Switra rs020 gdg


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Preperation, Physico Chemical analysis of Switrari Rasa and Lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra By Dr. KAVITA S. MITTALAKOD, Department of rasashastra, Post graduate studies and research center, Shri D. G. Melmalagi Ayurvedic Medical College, Gadag

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Switra rs020 gdg

  1. 1. Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Switrari Rasa and Lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra By Dr. KAVITA S. MITTALAKOD Dissertation submitted to the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, Bangalore In partial fulfillment of the degree of Ayurveda Vachaspati M.D. In Rasashastra Under the Guidance of Dr. Girish N. Danappagoudar M.D. (Ayu) and Co-guidance of Dr. Jagadeesh G. Mitti M.D. (Ayu) Department of Rasashastra Post Graduate Studies & Research Centre D.G. MELMALAGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, GADAG 2006-2009
  2. 2. D.G.M.AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE POST GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH CENTRE GADAG - 582 103 This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SWITRARI RASA AND LEPA, THEIR CLINICALEFFICACY ON SWITRA” is a bonafide research work done by Dr. Kavita. S. Mittalakodin partial fulfillment of the requirement for the post graduation degree of “AyurvedaVachaspati M.D. (Rasashastra)” Under Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences,Bangalore, Karnataka.Dr. Jagadeesh G. Mitti Dr. Girish N. Danappagoudar M.D. (Ayu) M.D. (Ayu)Co- Guide GuideLecturer in Rasashastra Asst.ProfessorDGMAMC, PGS&RC, GADAG Dept. of Rasashastra DGMAMC, PGS&RC, GADAGDate:Place: Gadag
  3. 3. J.S.V.V. SAMSTHE’S D.G.M.AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE POST GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH CENTRE GADAG, 582 103 Endorsement by the H.O.D, Principal/ head of the institution This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SWITRARI RASA AND LEPA, THEIR CLINICALEFFICACY ON SWITRA” is a bonafide research work done by Dr. Kavita. S.Mittalakod under the guidance of Dr. Girish N. Danappagoudar , M.D. (Ayu), Asst.Professor and Dr. Jagadeesh G. Mitti, M.D. (Ayu), in partial fulfillment of therequirement for the post graduation degree of “Ayurveda Vachaspati M.D.(Rasashastra)” Under Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Bangalore,Karnataka.. Dr. M. C. Patil Dr. G. B. Patil Professor & HOD Principal, Dept. of Rasashastra DGM Ayurvedic Medical College, PGS&RC, Gadag. Gadag Date: Place: Gadag
  4. 4. Declaration by the candidate I here by declare that this dissertation / thesis entitled“PREPERATION, PHYSICO CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OFSWITRARI RASA AND LEPA, THEIR CLINICAL EFFICACY ONSWITRA” is a bonafide and genuine research work carried out by meunder the guidance of Dr. Girish N. Danappagoudar M.D.(Ayu)Professor and Dr. Jagadeesh G. Mitti M.D.(Ayu), Lecturer in RasashastraDGMAMC, PGS&RC, Gadag.Date :Place : Gadag (DR. KAVITA S. MITTALAKOD)
  5. 5. © Copy right Declaration by the candidate I here by declare that the Rajiv Gandhi University of HealthSciences, Karnataka shall have the rights to preserve, use and disseminatethis dissertation/ thesis in print or electronic format for the academic /research purpose.Date :Place : Gadag (DR. KAVITA S. MITTALAKOD)© Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka
  6. 6. SHRI D. G. MELMALAGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA. CERTIFICATE BY THE GUIDE This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SWITRARI RASA AND LEPA, THEIR CLINICALEFFICACY ON SWITRA” is a bonafide research work done by Dr. Kavita S.Mittalakod in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of AyurvedaVachaspathi. M.D (Rasashastra).Date: Dr. Girish N. DanappagoudarPlace: Gadag. M.D. (Ayu) Asst. Professor Department of Rasashastra, D.G.M.A.M.C, Gadag
  7. 7. SHRI D. G. MELMALAGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA. CERTIFICATE BY THE CO- GUIDE This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SWITRARI RASA AND LEPA, THEIR CLINICALEFFICACY ON SWITRA” is a bonafide research work done by Dr. Kavita S.Mittalakod in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of AyurvedaVachaspathi. M.D (Rasashastra).Date: Dr. Jagadeesh G. MittiPlace: Gadag. M.D. (Ayu) Lecturer Department of Rasashastra, D.G.M.A.M.C, Gadag
  8. 8. TABLE OF CONTENTSS.L.NO. INDEX PAGE. NO 1. Introduction 1-4 2. Objectives 5 3. Review of Literature 6-91 4. Methodology 92-140 5. Results 141-159 6. Discussion 160-171 7. Conclusion 172-173 8. Summary 174-176 9. Bibliography 177-189 10. Annexure I. Slokas of Switrarirasa and Lepa II. Case sheet VI
  9. 9. LIST OF TABLESTable No Tables Page No. 1 Showing the synonyms of Hingula according to 6 different authors. 2 Showing Hingula included under following category by 10 different authors: 3 Showing the bheda of Hingula 11 4 Showing the rasa of Hingula according to different 13 texts. 5 Showing doshagnata of Hingula according to different 13 authors. 6 Shows the properities of Hingula according to 14 different granthas. 7 Showing the synonyms of parada: 20 8 Showing the ores of parada along with their chemical 22 composition. 9 Showing the varities of Parada depending on the 23 colour and their karma also specified. 10 Showing the varieties of Parada depending upon the 23 place of origin. 11 Naisaragika Dosha and its effect on sharira. 24 12 Yougika Dosha and its effect on sharira 24 13 Oupadhika (Saptakanchuka) Dosha and its effect 24 14 Showing samanya shodhana of parada according to 26 different authors: 15 Showing vishesha shodhana of parada according to 27 different authors: 16 Showing types of Gandhaka according to Rasa 37 Classics 17 Showing types of Gandhaka and their qualities and 37 uses 18 Showing synonyms of kasisa according to different 43 Acharyas. 19 Showing classification according to different granthas. 44 20 Showing varities of kasisa according to orgin. 45 21 Showing varities of kasisa according to Colour. 45 22 Showing various procedures for purification of Kasisa. 46 23 Showing Rasa of kasisa according to different 46 acharyas. 24 Vyavachedhaka Nidana 77 25 Observations made during Hingula shodhana. 95 26 Showing the results of Hingula shodhana 96 27 Temperature recorded during the procedure. 99 28 Showing the observations done during Gandhaka 103 shodhana. 29 Showing the Physical Examination of Gandhaka 104 before and after shodhana. VII
  10. 10. 30 Physical examination of Ashodhita and Shodhita 106 Kasisa31 Demographic Data of trail in Switra with Switrari Rasa 14232 Distribution of patients by age gender in Switra with 143 switrari rasa and switra lepa.33 Results of Patient by age in Switra with Switrari Rasa 144 and switra lepa34 Results of Patient by Gender in Switra with Switrari 145 Rasa and switra35 Results of Patient by Relegion in Switra with Switrari 146 Rasa and switra36 Distribution and Results of Patient by Occupation in 147 Switra with Switrari Rasa and switra lepa37 Distribution and Results of Patient by Economic status 148 in Switra with Switrari Rasa and switra lepa38 Distribution and Results of Patient by Diet in Switra 149 with Switrari Rasa and switra lepa39 Data record to disease 15040 Distribution and results of patients by mode of on set 152 in switra with SR and SL41 Distribution and results of patient by Family history in 152 Switra with SR & SL42 Distribution and results of patients by Chronicity in 153 Years in switra with SR and SL43 Distribution and results of patients by Incidence of 154 initial site of onset in switra with SR and SL44 Distribution and results of patients by Incidence of 155 distribution of lesions in switra with SR and SL45 Distribution of patient by Ahar nidana in Switra with 156 Switrari rasa and Lepa46 Distribution of patient by Vihar nidana in Switra with 157 Switrari rasa and Switra Lepa47 Assesment of subjective parameters in switra 15748 Assesment of objective parameters in switra 15849 Result in Switra with Switrari Rasa and switra lepa 15850 Statistical analysis of the clinical and objective 159 parameters Subjective parameters statistical analysis in switra with switrari rasa and switra lepa. LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS S.L. No. Photographs 1 Ingredients and Preparation of Rasapushpa 2 Clinical Improvement of the patient in the study VIII
