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Preperation, Physico Chemical analysis of Switrari Rasa and Lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra By Dr. KAVITA S. MITTALAKOD, Department of rasashastra, Post graduate studies and research center, ...

Preperation, Physico Chemical analysis of Switrari Rasa and Lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra By Dr. KAVITA S. MITTALAKOD, Department of rasashastra, Post graduate studies and research center, Shri D. G. Melmalagi Ayurvedic Medical College, Gadag

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    • Preparation, Physico Chemical analysis of Switrari Rasa and Lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra By Dr. KAVITA S. MITTALAKOD Dissertation submitted to the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, Bangalore In partial fulfillment of the degree of Ayurveda Vachaspati M.D. In Rasashastra Under the Guidance of Dr. Girish N. Danappagoudar M.D. (Ayu) and Co-guidance of Dr. Jagadeesh G. Mitti M.D. (Ayu) Department of Rasashastra Post Graduate Studies & Research Centre D.G. MELMALAGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, GADAG 2006-2009
    • D.G.M.AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE POST GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH CENTRE GADAG - 582 103 This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SWITRARI RASA AND LEPA, THEIR CLINICALEFFICACY ON SWITRA” is a bonafide research work done by Dr. Kavita. S. Mittalakodin partial fulfillment of the requirement for the post graduation degree of “AyurvedaVachaspati M.D. (Rasashastra)” Under Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences,Bangalore, Karnataka.Dr. Jagadeesh G. Mitti Dr. Girish N. Danappagoudar M.D. (Ayu) M.D. (Ayu)Co- Guide GuideLecturer in Rasashastra Asst.ProfessorDGMAMC, PGS&RC, GADAG Dept. of Rasashastra DGMAMC, PGS&RC, GADAGDate:Place: Gadag
    • J.S.V.V. SAMSTHE’S D.G.M.AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE POST GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH CENTRE GADAG, 582 103 Endorsement by the H.O.D, Principal/ head of the institution This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SWITRARI RASA AND LEPA, THEIR CLINICALEFFICACY ON SWITRA” is a bonafide research work done by Dr. Kavita. S.Mittalakod under the guidance of Dr. Girish N. Danappagoudar , M.D. (Ayu), Asst.Professor and Dr. Jagadeesh G. Mitti, M.D. (Ayu), in partial fulfillment of therequirement for the post graduation degree of “Ayurveda Vachaspati M.D.(Rasashastra)” Under Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Bangalore,Karnataka.. Dr. M. C. Patil Dr. G. B. Patil Professor & HOD Principal, Dept. of Rasashastra DGM Ayurvedic Medical College, PGS&RC, Gadag. Gadag Date: Place: Gadag
    • Declaration by the candidate I here by declare that this dissertation / thesis entitled“PREPERATION, PHYSICO CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OFSWITRARI RASA AND LEPA, THEIR CLINICAL EFFICACY ONSWITRA” is a bonafide and genuine research work carried out by meunder the guidance of Dr. Girish N. Danappagoudar M.D.(Ayu)Professor and Dr. Jagadeesh G. Mitti M.D.(Ayu), Lecturer in RasashastraDGMAMC, PGS&RC, Gadag.Date :Place : Gadag (DR. KAVITA S. MITTALAKOD)
    • © Copy right Declaration by the candidate I here by declare that the Rajiv Gandhi University of HealthSciences, Karnataka shall have the rights to preserve, use and disseminatethis dissertation/ thesis in print or electronic format for the academic /research purpose.Date :Place : Gadag (DR. KAVITA S. MITTALAKOD)© Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka
