala is useful in Raktapitta, and Kshaya. 2. In the tepid decoction of Danti 40 gm, Kashamarya (fruit), or Draksha 160gm, is dipped and then pressed. The juice so extracted should be taken in anaemia. 3. The decoction of Bala, Mudgaparni, Mashparni, Jivanti, Jevaka, Raddi, Rasabala, Kakoli, Gokshura, Madhka, Shatavari, Vidari, Draksha, Khajura should be added to the same quantity, it will be Vajikara properties. 4. Mild boiled with Shunthi, Mrudvika, and Kharjura, added with ghee, honey, and sugar alleviates Trushana & Jwara. 5. Shalamali, Narikela, Kharjura, Mrdvika, Priyala, Priyangu, Dhanvana, Atmagupta, etc drugs made decoction this alleviates the Jwara quickly. Also made an oil preparation for this drugs will called Chandandya taila. 6. Water boiled with Kharjura, Mrudvika, and Parushaka, and cooled with along with sugar used in Raktapitta Chikitsa. 7. The patient suffering from Raktapitta should take powder of the flowers of Khadira , Priyangu, Kovidara and Shalamali, mixed with honey. 8. Powder of Sringataka, Parchadpaddy, Musta, Kharjura, & Lotus stem should be taken with honey it cures the Raktapitta. 9. Draksha, Madhuka, Kharjura, Vidari, Shatavari, Parushaka, Triphala, each 40gm, should be boiled in water 2.56lt remains one fourth , this should be added with ghee, sugarcane juice, milk along with one fourth paste at the end sugar and sugar & honey in one fourth quantity should be added to it. The use of this Ghruth destroys Pittagulma and other Paittika disorders. 10. Ghee mixed with Dates, Mrudvika, Sugar, honey, and long piper alleviates impairment Kasa, Swasa. & Jwara. Table.20 Showing Vishishta Yoga of KharjuraPREPARATION INDICATION REFERENCEZÉeÉÔïUÉÌS qÉljÉÇ qÉSÉirÉrÉ, uÉÉiÉÌmɨÉeÉ urÉÉkÉÏ. cÉ.ÍcÉ. (14/209)MÑüÎqpÉMüɱ iÉæsÉ. lÉÉÌQûuÉëhÉ. pÉæ.U¦ÉÉuÉÍsÉ (50/24)ZÉeÉÔïUÉÌS YuÉÉjÉ SÉWû, ´ÉqÉ. cÉ.ÍcÉ (5 /15)ZÉeÉÔïUÉÌS MüwÉÉrÉ AzqÉËU, qÉÔ§ÉUÉåaÉ, M×üÍqÉ, pÉæ.U¦ÉÉuÉÍsÉ (11/6)ZÉeÉÔïUÉÌS sÉåWû ÌWûMüMüÉ, µÉÉxÉ, MüÉxÉ, pÉæ.U¦ÉÉuÉÍsÉ (15/11) 44
  • DRUG REVIEW - KHAJURAREFERENCES:  cÉUMü xÉÇÌWûiÉÉ: 1. qÉkÉÑU oÉëÑWûhÉ uÉëÑwrÉç ZÉeÉÑïU aÉÑ zÉÏiÉsÉÇqÉç : | ¤ÉrÉåAÍpÉbÉÉiÉå SÉWåû cÉç iɲÏiÉqÉ : || cÉ xÉÑ (27/127) 2. ZÉeÉÑïU iÉÉsÉzÉxrÉ cÉç U£æüÌmɨɤÉrÉÉmÉWûqÉÇ : | iÉÂiÉoÉÏsuÉzÉÉsÉÑ MüMüÉãcNûÉSlÉ MüzÉåÂMüqÉ : || cÉ xÉÑ (27/116) 3 SìɤÉÉZÉeÉÑïUMüÉåsÉÉÇlÉÉ aÉÑ ÌuɹèÇqpÉÏ mÉÉlÉMüqÉçÇ : | mÉÂwÉMüÉlÉÉÇ ¤ÉÉåSìèxrÉ ŠYxrÉåwÉÑ ÌuÉ¢ÑüiÉÏ mÉëÌiÉ : || cÉ xÉÑ (27/279) 4. AÉiqÉaÉÑmiÉÉ qÉSÒMüÉÌlÉ ZÉeÉÑïUÉÌlÉ zÉiÉÉuÉUÏ : | ÌuÉSÉrÉÉïqÉsÉMåüwÉÑhÉÉ UxÉxrÉ cÉ mÉëÑjÉMü mÉëÑjÉMü : || cÉ ÍcÉ (2/28) 5. xÉlÉÉaÉUÇ xÉqÉëÑSÌuÉMüÉ xÉbÉëiɤÉÉåSìzÉMïüUÉqÉ : | ¤ÉëÑiÉmÉrÉÇ xÉZÉeÉÑïUÇ ÌmÉmÉÉxÉÉcÉç euÉUlÉÉzÉlÉqÉ : || cÉ ÍcÉ (3/237) 6. eÉsÉÇ ZÉeÉÑïU qÉëÑSÌuÉMüÉ qÉSÒMãü xÉmÉÂwÉMãü : | mÉërÉÉåxiÉYrÉÇ iÉmÉÉïhÉÉjÉï xÉzÉMïüUqÉ : || cÉ ÍcÉ (4/33) 7. SìɤÉÉqÉkÉÑMüZÉeÉÑïUÉ ÌuÉSÉUÏ xÉ zÉiÉÉuÉËUqÉç : | mÉÂwÉMüÉhÉÏ Ì§ÉTüsÉÉ xÉkÉrÉåiuÉmÉsÉ xÉÇÍqɨÉqÉ : | ...............ÌmɨÉÌuÉMüÉUÉiÉÉ (CÌiÉ SìɤÉÉÌS bÉëÑiÉ) cÉ ÍcÉ (5/128) 8. bÉëÑiÉZÉeÉÑïU qÉëÑ̲MüÉ zÉMïüUÉ ¤ÉÉåSì xÉÇrÉÑ£üqÉ : | xÉ ÌmÉmÉÍsÉMüÉÇ uÉæxuÉrÉï MüÉxÉ µÉÉxÉ euÉUÉmÉWûqÉÇ : || cÉ ÍcÉ (8/96)  xÉÑ´ÉÑiÉ xÉÇÌWûiÉÉ 1. euÉUå qÉÑZÉuÉæUxrÉ SìɤÉÉZÉeÉÑïUÉrÉÉåxjÉiÉÉ : | uÉæUxrÉ kÉÉUrÉåiÉ MüsMü aÉhQÒûwɶÉç iÉjÉÉ ÌWûiÉÇ : || xÉÑ E (19/185) 2. ZÉeÉÑïUqÉkrÉÇ qÉÉaÉkrÉÇ qÉkÉÑ̲ÌiÉrÉÉ : | MüiÉïurÉÉ:iÉåÌWûMüMüÉxÉÑ ÌuÉSèlrÉÉlÉiÉÉ : || xÉÑ E (50/28) 3. ¤ÉiɤÉrÉÉmÉWûqÉ ¾Òû± zÉÏiÉsÉiÉmÉïhÉ aÉÑ : | UxÉåmÉÉMåü cÉ qÉkÉÑU ZÉeÉÑïU U£üÌmɨÉÎeÉiÉ : || xÉÑ xÉÑ (46/186) 45
  • DRUG REVIEW - KHAJURA4. ZÉeÉÑïËUMüÉ TüsÉÇ zÉÏiÉ qÉkÉÑU UxÉmÉÉMürÉÉå : | oÉsrÉWûÎliÉ qÉÉÂÎimɨÉqÉSqÉÑNûÉïqÉSÉirÉÉqÉÇ : || xÉÑ xÉÑ (35/73)5. ZÉeÉÑïU iÉÑuÉUÇ zÉÏiÉ qÉkÉÑU UxÉmÉÉMürÉÉå : | ÎxlÉakÉ ÂÍcÉMüUÇ ¾è± ¤ÉiɤÉrÉWûU aÉÑ : || xÉÑ xÉÑ (36/34) A¹ÉÇaÉ ¾èSrÉ : ........... ZÉeÉÑïU.......... mÉÂwÉMÇüqÉç : | ....................................................|| (119) .......................... cÉç oÉëÑWûhÉÇ aÉÑ zÉÏiÉsÉqÉÇ || (120) SÉWû ¤ÉiɤÉrÉWûUÇ U£üÌmɨÉç mÉëxÉÉSlÉqÉÇ | xuÉÉSÒmÉÉMüUxÉÇ ÎxlÉakÉ ÌuɹèÇÎqpÉMüTüzÉÑ¢ü¢ÑüiÉ : || A WÒû xÉÑ (6/119-121) kÉluÉliÉUÏ ÌlÉbÉhOÒû: (AÉqÉëÌSuÉaÉïç)1. ZÉeÉÑïËUiÉÑZÉUxMülSÉ MüwÉÉrÉÉ qÉSÒUÉAaÉëeÉÉ : | SÒ:mÉëkÉwÉÉï SÒUÉUÉåWûÉ ÌlÉ:¤ÉëåhÉÏ xuÉÉSÒqÉxiÉMüÉ : || (46) ¤ÉiɤÉrÉÉmÉWûqÉÇ ¾û±Ç zÉÏiÉsÉ iÉmÉÉïhÉÇ aÉÑ : | UxÉå mÉÉMåü cÉç qÉkÉÑUÇ ZÉeÉÑïU U£üÌmɨÉÎeÉiÉ : || (47)2. SÏmrÉÉ cÉç ÌmÉhQûZÉeÉÑïUÏ xiÉsÉÌmÉhQûÉ qÉkÉÑx§ÉÉuÉÉ : | TüsÉmÉÑwmÉÉ xuÉSÒÌmÉhQûÉ WûrÉpɤÉÉ UxÉÉÍpÉkÉÉ : || (48) qÉSlÉmÉÉsÉ ÌlÉbÉhOÒû: (TüsÉÉÌSuÉaÉï) ZÉeÉÑïËUMüÉ TüsÉ ÍzÉiÉÇ xuÉSÒ ÎxlÉakÉ ¤ÉiÉÉÎx§ÉÎeÉiÉç : | oÉsrÉ WûÎliÉ qÉÂÎimɨqÉSqÉÑNûÉïqÉSÉirÉÉlÉç || (6) MæürÉSåuÉ ÌlÉbÉhOÒû: (AÉæwÉÍkÉ uÉaÉï) ZÉeÉÑïËU iÉÑuÉUÇ ÍzÉiÉÇ qÉkÉÑUÇ UxÉmÉÉMürÉÉå : | ÎxlÉakÉ ÂÍcÉMüU ¾Òû± ¤ÉiɤÉrÉWûUÇ aÉÑ : | 46
  • DRUG REVIEW - KHAJURA iÉmÉïhÉç U£ÇüÌmɨÉblÉ mÉÑ̹ÌuÉwOèqpÉzÉÑ¢üSqÉç : | MüÉå¹qÉÉÂiɾÒû± oÉsrÉ SÉWûuÉÉiÉMüTüÉmÉWûqÉ : | euÉUÉÌoÉbÉÉiɤÉÑiÉ×wlÉÉMüÉxɵÉÉxÉÉͳÉrÉcNûÌiÉ : || (294-296) pÉÉuÉmÉëMüÉzÉ ÌlÉbÉhOÒû: (AÉqÉëÉÌSTüsÉuÉaÉï) ZÉeÉÑïËU ̧ɧÉrÉÇ zÉÏiÉÇ qÉkÉÑUÇ UxÉmÉÉMürÉÉå : | ÎxlÉakÉÇ ÂÍcÉMüUÇ ¾Òû± ¤ÉiɤÉrÉWûUÇ aÉÑ : | iÉmÉïhÉ U£üÌmɨÉblÉ mÉÑ̹ÌuÉwOèqpÉzÉÑ¢üSqÉç : | MüÉå¹qÉÉÂiɾÒû± oÉsrÉ SÉWûuÉÉiÉMüTüÉmÉWûqÉ : | euÉUÉÌiÉxÉÉU¤ÉëÑi§ÉÑwhÉÉMüÉxɵÉÉxÉÌlÉuÉÉUMüqÉçÇ : | qÉSqÉÑNûÉïqÉÂÎimɨÉqɱÉåSpÉÔiÉaÉSÉliÉ¢ÔüiÉç : || (117-120) UÉeÉ ÌlÉbÉhOÒû: (AÉqÉëÉÌS uÉaÉï) ZÉeÉÑïËU iÉÑ MüwÉÉrÉÉ cÉç mÉYuÉÉ aÉÉãsrÉÉ MüwÉÉrÉMüÉ : | ÌmɨÉÎblÉ MüTüSÉ cÉãuÉ ¢ÑüÍqÉ¢ÑüiÉ uÉëѤrÉÉcÉç oÉëÑWûÌlÉ : | (56) qÉÉSuÉ SìurÉ aÉÑhÉ ZÉeÉÑïËU aÉÉåxiÉlÉÉpÉÉ rÉÉ ÌmÉëÌMüÌiÉïiÉkÉÉaÉiÉÉ : | eÉÉrÉiÉå mÉÎcµÉqÉå SåzÉå NûÉåWûÉUÉ rÉÉ mÉU̲mÉÉ :|| (41) ÌmÉërÉÌlÉbÉhOÒû ZÉeÉÑïU aÉÉåxiÉlÉÌlÉpÉTüsÉÇ xuÉhÉïuÉhÉï ÌuÉmÉÉMåü : | qÉkrÉÉrÉÉqÉÇ pÉuÉÌiÉÌlÉZÉÏsÉå pÉÉUiÉå zÉÑwMüSåzÉå : || (75) 47
  • DRUG REVIEW - KHAJURA MODERN DRUG REVIEWCLASSIFICATIONAccording to Benthem and Hooker’s system of classification-Kingdom PlantaeSuper division Spermatophyta.Division Angiospermia.Class Monocotyledons.Order Calycineae.Family Palmeae.Genus Phoenix.Species Sylvestris.VERNACULAR NAMES The drug is universally know and accepted by its scientific name. Butstill the knowledge of the names in both local and the regional languages is veryimportant to procure the drug from the regions of its availability.English: - Dates / Dry datesHindi: - Chahura, Chohara.Kannada: - Karrinchula, Khajura.Marathi: - Khajura, Kharaka, Kharika(dried)Gujarati: - Kharek, Kharika.Punjabi: - Khajura.Bengali: - Sohara.Malayalam: - Intappazham, Inthappana.Tamil: - Pericham, Karchuram, Perichechanti.Telugu: - Kharjursm.Urdu: - Khurma.Assam -Tamar.Arabic: - Basal.French: -IononeGerman: -SiebelItalian: -Cupolas 48
  • DRUG REVIEW - KHAJURAMORPHOLOGYFamily: PalmeThere are about 200 genera. species 1500 in this familyDistribution: Tolerably common throught India, wild or more cultivated in Africa, Egypt, Syria, and other countries, commercially planted in Sindha and Punjab.Habits: Shrubs or tree solitary or gregarious naked or prickly.Stem: Erect, scandent or decumbent, rarely branched above.Leaves: Alternate, usually crowded at the apex of the stem, plicate in bud, pinnaticect, or palmate, rarely entire or 2 pinatisect.Petiole: Sheathing.Flowers: Small, hermaphrodite, or 1 sexual, usually 3 bracteolate in branched spikes or panicles enclosed in one or more large sheathing, spathes.Perianth: Inferior, 2 – seriate, segments in each series 3, usually all free, imbricate or valvate.Stamens: Usually 6 inserted in 2 series opposite perianth segments, sometimes 3 opposite the outer series of segments occasionally many at the base of the perianth.Anthers: Versitile, 2 celled dehiscence latral or etrose.Ovary: 1-3 celled or of 3 one celled carpels , ovules in each carpel 1-2, anatropous, adnate to the wall, base or top of the cell; stigma 3 usually sesallyFruits: 1-3 celled druped or hard berry or of 1-3 carpels; pericarp smooth or rough ; or clothed with downward imbricating, shining scales.Seeds: Erect or laterally attached, rarely pendulous; raphe usually branching all over the testa.Albumen: Horny or bony uniform or ruminate.Embryo: Small in cavity near the surface of the albumen 49
  • DRUG REVIEW - KHAJURAGenus: Phoenix Linn;Habit: Tall tree or low shrubs, the entire stem of the upper portion only closely covered by the more or less rhomboid bases of the petioles.Stems: Occasionally branched the first leaf of seedling & sometimes the first leaf of root suckers is lanciolate, entire.Leaves: pinnate, Leaflets entire, liner, folded longitudinally and attached obliquely.Petiole: folded, common woody base. Lowest pinnae usually transformed in to spines, no midrib but a slender nerve on either side of the fold; nerve longitudinal, parallal, stout, & slender.Leaflets: in the lower portion of the petiole stand in fascicles. Upper leaflet are usually alternate or apposite.Flowers : Dioecies, small, yellowish, coriaceoes, sessile on the bends of long, glabrous, undulating spikelets, usually supported by 1 or 2 minute, subulate or triangular bracts, the female flowers are often approximately in pairs,. The spikelets are inserted in horizontal or oblique lines on both side of a flat, woody peduncle. Male flowers; sepals 3, connected in a capsular 3 – toothed calyx. Petals 3, obliquely ovate, stamens 6; filament short, subulate; anthers erect, dorsifixed, pistilode minute or absents. Female flowers; sepals 3, connate in a globose, accrescent calyax.Fruit : A single oblong, 1 seeded berry with a terminal sigma, a fleshy pericarp and membranous endocarp seed oblong, ventrally grooved, albumen uniform or subruminate, embryo small. 50
