“PREPARATION, PHYSICO- CHEMICAL ANALYSIS ANDCOMPARITIVE EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF TAMRA BHASMA  AND SOMANATHIYA TAMRA BHASMA w...
Rajiv Gandhi University Of Health Sciences, Karnataka,                              Bangalore.                    DECLARAT...
SHRI D. G. MELMALAGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE,      POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA.                        CERTI...
SHRI D. G. MELMALAGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE,        POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA.                 CERTIFICAT...
ENDORSEMENT BY THE H.O.D AND PRINCIPAL OF                                  THE INSTITUTIONThis is to certify that the diss...
COPYRIGHT                        Declaration by the candidate        I hereby declare that the Rajiv Gandhi University of ...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT        I salute to Lord Gavisiddeshwara and His Holiness Shri AbhinavGavisiddeshwara Swamiji to have besto...
With pleasure I extend my sincere gratitude to Dr S.D. Yarageri RMO, Smt P.K.Belwadi, Smt Sarangmath, Tippanagoudar, Birad...
ABBREVIATIONS1. A.P          Ayurveda Prakasha2. B.P.         Bhava Prakasha3. B.R          Bhaishaja Ratnavali4. Dh.N.   ...
ABSTRACT       Rasoushadihis are unique formulations, which are easily administered,assimilated and absorbed in the body a...
02. Review of Literature        It is based on the description of Ayurveda texts & also modern,pharmacotherapeutic propert...
ContentsSl No Index                       Page No 1    Introduction                  1-3 2    Aims and Objectives         ...
LIST OF TABLESSl                           Tables                             Page N0No01   Paryayas of Tamra             ...
43      Showing the comparison of effect of toxic group with treated     137            groups (By means of t values)LIST ...
Introduction                                 INTRODUCTION       Research is a scientific and unbiased study, investigation...
Introductionaccording to their physical and chemical characters. By the process of Marana byusingputa paka metals and mine...
Introductiondegenerative diseases of liver.inspite of tremendous scientific advancement in thefiled of hepatology the mode...
ObjectivesAims and Objectives   1) Samanya Shodhana of Tamra.   2) Vishesha Shodhana of Tamra.   3) Preparation of Tamra B...
Review of Literature                            HISTOLOGICAL REVIEW       As a matter of fact, research is a continous pro...
Review of LiteratureDharma Sutra:   •   Tamra is considered as Pavitra.   •   Gautamadi Rishis made a rule for Yajna that ...
Review of Literature   •   As Rasanjana to increase Dristi Bala etc. Sh. Su 18/85 also other references of       Tamra in ...
Review of LiteratureTamra is not very clear, but they have mentioned about the Bhasma in the textsuggests they knew the te...
Review of Literature2600 and 2200 B.C. which records the use of copper to sterilize chest wounds and tosterilize drinking ...
Drug Review                                  DRUG REVIEWTamrotpatti   •   According to Ayurveda Tamra is considered as Shu...
Drug ReviewTable No-1. Paryayas of Tamra2-9:Sl.No      Name                  R.K. R.           R.T   R.J.    A.P.   Dh R  ...
Drug ReviewTable No. 1 Continued29      Raktadhatuhu                                  +30      Raktadhatukam           +  ...
Drug ReviewVividha Bhasha Nama10-11   1. English – Copper   2. Kannada – Tamra, Tambra   3. Konkani – Tambe   4. Gujarati ...
Drug Reviewdomestic production of copper metal continued to remain much short of requirementin the country.     The HCL pr...
Drug ReviewRasapanchakas of TamraTable No-2 Rasa of Tamra14-23Sl.No. References                 Madhura Amla Lavana Katu T...
Drug ReviewTable No-5 Vipaka of Tamra41-48Sl.No     Vipaka          Reference01        Madhura         Rasendra Chudamani,...
Drug Review   •   Mridu suggests that the metal is soft.   •   Shonam suggests the appearance of copper like Rakta ie., Ja...
Drug ReviewTable No-7.Ashuddha Tamra Doshas60-70Sl.    Doshas           A.P    R YR        RC    BP     R    R   BR     RS...
Drug Review       Also in few contexts of the various texts Tamra is explained as Visha or evenmore than a Visha. Hencefor...
Drug ReviewTable No-8. Vishesha shodhana of Tamra        Reference                       Drugs                            ...
Drug ReviewTable No. 8 ContinuedRasa Kaumudi 3/2              Amla       Kshara,     Snuhi Agni Pratapta and Nimajjana    ...
Drug Review       Table No. 9 Continued       3           Amlam                      19        Surana swarasa       4     ...
Drug Review                       Tamra bhasma vimarsha                              Vanaspati yukta                      ...
Drug Reviewgandhaka after mardhana made into a ball. Then apply a paste of meenakshi, changeri,punarva then a ball kept in...
Drug Review9) Anagni vidhi83       Kantaka vedhi Tamra patra’s are incinerated, if they are smeared with kajjalirubbed wit...
Drug Reviewalmost all authors are same suggests that the raw drugs are same almost andindications are same so even variati...
Drug Review2) Valuka yantra Vidhi93       Kajjali is to be prepared by doing mardana of 1 part shodhita Parade, 1 partshod...
Drug Review1) According to Rasa Tarangini97        Tamra Bhasma 1 part and Shudha Gandhaka ½ part are taken & both aremixe...
Drug ReviewUpayoga104: Kapha pitta nashaka, Udara roga, Kusta, Meha, Amadhosha, Yakrutpleha roga, Shoola, parinam shoola, ...
Drug ReviewPhysical properties106      i. Colour: Copper is a red coloured shining metal      ii. Specific gravity is - 8....
Drug Reviewplaces, a basic sulphate – CuSO4 – 3Cu (OH)2, while near the sea this is accompaniedby a basic chloride – CuCl2...
Drug ReviewExtraction109The actual operation is carried out in stages:   1) Concentration of the ore by flotation   2) Roa...
Drug ReviewII) Transport of absorbed CopperCopper doesnot float through blood stream as a lone copper. But it is carried b...
Drug Review   drinking water in America to destroy bacilli & alage. A solution of copper   sulphate mixed with slaked lime...
Drug ReviewVirya           : UshnaVipaka          : MadhuraKarma           : Agnidipana, hrudyaDosha           : Kaphavata...
Drug ReviewVipaka          : AmlaDosha Karma : Vata and Kapha shamakaKarma         : Rochana Pachana, Deepana,5.Kulaththa1...
Drug ReviewRasapanchakasRasa           : Amla, KatuGuna           : Laghu, TikshanaVirya          : UshnaVipaka         : ...
Drug Review1. Parada       Parada is the most important and foremost ingredient of compounds ofRasashastra, without which ...
Drug ReviewTable No 11 Bheda of Paryayas on the basis of Roopa, Guna, Utpatti121. Sl No    Swaroopa                       ...
Drug ReviewParada Bheda122,123         The varieties of Parada described in different text are based on the 2 factors     ...
Drug Review                           Doshas of ParadaNaisargika Doshas              Yougika Doshas                       ...
Drug ReviewVishesh Shodhana of Parada      Specific process of shodhana done is to remove specific doshas separately isVis...
Drug Reviewslight bluish tinge. In thin films, it transmits violet lit. (Dict of Applied chemistry volIV page No 270).Rasa...
Drug ReviewParada Apathya134Ahara          Ateemadhyapana,Bhojana,Shayana,Ratrijagarana,Krodha,Kakarashtakagana,Pittavardh...
Drug Review              State                     -- Metal in liquid form.              Melting point             --    -...
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preparation, physico- chemical analysis and comparitive experimental study of tamra bhasma and somanathiya tamra bhasma w.s.r. To hepato protective activity - dr. Rudrakshi p. Devaragudi, Department of rasashastra, Post graduate studies and research center, Shri D. G. Melmalagi Ayurvedic Medical College, Gadag

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  1. 1. “PREPARATION, PHYSICO- CHEMICAL ANALYSIS ANDCOMPARITIVE EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF TAMRA BHASMA AND SOMANATHIYA TAMRA BHASMA w.s.r. TO HEPATO PROTECTIVE ACTIVITY” BY DR. RUDRAKSHI P. DEVARAGUDI Dissertation Submitted to the Rajiv Gandhi University Of Health Sciences, Karnataka, Bangalore. In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of AYURVEDA VACHASPATI (DOCTOR OF MEDICINE) IN RASASHASTRA Under the guidance of Dr. M.C. PATIL M.D.(Ayu) Professor & HOD Dept. of Rasashastra and Co-guidance of Dr. JAGADEESH G. MITTI, M.D. (Ayu), Lecturer, P.G.Dept. of Rasashastra POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA D.G M. AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE AND RESEARCH CENTER, GADAG – 582103 2007RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, KARNATAKA, BANGALORE
  2. 2. Rajiv Gandhi University Of Health Sciences, Karnataka, Bangalore. DECLARATION BY THE CANDIDATE I here by declare that this dissertation / thesis entitled “Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis and Comparitive Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma andSomanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepato Protective Activity” is a bonafide andgenuine research work carried out by me under the guidance of Dr.M.C. Patil,M.D.(Ayu), (Rasashastra), Professor & HOD, Post graduate department of Rasashastraand under the Co-guidance of Dr. Jagadeesh.G. Mitti, M.D. (Rasashastra). Lecturer,Post graduate department of Rasashastra.Date:Place: Gadag. Dr.Rudrakshi P. Devaravugudi
  3. 3. SHRI D. G. MELMALAGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA. CERTIFICATE BY THE GUIDE This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis and Comparitive Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma andSomanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepato Protective Activity” is a bonafideresearch work done by Dr. Rudrakshi P. Devaravugudi. in partial fulfillment of therequirement for the degree of Ayurveda Vachaspathi. M.D (Rasashastra).Date:Place: Gadag. Guide Dr. M.C. PATIL M.D.(Ayu) Professor & HOD Dept. of Rasashastra, Post Graduate Research Center D.G.A.M.C. Gadag
  4. 4. SHRI D. G. MELMALAGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA. CERTIFICATE BY THE Co - GUIDE This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis and Comparitive Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma andSomanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepato Protective Activity” is a bonafideresearch work done by Dr. Rudrakshi P. Devaravugudi. in partial fulfillment of therequirement for the degree of Ayurveda Vachaspathi. M.D (Rasashastra).Date: Co GuidePlace: Gadag. Dr. Jagadeesh G. Mitti, M.D. (Rasashastra). Lecturer, Postgraduate department of Rasashastra.