    • SHRI D. G. MELMALAGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA. CERTIFICATE BY THE GUIDE This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SWITRARI RASA AND LEPA, THEIR CLINICALEFFICACY ON SWITRA” is a bonafide research work done by Dr. Kavita S.Mittalakod in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of AyurvedaVachaspathi. M.D (Rasashastra).Date: Dr. Girish N. DanappagoudarPlace: Gadag. M.D. (Ayu) Asst. Professor Department of Rasashastra, D.G.M.A.M.C, Gadag
    • SHRI D. G. MELMALAGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA. CERTIFICATE BY THE CO- GUIDE This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “PREPERATION, PHYSICOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SWITRARI RASA AND LEPA, THEIR CLINICALEFFICACY ON SWITRA” is a bonafide research work done by Dr. Kavita S.Mittalakod in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of AyurvedaVachaspathi. M.D (Rasashastra).Date: Dr. Jagadeesh G. MittiPlace: Gadag. M.D. (Ayu) Lecturer Department of Rasashastra, D.G.M.A.M.C, Gadag
    • TABLE OF CONTENTSS.L.NO. INDEX PAGE. NO 1. Introduction 1-4 2. Objectives 5 3. Review of Literature 6-91 4. Methodology 92-140 5. Results 141-159 6. Discussion 160-171 7. Conclusion 172-173 8. Summary 174-176 9. Bibliography 177-189 10. Annexure I. Slokas of Switrarirasa and Lepa II. Case sheet VI
    • LIST OF TABLESTable No Tables Page No. 1 Showing the synonyms of Hingula according to 6 different authors. 2 Showing Hingula included under following category by 10 different authors: 3 Showing the bheda of Hingula 11 4 Showing the rasa of Hingula according to different 13 texts. 5 Showing doshagnata of Hingula according to different 13 authors. 6 Shows the properities of Hingula according to 14 different granthas. 7 Showing the synonyms of parada: 20 8 Showing the ores of parada along with their chemical 22 composition. 9 Showing the varities of Parada depending on the 23 colour and their karma also specified. 10 Showing the varieties of Parada depending upon the 23 place of origin. 11 Naisaragika Dosha and its effect on sharira. 24 12 Yougika Dosha and its effect on sharira 24 13 Oupadhika (Saptakanchuka) Dosha and its effect 24 14 Showing samanya shodhana of parada according to 26 different authors: 15 Showing vishesha shodhana of parada according to 27 different authors: 16 Showing types of Gandhaka according to Rasa 37 Classics 17 Showing types of Gandhaka and their qualities and 37 uses 18 Showing synonyms of kasisa according to different 43 Acharyas. 19 Showing classification according to different granthas. 44 20 Showing varities of kasisa according to orgin. 45 21 Showing varities of kasisa according to Colour. 45 22 Showing various procedures for purification of Kasisa. 46 23 Showing Rasa of kasisa according to different 46 acharyas. 24 Vyavachedhaka Nidana 77 25 Observations made during Hingula shodhana. 95 26 Showing the results of Hingula shodhana 96 27 Temperature recorded during the procedure. 99 28 Showing the observations done during Gandhaka 103 shodhana. 29 Showing the Physical Examination of Gandhaka 104 before and after shodhana. VII
    • 30 Physical examination of Ashodhita and Shodhita 106 Kasisa31 Demographic Data of trail in Switra with Switrari Rasa 14232 Distribution of patients by age gender in Switra with 143 switrari rasa and switra lepa.33 Results of Patient by age in Switra with Switrari Rasa 144 and switra lepa34 Results of Patient by Gender in Switra with Switrari 145 Rasa and switra35 Results of Patient by Relegion in Switra with Switrari 146 Rasa and switra36 Distribution and Results of Patient by Occupation in 147 Switra with Switrari Rasa and switra lepa37 Distribution and Results of Patient by Economic status 148 in Switra with Switrari Rasa and switra lepa38 Distribution and Results of Patient by Diet in Switra 149 with Switrari Rasa and switra lepa39 Data record to disease 15040 Distribution and results of patients by mode of on set 152 in switra with SR and SL41 Distribution and results of patient by Family history in 152 Switra with SR & SL42 Distribution