  11. 11. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First and foremost, I salute almighty God. With deep sense of pleasure, I express my respects to my Father ShriShivabasappa Mittalakod, who is the source of inspiration abundant patience, confidence,will power has encouraged and fulfilled all the responsibilities of moulding my lifeincluding the continuation of P.G. Studies and then to my mother Smt. Mala who hastaken the full care and nourishment not only to me but also of my son. I am extremely happy to express my deepest sense of gratitude to my beloved andrespected guide Dr. Girish. N. Danappagoudar MD (Ayu) Asst. Professor P.G Dept. ofRasashastra, DGMAMC, Gadag, I am one out of the luckiest and First Scholar to getthem as my Guide. He provided all types of supervillance and suggestions which makethe guideline to this thesis. His experience and views allowed me to take new conceptsfor trial and completion if the thesis in time. My thanks and respect to his dynamicpersonality. My profound gratitude to my co- guide Dr. Jagadeesh. Mitti, MD (Ayu), Lecturer,P.G Dept. of Rasashastra, DGMAMC, Gadag, who gave me timely advises andsuggestion during the entire period of this effort. I express my obligation to my honourable H.O.D. Dr. M.C. Patil MD (Ayu) H.O.D.P.G Dept. of Rasashastra, DGMAMC, Gadag, His importance in induction of completechanges in my academic and professional career. The entire herdal which came duringthe time of trial was solved by his valuable suggestions. I express my deep gratitude to beloved Principal Dr. G.B. Patil, PrincipalDGMAMC, Gadag, for his encouragement and providing all necessary facilities for thisresearch work. I offer my sincere thanks to Dr. R.K. Gacchinmath, professor and HOD, UG Deptof Rasashastra, DGMAMC, Gadag for his constant support. I express my sincere thanks to Dr. Suvarna Nidigundi MD (Ayu), Lecturer, PG Deptof rasashastra, DGMAMC, Gadag, for her critical use and precious suggestions. I wish to add my warmest thanks to my PG teaching faculty, Dr. Mulgund, Dr.Sureshbabu, Dr. Shivaramudu, Dr. K.S. Paraddi, Dr. G.S. Hiremath, Dr. K.S.R Prasad,Dr. Santosh Belavadi, Dr. R.V. Shettar, Dr. Kuber Sankh, Dr. Shashikanth Nidugandi,Dr. Samudri, Dr. Yasmin, Dr. Ashok Patil Dr. Veena Kori, Dr. Shakuntala Garwad, Dr.Jayraj for their valuable suggestions and timely help made me to complete thisdissertation work successfully. I express my sincere thanks to Dr. Jayashree Virakthmath and Dr. V.M. Sajjan forsupporting me by giving her patients during my clinical trial. I
  12. 12. I express my sincere thanks to Dr. Chandrakant. S. Hiremath, Principal ShriRaghavendra Ayurvedic Medical College, Malladahalli for their kind support. My Gratitude is greatest towards Shri J.S. Mamadapur, President Shri S.V.P.R.A.M.C. Badami for his encouragement and support. I am greatfull to all staff of Shri S.V.P. R.A.M.C. Badami for their encouragementand support. I express my sincere thanks to Dr. Rudrakshi Malawad M.D. (Ayu), Lect Shri S.V.P.R.A.M.C. Badami for her encouragement and moral support. I extend my gratitude to Sri. V.M. Mundinamani, Librarian, Sri. Kerur and SriShavi for providing the required books during the study. I extend my gratitude to Smt. A.C. Patil and the attenders of Rasashastradepartment, Samshad, Mangala, Manju for their help during my practical works. I am greatful to Shri Chaitrakumar (Sadguru computers) for his kind co-operationand immense help to complete the dissertation work. My deepest condolence to the sad and untimely death of Dr. Shivakumar who wasmy batch mate, young, talented and ambitious. I pray God to let his soul be rest in peace. I extend my gratefulness and sincere heart felt gratitude to my colleaguesDr. Sarvamangala, Dr. Anupama, and Dr. Ravindra for their friendly affection andamiable attitude during my study period without which I would never be complete. I offer my sincere thanks to my senior friends Dr. Rudrakshi, Dr. Jayashree, Dr.Suma, Dr. Katimani and also to my junior friends Dr. Deepa, Dr. Praveen, Dr. Jeetendra,Dr. Anil, Dr. Hiremath, Dr. Satish, Dr. Sanjeev, Dr. Vijay and Dr. Jayakar for theirsupport and affection. I offer my sincere thanks to my other department friends Dr. Savita, Dr. MuktaArali, Dr. Jaya, Dr. Kalavati, Dr. Mukta Hiremath, Dr. Vijayalaxmi and Dr. Veena fortheir support and affection. I express my enormous earnest gratification and heart felt thanks to my HusbandDr. M.B. Patil, Medical Officer, Gajendragad. It would be my privilege convey my love to my all sisters Mamata, Savita, Lalita,Shashikala and Poornima and cousin brothers for their kind co-operation and moralsupport. I express my eternal love to my son Chi. Sharanu for dispelling all the tensionand tiredness with his talk, love and affection. Dr. Kavit S. Mittalakod II
  13. 13. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS A. H. – Ashtanga Hridaya. A. P. – Ayurveda Prakasha. A. S. – Ashtanga sangraha. B.R.R.S – Brihat Rasa Raja Sundara. C. S. – Charaka Samhita. D. N. – Dhanvantari Nighantu. K. N. – Kaideva Nighantu. M.P.N. – Madana Pala Nighantu. R.A. - Rasamritam. R.A.N. - Rasarnava. R.C. - Rasendra chudamani. R.J.N. - Rasa Jala Nidhi. R.N. - Raja Nighantu. R.K. - Rasa Kamadhenu. R.P.S. - Rasaprakasha Sudhakara. R.R.S. - Rasa Ratna Samucchaya. R.S.S. - Rasendra Sara Sangraha. R.T. - Rasa Tarangini. S.S. - Sushruta Samhita. S.R. - Switrari Rasa S.L.. - Switrari Lepa III
  14. 14. ABSTRACT The Rasayogas are frequently divided on the basis of samskara given to them hasled to the evolution of Kharaleeya, Parpati, Kupipakwa and Pottali Rasayanas with variedtherapeutic efficacy. Switrarirasa is a kharaliya rasayana and is a Sagni, Sagandha, Murchana ofParada. Rasoushadhis with various elements along with Kajjali is proved more effectivethan herbal formulations in lesser dosage. Switrari rasa and lepa are unique herbo mineralcombination of drugs to treat switra. Before its clinical applications it the need of hour tocritically undergo pharmaceutical and analytical evaluation as a part of safty measureshence study is undertaken.Objectives: 1) Preperation of switrari rasa and lepa 2) Pharmaceutical analysis of switrari rasa and lepa 3) To evaluate the clinical efficacy of switrari rasa and lepa Therapeutic efficacy of Switrari rasa and lepa was evaluated in single blindclinical trial on 30 selected cases of switra. Result showed highly significant by studentsparired t test. Overall response to the treatment was found to be well (60%) out of 30patients under trial.Key words: Kharaliya rasayana, Switra, Preperation of switrari rasa, analytical study andTherapeutic efficacy. IV
  15. 15. Introduction INTRODUCTION Ayurveda is the repository of safe and therapeutically officious remedies andAyurvedic physicians handle diseases with great success. Ayurvedic medicines areformatted only after centuries of trial and experience, and then are well known to be freefrom toxicity. Some metals and minerals, vegetables, and animal products are toxic by nature.To make them force from toxicity. And to make them easily digestible absorble andassimilable these are subjected to the process of shodhana and marana. It is because ofthis the products are included within the scope of Rashashatra research. In present daymedical practice, Ayurvedic physicians profusely use metals, minerals, gems etc fortreating chronic and kastasadhyaj vyadhis as pharmaco kinetics and pharmacodynamicsexplain the rationality of different drugs used in modern medicines. Similarly theapropriateness of the processing followed by Ayurvedic Physicians to make metals etc.from toxicity and to potentiate them to achieve the therapeutic excellence. Skin is the index of health which is the largest organ of the body. But some timesextra because of our internal environment or atmospheric effects change subjects us tomany more skin problems. The developed countries are affected more with skin problemsthat of the other organic diseases. It is true that the discoloration of the skin inducesindividual subjected for social stigma. Shweta kusta or switra is compared to the vitiligo. Vitiligo is such a commonchronic and progressive skin disease. Which is characterized by the lack of melaninepigments producing skin patches with sharp and often hyper pigmented edges. Thisdisease affects approximately 1% of the world wide population. 1 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