  5. 5. ENDORSEMENT BY THE H.O.D AND PRINCIPAL OF THE INSTITUTIONThis is to certify that the dissertation entitled “Preparation, Physico- ChemicalAnalysis and Comparitive Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and SomanathiyaTamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepato Protective Activity” is a bonafide research workdone by Dr. Rudrakshi P. Devaravugudi. under the guidance of DR. M.C. PatilM.D. (Rasashastra), Professor & H.O.D, Postgraduate department of Rasashastra andco-guidance of Dr. Jagadeesh G. Mitti, M.D. (Rasashastra), lecturer, Postgraduatedepartment of Rasashastra.DR. M.C.Patil, M.D. (Rasashastra) Dr. G. B. Patil.Professor & H.O.D, Principal.Post graduate department of Rasashastra. D.G.M.A.M.C, GADAG.D.G.M.A.M.C, GADAG.Date:Place: Gadag
  6. 6. COPYRIGHT Declaration by the candidate I hereby declare that the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences,Karnataka shall have the rights to preserve, use and disseminate thisdissertation / thesis in print or electronic format for academic / researchpurpose.Date: Signature of ScholarPlace: Gadag Dr. Rudrakshi P. Devaravugudi.© Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka.
  7. 7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I salute to Lord Gavisiddeshwara and His Holiness Shri AbhinavGavisiddeshwara Swamiji to have bestowed their blessings through out my carrier. I express my heartfelt obligations to my honorable guide Dr. M C Patil MD (Ayu)Professor and HOD, PG Dept of Rasashastra, DGMAMC, Gadag, for his criticalsuggestions, guidance, and encouragement at every stage in the accomplishment ofthis work. I am greatful and obliged to my co-guide Dr Jagadeesh G. Mitti MD (Ayu)Lecturer, PG Dept of Rasashastra, DGMAMC, Gadag, under whose guidance andinspiration I have been able to complete this work. My sincere gratitudes to Dr G. N. Danappagoudar, Lecturer, PG Dept ofRasashastra, DGMAMC, Gadag, for his valuable information in bringing out thiswork. I offer my sincere thanks to Dr RKGacchinmath, Professor and HOD, UGDept of Rasashastra, DGMAMC, Gadag, for his constant support and valuabledirections. Humble thanks to Late. Dr Dilipkumar B, Asst Professor, PG Dept ofRasashastra, DGMAMC, Gadag, for his valuable suggestions and critical views. I am happy to convey my deep sense of gratitude to Dr G B Patil Principal,PGS & RC, DGMAMC, Gadag, for his encouragement and providing facilities duringthis research work worthwhile. I take this opportunity to thank Dr. Shashikantha Nidgundi, Lecturer, PG Deptof Dravyaguna, D.G.M.A.M.C. and Mr. Inamadar, Lecturer K.L.E’s College ofPharmacy, Gadag for their Kind Co-Operation and help in experimental work. I express my earnest gratitude to Dr Mulugund, Dr Sankh, Dr KSR Prasad,Dr Shettar, Dr Belawadi, Dr Mulkipatil and Dr Samudri for their great co-operation. I ackwoledge my sincere thanks to Dr. B.S. Savadi Principal, S.J.G. A.M.C.Koppal for their Heart felt co-operation and advice. I extend my gratitude to Shri V.M. Mundinmani Librarian D.G.M.A.M.CGadag and H.R. Vishweshwaraih Librarian S.J.G.A.M.C. Koppal for providing therequired books during the study. I
  8. 8. With pleasure I extend my sincere gratitude to Dr S.D. Yarageri RMO, Smt P.K.Belwadi, Smt Sarangmath, Tippanagoudar, Biradar, Smt Ekbote, Shri Karur & Smt.Shamshad for their co-operation and help during the study. I am always at rememberance of Teaching & Non teaching Staff of SJG AMCKoppal whose encouragement is the result of my present work. I am ever thankful to my intimate friends Dr. Jayashree. S. Dr. Suma, Dr.Kattimani, Dr. Shivaleela Kudari, Dr. Ashwini, Dr. Shalini, Dr. Katariki, Dr.Kamalakshi, Dr. Kalayani, Dr. Payappagoudar, Dr. Madhushree who stood with meall the way at my turmoil. I am thankful to my seniors Dr. Ganti, Dr. Pradeep, Dr. Sobagin, Dr.Saswihalli, Dr. Anitha, Dr. Suvarna, Dr. Sharnu, Dr. Anand, Dr. Teggi for their kindco-operation. I am also thankful to my my junior friends Dr. Anupama, Dr. Kavitha, Dr.Sarvamangala, Dr. Shivakumar, Dr. Ravi, Dr. Gorphade, Dr. Jadhva, Dr. Deepa, Dr.Praveen, Dr. Hiremath, Dr. Veena, Dr. Vijayalakxhmi, Dr. Mukta, Dr. C.C. Hiremath,Dr. Savitha for their support and affection. I extend my regards to my Sisters, Brothers, Uncles and Aunties for their loveand affection. This work remains incomplete without mentioning my Husband Mr Shambu.V. Channashetti and my Daughter Shripriya whose love and affection has brought meup to this altitude, I am greatful to them. I express my thanks all those who have helped me directly and indirectly withapologies for my inability to identify them individually. Finally I dedicate my whole effort to my beloved parents Mr P.S. Devaragudiand Mrs Kasturi Devaragudi who are the driving force behind all my fruitfulendeavors. Date: Place: Dr Rudrakshi P. Devaragudi. II
  9. 9. ABBREVIATIONS1. A.P Ayurveda Prakasha2. B.P. Bhava Prakasha3. B.R Bhaishaja Ratnavali4. Dh.N. Dhanwantri Nighantu5. R.J.N Rasa Jala Nidhi6. R.K.D. Rasakamadenu7. R.Ni Raja Nighantu8. R.T. Rasa Tarangini9. R.C Rasendra Chudamani10. R.K. Rasa Ratnakara11. R.S.S Rasendra Sara Sangra12. R.H.T. Rasa Hridaya Tantra13. R.Mr. Rasamrutha.14. R.P.S. Rasa Prakasha Sudhakar15. R.R.S. Rasa Rathna Samuchaya23. Y.R. Yoga Ratnakar24. NPST Namburi Phased Spot Test25. SGPT Serum Glutamic Pyruvate Transaminase26. SGOT Serum Glutamic Oxalacetate Transaminase27. ALP Alkaline Phosphatase28. T- Bil Total Bilirubin29. Alb Serum albumin30. CCl4 Carbon Tetra chloride31. TB Tamra Bhasma32. STB Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma33. BBR Bharat Baishjya Ratnakara III
  10. 10. ABSTRACT Rasoushadihis are unique formulations, which are easily administered,assimilated and absorbed in the body and quick in action. Tamra bhasma is one suchpreparation used in Rasashastra. But Tamra bhasma prepared form ashudda andasamyak shodhita Tamra has great toxic effects, which have been explained asashtadoshas. On the contrary well prepared Tamra bhasma has the qualities likePandu, Yakrit-pleeha roga, Amlapitta and Pramehara. It indicates that the use ofvishadravya after proper shodhana gives an added efficacy to a Rasoushadhi. In present days because of changed life style many people have the habits ofconsuming alcohol, self medication (analgesics, antibiotics, sedatives) and eatingunwholesome food. These are all the prime causes for hepatic disorder. In developingcountries like India morality has been increased due to hepatic disorders. In Ayurveda Yakrit is considered as seat of Ranjaka pitta, Bhutagni and moolaof Raktavaha srota, any damage to it disturbs digestive system, which is cause for allthe diseases. Hence an effective, safe hepatoguard formulation is needed for presentgeneration. Tamara has that quality it may fulfill this. In classics many methods are there to prepare Tamra bhasma. Among thosetwo methods will be considered. To establish their therapeutic effect, Physico-chemical analysis and experimental studies are required. Hence in present study aneffort is made to evaluate and compare the hepato protective activity of TamraBhasma and Somanathiya Tamra bhasma. The whole study has been arranged in to following chapters.01. Introduction This part introduces the subjects by laying emphasis on its important in thepresent time. Plan of study is also dealt. IV
  11. 11. 02. Review of Literature It is based on the description of Ayurveda texts & also modern,pharmacotherapeutic properties of the Tamra, Parada, Gandaka, Haratala, Manashila,Taila, Takra, Gomutra, Arnala, Kulathakwatha, Kanji, Haridara, Nimbuswarsa,Saindhava lavana, Godugdha, Grutha, Dadhi, Madhu & Sita description of Liverdisorder is also dealt.03. Methodologya) Pharmaceutical study: This Chapter includes the relation of raw materials,Shodhana of Tamra, Marana of Tamra & Amrutakarana of Tamra.b) Analytical study: This Chapter includes the organoleptic & Chemical analysis ofTamra Bhasma & Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma.c) Experimental study: This includes the comparative experimental study of TamraBhasma & Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma on albino rats w.s.r. to Hepatoprotectiveactivity.04. Results In this part the results obtained are systematically presented, which includedata related to response to treatment.05. Discussion In this chapter observation, findings and results of various studies have beenfound out with possible explanation for its effects.06. Conclusion The essence of the whole study is mentioned in this chapter.07. Summary It contain the information of the overall work in a nut shell. V
  12. 12. ContentsSl No Index Page No 1 Introduction 1-3 2 Aims and Objectives 4 3 Drug Review 5-60 4 Disease Review 61-82 5 Methodology 83-129 6 Results 130-138 7 Discussion 139-145 8 Conclusion 146-147 9 Summary 148-149 10 Bibliography I - XV VI