and results of patients by Chronicity in 153 Years in switra with SR and SL43 Distribution and results of patients by Incidence of 154 initial site of onset in switra with SR and SL44 Distribution and results of patients by Incidence of 155 distribution of lesions in switra with SR and SL45 Distribution of patient by Ahar nidana in Switra with 156 Switrari rasa and Lepa46 Distribution of patient by Vihar nidana in Switra with 157 Switrari rasa and Switra Lepa47 Assesment of subjective parameters in switra 15748 Assesment of objective parameters in switra 15849 Result in Switra with Switrari Rasa and switra lepa 15850 Statistical analysis of the clinical and objective 159 parameters Subjective parameters statistical analysis in switra with switrari rasa and switra lepa. LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS S.L. No. Photographs 1 Ingredients and Preparation of Rasapushpa 2 Clinical Improvement of the patient in the study VIII
    • ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First and foremost, I salute almighty God. With deep sense of pleasure, I express my respects to my Father ShriShivabasappa Mittalakod, who is the source of inspiration abundant patience, confidence,will power has encouraged and fulfilled all the responsibilities of moulding my lifeincluding the continuation of P.G. Studies and then to my mother Smt. Mala who hastaken the full care and nourishment not only to me but also of my son. I am extremely happy to express my deepest sense of gratitude to my beloved andrespected guide Dr. Girish. N. Danappagoudar MD (Ayu) Asst. Professor P.G Dept. ofRasashastra, DGMAMC, Gadag, I am one out of the luckiest and First Scholar to getthem as my Guide. He provided all types of supervillance and suggestions which makethe guideline to this thesis. His experience and views allowed me to take new conceptsfor trial and completion if the thesis in time. My thanks and respect to his dynamicpersonality. My profound gratitude to my co- guide Dr. Jagadeesh. Mitti, MD (Ayu), Lecturer,P.G Dept. of Rasashastra, DGMAMC, Gadag, who gave me timely advises andsuggestion during the entire period of this effort. I express my obligation to my honourable H.O.D. Dr. M.C. Patil MD (Ayu) H.O.D.P.G Dept. of Rasashastra, DGMAMC, Gadag, His importance in induction of completechanges in my academic and professional career. The entire herdal which came duringthe time of trial was solved by his valuable suggestions. I express my deep gratitude to beloved Principal Dr. G.B. Patil, PrincipalDGMAMC, Gadag, for his encouragement and providing all necessary facilities for thisresearch work. I offer my sincere thanks to Dr. R.K. Gacchinmath, professor and HOD, UG Deptof Rasashastra, DGMAMC, Gadag for his constant support. I express my sincere thanks to Dr. Suvarna Nidigundi MD (Ayu), Lecturer, PG Deptof rasashastra, DGMAMC, Gadag, for her critical use and precious suggestions. I wish to add my warmest thanks to my PG teaching faculty, Dr. Mulgund, Dr.Sureshbabu, Dr. Shivaramudu, Dr. K.S. Paraddi, Dr. G.S. Hiremath, Dr. K.S.R Prasad,Dr. Santosh Belavadi, Dr. R.V. Shettar, Dr. Kuber Sankh, Dr. Shashikanth Nidugandi,Dr. Samudri, Dr. Yasmin, Dr. Ashok Patil Dr. Veena Kori, Dr. Shakuntala Garwad, Dr.Jayraj for their valuable suggestions and timely help made me to complete thisdissertation work successfully. I express my sincere thanks to Dr. Jayashree Virakthmath and Dr. V.M. Sajjan forsupporting me by giving her patients during my clinical trial. I