  16. 16. Introduction Since the etiological cause of vitiligo may not be removed medicine may only acton symptoms by means of therapies aimed at restoring the lost colour uniformity.However it is not always easy to suggest to a patent treatment being effective long lostingand free of side effects at the same time. As vitiligo is relatively common skin disorder iswhich white spots or patches appear on the skin. These spots are caused by distruction orweakening of the pigment cells in those areas, resulting in the melanine pigments beingdestroyed or no longer produced melanine is synthesized by special cells calledmelanocytes. Which restore the melanins, in most cases vitiligo is believed to be anautoimmune related disorder in vitiligo only the colour of the skin is affected but textureand other skin qualities remain normal. Vitiligo is not contagenous but it is a one of the common hereditary disease.Today there is more research and more treatment options available than over before i.ecreams exciliers lasers, skin grafting and pigment transplantation, topical psoralens andpotentially the use of immunomodulators. There is no one treatment that works for every one different therapies work betterfor different people. However some measure may be taken to minimize its effects. 1. Here is an attempt to reach the optimum cure of vitiligo with Rasoushadhis i.e switrari Rasa and switra lepa have been subjected to clinical trail for its switragna activity,Need for the study Switrari Rasa and lepa are effective herbomineral components which areexplained in Rasashastra texts, especially indicated in Switra roga. 2 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
  17. 17. Introduction Switra is a cosmetic problem. The change in appearance caused by this conditioncan effect a person’s emotions and psychological well being where the person feelsashamed and depressed. Switra is a disease pertaining to Twacha1 which turns the normal colour of theskin to white. It can be correlated to that of vitiligo in contemporary medicine which is aachromatic mocular depigmentory condition resulting from loss melanine pigment2. Thiscondition effects about 1-2% of the world population3 and 3-4 in India. All the races andboth sexes are equally affected. Though the contemporary medical science tries to treatthis condition with different types of repigmentation therapies which fails to offersatisfactory results. In this concern Ayurvedic treatment through holistic approachpromises to the patients appearance and restore the normal pigmentation of this skin.Switrari rasa and lepa selected have internal and external applications respectively as thuscontents of the yogas are quite economic. Hence the present study evaluation of theefficacy of Switrari rasa and lepa is under taken.Previous work done on Switra:Recent research works taken place regarding Switra are as follows 13; 1. Ameen A.M. Switra vimarsh (Bhallataka sidha ghrita yoga), 1967, Jamnagar: 2. Dahiya J .Studies on the Switra and its management,1983, Jamnagar: 3. Patil A K Survey of Switra in Jamanagar and vicinity in reference to its nidan and chikitsa.,1984, Jamnagar: 4. Sardar C L. A clinical study of Switra (Leucoderma), and its management with Kakodumbar, and manishiladi lepa1993. Jamnagar: 5. Thakore S R Kakodumbara Prayoga in Switra 1989, Amadabad 3 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
  18. 18. Introduction 6. Ansari ZA Efficacy of certain Ayurvedic drugs in the managements of Vitiligo (Switra), 1985, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 7. Upadhya RK. Therapeutic assessment of some Ayurvedic drugs in the treatment of Vitiligo 1988, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 8. Prithivraj .The concept of Switra and its management in Ayurveda, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 9. Sharma ( Smt ) M. – Switra Roga par Aylagujadi Gutika ( Bhaya Prayogarth) Evam Khadira ( Abhyantara Prayoga ) karmukata Ka Adhyana, Jaipur 10. Sheelaratna M.V -- Switra Roga and its management, Mysore: Govt College of Indian Medicine 11. Shrikantbabu – Evaluation of Kakumbadaradi Yoga in the management of Switra, Mysore : Govt College of Indian Medicine 12. Mishra .S – A clinical trial of some indigenous drugs on Switra (Vitiligo), Gopa Bandu Ayurvedic Mahavidyalaya, Puri 13. Lahari .P.K – Clinical studies and management of Switra kushtha ( Leucodermia) with Ayurveda, Gopa Bandu Ayurvedic Mahavidyalaya, Puri. 14. Tiwari SK, Evaluation of the efficacy of Dhatryadi Yoga (internal) and Avalgujadi lepa (External) along with and with out Shodhana (Vamana) in Switra (W.S.R. to Vitiligo), 2001, DGM AMC, RGUHS, Bangalore. 15. Venkaraddiyar B.H. Evaluation of the efficacy of Kakodumbaradighanavati (Internal) and Ayorajadilepa (External) in the Management of Switra. 2006, D.G.M.A.M.C. R.G.U.H.S. Bangalore. 4“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
  19. 19. Objectives OBJECTIVESPresent study is made under the following headings. 1. Drug review 2. Disease review 3. Preparation of Switrari rasa and switra lepa 4. Physico chemical analysis 5. Clinical trial (Materials and methods) 6. Discussion 7. Conclusion 8. Summary 5 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
  20. 20. Review of Literature HingulaIntroduction Hingula is a compound of Parada and Gandhaka. It is obtained from mines asa natural mineral and prepared artificially also. This is the chief source of mercurysince ancient times to till date. Anandakanda named Hingula as Rasagarbha and it isRasagandha sambhava according to Rasarnava. Parada extracted from Hingula is saidto be equivalent to ashtasamskarita Parada.Synonyms5,6 Various paryayas are described by different acharyas.Table No.1 showing the synonyms of Hingula according to different authors.Synonyms RAN RJN RSS AP RA RT DN KNHingulam + - - + - - - -Hingul - + - - - + - -Hingula - - + + + + - -Ingula - - - - - + - -Hingulaka - - - - - - - +Mleccha + + - + + + - +Rakta - - - + + + - +Gandhika + - - - - - - +Suranga - + - + - + - +Chitranga - + - - - + - +Churnaparada + + - - - + + -Rasodbhava - - - - - + + -Rasasthana - - - - - + + -Ranjana - - - - - + - -Kupishirshaka - - - - - + - -Raktakaya - - - - - + - -Hamsapada - - - - + + - +Darada + + + + + + - - 6 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
  21. 21. Review of LiteratureShukatunda - - + - - - - -Jati - - - - - - - +Rasagandha + - + - - - - -sambootaDaitya Raktaka - - + - - - - -Mani Ragaja + - - - - - - +Rasagarbha - - + + - - + -Parvata - - - - - - - +Divya - - - - - - - +Vernacular Names 7Scientific Name - Red Sulphide of MercuryEnglish - CinnabarSanskrit - Hingula, DaradaHindi - SingraphBengali - HingulaMarathi - HingulaGujarathi - HinguatoAssami - JanjapherPharsi - SingraphKannada - IngulikaTelegu - InguikamuHistory The Possible references regarding Hingula, since ancient period to present dayare as follows:Vedic Period There are no references about Hingula in Vedic, Prevedic, and Upanishadperiod. 7 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
  22. 22. Review of LiteratureSamhita Kala No references of Hingula found in Charaka Samhita, Sushruta Samhita,Ashtanga sangraha and in Hridaya,Kautilya Arthashastra 8 The author of Kautilya Arthashastra, “Chanakya” has mentioned Hingula inhis text for the first time. He mentioned it for testing of swarnadi dhatus. Use ofHingula as a medicine was not described by him.Nighantu Period In Dhanvantari, Raja and Kaideva Nighantu, references of Hingula is found inbhoumadhatu varga.Rasa KalaRasendra mangala The oldest text of Rasashastra mentioned first time about shodhana andtherapeutic usage of Hingula. Author has used Hingula for the preparation of lohabhasma. He described Parada as a satwa of Hingula and has used the word Darada forHingula.Rasahridaya tantraAcharya Bhagavata Govindapada has mentioned about Hingula.Rasarnava Acharya has included Hingula in maharasa varga. In his text, he discussedabout synonyms, varities and used the term “ Rasagandha sambhootam” forHingula.Use of this term suggests that they were aware of chemical composition ofHingula. 8 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