  • DRUG REVIEW - KHAJURASpecies: Sylvestris. Roxb.Hort Beng.Habit: A very graceful palm when not injured by extracting toddy, 9-15m high. Trunk through from persistent base of the leaf stalk. Crown hemispherical, very larg and thick.Leaves: 3- 4.5m long, grayish green quit glabrous, pinnate; petioles compressed only towards the apex, at the base bearing a few channeled triangular short spine reaching 10cmsFlowers: 6-8mm long very numerous angular oblique calyx – cup shaped with short 3 rounded teeth. Petals 3 or 4 times longer, than the sepals. Concave warty on the out side, on the inside deeply ridged & furrowed. Filament scarcely any, or very shortly than the petals. They manly two types male & female.Male flower: White, scanted, spadix 60-90cm long, erect peduncle highly compressed spathes at about the same length, very coriaceous, almost woody, scurfy separating in to two boat shaped valves.Female flower: Spadix and spathe much the same as in the male. Spikes arranged in the distinct groups, 30 -40cms long. Lower 10 -15cms not bearing any flower. Flowers distant roundish.Fruit : Scattered on long, pendulous, similarly coloured spikes 2.5 -3.2cm long, oblong ellipsoide, orange, yellow with a terminal stigma, surrounded at the base by perianth, pericarp fleshy, yellow moderate, very astringent, lined by irregular cellular white tissue , part of which adheres to the thin envelope that separate with the seed.Seed : 17mm long rounded at the ends, deeply grooved along its whole length on one side, with a slight incomplete furrow on the outer side in the center of which is a depression with mammillate fundus indicating the position of the embryo. Albumen on a transverse section horse shoe shaped 51
  • DRUG REVIEW - KHAJURA PHARMACOGNOSY Table.21 Characters of Phonex sylvestris Linn fruit.Characters Phonex sylvestris Linn. FruitMacroscopicShape Oblong berry.Size 2.5 – 7.5cm longColour Reddish brown,Character Wrinkled, hard and sweet in taste.MicroscopicPericarp Wide, single layered epidermis,Epidermis Covered with striated cuticle, below epidermis 3 to 5 thin wall cells followed by a layer of stone cells.Idioblasts and oil Below the stone cells with narrow lumen 28 -30 m in diameter, scattered.Powder Reddish brown shows group of thin walled, parenchyma, stone cell, oil globules & tannin ferrous idioblasts. CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS Fleshy fruit contain Protein- 1.2%. Fat- 0.4%, Carbohydrates 33.8%, Fibers –3.7%, Minaral matter – 1.7%, Calcium- 0.022%. Dry fruit contains sugars, edible matter- 86%, Protein- 2.5%, Fat- 0.4%,Carbohydrate- 75.8%, Fibre- 3.9, Minaral matter- 2.1, Iron- 7.3mg, Carotine- 44,Thiamine- 0.011, Riboflavin- 0.023, Calcium- 0.12, Ascorbic acid- 2mg. 52
  • DRUG REVIEW - KHAJURA CULTIVATION Date palm is very exacting in its climatic requirements. It requires a longsummer with high day as well as night temperature, mild winter without frosts, a lowrelative humidity and very little rain, not much exceeding 12.5cm during theflowering and fruiting. If once established, it can with sand summer temperature ashigh as 50~C. the mean temperature between the period of flowering and ripening offruit should be between 25~C & 30~C. depending upon variety.Date palm can thrive on sandy, loams and & clay soils, but well drained – sandy loamof good depth & water holding capacity considered best. Through it requires plentywater in soil, comparatively it needs less water than other fruit crop. Is an importanttree in desert, where it occurs in the oasis. Date palm can do well in soils containingmore alkali or salts than many other plants will tolerate; best growth & fruit quality,however can not be obtained under conditions or high soil salinity. Date palm can be propagated by seeds or by off shoots. When grown fromseeds, only about half of the trees turn out to be females and they bear fruit of variablequality. Moreover, it takes 4-10 years to determine the sexes of the trees and out tohave outstanding qualities, it may be propagated by its off shouts, some new varietiesor clones have originated in this way. For commercial purposes, however date palm is always propagated byoffshoots from desired selected varieties such trees bear fruit of the same quality asthe mother tree. The offshoot arises from auxiliary buds near the base of the trunk,chiefly during early life of the palm. Normally 4-5 yrs after planting, at least twooffshoots can be removed from each tree annually for 10 -15 yrs, offshoots aredetached carefully by cutting as close to trunk as possible, rooted offshoots aregenerally preferred in order to reduce mortality. Offshoots are pruned immediately or4-5 days prior to their removal; only the young leaves and the bases of the old onesare retained. They are removed and planted either in Feb-April in August- September. 53
  • DRUG REVIEW - KHAJURAPhotos; Photo No 5, Phonex sylvestris tree (pam tree) Photo No 6. Fuits of Phonex sylvestris (Kharjura) 54
  • DISEASE REVIEW ANAEMIA ‘Anemia’ ward was introduced in 17th AD. In 1829, it was defined clearly withspecific definition.Definition: Anaemia is derived from Greek word (a, not; haima, blood) whichmeans without blood, but this is a misnomer because without blood, life is notpossible, here anaemia actually means reduction in the concentration of hemoglobinin blood. Anaemia is defined as hemoglobin concentration in blood below thelower limit of normal range for the age and sex of the individual. In adult, the lowerextreme of the normal hemoglobin is taken as13.0 gm/dl for males and 11.5 gm/dl forfemales. Newborn infants have higher hemoglobin level and there fore 15gm/dl istaken as the lower limit at birth. Anaemia resulting from the deficiency of iron is known as iron deficiencyAnaemia.Etiology of Iron Deficiency Anaemia (IDA)IDA has been classified based on etiologyClassification:Increased blood loss:1. Uterine – e.g. excessive menstruation in reproductive age, repeated Miscarriages, at onset of menarche, post menopausal uterine bleeding.2. Gastrointestinal – e.g. peptic ulcer, hemorrhoids, hookworm infestation, Cancer of stomach and large intestine, chronic aspirin ingestion3. Renal tract- e.g. haematuria, hemoglobinuria. T.B, Kidney, Uretric calculus etc.4. Nose – e.g. repeated epistaxis.5. Lungs – e.g. haemoptysis due to Bronchieactasis, C.A. Lungs, etc.Inadequacy due to increased requirements:1. Spurts of growth in infancy, childhood and adolescence,2. Prematurity3. Pregnancy and lactation.Inadequate dietary intake:1. Poor health education.2. Anorexia e.g. pregnancy.3. Elderly individuals due to poor dentition, apathy and financial constraints. 55
  • DISEASE REVIEWDecreased absorption:1. Partial or total gastrectomy2. Achlorhydria3. Intestinal malabsorption diseases.Clinical Features:Table 22 Showing clinical features of Anaemia-General Cardiovascular Respiratory G.I.system Neurological ReproductiveWeakness Palpitation, Breathlessness. Anorexia Dizziness Amenorrheafatigue anginal pain Dyspnoea acidity, tingling menorrhagialassitude Sinus Weez. heart burn numbness abortion tachycardiaOedema collapsing Cripitus. palpable insomnia etc pulse spleenpallor dancing carotids etc Palpable Dimness of liver. visiondry skin haemic murmur etc forgetfulnessWhite congestive lack ofsclera cardiac failure concentrationSymptoms: In symptomatic cases of anaemia the presenting complaints aretiredness, easy fatigue, generalized muscular weakness, lethargy and headache. Inolder patients there may be symptoms of cardiac failure, angina pectoris, intermittentclaudication, confusion and visual disturbances.Pallor – It is the most common and characteristic sign which may be seen in themucus membrane, conjunctiva and skin.Dyspnoea on exertion is common symptom, which occur with exertion or withemotion.Tiredness- Due to deficient oxygen carrying capacity, cell are deprived from vitaloxygen producing hypoxia of the brain and other cells.Giddiness- Deficient oxygen to the brain cells produces giddinessDiagnosis of Iron Deficiency Anaemia By definition, a patient has anaemia whenever hemoglobin level in the numberof circulatory R.B.Cs is significantly reduced. From laboratory stand point, the 56