    • I express my sincere thanks to Dr. Chandrakant. S. Hiremath, Principal ShriRaghavendra Ayurvedic Medical College, Malladahalli for their kind support. My Gratitude is greatest towards Shri J.S. Mamadapur, President Shri S.V.P.R.A.M.C. Badami for his encouragement and support. I am greatfull to all staff of Shri S.V.P. R.A.M.C. Badami for their encouragementand support. I express my sincere thanks to Dr. Rudrakshi Malawad M.D. (Ayu), Lect Shri S.V.P.R.A.M.C. Badami for her encouragement and moral support. I extend my gratitude to Sri. V.M. Mundinamani, Librarian, Sri. Kerur and SriShavi for providing the required books during the study. I extend my gratitude to Smt. A.C. Patil and the attenders of Rasashastradepartment, Samshad, Mangala, Manju for their help during my practical works. I am greatful to Shri Chaitrakumar (Sadguru computers) for his kind co-operationand immense help to complete the dissertation work. My deepest condolence to the sad and untimely death of Dr. Shivakumar who wasmy batch mate, young, talented and ambitious. I pray God to let his soul be rest in peace. I extend my gratefulness and sincere heart felt gratitude to my colleaguesDr. Sarvamangala, Dr. Anupama, and Dr. Ravindra for their friendly affection andamiable attitude during my study period without which I would never be complete. I offer my sincere thanks to my senior friends Dr. Rudrakshi, Dr. Jayashree, Dr.Suma, Dr. Katimani and also to my junior friends Dr. Deepa, Dr. Praveen, Dr. Jeetendra,Dr. Anil, Dr. Hiremath, Dr. Satish, Dr. Sanjeev, Dr. Vijay and Dr. Jayakar for theirsupport and affection. I offer my sincere thanks to my other department friends Dr. Savita, Dr. MuktaArali, Dr. Jaya, Dr. Kalavati, Dr. Mukta Hiremath, Dr. Vijayalaxmi and Dr. Veena fortheir support and affection. I express my enormous earnest gratification and heart felt thanks to my HusbandDr. M.B. Patil, Medical Officer, Gajendragad. It would be my privilege convey my love to my all sisters Mamata, Savita, Lalita,Shashikala and Poornima and cousin brothers for their kind co-operation and moralsupport. I express my eternal love to my son Chi. Sharanu for dispelling all the tensionand tiredness with his talk, love and affection. Dr. Kavit S. Mittalakod II
    • LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS A. H. – Ashtanga Hridaya. A. P. – Ayurveda Prakasha. A. S. – Ashtanga sangraha. B.R.R.S – Brihat Rasa Raja Sundara. C. S. – Charaka Samhita. D. N. – Dhanvantari Nighantu. K. N. – Kaideva Nighantu. M.P.N. – Madana Pala Nighantu. R.A. - Rasamritam. R.A.N. - Rasarnava. R.C. - Rasendra chudamani. R.J.N. - Rasa Jala Nidhi. R.N. - Raja Nighantu. R.K. - Rasa Kamadhenu. R.P.S. - Rasaprakasha Sudhakara. R.R.S. - Rasa Ratna Samucchaya. R.S.S. - Rasendra Sara Sangraha. R.T. - Rasa Tarangini. S.S. - Sushruta Samhita. S.R. - Switrari Rasa S.L.. - Switrari Lepa III
    • ABSTRACT The Rasayogas are frequently divided on the basis of samskara given to them hasled to the evolution of Kharaleeya, Parpati, Kupipakwa and Pottali Rasayanas with variedtherapeutic efficacy. Switrarirasa is a kharaliya rasayana and is a Sagni, Sagandha, Murchana ofParada. Rasoushadhis with various elements along with Kajjali is proved more effectivethan herbal formulations in lesser dosage. Switrari rasa and lepa are unique herbo mineralcombination of drugs to treat switra. Before its clinical applications it the need of hour tocritically undergo pharmaceutical and analytical evaluation as a part of safty measureshence study is undertaken.Objectives: 1) Preperation of switrari rasa and lepa 2) Pharmaceutical analysis of switrari rasa and lepa 3) To evaluate the clinical efficacy of switrari rasa and lepa Therapeutic efficacy of Switrari rasa and lepa was evaluated in single blindclinical trial on 30 selected cases of switra. Result showed highly significant by studentsparired t test. Overall response to the treatment was found to be well (60%) out of 30patients under trial.Key words: Kharaliya rasayana, Switra, Preperation of switrari rasa, analytical study andTherapeutic efficacy. IV