  23. 23. Review of LiteratureRasaratnakara Author discussed almost all aspects of Hingula and also mentioned artificalpreparation of Hingula. In other Rasagranthas such as RRS, RPS, RSS, R.Chu etc., and in naveenarasa granthas like RT, RA, Siddabhaishajaya manimala etc, we find detail descriptionabout Hingula.Origin Mythological story described that Hingula is a veerya of lord Shiva which wasreceived by god Agni but due to its high intensity he vomited it, this vomited materialfell in Darada desha and become mixed with earthy materials, and called by nameHingula.Occurance9, 10 It is obtained from mines as a natural mineral and also prepared artificiallyIt can be found at most many places all over the world i.e. Spain Italy, Russia,Yogoslavia, Jechoslovia, Germany, Japan, China, USA, Austria, Nepal etc. But no deposit of cinnabar can be detected in India. Hence artificial Hingula isprepared in Surat and Calcutta. The Hingula what we get from market is artificially prepared.Preparation of Artificial Hingula Reference of artificial Hingula preparation is found since Rasaratnakaraperiod. Thereafter many Rasa texts mentioned artificial preparation of Hingula. Following are the ratio of Gandhaka and Parada according to differentacharyas. 9 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
  24. 24. Review of LiteratureRatarangini 11 42 parts of Parada and 8 parts of Gandhaka subjected to paka in mrudangayantra.Ayurveda Prakash12 1 part of Parada and 4 parts of Gandhaka, subjected to pachana in loha patra,after paka, 1/10th part of Manashila added and triturated well. Then it is filled inkachakupi and subjected to pakakarma (mrudu, madyama, and teevragni) in valukayantra.Inclusion of Hingula Different authors of various Rasagranthas have included Hingula under varioustitles.Table No.2 showing Hingula included under following category by different authors: Sl.No. Category Rasagranthas 1 Rasa Rashridaya Tantra 13 2 Maharasa Rasarnava14, Rasakamadhenu 3 Uparasa Anandakanda, Rasendra Sara Sangraha15, Brihat Rasa Rajasundara16, Ayurveda Prakasha17 4 Sadharana rasa Rasajalanidhi18 Resendrachintamani19, Rasa Ratnasamuchaya20, Rasaprakash sudhakara 21, 5 Rasadhatu Rasamruta22 YogartnakaraHingula Bheda No description about varities of Hingula is available in Rasahridaya tantra butwe get reference of Hingula bheda in other texts. 10 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
  25. 25. Review of LiteratureTable No. 3 showing the bheda of Hingula Name of Grantha Charmara Shukatunda Hamsapada Anya Anandakanda + + + - 23 Rasendra Chudamani - + + - 24 Ayurveda Prakash + + + - 25 Rasa Ratna Samuchaya - + + - Rasaprakash Sudhakara - + + - 26 Rasatarangini 27 - - - Kritrima khanija Rasamrita 28 - - +Grahya Hingula Laxanas29The laxanas of ideal varity of Hingula is as follows:  Japakusuma Varnabha : Resembles the color of hibiscus flower  Peshane sumanoharaha : When triturated its colour becomes beautiful  Mahojwala : Reflects specially habiscus when exposed to sunlight.  Bharapurna : Heavy in weight  Sheweta rekha : Having silvery streaks  Pravalabha : Resembles like that of pravala.According to Rasendra Sara Sangraha Hingula possess Bimbiphala samana raktavarna. 11 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
  26. 26. Review of LiteratureAshuddha Hingula sevana dosha, Tasya chikitsa30Ashuddha Hingula sevana may produce many grave symptoms such as1. Andhata2. Kshinata3. Klama4. Bhrama5. Moha6. Prameha It is treated similar to the ashuddha Parada bhakshanajanya dosha, shuddhaGandhaka should be administered for 2 months31.ShodhanaVarious shodhana methods are explained in different classics as follows:  Hingula should be kept in kushmanda khanda, pottali prepared and swedana done in Lakucha swarasa Portia dola yantra. 32  Subject Hingula to 7 bhavanas of Ardraka swarasa and lakucha swarasa 33  Subject Hingula to 7 bhavanas Ardraka swarasa. 34  Hingula should be subjected to bhavana with mahisha dugda and any amla rasa dravya for 7 times. 35  Hingula subjected for 7 bhavanas of Nimbuswarasa 36Hingula PropertiesRasaVarious opinions are available regarding the rasa of Hingula. 12 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
  27. 27. Review of LiteratureTable No.4 showing the Rasa of Hingula according to different texts. Granthas Madhura Tikta Kashaya Katu Rasarnava + + - - Paradasamhita - + + + Ayurveda Prakash - + + + Rasendra Purana - + + + Dhanvantari Nighantu + + - - Raja Nighantu + + - -Guna37 Most of the Rasa Acharyas have considered Hingula as ushna gunayuktadravya.Virya and Vipaka No Rasa text has mentioned about virya and Vipaka of Hingula. ThoughDhanvantari nighantu is the text of dravyaguna vijnana, has mentioned that Hingula ishaving ushna virya and katu vipaka.Doshakarma38,39,40,41,42,43 Even though almost all the authors agree with the tridoshaghna karma of theHingula, some authors have mentioned kaphaghna or kaphapittagna action ofHingula as well.Table No. 5. Showing doshagnata of Hingula according to different authors.Dosha RPS RRS R.Chu B.R.R.S AP RT RA RJNTridoshaghna + + + - - - + +Kaphapittagna - - - + + - - -Kaphaghna - - - - - + - - 13 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
  28. 28. Review of LiteratureKarma44 Sarva doshaghna, Agnivardhaka, Rasayana, Balya, Medya, Garavishanashaka,Netrarogaghna, Ruchikaraka, Loha Ranjana.Vyadhi Prabhava 45 Pramehaghna, Jwaragna, Hridrogahara, Kushtaghna, Amlapittahara,Kamalahara, and is also useful in Aruchi, Amavata, Pleehavruddi, Mandagni,Sandhivata, Hrillasa.Table No.06 Shows the prosperities of Hingula according to different granthas.Properties RPS RRS RC AP BRRS RT RJV RS RRSarvadoshaghnata + + + KP KP KV + - +Deepana + + + - + - + - +Atirasayana + + + - + - + - +Sarvarogahara + + + - - - + - +Vrishya - + + - - - + - +Jaranartha - + - - + - + - -Mehahara - - - + + + + + -Kushtagna - - - + + + + + -Aruchihara - - - + + - + + -Medya - - - + + + + + -Balya - - - + + + + + -Agnivardhaka - - - + - + + + -Netrarogahara - - - + + + - + -Hrillasa - - - + + - - - -Jwaragna - - - + + - - - -Kamalahara - - - + + + - - -Pleehari - - - + + + - - -Amavatari - - - + + + - - -Garavisha nashaka - - - + - + - - -Dehakantikara - - - - - + - - -Lohamaranartha - - - - - - - - -Dravanartha + - - - - - - - -Matra½ to 1 ratti [ 65mg to 125mg ] 14 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
  29. 29. Review of LiteratureAnupanaMaricha, Guda, Pippali, Guduchi swarasa, Madhu, Ardraka swarasa, Tambulaswarasa.Satwapatana 46,47,48 Hingula satwa is Parada; hence Hingula is considered as chief source ofparada. Rasa can be extracted through various procedures viz patana, nadayantra etc.most popular and common method of extraction of Parada is through urdwapatana. Itis described in most of the granthas viz Ayurveda Prakash, Rasatarangini, RasendraSara Sangraha etc.Marana49,50 Generally marana is not advised for Hingula. Shodhita Hingula can be usedfor the preparation of yogas, however elaborate procedure for marana has beendescribed in Ayurveda Prakash, Brihat RasaRajaSundara etc.Vishishta Yoga 1) Ananda Bhairava Rasa 51 2) Hinguleshwara Rasa 52 3) Kaphaketu Rasa 53 4) Hingulad Rasasindoora 54 15 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
  30. 30. Review of Literature Cinnabar55,56 Cinnabar is important ore of mercury, when used as a pigment it is calledVermillion. Nearly all mercury in the world is obtained from cinnabar. It occurs bothin crystalline and massive forms. The ore is a red crystalline mass that is easilydistinguished from all the red minerals by its peculiar shade of colour and its greatweight.General InformationChemical formula - HgsMolecular Weight - 232.66 gmComposition - Mercury (Hg)-86.221 and sulphur (S) –13.781Locality - Alma den, SpainSynonyms - Cinnabre, zinnoberVerities Verities are made according to colour and percentage of Hgs present in it.1) Cinnabar Native This is one of the most important ore of mercury. It contains 95% mercurySulphide and other impurities like carbon, silica, etc. It is bright and dark red incolour.2) Hepatic Cinnabar When percentage of Carbon impurities is higher in cinnabar, its colourbecomes darker like liver colour; such ore is called hepatic cinnabar.3) Meta Cinnabar In this type muddy dust is present in more percent which makes its colour stilldarker almost to black shade. 16 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
  31. 31. Review of Literature4) Coral ore This ore specially occurring in Germany and Italy. When mercury sulphide incoral ore its separated, it is rosy in colour. It contains about 5% mercury.Physico Chemical Property Cinnabar is granular, massive or earthy, it some times occurs beautifullycrystallized in small complex and highly modified hexagonal Crystals. Usually thecrystals are rhombohedral or prismatic. It is cohineal red in colour often incliningbrown. Its streak is bright red. Adamantine to dull luster and perfect prismaticcleavage.Transparency - Opaque or translucentHardness - 2 – 2.5Specific gravity - 8.09Lustre - AdamantineOccurance - Generally it occurs due to the volcanic activity, also available near hot springs. Important places of occurrence are Spain, Western States of USA, Mexico.Solubility:It is insoluble in water and acids but dissolves in aquaragia and forms mercuricchloride.In the presence of a strong oxidizing agents like potassium chloride, it forms mercuricchlorideRoastingWhen Unconcentrated ore is roasted in air, Cinnabar is oxidized to mercuric oxideand sulphur dioxide is released and mercuric oxide so forms decomposes to givemercury and oxygen. 17 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