  • DISEASE REVIEWdiagnosis of presence and severity of anaemia is easy. From a clinical perspective,diagnosis of anaemia is more complex. Diagnosis of Iron Deficiency anaemia ultimately rests on laboratory studies.Laboratory findings of Iron deficiency Anaemia are shown in Table Table no 23 Showing Normal values of HB% WHOs Hemoglobin thresholds used to define anemia (1 g/dL = 0.6206 mmol/L) Age or gender Hb threshold Hb threshold (g/dl) (mmol/l) Children (0.5–5yrs) 11.0 6.8 Children (5–12 yrs) 11.5 7.1 Children (12–15 yr) 12.0 7.4 Women, pregnant 11.0 6.8 Men (>15yrs) 13.0 8.1 Table no 24 – Showing Grading of Anemia Hb levels Grades Between 10g/dl & cut off point for age Mild Hb between 7g/dl to 10g/dl Moderate Hb under 7g/dl Severe Hb under 5g/dl Very severe Table no 25 - Showing Clinical grading of Anemia. Clinical observations Grades Pallor restricting itself to only Mild conjunctiva and / or mucus membrane Obvious skin pallor Moderate Palmar creases too are affected Severe 57
  • DISEASE REVIEW Clinical diagnosis of IDA remains clear. But to understand the exact causeshematological investigations are necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Investigationsinclude,  Hb% , RBC count and Hematocrit are decreased  Mean cell indices – MCV MCH and MCHC are also decreased  Peripheral smear examination shows microcytic hypochromic blood picture.  Mild leukocytosis, thrombocytosis and reticulocytosis  Serum iron is reduced  Serum ferritin is also decreased  Total iron binding capacity is increased  Transferrin saturation is reduced  Bone marrow will be hypercellular with reduced iron storesInvestigations of the Anemic SubjectsHemoglobin Estimation: Hemoglobin is estimated in terms of its concentration i.e. amount ofHemoglobin in grams per 100ml of whole blood.I. Peripheral Blood Film Examination: Peripheral blood film examination, for morphologic features after staining itwith the Romanowsky Dyes by Leishmann’s stain.Following abnormalities in erythroid series are particularly looked for:i. Variation in size (Anisocytosis): Anisocytosis. It may be due to 1) Macrocytes - are found in Megaloblastic Anaemia, Aplastic Anaemia etc. 2) Microcytes - are seen in Iron deficiency Anaemia, Thalassaemia etc. 58
  • DISEASE REVIEWii. Variation in shape (Poikilocytosis): for eg. Megaloblastic anemia, Iron deficiency anaemia etc.iii. Inadequate hemoglobin formation (Hypochromasia): Normally, the intensity ofpink staining of hemoglobin in a Romanowsky stained blood smear graduallydecreases from the periphery to the centre of the cell. Increased centre pallor isHypochromasia. It may be due toa) Lowered hemoglobin content eg. Iron deficiency Anaemia.b) Thinness of the red cells eg. Thalassaemia.iv. Compensatory Erythropoiesis: A number of changes are associated withcompensatory increase in erythropoietic activity. These area) Polychromasia: Red cells having more than one type of colour. Reticulocytosis.b) Normoblastaemia: Presence of nucleated red cells. eg haemolytic newborn disease.v. Miscellaneous changes: Other abnormal red cells may also be seen.Treatment of Iron Deficiency Anaemia:It consists of 2 principles: 1) Correction of the disorder causing Anaemia 2) Correction of Iron deficiencyCorrection of the disorder: After a thorough check-up and investigations, evaluation is done andaccordingly surgical or medical measures are taken.Correction of Iron deficiency:a) Oral therapy: Iron deficiency responds very effectively to Oral Iron salts like ferroussulphate in the dosage of 60mg, thrice daily.b) Parenteral therapy: This is indicated in intolerance to oral Iron therapy, GIT disorders like oralmal-absorption or when rapid replacement of Iron store is desired like in womenbefore the expected date of delivery. 59
  • DISEASE REVIEW DISEASE REVIEWVyutpatti and Paribhasha: The word ‘Pandu’ is formed from the root dhatu “padi gatou” means “Gati” i.e. parinama.The disease Pandu is named after the Varna, mixture of peeta and shweta varna. mÉÉhQÒûiuÉãlÉÉãmÉsÉͤÉiÉÉã UÉãaÉÉÈ mÉÉhQÒû UÉãaÉ: |  Pandu varna is the combination of shewta and peeta in equal proportion  In Shabdakalpadruma Pandu Varna is considered as the combination of Shweta and peeta.  Raja Nighantu mentions that Pandu Varna is combination of shukla and peeta varna. By observing the above references, it may be considered that Pandu Varna isthe combination of Shweta and Peeta Varnas. The degree of colouration variesaccording to the severity of the disease.Paryaya: Acharyas while describing Pandu vyadhi have come forward with variousparyayas which are mainly based on the colour.They include  Pandu  Kamala  Panaki  Kumbhava  Lagharaka  Alasakshya  Haridra Though Kamala, Kumbha kamala has been mentioned as paryaya even thenseparate nidana, lakshana and chikitsa is mentioned. Dalhana clarifies that Sushruthahas considered it as synonyms only based on Kamala being one of the avasthavishesha of Pandu 63
  • DISEASE REVIEW Nidana The term Nidana refers to Vyadhi bhodhaka and Vyadhi Utpadaka and in this context it is the factors responsible for the manifestation of Pandu. After a proper analysis the etiological factors of Pandu roga, stated by different authors the Nidana can be best explained under the following headings.Sl.no. Aharaja nidana Viharaja nidana Manasika karana Nidanaarthakara roga 1. Amla, Maithuna Kama. Rakta gulma 2. Lavana, Vegadharana Krodha Pleehodara 3. Kashaya Rasa. Rutu vaishamya Chinta Asrugdhara 4. Ruksha, Ushna, Divaswapna Bhaya Arshas poorva roopa Tikshna Guna. 5. Ushna Dravya. Vyayama Shoka Raktasrava 6. Vidagdha anna RaktaPitta 7. Masha atisevana Raktaarbuda 8. Madya. Rakta vahee dhamani vedha 9. Pureeshaja krimi etc. POORVAROOPA Before the actual onset of disease, one experience some sort of symptoms and exhibit signs which provide clues about the forth coming disease. Such symptoms are called prodromal symptoms or poorvaroopa. Pathological process of every disease starts before the clinical manifestations of a disease. Due to the on going pathological process certain features will develop, though a complete clinical picture is not manifested. Symptoms such as Twak sphutana, Gatra sada, Mrit bhakshana, Avipaka, Roukshya, Swedabhava, Shrama, Aruchi, Hrudaya spandana adhikya, Shareera pandutha, Alpagni, Peeta Vinmootra. 64
  • DISEASE REVIEW SAMPRAPTISamanya Samprapti: Samprapti can be clearly understood by studying the following aspects ofSamprapti : 1) Samprapti ghataka 2) Samprapti bhedaSamprapti ghataka:1) Dosha: Pitta Pradhana Tridosha2) Dhatu: Rasa dhatu, Rakta dhatu, Mamsa dhatu, Meda dhatu, Ojas, Twacha3) Agni: Jataragni4) Ama: Jataragnimandya5) Srotas: Rasavaha and Raktavaha.6) Udhbhava sthana : Amashaya7) Sanchara sthana: Dasha dhamanis. 65
  • DISEASE REVIEW8) Asharya sthana: Twaka and Mamsa9) Vyakta sthana : Twak, Netra, Nakha Bheda of Pandu:  5 types of Pandu ( Acc to Charaka and Vagbhata)  4 types of Pandu ( Acc to Sushrutha)  6 types of Pandu (Acc to Other Authors) Table 27 Showing types of Pandu acc to different AuthorsS.No Types C.S S.S A.H A.S M.N B.P. Y.R. Sh. S K.S.H.S.1 Vataja + + + + + + + + + +2 Pittaja + + + + + + + + + +3 Kaphaja + + + + + + + + + +4 Sannipataja + + + + + + + + + +5 Mrudbhakshana + + + + + + + + +6 Rukshana - - - - - - - - - + Vataja Pandu: Etiological factors which mainly increase Vata along with Pittadi doshas leads to the production of Panduroga with Vata anubandha producing Vataja Pandu. Pittaja Pandu: Etiological factors which mainly increase Pitta along with other Doshas, leads to the production of Pittaja Pandu.  Kaphaja Pandu: Etiological factors which mainly increase Kapha along with Pittadi doshas leads to production of Panduroga with Kapha anubandha, thus producing Kaphaja Pandu.  Tridoshaja Pandu: An etiological factor, which increases all the three Doshas simultaneously, leads to the production of Tridoshaja Pandu.  Mritbhakshanajanya Pandu: One habituated to consumption of Mrit is likely to suffer from aggravation of the dosha depending upon the nature of mrit. If the Mrit is of Kashaya rasa, then it aggravates Vayu. If it is Ushara then Pitta gets aggravated, if it is Madhura then Kapha. Due to its Ruksha 66