    • Introduction INTRODUCTION Ayurveda is the repository of safe and therapeutically officious remedies andAyurvedic physicians handle diseases with great success. Ayurvedic medicines areformatted only after centuries of trial and experience, and then are well known to be freefrom toxicity. Some metals and minerals, vegetables, and animal products are toxic by nature.To make them force from toxicity. And to make them easily digestible absorble andassimilable these are subjected to the process of shodhana and marana. It is because ofthis the products are included within the scope of Rashashatra research. In present daymedical practice, Ayurvedic physicians profusely use metals, minerals, gems etc fortreating chronic and kastasadhyaj vyadhis as pharmaco kinetics and pharmacodynamicsexplain the rationality of different drugs used in modern medicines. Similarly theapropriateness of the processing followed by Ayurvedic Physicians to make metals etc.from toxicity and to potentiate them to achieve the therapeutic excellence. Skin is the index of health which is the largest organ of the body. But some timesextra because of our internal environment or atmospheric effects change subjects us tomany more skin problems. The developed countries are affected more with skin problemsthat of the other organic diseases. It is true that the discoloration of the skin inducesindividual subjected for social stigma. Shweta kusta or switra is compared to the vitiligo. Vitiligo is such a commonchronic and progressive skin disease. Which is characterized by the lack of melaninepigments producing skin patches with sharp and often hyper pigmented edges. Thisdisease affects approximately 1% of the world wide population. 1 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Introduction Since the etiological cause of vitiligo may not be removed medicine may only acton symptoms by means of therapies aimed at restoring the lost colour uniformity.However it is not always easy to suggest to a patent treatment being effective long lostingand free of side effects at the same time. As vitiligo is relatively common skin disorder iswhich white spots or patches appear on the skin. These spots are caused by distruction orweakening of the pigment cells in those areas, resulting in the melanine pigments beingdestroyed or no longer produced melanine is synthesized by special cells calledmelanocytes. Which restore the melanins, in most cases vitiligo is believed to be anautoimmune related disorder in vitiligo only the colour of the skin is affected but textureand other skin qualities remain normal. Vitiligo is not contagenous but it is a one of the common hereditary disease.Today there is more research and more treatment options available than over before i.ecreams exciliers lasers, skin grafting and pigment transplantation, topical psoralens andpotentially the use of immunomodulators. There is no one treatment that works for every one different therapies work betterfor different people. However some measure may be taken to minimize its effects. 1. Here is an attempt to reach the optimum cure of vitiligo with Rasoushadhis i.e switrari Rasa and switra lepa have been subjected to clinical trail for its switragna activity,Need for the study Switrari Rasa and lepa are effective herbomineral components which areexplained in Rasashastra texts, especially indicated in Switra roga. 2 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Introduction Switra is a cosmetic problem. The change in appearance caused by this conditioncan effect a person’s emotions and psychological well being where the person feelsashamed and depressed. Switra is a disease pertaining to Twacha1 which turns the normal colour of theskin to white. It can be correlated to that of vitiligo in contemporary medicine which is aachromatic mocular depigmentory condition resulting from loss melanine pigment2. Thiscondition effects about 1-2% of the world population3 and 3-4 in India. All the races andboth sexes are equally affected. Though the contemporary medical science tries