  32. 32. Review of Literature 2Hgs+302 2So2+2Hgo 2Hgo 2Hg+O2The mercury thus obtained will be pure in nature.Mercury sulphide reacts with concentrated potassium Sulphide solution to give acomplex thiosalt. Hgs + K2S K2Hgs2 On sublimation mercuric sulphide becomes red. Extraction of Parada from Hingula In ancient days the only source of mercury was Hingula. Since olden days it isaccepted that Hingulotha Parada is pure and devoid of sapta kanchuka doshas andbelieved to posses the property similar to Gandhajeerna Suta57. In Rasa Ratanakaraalso it is advised to use Hingulotha Parada for all purposes.History Its references are not found in Prevedic, Vedic and Samhita period. Itsreferences are found since Rasarnava period. After, it has been explained in all Rasagranthas viz Rasaprakash Sudhakara, Rasendra Sara Sangraha, Anandakanda,Ayurveda Prakash, Rasatarangini etc. Vidyadhara yantra, Urdwapatana yantra etc. areused for the extraction of Parada.Hingulad Rasa karshana Vidhi Prior to extraction of parada, Hingula should be subjected to shodhana.Many procedures are described in Rasa texts for extraction of Parada from Hingula.They are following: 1) Urdwapatana yantra process 58 2) Adhapatana Yantra process 59 3) Tiryakapatana yantra process 60 4) Nada yantra process 61 18 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
  33. 33. Review of LiteratureUrdhwapatana Method This method is more commonly followed for extraction of mercury. In thisprocess Hingula is triturated with Nimbu swarasa and made into chakrikas & kept insunlight for drying. They after being dried are kept in earthen pot covering withanother pot of same size and sealed at the joint with cloth and mrittika in such a wayso as to make it air tight. Then heat the lower pot and cool the upper pot with wetcloth so that mercury fumes can condense in the upper pot. Then allow theurdwapatana Yantra (Damaruyantra) to cool by itself and open the pot and collect themercury. If some amount of unburnt Hingula is remaining repeat the process andcollect the mercury.Superiority of Hingulotha parada62 Parada extracted from Hingula is considered to be best because it is free fromvarious types of doshas. Hence, the same does not need any further samskar and couldbe used even without subjecting to asthasamskaras. It is claimed that, Parada soextracted is capable of performing all the actions attributed to it. According toRasaprakash, Sudhakara” Hingulakrusta Parada possesses all the properties, which areseen in gandha jarita parada. Thus it is considered superior. 19 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
  34. 34. Review of Literature Parada In Rasashastra, Parada has been given an elevated place. It is claimed that, itnot only cures the diseases and senility but also responsible for moksha. Its meretouch, vision of Parada can make the man free from all sins and bless him withpunya63. Mythological it is believed the Parada is originated by Lord Shiva. Paradahas got amalgamating quality because of which it carries the properties ofamalgamated materials. Hence it is successfully used as potent medicine in Ayurvedictherapeutics. It is a shining, silvery white metal, liquid at ordinary temperature. It isthirteen times heavier than water. Pure mercury does not possess taste and smell64.Synonyms of parada 65,66 Many synonyms of Parada are explained by different Rasacharayas dependingon factors such as its swaroopa, gati, dehavada, dhatuvada etc.Table No.7. Showing the synonyms of paradaSl Property SynonymsNo.1 Swaroopatmaka Galadroupyanibham, Mahavahni, Mahateja, Suvarna.2 Dharmika / Devatamaka Trinetra, Trilochana, Deva, Dehaja, Prabhu Rudraja, Lokesh, Vijendraja, Budha, Rajaswala, Shiva, Shivaveerya, Skanda, Harateja, Harabija, Shivabija, Pavana, Lokanath.3 Gatyatmaka Khechara, Chapala, Chala, Dhurtaka.4 Dehavadatmaka Amrita, Jaiva, Dehada, Paramamrita Parata, Parada, Mrityu nashana, Rasayana, Rasayana shreshta, Jaitra.5 Dhatuvadatmaka Divyarasa, Maharasa, Rasa, Rasendra, Rasesh, Rasottama, Rasadhatu, Rasaraja, Rasanath, Siddadhatu, Soota, Sootaka, Sootaratha, Mishraka.6 Vishishta guna Ananta, Amara, Yashade, Soubhagya, Sukshma, Kalikantaka.7 Darshanika Adyatmika Jeeva, Jaiva, Divya, Achintya. 20 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
  35. 35. Review of LiteratureVernacular Name 67,68English - MercuryLatin Name - HydrargyrumSanskrit - ParadaHindi - ParaBengali - ParaGujarathi - ParaAssami Jivaka, inul HayataParsi - Simaba, JivahTelegu - PadarasamuKannada - PadarasaHistorical Review,69,70,71,72 In Indian Alchemy Parada is considered as one of the important drug. It hasgot ability to amalgamate with most of the metals. Indian history says that Parada isbeing used as a medicine since 6000 years.Vedic periodThe references of Parada are not available in prevedic, vedic and Upanishad period.Samhita Kala References of Parada are found in Charaka Samhita. Sushruta Samhita andAshtanga Hridaya. In Samhita Parada is used externally for lepanartha and its internaladministration is not found.Koutilya Arthashastra We find reference of Parada in Koutilya Arthashastra. In Swarna bhedaprakarana author has explained Rasavidda as one of the types of Swarna. 21 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
  36. 36. Review of LiteratureRasaKala In all Rasagranthas we find the references of Parada. Even the old granthassuch as Rasendra Mangala, Rasarnava etc. include Parada as their major content.Most of Rasa granthas have described every aspect of Parada i.e., Parada paryaya,Parada utpatti, Parada dosha, Shodhana, different samskaras, marana etc.Occurance73 In Rasaratna Samucchaya, it is mentioned that in ancient times mercury wasfound mainly in Darada desha and also in Himalayas in small amounts. But now adays it is obtained mainly from the mines of Spain, America, Italy, Australia, British,China, Russia, Japan and Africa as Cinnabar or Metacinnabar. It occurs in 2 forms. 1. Native 2. Ore formOres of Mercury74 Generally mercury is found in the form of ores, the most important arecinnabar and Metacinnabar, which are in sulphide forms.Table No. 8 Showing the ores of parada along with their chemical composition. Sl No. Ores Chemical Composition 1 Cinnabar Hgs 2 Metacinnabar Hgs 3 Calomel Hg2Cl2 4 Living stonite 2sb2C3Hgs 5 Montrodyte Hgo 6 Falh ore 7 Bassenite 8 Gwadal kajrite 9 Living ore of mercury 10 Caronine ore of mercury 11 Brick ore of mercury 22 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
  37. 37. Review of LiteratureBhedasBhedas of Parada described in various texts are based on following factors: 1. Depending on the color. 2. Depending on the place of origin.01. Depending on the Color 75 As soon as Parada is taken out of kupa, it has been classified into 4 varities onthe basis of its color and its luster.Table No.9 Showing the varities of Parada depending on the color and theirkarma also specified.Sl.No. Types Color Varna Karma1 Shweta White Brahmana Shwetakarma2 Rakta Red Kshatriya Therapeutics3 Peeta Yellow Vaishya Used in alchemy or to prepare gold.4 Krishna Black Shudra Used in Maintaining healthDepending on the Place of origin 76,77,78,79Table No. 10 showing the varieties of Parada depending upon the place of origin.Sl.No. Varieties Color Impurities Uses1 Rasa Rakta Which is free from all Rasayana types of impurities2 Rasendra Peeta Free from impurities Rasahara3 Suta Ishatpeeta Impurities present Rogahara4 Mishraka Mayura Impurities present Saravasiddi Chandrika dayaka VarnaParada dosha 80,81 Parada is highly reactive and it readily mixes with other dhatus. Henceprobability of impurities present in it is more. These are explained under the headingof Parada doshas in our classics. If are not eradicated by shodhana process can lead tomany diseases and even death. Some authors described the doshas or blemishes of 23 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