  • DISEASE REVIEW guna, the Mrit causes Rukshata in the Rasa and the ingredients of food, and then the undigested Mrit produces Avarodha of Srotas and causes hani to Indriya bala , Teja, Virya, Oja, Varna and Agninasha, thus producing Panduroga. ROOPA Roopa implies to those signs and symptoms, exhibited during the manifestation of the disease. This stage occurs when Dosha dooshya Sammurchana has completed and the disease has manifested with full of its symptoms. Roopa may manifest with all symptoms highlighted in classics or with only a few symptoms depending upon the progression or regression of the disease. Some may newly appear and some may disappear. Samanya Lakshana:1) Panduta: Pandu is expressed as the Pratyatma lakshana of Panduroga. Pandu is named on the basis of discolouration of body parts. This is due to Rasa pradosha.2) Alpa Raktata: Includes both qualitative and quantitative decrease. Quantitatively Rakta is 8 Anjalis in body. Prakruta Rakta is produced by Pachaka pitta, which helps in proper production of Rakta poshaka sara part from Rasadhatu. Ranjaka pitta effectively converts this to Rakta. Alpa raktata causes Shareera vaivarnya, Twacha rukshata.3) Dourbalya: Reduction in the normal strength (Bala), and the prakruta Bala is measured by Vyayama shakthi. In Pandu it is reduced due to Dhatukshaya.4) Karshya: Reduction of various Dhatus in body leads to affliction of Samhanana leading to emaciation of Spik, Udara, Greeva and prominence of Dhamani jala.5) Karna Kshweda: Due to debility in the sense organs, aggravated Vata produces this symptom and is one of the Vataja nanatmaja vyadhi.6) Gatra peeda: Various type of pain is felt in different parts of the body due to Vata vriddhi, which in turn is due to Dhatu kshaya.7) Shoonakshi koota shotha and shtivana: They are the continuation sign fromPoorvaroopa stage. Kapha vriddhi producess Srotorodha and further becomesresponsible for Shoonakshi koota shotha8) Sheerna lomata: Asthi dhatu kshaya. 67
  • DISEASE REVIEW9) Hridrava: Vyana vayu , Sadhaka pitta and Avalambaka kapha are residents ofHridaya and along with Rakthavaha srotas are responsible for increased gati ofHridaya.10) Shwasa:(Arohana): Due to Dhatu kshaya and Dourbalya exertional dyspnoea isproduced. Even debility in the hridaya or pranavayu prakopa can also developShwasa.11) Bhrama:Vata-pitta-rajogunadhikya leading to various Dhatu kshaya like Majjaand Rakta will produce Bhrama.12) Annadwesha: Charaka mentioned both Annadwesha and Aruchi in Samanyalakshana. Sushruta mentions this in Upadrava stage and is caused due to Kaphavriddhi and Agnimandya.13) Gourava: Heavyness of body indicates Kapha and Amavriddhi , and one ofKaphaja nanatmaja vikara.14) Jwara: Indicates Pitta prakopa.15) Harita Varna: Indicates Pitta vriddhi.16) Hata prabhatwa: Pitta prakopa, Oja kshaya cause Prabha hani.17) Shwasa: In Samanya lakshana also, Shwasa is mentioned. There, it refers to Arohana Ayasa (exertional dyspnoea) i.e Kshudra Shwasa. But in Upadrava stage, it is severe state of Kshudra Shwasa or any other severe variety of Shwasa.Vishista Lakshana:  Vataja Pandu: Vata vriddhi produces various Vataja lakshanas of Panduroga like Krishna Panduta , Arunangata of body parts and various types of Shoola.  Pittaja Pandu: Pitta vriddhi produces various Pittaja presentations like Peetabhata, Haritabhata, Jwara.  Kaphaja Pandu: Kapha vriddhi produces various Kaphaja manifestations like Shuklavarnata, Gourava and Shwayathu.  Tridoshaja Pandu: Tridosha prakopa causes presentation of all the Tridoshaja lakshanas.  Mridbhakshanaja Pandu: Mridbhakshana causes Agnimandya, Roukshyata of body, Shotha, Dhatu dourbalya, Indriya-Teja-Bala-Oja-Virya kshaya and Krimi etc. 68
  • DISEASE REVIEW Madhavakara has considered Mridbhakshana as vyadhi hetu. Sushruta has considered this under Tridoshaja Pandu as Mridbhakshana produces Tridosha prakopa. Vishista Lakshana’s: The signs and symptoms specified to virulence of dosha are an important part of early diagnosis and rationale of treatment. Table 28 Showing Vishista Lakshana’s of Pandu.Sr.no. Vataja Pandu Pittaja Kaphaja Pandu Tridoshaja Mritbhakshana Pandu Pandu Janya Pandu 1. KrishnaPandutwa Peetabha Gourava Jwara Indriya bala hani 2. Ruksha angata Haritabha Tandra Arochaka Teja hani 3. Arunangata Jwara Chardhi Hrullasa Bala hani 4. Angamarda Daha Shewatavabhasata Vamana Ojo hani 5. Ruja Trushna Praseka Trushna Varna nasha 6. Aruna sira Moorcha Lomaharsha Bhrama Agni nasha pipasartha 7. Toda Peeta mootra Sada Tandra Shoona ganda 8. Kampa Peeta shakrut Moorcha Alasya Shoona akshi koota 9. Parshwa shoola Swedana Bhrama Shotha Shoona bhru 10. Shirashoola Sheeta Klama Kasa Shoona pada kamitva 11. Varcha shosha Naannam Shwasa Shosha Shoona nabhi abhinandathi 12. Asya vairasya Katukasya Kasa Vitbandha Shoona mehana 13. Shopha Anupashaya Alasya Parushata Krumi koshta 14. Anaha Ushna Aruchi Klama Atisara 15. Bala kshaya Amla Vatagraha Moha Mala with raktha 16. Krishna akshi Amla udgara Swasa graha Pandu 17. Krishna Sira Avanaddha Vidahata Shukla motra Tandra 18. Krishna Varnatwa Vidagdhata Shukla akshi Aruchi 19. Krishna mala Dourgandhya Shukla varcha Alasya 20. Krisha mootra Bhinna Katu kamatwam Kasa varcha 21. Krisha nakha Dourbalya Ruksha Swasa kamatwam 22. Krishna anana Tama Ushna kamatwam Shoola 23. Aruna sira Peetakshi Shwayatu Sada 24. Aruna nakha Peeta Sira Madhurasyatwa Mala with krimi Avanaddha 69
  • DISEASE REVIEWUPADRAVA The manifestation of another disease having the same origin of theprevious one and occuring in later part of the previous disease is Upadrava. Inclassics, Aupasargika rogas are also called Upadrava of the disease. The Upadravacan be mild or severe. Though the Upadrava is nullified by treating the main vyadhi, separatetreatment is required if it is Pradhana. Acharya Sushruta has documented Upadravasof Pandu Sometimes the Samanya lakshanas may get transformed into Upadrava withincrease in their severity. Aruchi, Pipasa, Jwara, Agnisada, Shopha, Murccha,Shwasa, Avipaka, Kasa, Sada also occur as the Samanya lakshanas of Pandu. Theirdifferentiation can only be done by considering the severity at manifestation and thetime of onset. SADHYA – ASADHYATA The lakshanas indicating the incurability of Panduroga are as follows:1) Chirotpanna- Disease Pandu of longer duration.2) Rukshata (Khaributa)- patient presenting with excessive dryness of the body.3) When the patient is afflicted with Shotha due to the Kalaprakarsha of the disease.4) When the Vit pravrutti is Alpa or Baddha.5) When the patient views everything as yellow.6) Atisara of Harita varna and Sakapha mala pravrutti is present.7) Deenata.8) When afflicted with Chardi, Murccha, Trushna.9) Pandu, Shwetavabhasa, due to Ati asruk kshaya.10) Shotha in Anta (extremities) and emaciation of the trunk.11) Shotha in trunk and wasting of Anta (extremities).12) Shotha in Guda pradesha, Shepha and Mushka.13) Tama pravesha.14) Sangnyahani.15) Jwara and Atisara.16) Panduta of Danta-nakha-netra and Pandudarshi.17) Mlanata, Indriya dourbalya, Tridoshaja Pandu rogi.18) Complications of Pandu are difficult to treat and cannot be treated. 70
  • DISEASE REVIEW ARISTA LAKSHANA The signs and symptoms indicating the occurrence of death in the near future arereferred to as arista lakshanas. There is no death with out the evolution of the aristalakshana. The Arista lakshana of the disease Pandu are,  Pandu varnaadhikyata.  Ati krisha.  Ati trishna.  Kupitha ucchwasa. Chikitsa Samanya pandu roga chikitsa includes,  Snehana  Vamana  Virechana  Shamana aushadhi sevana according to dosha involvement  Pathya palanaMrutbhakshana janya pandu chikitsa Acharya Charaka explains the treatment of this variety of pandu as, in order toremove the ingested mud possessing specific rasa, teekshna shodhana should be givenby assessing the bala of the patient with suitable drugs. After shodhana, agni and balavardhaka aushadha sidha ghrutha should be given.Shamana aushadhi Many herbal and mineral origin drugs are mentioned in the treatment of panduamong which pathya choorna along with madhu and ghruta stands as the mostcommonly mentioned yoga. 71
  • DISEASE REVIEW A few of the important yogas are listed below. Table 29 List of shamana yogas in pandu Sl.no Yoga 1) Navayasa choorna 2) Mandoora vataka 3) Punarnava mandooram 4) Dhatryavaleha 5) Dhatryarishta 6) Datri loha 7) Gaudorishta 8) Lohasava 9) Punarnavasava 10) Aystiladi modaka 11) Dadimadi ghruta 12) Phalatrikadi kwatha 13) Nisha loha 14) Draksha Grutha 15) Vyoshadya Ghrutha Pathyapathya Pathyapathya; - It comprises a list of various food articles and other regimens which are to be followed by a person suffering from pandu to get rid from the disease. The pathyaapathya of Pandu roga are as follows.Pathya:-A. Ahara: 1. Shuka dhanya varga - Purana Shali , Purana Yava , Godhuma 2. Shami dhanya varga - Mudga 3. Mamsa varga - Jangala Mamsa, Matsya. 4. Shaka varga - Patola, Kushmanda, Jeevanti, Bimbi, Punarnava, Nagakesara, Guduchi, Dronapushpi. 5. Phala varga - Badara phala , Abhaya ,Dhatri. 6. Ikshu varga - Ikshu Rasa 7. Gorasa varga - Takra , Ghrita , Navaneeta. 8. Mootra varga - Gomutra 9. Madya varga - Souviraka, Tushodaka. 72