  13. 13. LIST OF TABLESSl Tables Page N0No01 Paryayas of Tamra 11-1202 Rasa of Tamra 1503 Guna of Tamra 1504 Virya of Tamra 1505 Vipaka of Tamra 1606 Karma of Tamra 1607 Ashudda Tamra Doshas 1808 Vishesha Shodhana of Tamra 20-2109 Various drugs used in Tamra Shodhana 21-2210 Varitions in the preparation of Somanathiya Tamra bhasma 2611 Bheda of Paryayas on the basis of Rupa, Guna, Utapatti 3912 Bheda of Parada depending on the Varna 4013 Bheda of Parada depending on the Utapatti sthana 4014 Paryayas of Gandhaka 4515 Gandhaka Shodhana 4716 Ashudda Manashila Sevanajanya Doshas 5617 Manashila Shodhana 56-5718 Showing Correlation between Ranjaka pitta and bile 6419 Showing Principles alterations of Hepatic morphology 76-77 produced by some commonly used drugs and chemicals.20 Laboratory evaluation of Liver disease 8221 Result of Tamra Samanya shodhana in Tila taila 8622 Result of Tamra Samanya shodhana in Takra 8823 Result of Tamra Samanya shodhana in Gomutra 9024 Result of Tamra Samanya shodhana in Aranala 9125 Result of Tamra Samanya shodhana in Kulattha kwatha 9426 Result of Tamra Vishesha shodhana in kanji 9527 Result of Gandhaka Shodhana 9928 Temperature chart 10729 Temperature chart 11130 Showing Analysis of Tamara Bhasma & Somanathiya 113-114 Tamra Bhasma by Ancient method31 Showing Experimental Protocol 12632 Showing summary of Biochemical values of all groups 13033 Intermediate calculations Anova table SGPT 13334 One way analysis of variation (Anova) 13335 Intermediate calculations Anova table SGOT 13436 One way analysis of variation (Anova) 13437 Intermediate calculations Anova table ALP 13438 One way analysis of variation (Anova) 13439 Intermediate calculations Anova table T. Bil 13540 One way analysis of variation (Anova) 13541 Intermediate calculations Anova table Albumin 13542 One way analysis of variation (Anova) 135 VII
  14. 14. 43 Showing the comparison of effect of toxic group with treated 137 groups (By means of t values)LIST OF GRAPHS: Sl. No Graphs Page No 1 Mean SGPT of all the groups 131 2 Mean SGOT of all the groups 131 3 Mean ALP of all the groups 132 4 Mean T-Bil of all the groups 132 5 Mean Albumin of all the groups 133 6 Comparison between Biochemical parameters of 136 G2 and G3 7 Comparison between Biochemical parameters of 136 G2 and G4 8 Comparison between Biochemical parameters of 137 G3 and G4LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS: Sl. No Photographs 1 Raw and prepared drugs 2 Pharmaceutical procedures 3 NPST 4 Experimental procedures 5 Histopathology of Liver VIII
  15. 15. Introduction INTRODUCTION Research is a scientific and unbiased study, investigation or experimentationin order to establish facts and analyse their significance. Research is done forestablishing new facts, reconfirming old facts or correcting and modifying them.Research is to find out truth through new light on old facts, concepts and practices.There is sample proof that appropriate research was done even at the time, whenoriginal Ayurvedic compendias were written, rightly highlighted by Charaka as -Parikshya Kareno hi Kushala Bhavanti.Classics pinpoint the importance attachedto Research in Ayurveda. Rasashasta is a very prominent example of research inAyurveda. Research work is the only means for the development of any branch ofscience. Rasashastra is not an exemption to it. Moreover, Rasashastra having anantique background has lost its continuity at several places due to several reasons. Thediscontinuity leads to misconception regarding earlier procedures and principles.Later, scholars and commentators tried to fulfill the lacunae to some extent; still thepresent generation is in dilemma regarding the precious concepts explained inRasashastra due to over shadow of modern science. Research work is only away toprocure the necessary knowledge to re-link this discontinuity. Rasa Shastra deals with various pharmaceutical process of Shodhana, Maranaand other different formulatory methods viz Parpati, Potali, Kupipakva rasayana. Outof these Bhasmas are more commonly used for treatment purpose. Bhasmas areunique preparations, which are prepared by Puta system, which is categorically,indicatedifferent kinds of putas (incineration processes) for different kinds of metals andminerals 1 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity
  16. 16. Introductionaccording to their physical and chemical characters. By the process of Marana byusingputa paka metals and minerals get converted into the form of Bhasma (organometalliccompounds) becomes micro fine form. Rasa Shastra highlights Tamra in duel forms i.e. Dhatu Vada and Deha Vadaeven, later during the budding of Chikista Vada itself Tamra was signified and tomake it a homologous to the body the various methods were attributed by variousAcharyas and almost all of them have praised the processing of Tamra with Parada forthe desired action in the human body – Healthy or Diseased. Information available onTamra from coinage period to 20th century self indicate its importance through-out,past, present and future. Liver is the vital organ of the human body involved in function such asmetabolism, secretion and storage. Apart from these it detoxifies a variety of drugsand xenobiotics. In the present day the liver is the organ that is abused to themaximum extend. Indiscriminate use of synthetic drugs like tetracycline, paracetmol, antitubercular drugs, oral contraceptives of harmonal origin, chemical used as foodpreservative, and agrochemicals are threatening the liver. Further addiction to alcoholand other drugs have aggravated the problem. Under nutrition and malnutrition are theother important causes of liver damage especially in a country like India. Thus it hasbecome double burden for liver it has to perform not only the physiological functionbut also to protect itself against the hazards of harmful drugs and drug abuse. What ever is taken orally or parentrally has to pass through the liver. Livercells will gets destroyed while protecting the body this leads to manifestation ofdisease of liver like infective hepatitis, cirrhosis of liver, toxic hepatitis and 2 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity
  17. 17. Introductiondegenerative diseases of liver.inspite of tremendous scientific advancement in thefiled of hepatology the modern medicine is clueless in finding out an effective drugagainst hepetotoxicity. There are plenty of medicines in Ayurvedic literature, whichare efficient hepatoprotecters many of them have already been proven throughexperimental and clinical evaluation. Tamra Bhasma, Shankha Bhasma etc are a fewamong them. Despite the extra ordinary capacity of regeneration of this organ slight injuriesmay lead to fatal complication detailed discriptions on liver disorders and theirmanagement are given by all the three prominent Acharyas of Ayurveda – Caraka,Susrutha and Vagbhatta. Tamra is an important drug which is found in many hepatoprotectiveformulations, like Lokanatha rasa of Baishajya Ratnavali, pleehari rasa of RasendraSara Sangraha, Arogyardhini vati of Rasa Ratna Samuchya. Tamra is explained as thebest medicine for rakta vikara, and yakruth (liver) is the moola sthana of rakthavahasrothas. A drug that pasifies rakta vikaras should perform the same effect in cases ofyakrit vikaras too, becauses the adhistana of rakta is yakrit. After considering all the facts use of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya TamraBhasma, these drugs are taken up for the present study in experimental trials. In thispresent work an attempt has been made to evaluate and to establish thehepatoprotective action of the drugs and its efficacy as a single drug in themanagement of liver disorders. 3 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity
  18. 18. ObjectivesAims and Objectives 1) Samanya Shodhana of Tamra. 2) Vishesha Shodhana of Tamra. 3) Preparation of Tamra Bhasma. 4) Preparation of Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma. 5) Physico chemical analysis of Tamra Bhasma. 6) Physico chemical analysis of Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma. 7) Comparative experimental study of Tamara Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamara Bhasma w.s.r. Hepato Protective Activity. 4 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity
  19. 19. Review of Literature HISTOLOGICAL REVIEW As a matter of fact, research is a continous process in which first and foremoststep is a thorough historical review prior to dealing with the subject matter. Tamra isan age old metal of coinage also named as copper age and its presence in all the agessignifies the importance of Tamra.Rigveda: • Tamra is discussed in 5/58/2 where Karkana Dharana is seen. • Also Tamra used as ornaments 5/53/4. • Tarma used as utensils, weapons etc. even.Yajurveda: • Tamra is quite evident in Yajurveda even • Few of commentators on Yajurveda opine Loha as Tamra and Shyama as Ayas because while explaining Rajata, Swarna etc. Loha colour minics as Tamra Varna i.e. Aruna or Babru Varna which are found in Tamra and not in Ayas.Atharvaveda: Here clearly Tamra is explained as one among the 3 lohas i.e. Tamra, Kamsya& Pittala which were used for ornaments & also Tamra Suchi is mentioned. 1/34/6,1/34/7, 20/8/31Brahmana Grantha: Tamra Mudra was used because Tamra was Mridu and can be mould to anyshape if necessary.Grihya Sutra: • Tamra as Suryaloha • Tamra for Yantra Nirmana was in practice. 5 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity
  20. 20. Review of LiteratureDharma Sutra: • Tamra is considered as Pavitra. • Gautamadi Rishis made a rule for Yajna that the vessels should be of Tamra this is most sacred.Puranas: • In Varahs Purana – Tamra Utpatti is explained. • In Devi Bhagavata – Common man used Tamra.Smriti Yuga: • In Manu Smriti for measurements like Karsha, Para etc. use of only copper vessels are explained. • Also Tamra Patra cleansing is told by the use of Kshara – 5/114Charaka Samhita: • Bahya & Abhyantara Prayoga of Tamra is explained. • For Visha Chikitsa • Co related moorkha vaidya with Tamra visha. Opines moorkha vaidya is dangerous than Tamra visha. • For Hrd Shuddhi after Vamana • Also found scattered information throughout the text, few of them are – Charaka Sutra – 1/70, 1/131, 1/132, 5/74.Charaka Sharira – 3/16, Charaka Indriya – 1/18, Charaka Chikista – 1/3/47, 49;1/3/58; 1/4/22; 7/117,118; 17/125; 21/131; 23/267,269; 26/246; 26/254,255. Charaka Siddhi – 3/7.Sushruta Samhita: • Rasa, Guna, Virya etc. are explained in Su. Su 46/327, 6 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity
  21. 21. Review of Literature • As Rasanjana to increase Dristi Bala etc. Sh. Su 18/85 also other references of Tamra in Sushruta Samhita are found scattered through out three text of them are: Sushruta Samhita Sushruta Sutra: 45/13; Sushruta Chikista: 12/9; 18/19; 19/20.Sushruta Uttara: 11/5; 12/3; 12/6; 13/7; 12/8; 12/10; 12/11; 12/12; 12/14; 15/11; 17/38; 17/43; 18/7; 18/30, 3; 42/25.Ashtanga Sangraha: • In Sutra 12 Tamra rasa, Guna, Virya, Karma and Rogagnata are explained. • Also scattered information is seen throughout the book.Harita Samhita: • In the form of Shikhi Pichcha and Kamsya even is explained. • Also reference of Tamra in Prathama Sthana 5/38 & 5/41, 42 and in Tritiya Sthana 7/42.Also similarly references in Kashyapa Samhita and Bhava Prakasha also are quite evident.Kautilya Arthashastra: • Seven Dhatus are mentioned – among that Tamra is one. • Akiradhyaksha (Treasurer) was suppose to protect Tamra along with gold & silver.Jaina Period: • Mining of Tamra is mentioned. • Melting of Tamra was known. • Seraka and Savaraka worked for progress of metals including Tamra.Rasagranthas Books like Rasarnava, Rasa Hridaya Tantra etc. which are considered as theoldest classic in these texts Tamra is used in Dhatu Vidya but oral administration of 7 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity
  22. 22. Review of LiteratureTamra is not very clear, but they have mentioned about the Bhasma in the textsuggests they knew the techniques of Bhasmikarana. Later during 12th century as in Rasendra Chudamani Tamra Bhedha, ShrestaTamra lakshana, Shodhana & Marana are explained. Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma aspecial method of preparing Tamra Bhasma with parade etc. is explained possibily forthe first time. In later Granthas of 13th on Rasa Prakasha Sudhakara and Rasa RatnaSamuchchaya. In Rasendra Chintamani of 14th century of Dundukanatha TamraBhasma Guna equating to Swarna is explained also Rajata Tamra Parpati Vidhana andby Tamra Yoga Virya Pusthi, Dipana, Deha Dridata, Divya Drishti, Dhirgayu etc. areexplained also used in - Shoola, Amlapitta, Swayathu, Yakshma & Kushta Roga. Thisexplains about the oral administration as advanced in later text is evident. InRasapaddhathi of 16th Century. With dwiguna Gandhaka, preparing SomanathiyaTamra Bhasma in Bhanda Yantra is explained. In 17th Century, in Ayurveda Prakashathe Paradena Marita Tamra Bhasma as Sachandrika Yukta is explained. Also in RasaKama Dhenu, Rasa Chudamani and Yoga Ratnakara detailed Tamra Shodhana,Marana etc. are mentioned. In Yoga Ratnakara Bhasma preparation is by kupipakwavidhi. Rasa Tarangini, Rasa Yoga Sagara and Bharata Bheshaja Ratnakara of the 20thcentury explained Tamra in a separate chapter. By this method of study its quiteevident that initially Tamra was used as Dhatu Vidya then later entered byRasacharyas in Chikista Kshetra in various compound preparations and as many ofpharmaceutical preparations.Historic review of copper – As a medicine in modern view: The first recorded medical use of copper is found in the Smith Papyrus, one ofthe oldest books known. The papyrus is an Egyptian medical text, written between 8 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity
  23. 23. Review of Literature2600 and 2200 B.C. which records the use of copper to sterilize chest wounds and tosterilize drinking water. Other early reports of copper’s medicinal use are found inthe Ebres Papyrus, written around 1500 B.C. The Ebers Papyrus documents medicinepracticed in ancient Egypt and in other cultures that flourished many centuries earlier.Copper compounds were recommended for headaches, “trembling of the limbs”(perhaps referring to epilepsy or St. Vitus’ dance) burn wounds, itching and certaingrowths in the neck, some of which were probably boils. Forms of copper used for thetreatment of disease ranged from metallic copper carbonate. It could also have beenchrysocolla, a copper silicate or even copper chloride, which forms on copper exposedto seawater. (Historic uses of copper in medicine) 9 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity
  24. 24. Drug Review DRUG REVIEWTamrotpatti • According to Ayurveda Tamra is considered as Shukra of Kartikeya which fell on ground and thus the Utpatti of Tamra1. • According to Jothishya Shastra and Parada Samhita, the Surya Kirana’s Tejo Bhaga turned into Tamra. • According to Varaha Purana: 7000 yrs back to the date of Varaha Purana Tamra took its birth and the mythology says that – A Rakshasa by name Gudakesha who was bound with a handsome body like Tamra meditated on Lord Varaha for 14,000 yrs for which Lord Varaha was pleased and asked for the Varan for which Gudakesha requested that he would wish to die by the Sudarshana chakra of Lord Varaha and his body after death should turn in to Tamra Adi Dhatu and this metals should be for any Mangalya kara, Pavitrata and serve the Lord in all means. After this request Lord Varaha killed Gudakesha with his Chakra on Vaishaka masa, Shukla Paksha, Dwadashi in Abhijit Lagna and the Gudakesha’s body fell down on earth and his Mamsa turned into Tamra, Rakta into Swarna, Asthi into Roupya and similarly many Dhatus took their birth also by the Mala the metals like Sesa, Kamsya, Ranga, Riti etc. took their birth on earth. Thus on this back ground of Varaha Purna Tamrotpathi can be confirmed in regard to its Utpathi on earth on Vaishaka Masa, Shukla Paksha Dwadashi in the Abhijit Lagna. 10 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity
  25. 25. Drug ReviewTable No-1. Paryayas of Tamra2-9:Sl.No Name R.K. R. R.T R.J. A.P. Dh R B. D Ni N N. mr P.1 Ambakam + + +2 Aravindam + +3 Arkam +4 Arkestam +5 Audumbaram + +6 Audumbaram +7 Aunduvaram +8 Bhaskaram +9 Brahma Varchasam +10 Brahmam +11 Charavindam +12 Dwyastam +13 Kamalahvayam +14 Kaniyasam +15 Koniyasam +16 Konyasm +17 Lohitayasam + +18 Markatasyam +19 Mleccham +20 Mlecchamukam + + + + +21 Mlecchasyam +22 Mlecchavaktram +23 Mrudambaram +24 Munipittalam +25 Nepalakam + +26 Nypaliyam +27 Pavitrakam +28 Rajeevam + 11 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity
  26. 26. Drug ReviewTable No. 1 Continued29 Raktadhatuhu +30 Raktadhatukam + +31 Raktakam + +32 Raktam +33 Raviloham +34 Ravipriyam + + + + + +35 Sarvaloham + +36 ShabanaBhedakym +37 Shulvam + + + + + + +38 Suryagam +39 Suryakyam +40 Suryaloham +41 Suryaparyaya + + Samgnakam42 Suryestam +43 Tamrakam +44 Tamram + + + + + +45 Tapanestam +46 Trilocanam47 Tryambakam + + + +48 Twastram + +49 Twistam + +50 Udambaram + +51 Udubaram + + + +52 Udumbara + + + +53 Vamnam54 Varistam +55 Vyastam + 12 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity
  27. 27. Drug ReviewVividha Bhasha Nama10-11 1. English – Copper 2. Kannada – Tamra, Tambra 3. Konkani – Tambe 4. Gujarati – Trambu, Tambu, Trambo 5. Tamil – Tampram, Chembu, Sembu, Senabu 6. Telugu – Ragi, Tamramu, Samba 7. Punjabi – Neeltuseya 8. Farsi – Meesa, Mees 9. Bangla – Tama, Tam, Tamba 10. Bhutani – Jang, Jamgata, Neeltokar 11. Marathi – Tambe, Tamra 12. Malayalam – Chempu, Tamram 13. Latin – Cuppram 14. Sindhi – Tamb 15. Hindi – Tamba, Tama, TammaPrapthisthana12 As per the classics only two places Nepala and Mleccha are the praptistana’s.Native copper occurs in nature only sparadically, the golden yellow sulphide ofcopper being more commonly available. These have a coating of green malachite andblue azurite (carbonates) which are green carbonates formed by alteration of thesulphide. Both malachite and azurite thus often indicate the presence of enrichedsulphide below the surface. The chief producing areas have been districts of Singhbhum (Bihar),Jhanjhunu, Alwar and Udaipur (Rajasthan); and Balaghat (Madhya Pradesh). The 13 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity
  28. 28. Drug Reviewdomestic production of copper metal continued to remain much short of requirementin the country. The HCL projects, namely Khetri Copper Complex (KCC) inRajasthan and Indian Copper Complex (ICC) in Bihar and a copper mining – cum –concentrator project of Malanjkhand in Madhya Pradesh. Copper, according to IndianBureau of Mines, was mainly consumed in cable winding wires and semis and alloys– end use sectors, which together accounted for 82% of the total consumption in 1986.Other important end use sectors were auto – ancillary, electricals, coinage, defence,chemicals, railways, chemical – die – casting etc. and these together consumed 18%. Copper also occurs in the red colouring matter (turacin) of the feathers of theplantain eater (Touracus), & in the haemocyanin of the blood of the cutterfish, whichacts like haemoglobin as an oxygen carrier but is blue in arterial & clourless in venousblood. Minute quantities of copper occur in plants, especially in green peas. Ordianarybread contains 4mgm of copper per kg, potatoes 2mg. Altarous the daily consumptionof copper in food is about 1 mgm., milk has a lower copper content.Around the World Copper found in Michigan, corrwall, Siberia, Ural, Austrialia, Chile, etc.Bheda and their Lakshanas13 1. NepalCharacter -- Susnigdha, Mrudula, Rakta varna, Ghanaghatakshama, Guru,Nirvikar, Amla, Swacha Lohangudi rahita, Rasakarma poojita, Guna sresta. 2. MlechaCharacter –Ruksha, Katina, Sitha, Krishana, Aruna Yama, Athivamaka,Ghanaghataakshama, Kshalitha cha punaha Krishna. 14 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity
  29. 29. Drug ReviewRasapanchakas of TamraTable No-2 Rasa of Tamra14-23Sl.No. References Madhura Amla Lavana Katu Tikta Kashaya1 Ayurveda Prakasha + + + +2 Bhava Prakasha + + + +3 Raja Nighantu + + +4 Rasa Jala Nidhi + + + +5 Rasa Kama Dhenu + + +6 Rasa Ratna + + + + Samucchaya.7 Rasa Tarangini + + + +8 Rasamritam + + + +9 Rasendra + + + + Chudamani10 Siddha Prayoga + + + + SangrahaTable No-3 Guna of Tamra24-28Sl no Guna Reference1 Laghu,Sara,Snigdha. Ayurveda Prakasha, Bhava Prakasha, Rasa Tarangini, Rasa Jala Nidhi, Rasamrita.Table No-4 Virya of Tamra29-40 Sl no Shita virya Ushna virya 1 Rasajala Nidhi Rasendra Chudamani 2 Yoga Rathnakar Rasa Kama Dhenu 3 Ayurveda Prakasha Rasa Tarangini 4 Bhava Prakasha Rasa Ratna Samucchaya 5 Raja Nighantu Rasamritam 6 Sidda Prayoga Sangraha Rasendra Sara Sangraha 15 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity
  30. 30. Drug ReviewTable No-5 Vipaka of Tamra41-48Sl.No Vipaka Reference01 Madhura Rasendra Chudamani, Rasa Ratna Samucchaya, Siddha Yoga Sangraha.02 Amla Sidda Bhesha Manimala03 Katu Raja Nighantu, Ayurveda Prakasha, Bhava Prakasha, Rasa Jala Nidhi, Rasa Tarangini,Table No-6. Karma of Tamra49-57 KARMANI R.C R.K.D. RJ.N. R.R.S RT AP BP B R Y.R Ayushyam + + Alpa + brimhanam Urdhwadhah + + parishodhana Kshut karam Netryam + + + Rasayana + Ruchya + + Ropanam + + + + Lekhanam + + + + + + + + + Saram + Sarakam + + + Deepana +Tamra Grahya Laxana58 The Tamra, which is snigda, mridu, shona, ghanaghatakshamaka, guru &nirvikara is Nepal variety & it is considered as shresta Tamra. • Susnigdam suggests by touch it is slimy. 16 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity
  31. 31. Drug Review • Mridu suggests that the metal is soft. • Shonam suggests the appearance of copper like Rakta ie., Japakusuma Varna • Ghanaghatakshama i.e., by hitting the metal by a hard object it turns into a sheet like and never breaks. • Guru suggests the heaviness of the metal. • Nirvikara or Vikara rahita suggesting the shudda Tamra. • Best used in Chiktsa is said to be best Tamra, suggestive of high concentrated copper when taken for clinical trials with a nontoxic dose is best as medicinal use.Tamra Agrahya Laxana59 The Tamra, which is swetha, krishna or aruna, katina, ativami, and assumeskrishna even when washed off suggests mlechha tamra which is agrahya. • Sita, Krishna, Aruna suggests different colours of copper. • Athi vami: After proper marana of this Tamra leads to severe vomiting. • Kshalitha cha punaha Krishna: After washing of copper again regain black colour.Ashta Doshas of Tamra: In practice, as the improper purification of copper exerts untoward effectscalled as ‘ashta dosha’ like bhrama, moorcha, vidaha, sweda, kleda, vanti, aruchi,chitasantapa so it is first purified by a procedure called general purification. Which isdescribed later in this chapter. 17 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity
  32. 32. Drug ReviewTable No-7.Ashuddha Tamra Doshas60-70Sl. Doshas A.P R YR RC BP R R BR RSS RKD RMrNo T R J S N1 Admana +2 Aruchi + + + + + + +3 Ayaragnam + +4 Balapahatvam + +5 Bhrama + + + + + + + + + +6 Bhranti +7 Chittasantapa + + + +8 Chittatapa +9 Daha + + + + + + + + +10 Dhatushasha +11 Gatratapa +12 Kantignatva + + +13 Kledanam + +14 Krimi x +15 Kushtam + + +16 Medaha + +17 Moha +18 Murccha + + + + + + + + + +19 Shoola + +20 Shosha + + +21 Sweda + + + + +22 Udara +23 Utkleda + + + + + +24 Utklesha + +25 Vami + + + + + + + + + +26 Virekah + + + + +27 Viryapahatwa + + 18 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity
  33. 33. Drug Review Also in few contexts of the various texts Tamra is explained as Visha or evenmore than a Visha. Henceforth Shodhana is absolutely necessary.Tamra Shodhana Before going for Marana, a prime important processing known as TamraShodhana is a must as the available Tamra may have few of adulterants, alloys,foreign bodies etc. in it which might cause ill effect. So by considering them most ofthe Acharyas have mentioned various shodhana processes. Sodhana is of two kinds: (1) Samanya Sodhana; 2) Vishesha SodhanaSamanya Shodhana • All Dhatus are heated and quenched for 7 times successively in Taila, Takra, Gomutra, Aranala and Kulattha Kwatha71. • All Dhatus are heated and quenched for 7 times successively in Taila, Takra, Gomutra, Konji and Ravidugda72. • All Dhatus are heated and quenched for 7 times in the following order as Takra, Kanji, Gomutra, Tilataila and Kulattha Kwatha73. • All Dhatus heated and quenched for 7 times in Kadalimoola Swarasa74.Vishesha Shodhana of Tamra As per the opinion of many Rasacharaya’s even after Samanya Shodhana itshould be processed with Vishesha Shodhana for enhancing its properties. Byprocessing with specific media or drugs specific Dosha Nirharana is been explained asmentioned herewith. 19 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity
  34. 34. Drug ReviewTable No-8. Vishesha shodhana of Tamra Reference Drugs ProcedureRasarnava 7/106 Snuhi Ksheer, Arka Agni Pratapta and Nirgundiras Ksheer, Lavana, Kshara, Nimajjana Amla LepaRasa Hridaya Tantra 9/13 Lavana, kshara, Agni Pratapta and Nirgundiras amlavarga, snahiksheera, Nimajjana arkaksheera, lepa.Rasa Ratna Samuchchaya Ksharamla Agni Pratapta and Dalana into5/49 Mahishi Takra for 7 timesRasa Ratna Samuchchaya Saindhava lavana and Agni Pratapta and Nirgundiras5/51 Nimbu rasa NimajjanaRasa Ratna Samuchchaya Gomutra Swedana for 3 hours5/52Rasendra Sara Sangraha Gomutra Swedana for 3 hours1/280Rasendra Sara Sangraha Saindhava lavana, Arka Agni Pratapta and Nirgundiras1/279 Dugdha lepa NimajjanaRasendra Chudamani 14/45 Ksharatraya & Nimbu Melt it in moosha and add rasa lepana gairika. Nirvapa in mahishi takra mixed with gomaya repeat it for 7 timesRasendra Chudamani 14/47 Saindhava lavana & Agni Pratapta and Nirgundiras Nimbu rasa lepana Nimajjana for 8 timesRasendra Chudamani 14/46 Saindhava lavana & Agni Pratapta and kanji for 8 Nimbu rasa lepana timesRasendra Chudamani Ksheera & tintidi Phala Swedana for 3 hoursAgni14/48-50 Kalka, Lavana, Nimbu Pratapta and Nirgundiras Rasa Nimajjana for 7 timesBhava Prakasha 3/118 Snuhi Ksheer, Arka Agni Pratapta and Nimajjana Ksheer, Saindhava lavana in Nirgundi Swarasa for 3 times 20 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity
  35. 35. Drug ReviewTable No. 8 ContinuedRasa Kaumudi 3/2 Amla Kshara, Snuhi Agni Pratapta and Nimajjana Ksheera, Dhatura, for 7 times each Chitraka, Triphala Kwatha, GomutraRasa Tarangini 17/12 Changeri Patra Swarasa Pratapta and NimajjanaRasa Tarangini 17/13 Nirgundi Swarasa Swedana for 1 dayRasa Tarangini 17/14 Saindhava Lavana, Kanji Swedana for 1 dayRasa Tarangini 17/15 Snuhi Dugdha, Saindhava Agni Pratapta and Nimajjana Lavana, Lepa in Nirgundi Swarasa for 7 times thRasa Tarangini 17/17 Saindava Lavana 1/8 Swedana for 1 day part, GomutraRasa Tarangini 17/18 Kanji, Nimbu Swarasa, Pratapta and Nimajjana in Amla Rasa, Lepa Takra, Kulatha Swarasa for 7 timesRasendra Purana 3/10 Snuhi Dugdha, Saindhava Agni Pratapta and Nimajjana Lavana, Lepa in Nirgundi Swarasa for 7 timesRasendra Purana 3/11 Taila, Takra Pratapta and NimajjanaRasendra Purana 3/14 Snuhi & Arka Dugdha Pratapta and NimajjanaRasendra Purana 3/15 Chincha, Saindhava, Swedana for 3 hours GomutraRasamrita 3/39 Lavana and arkadugda Pratapta & nimajja in nirgundi lepa rasaRasamrita 3/39 Gomutra Swedana for 3 hrs Table No-9. Various drugs used in Tamra Shodhana Sl. No. Drugs Sl. No. Drugs 1 Snuhi 17 Gomutra 2 Lavana 18 Kulathajala 21 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity
  36. 36. Drug Review Table No. 9 Continued 3 Amlam 19 Surana swarasa 4 Gairika 20 Takra 5 Saveeraka 21 Datura 6 Kanjika 22 Naktamala 7 Tintidiphalakardama 23 Indra Varunimoda 8 Kumari 24 Neela Sinduvara 9 Taila 25 Narikelajala 10 Arkaksheera 26 Kadalimoolajala 11 Kshara 27 Kanchukikanda 12 Nirgundirasa 28 Guda 13 Mahishitakra 29 Ingudi 14 Ksheera 30 Changeri 15 Ajamutra 31 Karanja 16 NimbujalaTamra Marana After Tamra shodhana, marana is most important step to convert into bhasmaform. Lohas after marana will convert into most potent bhasma in specific. If maranais with parada then, the bhasma is said as the most potent in curing old age anddisease henceforth the metals which are heterogenous to body gets converted intohomogeneous material by shodhana, marana and amrutikarana by which the bhasmaturns homologous to the body. Various methods of Bhasmikarana are explained in the text with variousproportions and various methods of preparations in respect to Tamra which arementioned herewith – 22 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity
  37. 37. Drug Review Tamra bhasma vimarsha Vanaspati yukta Parada yukta Sagandha Nirgandha Hingula yukta Ariloha yukta Talaka yukta AnagniDifferent methods for Tamara Bhasma Nirmana1) With Kashta Oushadi75 Tamara pattras smeared with the juice of Tilaparni plant, are reduced tobhasma of white colour, if burnt by putam.2) With Kajjali (Samputa yantra)76 Shodhita Tamra patras are incinerated, if they are smeared with Kajjali, andnimbu rasa and then heated by Gajaputam, the process being performed 3 times3) With Ardamsha Parada (kupipakwa vidhi)77 Twenty tolas of Shodhita Tamra & half its quantity of Sodhita Parada are tobe rubbed together for 3 days with Nimbu rasa. Sho. Gandhaka equal in quantity tothe Tamra is then to be rubbed for two hours, with the Tamra and Parada. The wholething then to be put into a glass bottle and heated for 24 hrs. according to Kupipakwavidhi when cooled of itself, the contents of the bottle are to be powdered.4) With padamsha parada (Valuka yantra)78 Shodhita Tamra patra mixed with ¼ quantity of Shodhita parada with addingkanji give mardhana up to 3 days. To this quantity again add 2 parts of Shodhita 23 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity
  38. 38. Drug Reviewgandhaka after mardhana made into a ball. Then apply a paste of meenakshi, changeri,punarva then a ball kept inside moosha. Aftern seiling of mooshayantra kept invaluka yantra then 8 prahara agni is given.5) Nirgandha79 Tamra patras are to be rubbed with double their quantity of shodhita paraderubbed with nimbu rasa & sita, then subjected to putam. 3 putas will bring about themarana of Tamra.6) With Hingula (Oordawa patana yantra) 80 Mix Shodhita Tamra choorna with equal part of shodhita Hingula. Trituratewith nimburasa till paste is made. After drying made choorna, This choorna is keptinside the Oordawa patana yantra and subjected to Agni for 3 prahara. Collect TamaraBhasma from the lower pot. Repeat the same process 2 more times with equalquantity of shodhita Hingula. Then after add equal quantity of shodhita Gandhaka,prepare chakiraka give Gajaputa. Repeat the same process 2-3 times with equalquantity of Gandhaka.7) With Ariloha Gandhaka (Baluka yantra)81 Shodhita Tamra patras and double their quantity of Shodhita Gandhaka arerubbed together put this mixture in samputa, place sumputa in Baluka yantra & giveheat for about 24 hrs. allow it to self cooling. After wards collect bhasma, it is to berubbed again with equal quantity of Shodhita Gandhaka & give puta, Repeate thesame for 3 times.8) With Haratala (Ariloham)82 Shodhita Tamra and Shodhita Haratalam rubbed with Nimbu rasa andsubjected to putam will cause the marana of the Tamra. 24 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity
  39. 39. Drug Review9) Anagni vidhi83 Kantaka vedhi Tamra patra’s are incinerated, if they are smeared with kajjalirubbed with nimburasa & then exposed to sun.Somanathiya Tamra BhasmaNamakarana Siddhanta of Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma By the 12th century itself the Chikitsa Vada took a new face wherein manytexts were written on the background of therapeutic importance. Possibly apersonality by name Somanath was there who Profounded the yoga SomanathiyaTamra Bhasma with Tamra, Parada, Gandhaka, Haritala and Manahshila. SomanathaGrantha is not available today but the Yogas of this book might have been copied byother later authors. As Rasa Kamadhenukara of 17th century Mentiones of a text byname Somanatha Sangraha which is not available. Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma is mentioned in Rasendra Chudamani etc. oldestclassical texts even. Author of Rasendra Chudamani is Somadeva of 13th centurySomadeva and Somanatha are one and the same or not is not confirmed.Based on this matter following conclusions can be drawn – • If at all Somadeva Profounded this yoga, at the end of Sloka “Somanatha Abhidham” is mentioned instead of “Somadevabhidham” henceforth might be Somanatha was a different author prior to Somadeva of 13th century. • Rasa Chikitsa started around 12th century and the author of Rasendra Chudamani of 13th century have mentioned about Somanathiya Tamra suggests Somanatha as a personality of the 12th century probably.Variations in the preparation as per various authors: As this preparation was written by most of Rasacharyas their interpretation inits pharmaceutical preparation and drug ratio slightly changed but the Phalashruti of 25 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity
  40. 40. Drug Reviewalmost all authors are same suggests that the raw drugs are same almost andindications are same so even variation in pharmaceutical preparation of variousauthors might also give the same end product.Table No. 10 Variations in the preparation of Somanathiya Tamra bhasma84-91Sl. No. Text Period Agnimatra & Kala Yantra 1 R. C 12th century 1 Yama (3hours) Garbha 2 R. P. S. 13th century 1 Yama (3hours) Sharava & Garbha th 3 R. R. S. 13 century 1 Yama (3hours) Garbha 4 Rasa Paddati 13th century 1 Yama (3hours) Bhanda 5 A. P. 17th century 1 Yama (3hours) Garbha 6 R. K. D. 17th century 1 Yama (3hours) Garbha 7 Y. R. 17th century 4 Yama Valuka 8 R. T. 20th century Gajaputa SharavaVariation in reference of Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma as per various authors: RC; R. P. S; R. R. S; A. P; R. K. D; Y. R; R. P. Tika; B. B. R; have mentionedGandhaka as Samabhaga to Tamra whereas R. P. S; Rasa Chu and R. Y. S. Dviguna,Gandhaka is mentioned. R. T have mentioned ½ part Gandhaka. Instead of GarbhaYantra of R.C et al. Y. R have mentioned Valuka Yantra whereas R. P. S and R.Thave mentioned of Sharava.Here some methods are explained in detail:1) Garbayantra Vidhi92 Kajjali is to be prepared by doing mardana of 1 part shodhita Parade, 1 partshodhita Gandhaka ½ part shodhita Haratala and 1/4th Part shodhita Manashila. ThisKajjali and 1 part shodhita tamrapatras are to be put in layers inside a Garba yantra &heated for 1 prahara. When cooled of itself, the leaves are to be powdered. Thebhasma thus prepared is called Somanathiya Tamra bhasma. 26 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity
  41. 41. Drug Review2) Valuka yantra Vidhi93 Kajjali is to be prepared by doing mardana of 1 part shodhita Parade, 1 partshodhita Gandhaka ½ part shodhita Haratala and 1/4th Part shodhita Manashila. Thiskajjali and 1 part of Shodhita Tamra pataras are to be put in layers inside the sharavaand made samputa. Then heated in valuka yantra for 2 yama kala & allow it to selfcool. The bhasma is powdered and kept in air tight vessel.3) Gajaputa Vidhi 94 Kajjali is to be prepared by doing mardana of 1 part shodhita Parade, 1 partshodhita Gandhaka ½ part shodhita Haratala and 1/4th Part shodhita Manashila. Thiskajjali and 1 part of Shodhita Tamra pataras are to be put in layers inside the sharavaand made samputa. Then heated in a Gaja puta. By this method we will get bhasma insingle puta.4) Kupipakwa Vidhi 95 One part shodhita Tamra and One part Shodhita Parada are rubbed togetheruntil it becomes pishti, add one part Shodhita Gandhaka, Half part Shodhita Haratalaand ¼ part Shodhita Manashila rub it for 2 to 3 hrs. The whole thing then to be putinto a glass bottle and heated according to Kupipakwa vidhi when cooled of itself, thecontents of the bottle are to be powdered.Amrutikarana96 Amrutikarna is a process done after marana to eradicate the Shesha dosha’s ofTamra. It should be done only after conferming bhasma sidhi lakshna. Various methods of Amrutikarana are explained in the texts. Which arehighlighted here. 27 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity
  42. 42. Drug Review1) According to Rasa Tarangini97 Tamra Bhasma 1 part and Shudha Gandhaka ½ part are taken & both aremixed and Bhavana is done with Panchamruta (Gogrhrita, Godahi, Godugdha, Gudaand Madhu). Then Chakrikas to be made and dried after Gajaputa to be given.Similarly the whole process is repeated for 3 times.2) According to Rasa Tarangini98 Tamra Bhasma 1 part and Shuddha Gandhaka ½ part are taken & both aremixed well and Nimbu Swarasa Bhavana is given. And made in to bolous andallowed to dry.Then this is fitted in the Garbha of a Surana and the whole Surana ismade covered with Multhani mitti and made to dry. This is treated with Gajaputaand then the drug is collected, powdered sieved and preserved.3) According to Rasa Tarangini99 Tamra Bhasma Bhavana with Kumari Swarasa for 7 times. Then made Chakrikas and dried. And treated with Gajaputa. This whole procedure to be repeated for 3 times. 4) According to Rasamrita100 Tamra Bhasma Bhavana with Nimbu Swarasa and allow it to dry then fill ingarbha of Surana and treat with gajaputa. Repeat the procedure for 3 times.MatraR.R.S. - 2 valla101 (1 Valla = 3 Ratti)R.T. - 1/8 to ½ Ratti102Anupana103Tattadrogunasara 28 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity
  43. 43. Drug ReviewUpayoga104: Kapha pitta nashaka, Udara roga, Kusta, Meha, Amadhosha, Yakrutpleha roga, Shoola, parinam shoola, Arsha, Kshaya, Amla pitta, Pandu, Swasa kasaJwara, Sthoulya, Grahani, Shotha, Pinasa, Netra roga, Vata roga.Tamra Janita Dosha Shanti1051) Munivruhi sitha sevana2) Dhanyaka Sitha, sevena3) Mukthika bhasma sevana.Yogas Arogyavardini Kasa sanharbhirawa rasa Kanchnabra rasa Tamra parpati Gulmakalanala rasa Trivikrama rasa Chandramrutha rasa Panchamrutha rasa Tamreshwar rasa Ravitandava rasa Nithyananda rasa Vathakantaka Mahodadi rasa Hrudayarnva rasa Laxmivilas rasa Soothashekar rasa Sarveshwar rasa Mahavathavindwasa rasaSaveeryata Avadhi Bhasma become more potent as they become old.Preservation Bhasma are preserved in air tight glass or earthern containers. The potency ofthe preparation is maintained.According to ModernChemical Symbol – Cu 29 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity
  44. 44. Drug ReviewPhysical properties106 i. Colour: Copper is a red coloured shining metal ii. Specific gravity is - 8.0 to 8.96 per cubic centimeter at 20. C & It is about 14 % heavier than iron. iii. Hardness: 2.5 to 3 iv. Melting point - 1080 0 C - 1083.4. 0C v. Boiling point ----- 2325 0C vi. Good conductor of heat. And electricity. The copper used in electric wire is highly pure. vii. Pure copper is highly malleable and can be rolled in to sheets less than 0.05m thick.Chemical properties Copper does not burn in air, but is gradually converted into cuprous (Cu2O) &Cupric (CuO) Oxides on its surface when heated to redness. The finely divided metalwill burn in chlorine or sulphur vapour. It does not react with steam at anytemperature below white heat, & then only to a very slight extent copper is belowhydrogen in the electro chemical series and hence does not react with acids unlessthey are also oxidizing agents, or from complex with ions with copper. It is however,slowely attacked by some acids in presence of air, owing to the slow oxidisizingaction of the air. Although unaffected by dry air at the ordinary temperature, exposure to moistair causes the formation of a beautiful green coating or patina. This was for long saidto be a basic copper carbonate, but Vernon & Whit by have shown that it is, in land 30 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity
  45. 45. Drug Reviewplaces, a basic sulphate – CuSO4 – 3Cu (OH)2, while near the sea this is accompaniedby a basic chloride – CuCl2 – 2Cu (OH)2Alloys of Copper107 Monal metal (Copper + Nickel + Iron 27:70:3) Gun metal (Copper + Tin + Zinc) 88: 10: 02 Brass metal (Copper + Zinc) (60 – 90: 40 –10) 2: 1 Occult metal (Copper + Zinc) German silver (Copper + Zinc +Nickel) 50:25:25 Phosphor Bronze (Copper + Phosphor +tin) 85: 2(0.25-2.5) :13 Alluminium bronze (Copper + Alluminium + Tin + Nickel) 90:7:0.5: 2.5 (0-6) Bronze (copper + Tin + Lead) 88-96 : 4-12 : 0.5 Bell metal (copper + Tin) 80:20Occurrence108: Native copper (Almost pure copper) rarely occurs in nature mostcomes from the following ores. 1 Oxides type ores – Cuprite, Tenovite. 2 Sulphides -- Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2), Copper pyrite, Chalcocite, Copper glunce bronite, Couslite (CuS), Crubeslite. 3 Grey copper -- Tetrahedrite, Tenovite Fomatinite Enargite 4 Sulphate -- Chalcanthite ( Cu3 As S3) 5 Carbonates – Malachite, Azurite (2CuCo3 Cu CoH2) 6 Silicates -- Chrysocolla, dioptase 7 Chloride -- Atacamite 8 Arsenates 9 Phosphates 31 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity
  46. 46. Drug ReviewExtraction109The actual operation is carried out in stages: 1) Concentration of the ore by flotation 2) Roasting of ore 3) Smelting production of matts 4) Conversion of matte to blisten copper 5) Refining of blister Copper This gives about 99.5% of Copper & is known as tough pitch Copper. If metal of very high purity is required then tough pitch copper is furtherrefined by electrolysis. Electrolytic copper is 99.96 to 99.99 % pure.Probable Mode of Action110: Copper is used by various enzymes in the body as ahelper for the chemical reaction. The chemical reaction may involve creating energy,decreasing inflammatory response, blood clotting and so on. below is an overviewhow copper is absorbed in to the body and how it is used.I) Absorption of Coppera) Copper is absorbed by the body at two main sitesi) Small intestineii) Stomachiii) The use of copper bracelets assumes that the skin can be the third site of constantcopper absorption 32 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity
  47. 47. Drug ReviewII) Transport of absorbed CopperCopper doesnot float through blood stream as a lone copper. But it is carried by theproteins like -- ceruloplasmin (specifically for copper), albumin (can carry manythings including copper)III) Copper storageCopper is stored in proteins called metallothioneinsIV) Copper Elimination It is eliminated almost entirely by the feaceas, also by the bile, urine, saliva &sweat.V) Enzymes need for Copper i) Enzymes are proteins specialized to assist in a chemical function ii) Copper is needed by enzymes as a “helper” in a chemical reaction these functions makes copper essential for life.a) Cytochrome C Oxidase (essential for energy production)b) Super oxide dismutase (essential for protection against oxidative damage)c) Dopamine hydroxilase (essential for adrenaline production )d) Lysyl oxidase (essential collagen and elastin production)e) Factor V enzyme (essential for blood clotting)f) Ceruloplasmins (a carrier protein, but also aids in iron metabolism)g) Also such other factors like growth harmone stimulation, as transcription factor in RNA etc.VI) It is said that up to 100mgm may be taken per day without danger, & higher organisms appear to have to some extent immune to copper. Copper seems to be necessary to assist in the mobilization of iron in the body & in the formation of hb. Lower organisims are very sensitive to copper salts & traces are added to 33 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity
  48. 48. Drug Review drinking water in America to destroy bacilli & alage. A solution of copper sulphate mixed with slaked lime is used as Bordeaux mixture as a fungicide111.VII) Of the above mentioned functions, copper has been mostly possess “anti inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, as well as the energy production property.Shodhaka dravyas1. Tila Taila 2.Takra 3. Gomutra 4. Aranal 5. Kulatha kwatha 6.Saindav lavana 7. Nimbhuka 8. Kaanji1. Tila Taila112Synonyms: Tila, Sneha.Rasa panchakas Rasa : Madhura, Tikta, Kashaya Guna : Ushna, Teekshna, Sukshma, Vishada, Vyavayi Veerya : Ushna Vipaka : Madhura, Doshakarma : Kapha vata shamaka Karma : Vrishya, AmapachakaDoshangnata: Vata shamana and kapha pitta vardhaka.Rogagnata : Pakshaghata, Ardita, Shwasa, Hikka, the oil is used in all vata diseases.Matra: Taila – 10ml to 20mlVishista Yoga: Tiladi Gudeka, Tiladilepa, Tilastaka.2. Takra113Rasa PanchakasRasa : Madhura, amla & Kashaya anurasaGuna : Laghu, ruksha 34 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity
  49. 49. Drug ReviewVirya : UshnaVipaka : MadhuraKarma : Agnidipana, hrudyaDosha : Kaphavata haramRogagnata : Garavisa, Sopha, Atisara, Grahani, Pleeharoga pandu, Arsha, aruchi, Vishamajwara, Vamana, Trishna, Atilasrava, Sula, Medoroga, Mutra Krichra, Diseases produced because of ayoga & atiyoga of sneha.3. Gomootra114Rasa PanchakasRasa : Lavana, Kshara,Guna : LaghuVeerya : UshnaVipaka : KatuDosha Karma : Vata and Kapha shamaka, Pitta vardhakaKarma : Deepana, MedhyaRogagnata : Udara rogaVishishta Yoga : Punarnava mandoora, Marichyadi taila4. Arnala115 Aranala has the properties of souvira like Kapha shamana, Bedhana, Deepanaand Udavartha, Grahani and Asthi Shoola Nashana.Rasa PanchakasRasa : AmlaGuna : Teekshna, LaghuVeerya : Ushna 35 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity
  50. 50. Drug ReviewVipaka : AmlaDosha Karma : Vata and Kapha shamakaKarma : Rochana Pachana, Deepana,5.Kulaththa116RasapanchakasRasa : KashayaGuna : LaghuVeerya : UshnaVipaka : KatuDosha Karma : Vata and Kapha shamakaKarma : Bhedhana, Sravanashana, Netrya.Rogagnata : Shukrashmari, Gullma, Sangrahani, Pinasa and Kasa.6. Saindava Lavana (Rock salt)117Synonyms- Saindhava, Sita, Siva, Manimantha, Sinduja, and NadeyaRasapanchakasRasa : MadhuraGuna : Laghu, SnigdhaVirya : SitaVipaka : MaduraDosha karma : TridoshghnaKarma : Dipana, Rochana, Hridya, Caksusya, Sukada,Rogaghnata : Netra roga, Aruchi, Varna, and Vibanda. It is best amongest all the lavanas.7. Nimbuka118Synonyms-Nimbu-Nimbuka, Dantsatha 36 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity
  51. 51. Drug ReviewRasapanchakasRasa : Amla, KatuGuna : Laghu, TikshanaVirya : UshnaVipaka : AmlaKarma : Dipana, pachana chaksusya Agnimandya, gulya sheel amlapitta visuchi vataroga vatashlesma vibandhagna.Rogagnata : Agnimandya, Aruchi, Amlapitta, Vataja roga,Vibandha, etc.Matra : Fresh juice 10-20 mlVishistayoga : Jambiradi Panaka, Nimbuka Taila8.Kaanji119RasapanchakasRasa : Amla RasaGuna : Teekshana, LaghuVeerya : UshnaVipaka : AmlaDosha Karma : Vata and Kapha shamakaKarma : Rochana Pachana, Deepana,Rogagnata : Externally in jawaraMaraka Dravyas1. Parada 2. Gandhaka 3. Haratala 4. Manahshila 37 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity
  52. 52. Drug Review1. Parada Parada is the most important and foremost ingredient of compounds ofRasashastra, without which the science of Alchemy – Rasashastra perhaps would nothave existed.Vividha Bhasha Nama120: Sanskrit - Parada Hindi - Para English - Mercury, Quick silver Kannada - Padarasa Gujarati - Paro Marathi - Para Latin - Hydrargyrum French - Mercure German - Merkure Arab - Abuk; Zibakh Parsian - Simab; Zeebag. Bengali - Para Malayalam - Rassam Telugu - Padarasam Tamil - Padrasa Konkani - Padrasa 38 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity
  53. 53. Drug ReviewTable No 11 Bheda of Paryayas on the basis of Roopa, Guna, Utpatti121. Sl No Swaroopa Synonyms Galadroupyanibham, Mahavanhi, Mahateja, 1 Swarupatmaka Suvarna 2 Gatyatmaka Kheehara, Chapala, Chala, Dhoorthaka. Rasayana, Amrtim, Mrtyunasana, Jaiva, 3 Dehavadatmaka Dehada, Paramamruta, Parata, Parada, Rasayana Shreshta Maharasa, Rasottama, Suta, Divyarasa, Rasarasendra,Rasesha, Rasadhatu, Rasaraja, 4 Dhatuvadatmaka Rasanath,Sidhadhatu, Soota, Sootaka, Sootaratha, Mishraka, Chamara. Ananta, Suksma, Saubhagya, Amara, 5 Visista Gynantmaka Kalikantaka, 6 Darshanika/Aadhyatmika Divya, Acintyah, Jeeva, Jaiva Trinetra, Trilochana, Deva, Dehaja, Prabhu, Rudraja, Lokesh, Vijendra, Budha, 7 Dharmika/Devatmaka Rajaswala, Shanta, Shiva, Shivaveerya, Skandha, Harateja, Harabeeja, Shivahaya, ShivabeejaPraptisthana In Rasa Ratna Samucchaya, it is mentioned that in ancient times mercury wasfound mainly in Darada desha and also in Himalayas in small amount. But now a day,it is obtained mainly from the mines of Spain, America, Italy, Australia, BritishBornea, China, Russia, and Japan. 39 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity
  54. 54. Drug ReviewParada Bheda122,123 The varieties of Parada described in different text are based on the 2 factors 1. Depending on the Colour. 2. Depending on the place of Origin.Table No 12 Bheda of Parada depending on the Varna: Sl No Types Colour Caste Karma 1 Sweta White Brahmana Swetakarma 2 Rakta Red Kshatriya Therapeutics 3 Peeta Yellow Vaishya Used in alchemy or to Prepare Gold 4 Krishna Black Shudra Used in Maintaining healthTable No 13 Bheda of Parada depending on the utpattisthana:Sl No Variety Colour Impurities Uses Which is free from all 1 Rasa Rakta types of impurities. Rasayana 2 Rasendra Peeta Free from impurities. Rasayana 3 Suta Isatpeeta With impurities. Deharogaharana 4 Parada Sweta With impurities. Servarogaharana 5 Mishraka Mayur,Chandrika,Vama With impurities. Sarvasiddidayaka 124Doshas of Parada Parada (Mercury) procured from its original sources or from the market maycontain various types of admixtures. The ancient chemists knew this fact very welland as such most of the authorities have described impurities of Parada, which run asfollows, 40 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity
  55. 55. Drug Review Doshas of ParadaNaisargika Doshas Yougika Doshas Aupadhika Doshas Visa Naga Vahni Vanga Mala Bhumija Girija Varija Nagaja(2) Vangaja(2) Parpati Patani Bhedi Dravi Andhakari Malakari DhwanksiShodhana:Samanya Shodhana Acharyas mentioned Different Procedures like 1. Parada & Sudha raja (Lime powder) should be taken in equal quantity and mardana should be done for 3days. • Parada should be filtered through two folded cloth. • Add equal quantity of Nistusha lushana and half quantity of saindhav lavan subject it for mardana, until it becomes black coloured kalka. • Prakshalana should be done.125 2. The mixture of triphalakwata, choornas of chitraka, rakthasarshapa, brihati, Gritha Kumari and parada should be triturated for 3 days, the parada obtained by this method will be devoid of sapta malas.126 3. Parada should be triturated with Nagavalli Swarasa, Ardraka Swarasa and Ksharadraya for 3 days and washed with water. This parada will be shining like mukta and devoid of Sapta dosha.127 4. Parada should be triturated with lasuna & Saindava lavana in Tapta Khalvayantro for 7days.128 41 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity
  56. 56. Drug ReviewVishesh Shodhana of Parada Specific process of shodhana done is to remove specific doshas separately isVishesh Shodhana. This is done for Rasayana purpose.Samskara129 The process of subjecting a substance to add specific qualities is calledSamskara. Almost all Rasacharyas opines that, bala, teja, qualities of Parada can beenhanced. According to various authors Ashtadashasamskar i.e. 18 Samskaras ofParada have been explained, among them. 1st eight are for roga–nivaranarth andrasayana. Last ten are rasayana & dhatu vada purpose as indicated below.Roga Nivaranartha & Rasayanarth Rasayanartha & Dhatuvadarth(1-18)1. Swedana 9. Gagan Bhakshan2. Mardana 10. Charana3. Moorchana 11. Garbha dhruti4. Utthapana 12. Bahyadruti5. Patana 13. Jaarana6. Bodhan 14. Ranjana7. Niyamana 15. Sarana8. Deepana 16. Sankramana 17. Vedha 18. BhakshanaGrahya Parada Laxana:130,131 Shuddha Parada from inside seems blue tinged, but from outside it is lustrousand shines like a mid day sun, which resembles with the properties of mercuryexplained in modern chemistry texts. Mercury is a silver white liquid metal, with a 42 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity
  57. 57. Drug Reviewslight bluish tinge. In thin films, it transmits violet lit. (Dict of Applied chemistry volIV page No 270).Rasapanchakas According to Rasmruta, Rasa Jala Nidhi and Bhava Prakash. Rasa --- Shadrasa Guna --- Snigdha, Sara. Veerya --- Ushna Vipaka --- Madhura Karma --- Yogavahi, Rasayana, Ativrishya, Balya, Vajikara, Drushtibalaprada, Dehasiddikara, Lohasiddikara, Vrunaropana and Vruna Shodhana, Krimigna(Antimicrobial, insecticide) and cures all the diseases Doshaprabhava – Tridoshagna. Vyadiprabhava – Krimi, Kushta, Akshiroga, Vataroga, Valiphalita, Kshaya, Tridoshajaroga & Sarvarogahara, Papajanyaroga,Tapatrayajanyaroga.Parada Pathya132,133Ahara: Mudga, Dugda, Shali, Shak, Punarnava, Meghanad, Saindava, Shunti,Musta, Padmamula, Jeera, Ardraka, Hamsodaka these are all Pathya aahar.Vihara: Aatmajnana, Shivapooja, Shivakatana these are all Pathya Viharas. 43 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity
  58. 58. Drug ReviewParada Apathya134Ahara Ateemadhyapana,Bhojana,Shayana,Ratrijagarana,Krodha,Kakarashtakagana,Pittavardhak, Vatavardhaka aahar, Kanji, Takra these are all Apathyas.Vihara: Jalakrida, Ativyayam, Vyavaya (Streesonga Vargya) etc, these are allApathyas.MatraAccording to RT Swarnajarita parada - ½ Ratti.MercuryPhysical Properties135 Atomic No -- 80 Atomic weight --200.61 Symbol -- Hg Specific gravity -- 13.595 at 250C Boiling Point -- 3570C Freezing point -- 38.90C Place in periodic table -- Transition elements of d orbital Configuration -- 2,8,18,32,18,2 Co ordination No -- 4 Valency -- +1: +2 Occupied outer orbital -- 5d 44 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity
  59. 59. Drug Review State -- Metal in liquid form. Melting point -- -38.870C English name -- Quick Silver Latin name -- Hydrargyrum. Colour -- Shining silvery whiteChemical Properties136 1. Water, Alkalies and air have no influence on mercury. 2. Dilute acids have no action on mercury except nitric acid. 3. Mercury form alloys with many metals and these are called Amalgams. 4. On rubbing mercury with Sulpher in required proportions and a little caustic potash solution it gives mercuric sulphide. The color changes slowly from black to red.2. Gandhaka In Rasashastra Gandhaka stands next to Parada in importance.Table No-14. Paryayas of Gandhaka137Property SynonymsSwarupa Vachaka Navanita, Gandhapashana, GandhopalaGandha Vachaka Dandhaka, Kruragandha, Divyagandha, PutigandhaKarma Vachaka Kitaghna, Kitari, Lekhi, KitanashanaRogaghnata Vachaka Kushthari, PamariUtpati Vachaka Gauripuspadhavah, Gauribija, Lelitaka BaliDhatukarma Vachaka Shulvari Shulvaripu, Rasagandhaka, Sutashatru, DhatumariVarna Vachaka Shukapicchakya, Shukapuccha, Shukapicchasaarm Acchaya. 45 Preaparation, Physico chemical analysis and Comparative Experimental Study of Tamra Bhasma and Somanathiya Tamra Bhasma w.s.r. to Hepatoprotective Activity

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