  38. 38. Review of LiteratureParada collectively. In other granthas viz Rasa Ratna Samuchaya, doshas have beenconsidered in 3 groups: 1. Naisargika Dosha 2. Yougika Dosha 3. Oupadhika Dosha (Sapta Kanchuka Dosha)Table No.11 Naisargika Dosha and its effect on sharira. NAISARGIKA DOSHA Sl.No. Dosha Prabhava 1 Visha Mrityu 2 Agni Santapa 3 Mala MoorchaTable No. 12 Yougika Dosha and its effect on sharira YOUGIKA DOSHA Sl.No. Dosha Prabhava 1 Naga Jadya, Adhmana, Kushta 2 Vanga Jadya, Adhmana, KushtaTable No. 13 Oupadhika (Sapta kanchuka) Dosha and its effect Sl.No. Dosha Prabhava 1 Bhumija Kushta 2 Girija Jadya 3 Varija Vata sanghata 4 Two Naga Dosha Vividha dosha vikara 5 Two Naga Dosha Vividha dosha vikara Though Oupadhika doshas like Bhumija etc are also called sapta kanchuka, itis unclear why again different sapta kanchuka doshas have been described. This maylead to assumption that they are two different sets of doshas. 24 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
  39. 39. Review of LiteratureThe names of sapta kanchuka doshas are as followsBhumija : Parpati.Girija : Patini.Varija : Bhedi.Two Naga dosha : Dravi, Malakari.Two Vanga dosha : Andhakari, Dhwankshi. Sapta kanchuka doshas are claimed to be responsible for various disorders,according to the Subhodini tika on Rasaratna Samucchaya.Parpati : Dries up the skin making it scaly.Patini : Cracking of the skin.Bhedi : Loose stools.Dravi : Liquifying the dhatus.Malakari : Aggravation of malas.Andhakari : Blindness.Dhwankshi : Hoarseness in the voice.Parada Grahya SwaroopaBahirujwala : Externally Parada is shiningMadhyahna surya pratimam : It looks like mid-day sun.Antah neelavarna : Internally it has bluish tinge.Effect of Ashuddha parada sevana 82 It is said in the texts that impure mercury if used internally may producevarious diseases in the body viz Vidaha, Krimi, Kushta, Agnimandya, Aruchi, Chardi,Jadya and even Mrityu. 25 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
  40. 40. Review of Literature Thus it may cause serious ill effects and hence purified Parada should be usedfor medication. It is also said that shuddha Parada is like an amrita and ashuddha islike poison.Shodhana83 For elimination of Naisargika, Yougika and Oupadhika doshas, Parada shodhanais very important. Shodhana of parada has been broadly divided into 2 divisions. 1. Samanya and Vishesha Shodhana. 2. Group of Eighteen special procedures i.e. Ashtadasha Samskar. When Parada is to be used to prepare medicine to combat diseases, the first set ofshodhana is useful. If it is to be used for Rasayana karma then the Ashtadashasamskar has to be followed. Any Rasa karma has to be conducted in shubha nakshatra and shubha dina,worshiping Lord Shankara and Bhairava, because the studies have shown that thoseparticular days, time and worshipping will impart the efficacy in medicine. Hence itshould be necessarily followed.Samanya Shodhana84, 85 Different procedures are explained by various granthas for Samanya shodhanaof Parada.TableNo.14 Showing Samanya shodhana of Parada according to differentauthors: S.L.No. Shodhana dravyas used Procedure used 1 Sudharaja, Mardana done for 3 days, Vastraghalana 2 Lashuna, Saindhava Mardana for 7 days in taptakhalva, Prakshalana. 3 Tambula swarasa, Ardraka Mardana for 3 days, Prakshalana. swarasa, Ksharatraya With amla dravya. 4 Kumari swarasa, Mardana for 3 days prakshalana Chitraka, Raktasarshapa, with kanji. Brihati, Triphala kwatha. 26 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
  41. 41. Review of LiteratureVishesha Shodhana86 Different acharyas have explained specific measures to eradicate the specificdoshas present in the Parada.Table No.15 Showing Vishesha shodhana of Parada according to differentauthors Sl.No. Dosha Shodhana dravyas Procedure used used 1 Naga dosha Gruhadhuma, Ishtika Mardana for 1 day, choorna, Haridra prakshalana with choorna, Urna bhasma kanji 2 Vanga dosha Indrayava Ankola Mardana, churna, Haridra prakshalana with churna, kanji. 3 Agni dosha Chitrakamula churna Mardana or Triphala churna, parada 4 Mala dosha Aragwada churna or Mardana, Kumari swarasa, prakshalana 5 Chapala dosha Krishnaduttura Mardana, panchanga, parada prakshalana 6 Visha dosha Triphala churna or Mardana, Chitrakamula churna prakshalana 7 Giri dosha Trikatu churna Mardana vastra ghalana 8 Asahya agni Gokshura churna Mardana doshaAshtadasha samskara87 The eighteen special procedure of shodhana of Parada can further be classifiedinto a sub group called as Astha samskara. It will have both properties i.e. Vyadhi 27 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
  42. 42. Review of Literaturenashana and rasayana. Remaining 10 procedures are specially utilized in dhatuvada.They are as mentioned below. Rasayanartha Dhatuvadartha1) Swedana 5) Patana 9) Gaganabhakshana 14) Sarana2) Mardana 6) Rodhana 10) Charana 15) Ranjana3) Moorchana 7) Niyamana 11) Garbhadruti 16) Kramana4) Uttapana 8) Deepana 12) Bahyadruti 17) Vyadha 13) Jarana 18) BhakshanaPharmacological and Therapeutic properties of Shodhita Parada88Rasa : ShadrasaGuna : Snigdha, saraVirya : UshnaVipaka : MadhuraKarma : Yogavahi, Rasayana, Ativrishya, Balya, Vajikara, Drushitibala prada, Vayasthapaka, Bhukti, Muktiprada, Pushtikara, Deepana, Ayushkara, Agni Sandhukshana, Dehasiddikara, Lohasiddikara, Ropana, Krimighna.Dosha Prabhava : TridoshaghnaVyadhi Prabhava : Krimi, Kushta, Akshiroga, Kshaya, Tridosha roga, Papaja roga Sarvarogahara.Parada Marana89 Different acharyas have described several procedures of Parada marana.Method: Kajjali is prepared with 2 palas of Parada and 1 pala of Gandhaka, thenbhavana given with swarasa or kashaya of Parada maraka gana oushadhies and dried 28 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
  43. 43. Review of Literaturelater it is kept in musha and sandhi bandhana made. Parada bhasma prepared bybhudhara yantra method.Matra90,91Parada can be administered for Vyadhi nashanartha as well as for Rasayanartha.Mruta parada : 2 rattiSwarna jarita parada : ½ rattiVaikranta jarita parada : ½ rattiVajra jarita parada : 1/4 rattiParada yoga : 1 rattiAnupana It has to be suggested according to Vyadhi.PatyapatyaPurana godhuma, Shalianna, Godugda, Gritha, Dadhi, Hamsodaka, Mudga, Yusha areincluded under patyavargaKakarshtaka gana, Masha, Kulutha, Anupa mamsa, Guru, Vishtambhi, Amla aharasevana, etc are included under apatya varga.Parada YogasKajjali92Makaradhwaja93Rasaparpati94Hemagarbha Pottali Rasa95 29 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
  44. 44. Review of Literature Mercury96, 97,98,1. English Name :Quick silver2. Latin Name : Hydrargyrum3. Chemical Formula : Hg.2) Mercury is the only metal which is liquid at room temperature. It is shining, silverywhite heavy liquid easily divisible into globules. It is extremely mobile, readilyvolatises on heating. It is 13.5 times more dense than water and 1.2 times heavier thanlead. It exists in three forms metallic, mercurous and mercuric. Metallic mercury is(Hg2+) also known by the name quicksilver, i.e. a liquid metal having a bright silverluster. It exists in nature as metal itself and also found in sulphide form (Cinnabar).Metallic mercury is not poisonous if taken orally because it is not absorbed. Itvaporizes even at room temperature to an extent sufficient to permit inhalation totoxic amounts. Mercury depresses cellular enzymatic mechanisms by combating withsulphahydral groups.Physical Properties Colour : Silvery white. Atomic No : 80 Atomic Weight : 200.61 Specific Gravity : 13.59 Freezing Point : -390C Boiling point : 357.250CSimple tests of pure mercury 1. Boiling point of mercury is 357.250C. When metallic impurities are present, its boiling point changes to lower temperature. 30 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
  45. 45. Review of Literature 2. Pure mercury does not stick to a clean glass, on the contrary impure mercury leaves behind its track on the clean glass. 3. Impure mercury when shaken for some time in an open air, it forms a thin film of blackish powder over its surface. This is due to oxidation of the metallic impurities. If mercury is pure, this does not occur.Chemical PropertiesEffect of Air: At ordinary room temperature, with low or high humidity, mercury is not at allaffected chemically. If it is heated in an open air gradually up to its boiling point, itreacts with oxygen present in the atmosphere to form oxide of mercury.Effect of water on mercuryWater at any temperature has not any chemical effect on mercury.Effect of Acids: Hydrochloric acid, dilute or concentrated does not cause any change inmercury chemically. Concentrated sulphuric acid also does not bring about anychange in mercury, however it produces sulphur dioxide gas when used in hot andconcentrated form. Hg+2H2SO4 Hgso4+2H2o+SO2Concentrated nitric acid reacts with mercury, to produce mercury nitrate and nitrogenoxide Hg+6HNo3 Hg (NO3)2 + No + 3H2o + No2Effects of Alkalies: Alkalies may it be concentrated or dilute, hot or cold do not have any effect onmercury5) Halogen compounds: 31 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