  • DISEASE REVIEW 10. Kritanna Varga - Yusha. 11.Anya dravya - Haridra, Chandana, Yavakshara, Loha bhasma.B. Karma: Vamana., Virechana, Abhyanga.Apathya: It lists the food and othe factors which are to be avoided by the Pandu rogiso as to have a control over the disease.A. Ahara: 1. Rasa - Kshara, Amla, Katu, Lavana. 2.Anna - Viruddha bhojana, Asatmya bhojana. 3. Jala - Adhikambupana, Dushita jalapana. 4.Kritanna varga - Pinyaka. 5. Shamidhanya varga - Masha, Tila, Kulatha, Nishpava. 6. Sneha varga - Tila taila. 7. Gorasa varga - Dadhi masthu. 8. Madya varga - Saktu. 9. Ahara varga - Hingu, Tambula, Teekshnapadartha like Maricha, Vidahi padartha, Atyushna padartha. 10. Anya dravya - Mruttika.B. Vihara: Agni, Atapa atisevana, Adhika vyayama. Adhika vyavaya. Krodha. Adhika marga gamana.C. Karma: 1) Rakta Sruti. 2) Dhoomapana. 3) Swedana. 4) Vamana vega dharana. 73
  • MATERIALS & METHODS Section – 3 MATERIALS AND METHODSAims and Objectives: Pharmacognostic and Preliminary phytochemical study of Madhura Triphala. Evaluation of the Madhura Triphala for its Rakta Vardhaka property with respect to iron deficiency anaemia.Study design: Pharmacognostic study of Madhura Triphala is carried out on the basis of Organoleptic characters. Preliminary phytochemical study is carried out on the basis of chemical tests conducted for alkaloids, carbohydrates, proteins, steroids, saponins, tannins and Thin Layer Chromatography for qualitative analysis. Rakta Vardhaka property of Madhura Triphala is evaluated on patients suffering from mild to moderate iron deficiency anaemia.3.1. Plant material. The Fruits of the Draksha and Kharajura were collected from market and Ghambhari Fruits were collected from J.G. C. H. S A. M C herbal Garden. The Ghambhari Fruits were pounded well in Khalwa Yantra and sieved through number 100 sieve and Kalka was prepared from Draksha and Karjura followed by mixing of Churn and Kalka, Stir well to form homogenous mixture and used for the study.3.2. Pharmacognostical study: Macroscopic characters of Madhura Triphala, for the colour, odour, taste and shape are studied. 74
  • MATERIALS & METHODS3.3 Physical constantsAsh Values Total ash About 2 g of crude drug powder was accurately weighed in a tared silica dishpreviously ignited and weighed. Incinerated gradually by increasing the heat, notexceeding dull red heat, until free from carbon, cooled and weighed. The percentageof ash was calculated with reference to the air-dried drug.B) Acid-insoluble ash The ash was boiled for 10 minutes with 25 ml of dilute hydrochloric acid, andthe insoluble matter was collected in a gooch crucible. It was washed with hot water,ignited, and weighed. The percentage of acid-insoluble ash was calculated withreference to the air-dried drug.C) Water-soluble ash The total ash was boiled for 5 minutes with 25 ml of water. The insolublematter was collected in a gooch crucible. It was washed with hot water, ignited, andweighed. The percentage of water-soluble ash was calculated with reference to theair-dried drug. 75
  • MATERIALS & METHODS3.3 Chemical tests for detection of organic chemical constituents: Table 30: Showing Preliminary Phytochemical ScreeningSl. No Tests Criteria I. Test for alkaloids Dragendorff’s Test Orange brown precipitate Wagner’s test Reddish brown precipitate Hager’s Test Yellow precipitate Mayer’s Test Cream precipitate II. Test for Carbohydrates and Glycosides Molish’s test Purple to violet colour ring Fehlings solution Test Brick red precipitate III. Test for Phytosterols and Triterpenoids Liebermann’s Buchard’s Test Deep red colour Salkowski reaction Red colour IV. Tests for Proteins and Aminoacids Millon’s Test White precipitate turns red on heating Ninhydrin solution Test Violet colour VI. Test for Saponin Foam test 1 cm foam layer VII. Tests for Phenolic compounds and Tannins Ferric chloride solution Blue green colour 76
  • MATERIALS & METHODS CLINICAL STUDYMaterialsSelection of patients The patients of either sex suffering from Iron Deficiency Anaemia wererandomly selected from O.P.D. and I.P.D. of Shri J.G.Co-op. Ayurveda MedicalCollege, Hospital by considering inclusion and exclusion Criteria.Methods of collection of dataDiagnostic criteria Patients suffering from Mild to Moderate Anaemia were selected for clinicalstudy based upon following criteria. Inclusion criteria  Mild to moderate Anaemia.  Patients of either sex will be taken for study.  Patients of 16 – 60 years of age. Exclusion criteria  Patients with severe anemia  Patients suffering from systemic and dreadful diseases  Patients with congenital disorder related with Haemopeutic system.  Patients suffering with any infectious diseases like malaria.  Patients with Worm infestation. Plan of study  Medicine – Modakas of Madhura Triphala.  Dosage - 20gm / day (4 modakas) in two divided dose after food.  Duration - 4 weeks.  20 numbers of cases will be selected for the study of either sex. 77
  • MATERIALS & METHODSAssessment  Assessment will be done based on the Hb% and blood peripheral smear observed before and after the treatment.  The patients will be assessed during the treatment once in ten days for 1 month.  The results are compiled and subjected to Paired‘t’ test to ascertain statistical significance.Criteria for the assessment of symptoms: The improvements of patients were assessed on the basis of relief in the signs and symptoms of diseases and improvement in the Hb gms %. To analyze the efficacy of the drug, statistically marks were given to each symptom. According to severity of the symptoms the grading were given as below;Score of specific symptoms: Alaparaktata (Pandutva of Netra, Nakha): Absent 0 Present 1 Alpamedaska is compared with Exertional Dyspnoea: Absent 0 Felt at 20-30 steps 1 Felt at 10-20 steps 2 Felt within 10 steps 3 Nissara (Generalized weakness): Absent 0 Not affecting daily activities 1 Affecting daily activities 2 Felt continuous throughout the day 3 Shithilandriya (tiredness): Absent 0 Felt during work 1 Felt at rest 2 Felt throughout the day 3 78
  • MATERIALS & METHODS Gatrapida: Absent 0 Not affecting normal routines 1 Affecting normal routines 2 Activity reduced 3 Aruchi: Absent 0 Observed for 3-4 days/week/associated few days in a week 1 Observed for a week/associated for many days in a week 2 Observed for weeks together/associated more than week 3 Nidranasha: Absent 0 Felt sometimes but not often 1 Seen often for shorter duration 2 Seen continuous 3 The improvement is documented through statistical significance. Thesubjective and objective parameters are assessed by means of interrogationascertaining the signs and symptoms before and after the treatment and laboratoryinvestigation of Hb.Statistical Analysis: For assessing the improvement of symptomatic relief and to analyzestatistically the observations were recorded before and after the treatment. The mean,percentage, S.D, S.E, and t-value (paired t-test) were calculated and analysed.Criteria for assessment of overall effect of therapy: i) Complete relief: 100% relief in the complaints of patients along with Hb% above 10 gm%. ii) Marked improvement: More than 75% relief in the complaints as well as Hb% increased up to 10 gm%. iii) Moderate improvement: More than 50% relief in the complaints along Hb% increased up to 9 gm%. 79
  • MATERIALS & METHODS iv) Improvement: 25% to 50% relief in the complaints and light improvement in the Hb%. v) Unchanged: Less than 25% relief in the complaints and Hb% unchanged vi) Worsened;Haemoglobin estimation- Sahlis method- This is based on conversion of hemoglobin to acid haematin,which has a brown colour. N/10 HCl is added to Haemoglobin tube till 20 mark. Then20 µl of blood drawn from haemoglobin pipette is added and wait for 5-45min.During this time mixture of acid-blood in the tube is stirred often. Distilled water isadded drop by drop until match is obtained with the brown glass standard(comparator) provided. Read the lower level of the fluid meniscus on gm % 100ml ofblood.Blood film examination- A thin blood film is made by spreading a drop of blood evenly across a cleangrease free slide, using a smooth edge spreader. For anaemic blood a rapid smearing is needed where as for thick concentratedblood smearing should be done slowly. A well spread smear shows no lines extendingacross or downwards through the film and smear should be tongue shaped.Leishman’s stain is used for staining. And blood film is studied under the microscopeunder strict supervision by pathologist. 80
  • OBSERVATION Section - 4 OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS 4.1. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING Table No. 31 Showing results of qualitative chemical tests conducted.Sl.No Tests Results of Results of Results of Kharjura. Draksha. Gambhari. I. Test for alkaloids Dragendorff’s Test Positive Positive Positive Wagner’s test Positive Positive Positive Hager’s test Positive Positive Positive II. Test for Carbohydrates Molish’s test Positive Positive Positive Fehlings solution A & B Positive Positive PositiveIII. Test for Phytosterols Liebermann’s Buchard’s Test Negative Negative Negative IV. Tests for Proteins & Aminoacids Millon’s Test Positive Positive Negative Ninhydrin solutions Negative Negative Negative V. Test for Steroids Salkowski reaction Negative Negative Negative VI. Test for Saponin glycosides Foam test Negative Negative NegativeVII. Tests for Phenolic compounds and Tannins Ferric chloride solution Negative Positive Positive 81