  46. 46. Review of Literature Halogen and halogen compounds i.e Iodine, Bromide, Flourine, Chlorine andtheir compounds do have effects on mercury to from Iodides, bromides fluorides andchlorides.Hg + Cl2 HgCl2Amalgam Formation Mercury forms alloys with many metals and those are called amalgams.Metallic properties of such amalgams are very useful in different industries andmedicines.Absorption, Distribution and Excretion: The absorption, distribution and excretion of mercury and its compounds varyconsiderably with the chemical form of the metal. The soluble inorganic mercurial (Hg2+) readily gain access to the circulationwhen taken by mouth, although a considerable portion of ingested Hg2+ may remainfixed to the alimentary mucosa and the intestinal contents. Insoluble inorganicmercurous compounds, such as calomel (Hg2Cl2), may undergo some oxidation tosoluble, absorbable compounds. In suitable vehicles, inorganic mercurials may bereduced to elemental mercury and deposited as a grey to bliush pigment. In the blood,Hg+2 is first fixed to globulins and erythrocytes but later shifts to albumin, fromwhich it is redistributed tissues with a half-time of about 15 days. Within few hoursthe mercury is found in tissues in the following approximate order of decreasingconcentration. Pancreas, kidney, liver, spleen, blood, bone marrow, upper respiratoryand buccal mucosa, intestinal wall (especially colon), skin, salivary glands, heart,skeletal muscle, brain and lung. There is some evidence that mercuric salts can bestored in bones. Some tissues have a lower capacity bind to mercury than to others so 32 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
  47. 47. Review of Literaturethat distribution may be dose dependant. Also the distribution changes over the courseof time. In the kidney, mercury is found primarily in the proximal tubules. Excretion of mercury starts immediately after absorption, mainly by way ofkidney and colon, and to a lesser extent via the bile and saliva. Small amounts are alsoexcreted in volatile elemental form, through both lungs and the skin. Most of themercury is excreted within 6 days after administration but traces may be detectedfrom months to even years. The absorption, distribution and excretion of the mercury of organicmercurials is determined by Physico-chemical factors and the extent of in-vivoconversion to inorganic mercury. Methyl mercury compounds, the most important ofthe environmental mercury contaminants, are lipid soluble and are rapidly and almostcompletely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.Therapeutic uses The inorganic mercuric salts, as well as certain organic compounds ofmercury, are employed chiefly as antiseptics and preservatives. Also certain mercurycompounds are effective parasiticides and fungicides when locally applied. Certaincomplex organic mercurial compounds are employed as diuretic. Mercurous chlorideis an absolute cathartic. The metal is of historical interest in syphilo therapy. Thespecific actions of mercury are: 1. Antiseptic 2. Anti syphilitic 3. Diuretic 4. CatharticMercury exhibits its therapeutic manifestation in a following manner:  Mercury ions are strong protein precipitants and act as antiseptic. 33 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
  48. 48. Review of Literature  They stimulate secretory activities of many glands such as salivary, intestinal etc.  They interfere with reabsorption of fluid by the intestine (cathartic action)  The mercurial diuretics act primarily to inhibit water reabsorption by the tubules of the kidney and therefore interfering with reabsorbing function of the tubules.Other uses of mercury  It finds use in thermometers, barometers, manometers, and high vaccume air pumps.  It is used in extraction of gold and silver by amalgamation process.  Mercury is used in preparation of its alloys with other metals called amalgams.  Amalgams of tin, silver and gold are used in the dentistry.Mercury poisoningMercury is highly toxic, its ingestion may lead to a manifestation of many symptomsand even death.Acute poisoning Acute poisoning usually results from the oral ingestion of highly dissociatedinorganic preparations, although it may also result from inhalation of vapours ofelemental mercurial ointments applied tropically. Symptoms produced may vary fromone individual to other. Metallic taste, swollen and grayish appearance of the mouth, pharynx, andgastric mucosa, intense pain in the affected tissues, vomiting, nausea, severe, profuse,bloody diarrhea, oliguria, circulatory collapse, uremia, gangrenous colitis may beobserved. 34 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
  49. 49. Review of LiteratureChronic poisoning Chronic mercury intoxication can result from wide variety of industrial,agricultural, and domestic exposures. It also occurs among those who have takeninternally for a prolonged period of excessive doses of mercury compounds. The symptoms produced are gingivitis, stomatitis, loosening of the teeth,salivation, metallic taste, colitis, retrogressive renal damage, loss of appetite,nutritional disturbances, anemia, hypertension and peripheral neuritis. The CNS isespecially involved, as evidenced by behavioral changes, mental depression,irritability, blushing, insomnia, intention tremors, occasionally hallucinations.Fatal dose : 1 – 4 gms.Fatal period : 3 – 5 days.Treatment  A source of sulphahydral-rich protein such as milk or raw eggs, is introduced into the stomach.  Copious lavage is performed with 5% solution of sodium formaldehyde sulphoxylate.  This provides an excellent local antidote. It reduces bivalent mercuric ion to the much less soluble mercurous form.  Intramuscular dimercaprol or a penicillamine is given to chelate the mercury and accelerate its excretion. Prompt therapy with metal-chelating agents affords the kidney almost complete protection from the toxic effects of mercury.  Fluid, electrolyte and cardiac abnormalities and shock must be corrected  Hemodialysis may be required to relieve uremia. 35 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
  50. 50. Review of Literature Line of treatment remains same for chronic poisoning also. But response isslow to therapy and patient may remain ill health for years. GANDHAKA Gandhaka is next to Parada and has been explained in Dhatu Karma and in thepreparation of various Rasaushadhis. It is grouped under Uparasa Varga by authors ofdifferent Rasa classics like Rasa Hrudaya Tantra, Rasendra Chudamani, RasaPrakasha Sudhakara, Rasa Ratna Samuchchaya and Rasa Kamadhenu.Mythological origin99 Mythologically Gandhaka is said to be the result of churning of Ksheerasagaraand it is originated along with Amruta and said to origin from the menstrual flow ofParvati.Vernacular Names- Assami – Kiburit, Bengali – Gandhaka, English – Sulphur, Gujarati – Gandhaka, Hindi – Gandhaka, Marathi – Gandhaka, Parsi – Gogrid, Kannada – Gandhaka, Telugu– Gandhakamu.Synonyms100Saugandhika Putigandha NavanithaGandhapashana Atigandha Daityendra GandhiPamari Gandhamadana Rasa Gandhaka BaliKeetadhna Sugandhika Balivasa KruragandhaGandhika Kushtari Gandha Shulbari 36 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
  51. 51. Review of LiteratureTypes of Gandhaka- Rasarnava explained three types of Gandhaka and remaining authorsexplained four types. The following table shows types of Gandhaka according todifferent Rasa Classics. Table no.16. Showing types of Gandhaka according to Rasa Classics Sl Types RRS101 AP102 RPS103 YR104 Ra.Chu105 1. Shuka Chanchunibha Shukatunda (Rakta) + + + + + 2. Shukapichchanibha + + + + + (Peeta) 3. Shukla (Shweta) + + + + + 4. Krishna (Black) + + + + + Table no.17 Showing types of Gandhaka and their qualities and uses106 Sl.No. Types Quality Used for 1. Shukachunchanibham Sreshta Dhatuvada 2. Shukapichchanibham Madhyama Rasayana Karma 3. Shukla Adhama Loha Marana 4. Krishna Jara Mrutyu NashanaGrahya lakshanas of Gandhaka1071. That which is clear. 2. Turmeric in colour.3. Shiny. 4. Smooth to touch like that of butter. The above said qualities are present in Amalasara Gandhaka which isrecommended for Rasa-Rasayana Karma.Pharmacological and Therapeutic Properties108, 109  Rasa : Katu, Tikta, Kashaya  Guna : Ushna, Sara, Snigdha  Virya : Ushna 37 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