  • OBSERVATION Table No. 32. Showing results of qualitative chemical tests conducted of Madhura Triphala. Sl.No Tests Results of Madhura Triphala I. Test for alkaloids Dragendorff’s Test Positive Wagner’s test Positive Hager’s test Positive II. Test for Carbohydrates Molish’s test Positive Fehlings solution A & B Positive III. Test for Phytosterols Liebermann’s Buchard’s Test Negative IV. Tests for Proteins & Aminoacids Millon’s Test Positive Ninhydrin solutions Negative V. Test for Steroids Salkowski reaction Negative VI. Test for Saponin glycosides Foam test Negative VII. Tests for Phenolic compounds and Tannins Ferric chloride solution NegativeTable no 33. Showing Physico-Chemical Evaluation of Madhura Triphala. Ash Value. Madhura Triphala. Total Ash 10.5% Acid insoluble 11.0% Water soluble 4.5% 82
  • OBSERVATIONPhoto No 7 Preparation of AshPhoto no 8.Ash of Madhura Triphala. 83
  • OBSERVATION Clinical Observation: The observations made during the study are as follows: Table No – 33/ Graph No 1 Showing status of patients registered under the study No of patient No of patient Registered Drop out Total Reg Drop 24 04 20Status of Patient: Total 24 patients were registered for the study out of which 4patients discontinued the treatment. Table No-34 / Graph No - 2 Showing age wise distribution Age No % Age Wise distribution Patient 10 50 15-30 15-30 31-45 05 25 31-45 46-60 05 25 46-60 84
  • OBSERVATIONAGE: Maximum number of patients in this study i.e., 50 % belonged to age group 15-30. Remaining 25% each were from 31-45 years and 46-60 years age group respectively. Table No – 35/ Graph No 3 Showing occupation of Patients Occupation No of % Occupation of patient patients 08 40 Student 05 25 studunt Agriculture agri housewife 04 20 other Housewife 03 15 OtherOCCUPATION: 40% were student, 25% were agriculture, 20%were housewife and 15% were other occupation. Table No-36 / Graph No 4 Showing socio-economic status Socio- No of % economic Patients Socioecononic status status 12 60.00 Poor 08 40.00 poor Middle middle class class 00 00.00 RichSOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS: Socio-economic status of 60% patients to be poor and40% belonging to the middle class. None are higher class. 85
  • OBSERVATION Table - 37/ Graph No 5 Showing sex wise distribution Sex wise distribution No of Sex % patients Male 8 40.00 male female Female 12 60.00Mainly in this study 60% female and 40% male patients were observed. Table No – 38 / Graph No 6 Showing diet of patients No of Diet of patient Diet % patients veg Vegetarian 14 70.00 mixed Mixed 06 30.00DIET: 70% patients had vegetarian diet while 30% patients were mixed diet. 86
  • OBSERVATIONTable 39/ GraphNo. 7: Showing the incidence of symptoms seen inpatients selected for the study Symptoms Incidence Percentage Alparaktata 11 55 % Alpamedaska 09 45% Nissara 09 45% Shithilendriya 17 85% Gatrapida 20 100% Aruchi 19 95% Nidranasha 16 80% Incidence of symptoms 25 Number of patients 20 15 Incidence 10 5 0 a da ra a hi ka a sh r iy at uc sa pi as kt na nd Ar ra s ed ra Ni ra ile at pa m d G ith pa Ni Al Sh Al Symptoms 87
  • OBSERVATION RESULTS The results obtained from the study conducted are presented as followsSubjective criteria: Cardinal Symptoms:Alaparaktata : The mean score of Alparaktata was 1.600 before treatment and it reduced to0.850 after the treatment which is statistically significant (P <0.010) Table no 40 and Graph no 8 Presenting change in Alaparaktata. Mean Difference in Means Paired ‘t’ Test BT(±SD) AT(±SD) S.D. S.E.M ‘t’ P 0.55 0.25 0.300 0.470 0.105 2.854 0.010 (0.510) (0.444) 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 Alaparakta 0.2 0.1 0 BT ATAlpamedaska : The mean score of Alpamedaska was 0.85 before treatment and it reduced to0.45 after the treatment which is statistically significant (P <0.088) Table no 41 and Graph no 9 presenting change in Alpamedaska. Mean Difference Paired ‘t’ Test BT(±SD) AT(±SD) in Means S.D. S.E.M ‘t’ P 0.85 0.45 0.400 0.995 0.222 1.798 0.088 (1.137) (0.759) 88
  • OBSERVATION 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 Alpamedaska 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 BT ATNissara : The mean score of Nissara was 0.85 before treatment and it reduced to 0.55afterthe treatment which is statistically significant (P <0.010) Table no 42 and Graph no 10 presenting change in Nisaar Mean Difference Paired ‘t’ Test BT(±SD) AT(±SD) in Means S.D. S.E.M ‘t’ P 0.85 0.55 0.300 0.470 0.105 2.854 0.010 (1.137) (0.826) 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 nisaar 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 BT AT 89
  • OBSERVATIONShitilandriya : The mean score of Shitilandriya was 1.25 before treatment and it reduced to0.70 after the treatment which is extremely statistically significant (P <0.000) Table no 43 and Graph no 11 Presenting change in Shitilandrya. Mean Difference in Paired ‘t’ Test BT(±SD) AT(±SD) Means S.D. S.E.M ‘t’ P 1.25 0.70 0.550 0.510 0.114 4.819 0.000 (0.910) (0.733) 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 Shitilandrya 0.4 0.2 0 BT ATGatrapida : The mean score of Gatrapida was 1.55 before treatment and it reduced to 0.80after the treatment which is extremely statistically significant (P <0.000) Table no 44 and Graph no 12 Presenting change in Gatrapida. Mean Difference in Paired ‘t’ Test BT(±SD) AT(±SD) Means S.D. S.E.M ‘t’ P 1.55 0.80 0.750 0.550 0.123 6.097 0.000 (0.759) (0.696) 90
  • OBSERVATION 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 Gatrapida 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 BT ATAruchi : The mean score of Aruchi was 1.95 before treatment and it reduced to 1.05after the treatment which is extremely statistically significant (P <0.000) Table no 45 and Graph no 13 Presenting change in Aruchi. Mean Difference Paired ‘t’ Test BT(±SD) AT(±SD) in Means S.D. S.E.M ‘t’ P 1.95 1.05 0.900 0.447 0.100 9.000 0.000 (0.826) (0.686) 2 1.5 1 Aruchi 0.5 0 BT AT 91
  • OBSERVATIONNidranasha : The mean score of Nidranasha was 1.60 before treatment and it reduced to 0.75after the treatment which is extremely statistically significant (P <0.000) Table no 46 and Graph no 14 Presenting change in Nidranasha. Mean Difference Paired ‘t’ Test BT(±SD) AT(±SD) in Means S.D. S.E.M ‘t’ P 1.60 0.75 0.850 0.671 0.150 5.667 0.000 (1.095) (0639) 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 Nidranasha 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 BT ATSummary of mean difference of subjective parameters: Table no.47 Showing mean difference of subjective parameters Sl.No. Subjective Symptoms Before Treatment After Treatment 1. Alparaktata 0.55 0.25 2. Alpamedaska 0.85 0.45 3. Nissara 0.85 0.55 4. Shithilendriya 1.25 0.70 5. Gatrapida 1.55 0.80 6. Aruchi. 1.95 1.05 7. Nidranasha 1.60 0.75 92
  • OBSERVATION Graph No.15 Showing mean difference of subjective parameters Mean Differance of Subjective Parameters 2.5 Mean Differance 2 1.5 BT 1 AT 0.5 0 a da ra a ka a . hi sh r iy at sa pi as uc kt na nd ra s Ar ed ra Ni ra ile at pa m d G ith pa Ni Al Sh Al Subjective ParametersObjective criteria:Haemoglobin %: The mean score of Hemoglobin % was 8.72 before treatment and it improvedto 9.180 after the treatment which is extremely statistically significant (P <0.001) Table no 48 and Graph no 16 Presenting change in Haemoglobin % Mean Difference in Paired ‘t’ Test BT(±SD) AT(±SD) Means S.D. S.E.M ‘t’ P 8.72 9.180 0.2033 0.0455 10.282 0.001 (0.185) (0.8624) 0.4650 9.2 9.1 9 8.9 8.8 H ae moglobin 8.7 8.6 8.5 8.4 BT AT 93
  • DISCUSSION DISCUSSION Pandu roga is caused due to Nidanas such as Mithya Ahara-Vihara(table no.26) that result ultimately the Kuposhana. Alaparaktata and Alapamedska,Nissara, Shithilendriya are the Pratyatma lakshanas. The other associated symptomsdue to dosha-dushya sammurchana are like Agnimandya, Alasya, Angamarda,Anaha, Trishna, Tandra, Gatrashoola and signs like Panduta, Rukshata, Shotha, etcwhich correlates with the symptoms of nutritional deficiency anemia especially theIron deficiency anemia. The prevalence of this disease is very high in the developing countrieslike India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka due to the poverty, malnutrition, recurrentpregnancy and poor antenatal care. In both these comparable disease conditions theprime factor affected is Rakta which is essential for a variety of vital physiologicalactivities like nutrition transport, waste removal, oxygen carrying, thermoregulationetc. That’s our ancient acharyas have mentioned its prime function as Jeevana.Discussion on Phytochemical analysis: Preliminary phyto chemical analysis of all three drugs showed that (Table No.31) the drug gives positive result for qualitative analysis for alkaloids,carbohydrates (reducing and not reducing) and glycosides, proteins. The drugDraksha has shown presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates and glycosides, proteinsand phenolic compounds and tannins. Similarly the drug Gambhari fruit showed thepresence of alkaloids, carbohydrates and glycosides. These findings are similar withthe chemical constituents mentioned in API. On the same way these qualitative testswere also conducted for the combination Madhura triphala that shows the presenceof alkaloids, carbohydrates, proteins. Thus it can be said that the madhura triphala isprakruti sama samavaya combination chemically also. Physico- Chemical evaluation (Table no 33) carried out shows Total Ashvalue 10.5%, Acid insoluble 11.0%, Water soluble 4.5%. TLC was also tried for all the constituents of Madhura Triphala. Incidentallyextract of any drug was not used for the study hence we could not get differentbands on TLC plates as they contain complex principles in them. The samehappened for the Madhura triphala. 94
  • DISCUSSION Discussion on plan of study: Single blind clinical study has been carried out on 20 patients selected from the OPD and IPD of Shri J G C H S Ayurvedic Medical College Hospital Ghataprabha.Discussion on observations during study: Incidence studies of the entire registered patient are as follows –  Age incidence: (Table No.34) Maximum numbers of patients in the study were in between the age 15 to 45 (75%) years and 46 to 60 (25%) years. This may be because of early years of menstruation, pregnancy, lactation and excessive physical strain, pre menopausal stage (where there is irregular and excessive menstruation) respectively.  Sex incidence: (Table no 37) Maximum patients were females nearly about 60%; menstruating females require double the quantity of dietary iron supplement than the non-menstruating. This may be the probable cause for maximum prevalence among the females.  Occupational incidence: (Table no 35) Patients were House wives about 20% followed by 40% students, 25% agricultures and rest of other professionals etc.  Socio-economical incidence: (Table no 36) It was observed that the poor class and lower middle class shared more percentage i.e. 95%. Lack of proper hygienic food and nutritive value may be the prime factor in causation of the disease.  Marital incidence: About Marital status, 50% were married and 50% were unmarried. Married female patients were suffering from Pandu roga, probably due to recurrent pregnancy and lactation. 50% of unmarried were also sufferers may be due to malnutrition and worm infestation.  Dietary incidence: (Table no 38) Detail questioning was done during the clinical study and observed that patients suffered from Pandu roga were vegetarians (70% were vegetarians and 30% were mixed diet). Their food mainly comprised of less calorie vegetables and patients had the habit of taking Amla, Katu Pradhana rasas. Most patients had habit of taking fried food items and were from the lower class those consume less hygienic, staled and less nutritious diet which could probably be a significant cause. 95
  • DISCUSSIONSymptomatological incidence (Table No. 39) “xÉÉåÿsmÉU£üÉåÿsmÉqÉåSxMüÉå ÌlÉ:xÉÉU: ÍzÉÍjÉsÉåÎlSìrÉ:| uÉæuÉhrÉïÇ pÉeÉiÉå”- || cÉ ÍcÉ (16/6) Majority of the cases had the samanya lakshana of Pandu mentioned in Charaka samhita. 1. Alparaktata (Panduta) – Pallor was seen in 55% of patients subjected for the study and was seen in the nails, eye and skin. 2. Alpamadaska- Mainly Balahani, one of the main symptoms, usually felt by patient even after a mild exertion, or by walking a small distance (Arohanayasa). It was found in 45 % of cases. 3. Nissara – the mainly reduction of Snehansh and Oja in the body. i.e. dryness (Rukshata), Krushata, Ashtavidhasara kshaya. This is also seen in 45 % of cases. 4. Shithilendriya – It was presented as weakness in the normal functions of Indriyas. E.g. Patients complaining inability to hear sound; feeling exhaustion with less speak also; irritability indicating loss of enthusiasm with respect to ones Manas; thus it were interrupting their daily routines. It was seen most of the cases i.e. 85 %. This may be the initial change due to malnutrition so seen in many cases. 5. Gatrapida- Generalized body ache is seen all patients (100 %). 6. Aruchi- Loss of appetite is seen in 95 % of cases. 7. Nidranasha – Loss of sleep is seen in 80 % of cases. This might be as a result of Vatavruddhi due to lack of nutrition to Dhatus.Effect of treatment: The medicine Madhura Triphala was planned for 30 days on patients attendedO.PD and I.P.D of Shri.J.G.C.H’S Ayurvedic Medical College Hospital, Ghataprabha,and its treatment effect was assessed both clinically as well as on laboratoryparameters. Initially, as it seen evident that helminthiasis is the leading cause of irondeficiency anemia a single dose of antiheliminthic drug Albendazole 400 mg wasgiven to the patients before starting the treatment.The Drug never presented with any sort of adverse effect during the study period. Therelief obtained in 20 patients in subjective and objective symptoms is listed below- 96
  • DISCUSSION  Hb gm %: The objective symptom i.e. Hb% also showed a significant change with value of p <0.001 which is at extremely statistically significant level.  Peripheral smear: in these not significant changes have been noted in mild to moderate anemia. Very few cases have minute changes in peripheral smear that is negligible after treatment alsoThe subjective symptoms are also analyzed by statistically they are as below:  Alaparaktata- clinically it correlates with the paleness of Nakha, Netra, and Twacha. The mean score of Alparaktata was 1.600 before treatment and it reduced to 0.850 after the treatment which is statistically significant (P <0.010). It is statistically significant at p < 0. 010 level.  Alpamedska- Clinically it correlates with the exertional dyspnoea. Mean score before treatment was 0.85 and after treatment is will 0.45 which is statistically significant p< 0.088 level.  Nissara- Clinically it correlates with Genaralised weakness. The mean score of Nissara was 0.85 before treatment and it reduced to 0.55after the treatment which is statistically significant (P <0.010), which is also statistically significant at p< 0.010 level.  Shitilandriya- The mean score of Shitilandriya before treatment it was 1.25 and after treatment it is 0.70 so it statistically extremely significant at the level of p < 0.00  Gatrpida- The mean score of Gatrapida was 1.55 before treatment and it reduced to 0.80 after the treatment which is extremely statistically significant (P <0.000).  Aruchi- The detail questioning asked to the patient and proper history taken regarding the Aruchi. The mean score before treatment it was 1.95 and after treatment it is 1.05 so it also statistically extremely significant at p <0.00 level.  Nidranasha- it also one of the symptom observed during study, the mean score before treatment it was 1.60 and after treatment it will 0.75, it also statistically extremely significant at p < 0.00 level. Thus the study conducted on 20 patients of iron deficiency anaemia is statistically significant. Hence the Madhura triphala is effective in improving the 97
  • DISCUSSION Hb % after one month of treatment and also effective in relieving the symptoms of the same. Thus has got significant Bruhmana property.Probable mode of action of Madhuratriphala : Madhuratriphala is the combination of equal parts of fruits of Draksha,Kharjura, and Gambhari. Raj nighantukar is the first to mention these three fruitstogether under the heading of Madhura triphala. These thee drugs are having Madhurarasa, Madhura vipaka, and Sheeta virya. Hence it is the ‘Prakruti Sam Samavya’(mÉëM×üiÉÏ xÉqÉ xÉqÉuÉÉrÉ) combination and has the effects of Madhura Rasa such as Balya,Barumhana, Rasayana, Medhya, Kshayahara, Ksramahara, Raktaprasadana, etc.Kalka of Draksha (Manuka), Kharjura and Ghambhari fruit each 10 gm weight weremixed together and modakas of 5 gms each were prepared. Ghruta was used duringpreparation of Kalka and Modaka just to ease the process.Draksha (Manuka)- It having Snigdha, Guru and Mrudhu Guna, Madhura Rasa andVipaka, Shita virya; due to these properties it acts as a Jivaniya, Bruhana, Balya,Raktaprasadana, Medhya, Snehana, Vatapittashamaka and Raktapittshamaka,Rasayana. So it is mainly indicated in Pitta pradhana vyadhis such as in Pandu,Madatya, Kamala, Udavarta, Trushana, Shukra-dourbalya,etc. Rakta and Pitta having the Ashrayashrayi relation with each other gotmutually vitiated in Panda. Draksha, by virtue of its Madhura rasa, Sheeta veerya andthe Madhura vipaka acts as Pitta shamaka, Rakta prasadana, Rakta-Pittahara and alsoRasayana means it increases the quality of dhatus especially Rasa-Rakta and hencehelps in curing the Pandu Roga. Apart from that – fruit contains sugar, gum, tartaricacid, citric acid, racimic and malic acid, magnesium, iron, some albumin. Raisincontains calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus and iron in an assimilable form;besides gum and sugar. Thus are recommended in certain forms of anaemia andwasting disease.Ghambhari (fruit) - It is having Madhura Rasa, Madhura Vipaka and Sheeta Virya.It is having Deepana, Anuloman, Raktapiitashamak, Balya, Rasayana, Tridoshaharaproperties. So its use is effectively seen in condition of Pandu, Kshaya, Vatarakta,Arsha, Sheetapitta, Raktakshaya, Hridroga, Bhrama. Etc. Its chemical composition are Gmelofuran-a, furanosesquiterpenoid,ssquiterpene, cerylalcohol, hentriacontanol-1, b-sitosterol, n- octacosanol, gmelinol,apiosylskimmin-a, apiofuranodyl (1.0.7)- umbelliferone (root); cluytyl ferulate, n- 98