  52. 52. Review of Literature  Vipaka : Madhura (R.C.), Katu (RRS; AP)  Karma : Deepana, Pachana, Vishahara, Jantughna, Rasayana, Balya, Veerya Vardhaka, Kandu, and Visarpahara.  Dosha Prabhava : Kaphavatahara, Pittavardhaka  Vyadhi Prabhava : Garavishahara, Kshudra Kushtahara, Kasa, Shwasa, Agnivardhaka, Rasayana, Dadruhara.Doshas of Gandhaka110 -According to Rasa classics, Gandhaka has two types ofdoshas;  Sila Churna (Physical impurities like clay, sand etc)  Visha (Chemical impurities Viz., arsenical, lead etc) Gandhaka should be purified before administering internally other wise it willproduce the diseases like Kushta, Bhrama, Klama, Paithika Roga, Balakshaya,Shukrakshaya, Veeryahani and Kandu.Shodhana – According to Rasa classics the Shodhana of Gandhaka can be carried out byusing following dravyas: Godugdha, Nimbu Swarasa, Tankana, Goghrita, KaranjaTaila, Ardraka Swarasa, Bhringaraja, Kanji, and Ajadugdha.Methods of Gandhaka Shodhana111,112,113 - Gandhaka is taken in darvi with equal amount of Cow’s Ghee and melted on Mrudu Agni. This liquified Gandhaka is poured into another vessel which contains Cow’s Milk through a cloth tied over the mouth of the vessel. After that it is taken out and washed with hot water. 38 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
  53. 53. Review of Literature Gandhaka is melted and poured into a vessel containing Bhringaraja Swarasa and boiled for some time and this process is repeated for seven times. A vessel with wide mouth is filled with Cow’s Milk with a cloth tied on the mouth of the vessel. The powdered Gandhaka should be spread on this and covered with a broad Sharava. Cow dung cakes are then spread upon the Sharava and ignited. After self cooling the manibhakara Gandhaka is collected and washed with water and this process is called as Kurma puta Gandhaka Shodhana.Dose of Gandhaka114- 1 to 8 Ratti.Pathya115- Mamsa Bhakshana of wild animals and birds, Cow’s Milk, Ghee and Rice.Apathya116- Kshara, Amla, Atilavana, Katu, Vidahi and Stree sevana should beavoided.Gandhaka Yogas117 – Kajjali; Gandhaka Rasayana; Rasa Parpati; Makaradhwaja; Rasa Sindura and Samira pannaga Rasa. 39 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
  54. 54. Review of Literature SULPHUR118 The name sulphur is derived from the Sanskrit word “Sulveret” through theLatin Sulphurium.History- The ancients probably due to its frequent occurrence in Free State knewSulphur. Aryans, Greeks, Romans and Indians used it for fumigation and as medicine.The Bible refers to be as “Brimstone” meaning “Burning Stone”. Antony lavoiserplaced it among the elements in 1777, which was regarded as “Principle of fire”. It isestimated as the 9th most abundant element in the universe.Occurrence- Sulphur is distributed in nature both in free and combined form. Free sulphuris found in volcanic regions in Sicily. Approximately 0.06% of earth’s crust containssulphur. Pure sulphur contains traces of Selenium, Tellurium and Arsenic some timesmixed with Bitumen and Clay. Sulphur is found because of sublimation or interaction of Sulphurous vapourdecomposition of pyrite and other Sulphide mineral. There are important minerals andcompounds containing sulphur such as:Sulphides: Zinc Blend (ZnS), Galena (PbS), Copper Pyrites (CuFeS2), Cinnabar (HgS), Iron pyrites (FeS).Sulphate: Gypsum (CaSO4 2H2O), Barytes (Ba SO4), Epsom salt (MgSo4 7H2O), Ferrous sulphate (FeSo4 7H2O) Traces of sulphur occur as H2S in Volcanic gases, organic substance such aseggs, proteins, garlic, mustard, onion, hair and wool. It is an essential non-metal andis a minor constituent of fats, body fluids and skeleton muscles. Sulphur appears assolid and liquid form. 40 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
  55. 55. Review of LiteratureSolid - Rhombic and MonoclinicLiquid - S and S (Amorphous sulphur)Some of the basic information on sulphur is as follows:  Name : Sulphur  Symbol : S  Atomic Number : 16  Atomic Mass : 32.06. Amu  Melting point : 112.80C  Boiling point : 444.60C  Number of Protons/ Electrons: 16  Number of Neutrons : 16  Classification : Non Metal  Crystal structure : Orthorhombic  Varna : Yellow  British spelling : Sulphur  IUPAC spelling : SulfurImportance of Sulphur to man As a constituent of proteins, essential amino acids, important vitamins and hormones. Sulphur makes up 0.25% of our body weight, meaning that an average adult human body contains around 170 gms of sulphur, of which most occurs in the amino acids cysteine, cystine and methionine. 41 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
  56. 56. Review of Literature Sulphur is involved in the formation of bile acids, which are essential for fat digestion and absorption. It also helps to keep skin, hair and nails healthy. No specific sulphur deficiency diseases are known, however deficiency of sulphur is linked to the skin disorder eczema and also imperfect development of hair and nails. Sulphur containing foods are vegetables (Radishes, Carrots and Cabbage), milkproducts (Cheese), Sea food and Meat protein. 42 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
  57. 57. Review of Literature Kaseesa Kaseesa is considered under Uparasa varga. It is a compound of iron andsulphur, it being a sulphate of Iron. It is made artificially and found in native formalso97. Artificially it is produced by the reaction of sulphuric acid on iron98. Now daysit is mostly made artificially.Synonyms119, 120,121,122 Different paryayas of Kaseesa are listed by various acharyas depending on itsorigin action, properties and specific characteristics.Table No.18 Showing synonyms of Kaseesa according to different Acharyas.Paryayas R.S.S A.P R.A R.TKasisa + + + +Kashisha - + - +Dhatukasisa + + - -Pushpa kasisa - - - +Panshukasisa - - - +Pamshukam - + - +Dhatu Ranjaka + - - -Khechara + - + -Khaya + - + +Vernaculars Names123English : Green vitriolHindi : KasisMarathi : Hira kasBengali : Hira kasGujarati : Hiro kasArabic : Jajarujhar 43 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
  58. 58. Review of LiteratureParsi : Jajs objaTelegu : AnnabedhiClassification of Kaseesa124, 125,126Kaseesa is explained under different titles by our acharyas.Table No. 19 Showing classification according to different granthas.Sl.No. Class Granthas1 Uparasa Rasachintamani, Rasarnava, Rasendra Purana, Rasahridaya Tantra, Rasaratna Samucchaya, Brihat RasaRajaSundara, RasendraSaraSangraha, Rasaprakash sudhakara.2 Upadhatu Sharangadhara Samhita, Rasatarangini3 Dhatu Varga Rasamrita In Charaka Samhita, Kasisa is described under Bhouma gana, and in ushakadigana in Sushruta Samhita, while in Ashtanga Hridaya it is described as Parthivadravya.OccuranceIt is found in native form as well as made artificially. It is available naturally resulting from decomposition of Iron pyrites by theaction of atmospheric moisture and found in small quantities where iron pyrite occurs.Malenterite, which is available naturally (not abundantly) found in USA, Bavaria,Sweden, Spain and Bihar, Punjab in India.Artificial preparation Kasisa is prepared in laboratories by adding sulphuric acid to iron fillings.Varities of Kaseesa Different varieties are explained in different granthas based on its origin andcolor. 44 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
  59. 59. Review of LiteratureTable No. 20 Showing varities of Kasisa according to origin.Reference Churna Pushpakasisa Pamshu Valu kasisa kasisa kasisa 108R.T + + -A.P 109 - + + -RRS 110 - + - +R.Ch 111 - + - +R.PS 112 - + - +Table No. 21. Showing varities of Kasisa according to Color.Reference Shweta Peeta Krishna Harita Rakta kasisa Kasisa kasisa kasisa kasisaRAN 113 + + + -AK + + + - +RP 114 + + + - -BRRS115 + + + - -RJN116 + + + + -Grahya Kasisa127 Of all different verities of Pushpakasisa, which is told as peeta varnaja, isgrahya and it is used for different therapeutic purpose. In Rasamrita, Yadavaji has mentioned that Pushpakasisa is one which isartificially prepared and is the ideal for medicinal purpose.Shodhana of Kasisa128, 129,130,131 Different shodhana methods are explained in various texts. 45 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”