  • DISCUSSIONoctacosanol, gmelanone, arborial, 2-0- methyal arboreol, 2-0- ethyal arboreol,isoarboreol, 4- hydroxysesamin, 1,4- dihydroxysesamin (gummsdiol), 2- piperonyl-3-(hydroxymethyl)-4 (~hydroxy-3-,4methylenedioxybenzyl) -4-hydroxytetrahydroxyfluron (I) 4-epigummadiol-4-glucoside, 1,4-dihydroxy -2, 6-dipiperonyl-3, 7-dioxybicyclo [3,3,0] –octane, gmelanone, palmitic, oleic and linoleicacids, stigmastirol, stigmastinol, campesterol, ~-2-stostirol, butulinol(hertwood)luteilin, apigenin, quercetin, hentriacontanol, b-sitosterol, quercetogenin and otherflavons (leaf). Thus the drug Gambhari having the more amino acids is there morenutritive value so it will be used for the anaemia.Kharjura – It also is having the Madhura, Kashaya Rasa, Snigdha, Guru Gunas,Shita Virya and Madhura Vipaka properties. It is Bruhana, Balya, Vrusya,Vatapittahara, Rasayana, Hrudya, Tarpana, due to this it will be used in Raktapitta,Kshaya, Shrama, Agnimandya, Aruchi, etc. apart from these Kharjura is also well-known for its nutritious properties as it contains highly protein 1.2%, fat 0.4%,Carbohydrates 33.8%, Fibers 3.7%, mineral matter 1.7%, calcium 0.22%, thiamine0.11%, riboflavin 0.023%. So these all factors are helpful to treat the anaemia. Thus this Prakrutisamasamavaya- Madhura triphala that contains equal partsof fruits of Draksha, Gambhari and Kharjura has the same properties of all the drugsin it. Its properties after this study can be inferred as Madhura Rasa, Madhura Vipakaand Shita Virya. and also Vata hara, Pitthara, Bruhmana, Balya, Vedanasthapana,Angamardaprashamana, Raktadhatu prasadaka etc. Thus the disease iron deficiencyanaemia (Pandu) where in Rakta dhatu kshaya and Pitta dushti is seen, Madhuratriphala by virtue of its above said properties acts as Vyadhiviparita for the disease.And also its nutritious properties that are confirmed by the presence of Carbohydratesand glycosides, Proteins and aminoacids by the qualitative analysis of the study, inthis sense also it can be taken as well nutritive supplement in nutritional deficiencyand specially iron deficiency anaemia. 99
  • CONCLUSION CONCLUSION After thorough analysis of the classical text and modern science information,and some of its understanding in clinical study, the probable outcome was that themajority of the symptoms of Panduroga have similarity with the features of Irondeficiency anaemia, and iron deficiency anaemia is one such disorder existing world widewith varied percentage.  Females are mostly affected by Panduroga than males.  Martial status, religion, Social status bear no relation in causation of Panduroga.  Contributory factors are mainly related with Pitta and Rakta vitiation  The study reveals dominancy of Pitta Dosha, Rakta Dhatu Dusti, Rasavaha and Rakthavaha Srotodushti in the pathogenesis of Panduroga.  Sedentary life style, and fault dietary habits are main contributing factors in the establishment of the disease. Tendency towards sedentary life style and faulty dietary habits, leads to vitiation of Pitta and Rakta leading to Panduroga.  Panduroga is a disease characterized by Pandutva, Alaprakta, Alapamedaska, Nissara, Shitilandrya, Dourbalya and Rukshtva of the body.  The results obtained during the study conclude that the Madhuratriphala has good results in relief of the symptoms like Pandutva, Daurbalya, Shitilandriya, Nissara, and Aruchi.  It was effective in increasing the Hemoglobin percentage although in slower rate. The mean difference in Hb% was 0.4650 with P < 0.001 which is statistically significant.  The present study was carried on small sample for a partial period and it showed results. However further study is necessary including large sample to draw valid conclusions and for the same, this study provides a base and hope. 100
  • Summary Summary The study on dissertation entitled “A Clinical Evaluation of Madhura-Triphala in the Management of Iron deficiency Anaemia” has found clinicalefficacy of Madhura-Triphala on the patients of Pandu. This study comprises ofdifferent topics and is discussed under various headings. Introduction: It also enlists general information and nomenclature of disease Anaemia, its historical importance, first use of the word and importance of the study on iron deficiency anemia. Objectives: The main aim and objectives of the study has been mentioned. Review of literature: This section comprises of extensive collection of data wise, about Etymology, Definition, Classification, Nidana, Poorvaroopa, Roopa, Samprapti, Sadhya-asadhyata, Upadrava, and Chikitsa along with Pathya-apathya of the disease. The explaination of Anaemia in terms of modern science has been dealt in short. Methodology: Clinical study – A single blind clinical study with inclusion and exclusion criteria, criteria for assessment of signs and symptoms, dose, and duration of the study have been highlighted. Observational study – A complete sketch on the division of the patients according to age, sex, economical status, diet, habits, marital status, educational status has been explained. Results: The data obtained from the study are analyzed for result and un paired T test conducted shows significant work. In the present study no patient complained about any adverse effects of the medicine through out the course. Discussion: Under this title, concise explaination of the entire study is presented. And also results obtained from this study have been discussed. The probable mode of action of the Madhura Triphala in the management of Pandu roga is described. Conclusion: In this section the conclusion of the above study is done by highlighting the outcome of the study along with its own limitations. Future scope for the study has been highlighted. 101
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  • DEPT OF P. G STUDIES IN DRAVYAGUNA J.G.C.H.S’s AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE AND RESEARCH CENTRE. GHATAPRABHA. CASE PROFORMA “A CLINICAL EVALUATION OF MADHURA-TRIPHALA IN THE MANAGEMNET OF IRON DEFICIENCY ANAEMIA”Name:Age : OPD no: Case no:Occupation: Date:Address: Religion:Chief Complaints and duration:History of present illness:History of past illness:Family history:Personal history:A. Personal habits:1. Appetite: 2. Bowel: R/IR Constipated/Loose stool3. Diet: Vegetarian/Mixed 4. Micturation:5. Sleep:B. Occupational historyC. Treatment history
  • General examination: a) Pulse: f) Gait: b) Temp: g) Clubbing: c) Respiratory rate: h) Pallor: d) B.P.: i) Cyanosis: e) BuiltSystemic examination: 1) Cardiovascular system: 2) Respiratory system: 3) Central nervous system: 4) Gastro-intestinal tract:Dasha vidha pariksha  Prakruti  Vikruti  Sara  Samhanan  Pramana  Satmya  Satwa  Aahar shakti  Vyayam shakti  VayaInvestigations: Hb % Peripheral smear:
  • Diagnosis:Treatment:Follow Up Days SYMPTOMS REMARKS 0 10th 20th 30thHb%Peripheral smear:Result:  Good  Moderate  Mild Sign of guide, Sign of co-guide Sign of scholar
  • CONSENT FORMI S/D/W of agedAddress am under the treatment of Dr. do hereby give the consent to treatment of disease upon myself.The nature and the purpose of treatment have been explained to me by Dr.I declare that I am more than 18 years of age.I have been informed about untoward effects if any, involved in the treatment. Noassurance has been given to me regarding the success of the treatment. I have given thisconsent voluntarily out of my free will without any pressure.Place:Date & time: Signature Patient I here by declare that I have explained in detail regarding the case to the patient andanswered queries to his satisfaction in a language that he could understand. Place:Date & time: Signature of Doctor