to treatthis condition with different types of repigmentation therapies which fails to offersatisfactory results. In this concern Ayurvedic treatment through holistic approachpromises to the patients appearance and restore the normal pigmentation of this skin.Switrari rasa and lepa selected have internal and external applications respectively as thuscontents of the yogas are quite economic. Hence the present study evaluation of theefficacy of Switrari rasa and lepa is under taken.Previous work done on Switra:Recent research works taken place regarding Switra are as follows 13; 1. Ameen A.M. Switra vimarsh (Bhallataka sidha ghrita yoga), 1967, Jamnagar: 2. Dahiya J .Studies on the Switra and its management,1983, Jamnagar: 3. Patil A K Survey of Switra in Jamanagar and vicinity in reference to its nidan and chikitsa.,1984, Jamnagar: 4. Sardar C L. A clinical study of Switra (Leucoderma), and its management with Kakodumbar, and manishiladi lepa1993. Jamnagar: 5. Thakore S R Kakodumbara Prayoga in Switra 1989, Amadabad 3 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Introduction 6. Ansari ZA Efficacy of certain Ayurvedic drugs in the managements of Vitiligo (Switra), 1985, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 7. Upadhya RK. Therapeutic assessment of some Ayurvedic drugs in the treatment of Vitiligo 1988, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 8. Prithivraj .The concept of Switra and its management in Ayurveda, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 9. Sharma ( Smt ) M. – Switra Roga par Aylagujadi Gutika ( Bhaya Prayogarth) Evam Khadira ( Abhyantara Prayoga ) karmukata Ka Adhyana, Jaipur 10. Sheelaratna M.V -- Switra Roga and its management, Mysore: Govt College of Indian Medicine 11. Shrikantbabu – Evaluation of Kakumbadaradi Yoga in the management of Switra, Mysore : Govt College of Indian Medicine 12. Mishra .S – A clinical trial of some indigenous drugs on Switra (Vitiligo), Gopa Bandu Ayurvedic Mahavidyalaya, Puri 13. Lahari .P.K – Clinical studies and management of Switra kushtha ( Leucodermia) with Ayurveda, Gopa Bandu Ayurvedic Mahavidyalaya, Puri. 14. Tiwari SK, Evaluation of the efficacy of Dhatryadi Yoga (internal) and Avalgujadi lepa (External) along with and with out Shodhana (Vamana) in Switra (W.S.R. to Vitiligo), 2001, DGM AMC, RGUHS, Bangalore. 15. Venkaraddiyar B.H. Evaluation of the efficacy of Kakodumbaradighanavati (Internal) and Ayorajadilepa (External) in the Management of Switra. 2006, D.G.M.A.M.C. R.G.U.H.S. Bangalore. 4“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Objectives OBJECTIVESPresent study is made under the following headings. 1. Drug review 2. Disease review 3. Preparation of Switrari rasa and switra lepa 4. Physico chemical analysis 5. Clinical trial (Materials and methods) 6. Discussion 7. Conclusion 8. Summary 5 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of Literature HingulaIntroduction Hingula is a compound of Parada and Gandhaka. It is obtained from mines asa natural mineral and prepared artificially also. This is the chief source of mercurysince ancient times to till date. Anandakanda named Hingula as Rasagarbha and it isRasagandha sambhava according to Rasarnava. Parada extracted from Hingula is saidto be equivalent to ashtasamskarita Parada.Synonyms5,6 Various paryayas are described by different acharyas.Table No.1 showing the synonyms of Hingula according to different authors.Synonyms RAN RJN RSS AP RA RT DN KNHingulam + - - + - - - -Hingul - + - - - + - -Hingula - - + + + + - -Ingula - - - - - + - -Hingulaka - - - - - - - +Mleccha + + - + + + - +Rakta - - - + + + - +Gandhika + - - - - - - +Suranga - + - + - + - +Chitranga - + - - - + - +Churnaparada + + - - - + + -Rasodbhava - - - - - + + -Rasasthana - - - - - + + -Ranjana - - - - - + - -Kupishirshaka - - - - - + - -Raktakaya - - - - - + - -Hamsapada - - - - + + - +Darada + + + + + + - - 6 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of LiteratureShukatunda - - + - - - - -Jati - - - - - - - +Rasagandha + - + - - - - -sambootaDaitya Raktaka - - + - - - - -Mani Ragaja + - - - - - - +Rasagarbha - - + + - - + -Parvata - - - - - - - +Divya - - - - - - - +Vernacular Names 7Scientific Name - Red Sulphide of MercuryEnglish - CinnabarSanskrit - Hingula, DaradaHindi - SingraphBengali - HingulaMarathi - HingulaGujarathi - HinguatoAssami - JanjapherPharsi - SingraphKannada - IngulikaTelegu - InguikamuHistory The Possible references regarding Hingula, since ancient period to present dayare as follows:Vedic Period There are no references about Hingula in Vedic, Prevedic, and Upanishadperiod. 7 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of LiteratureSamhita Kala No references of Hingula found in Charaka Samhita, Sushruta Samhita,Ashtanga sangraha and in Hridaya,Kautilya Arthashastra 8 The author of Kautilya Arthashastra, “Chanakya” has mentioned Hingula inhis text for the first time. He mentioned it for testing of swarnadi dhatus. Use ofHingula as a medicine was not described by him.Nighantu Period In Dhanvantari, Raja and Kaideva Nighantu, references of Hingula is found inbhoumadhatu varga.Rasa KalaRasendra mangala The oldest text of Rasashastra mentioned first time about shodhana andtherapeutic usage of Hingula. Author has used Hingula for the preparation of lohabhasma. He described Parada as a satwa of Hingula and has used the word Darada forHingula.Rasahridaya tantraAcharya Bhagavata Govindapada has mentioned about Hingula.Rasarnava Acharya has included Hingula in maharasa varga. In his text, he discussedabout synonyms, varities and used the term “ Rasagandha sambhootam” forHingula.Use of this term suggests that they were aware of chemical composition ofHingula. 8 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of LiteratureRasaratnakara Author discussed almost all aspects of Hingula and also mentioned artificalpreparation of Hingula. In other Rasagranthas such as RRS, RPS, RSS, R.Chu etc., and in naveenarasa granthas like RT, RA, Siddabhaishajaya manimala etc, we find detail descriptionabout Hingula.Origin Mythological story described that Hingula is a veerya of lord Shiva which wasreceived by god Agni but due to its high intensity he vomited it, this vomited materialfell in Darada desha and become mixed with earthy materials, and called by nameHingula.Occurance9, 10 It is obtained from mines as a natural mineral and also prepared artificiallyIt can be found at most many places all over the world i.e. Spain Italy, Russia,Yogoslavia, Jechoslovia, Germany, Japan, China, USA, Austria, Nepal etc. But no deposit of cinnabar can be detected in India. Hence artificial Hingula isprepared in Surat and Calcutta. The Hingula what we get from market is artificially prepared.Preparation of Artificial Hingula Reference of artificial Hingula preparation is found since Rasaratnakaraperiod. Thereafter many Rasa texts mentioned artificial preparation of Hingula. Following are the ratio of Gandhaka and Parada according to differentacharyas. 9 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of LiteratureRatarangini 11 42 parts of Parada and 8 parts of Gandhaka subjected to paka in mrudangayantra.Ayurveda Prakash12 1 part of Parada and 4 parts of Gandhaka, subjected to pachana in loha patra,after paka, 1/10th part of Manashila added and triturated well. Then it is filled inkachakupi and subjected to pakakarma (mrudu, madyama, and teevragni) in valukayantra.Inclusion of Hingula Different authors of various Rasagranthas have included Hingula under varioustitles.Table No.2 showing Hingula included under following category by different authors: Sl.No. Category Rasagranthas 1 Rasa Rashridaya Tantra 13 2 Maharasa Rasarnava14, Rasakamadhenu 3 Uparasa Anandakanda, Rasendra Sara Sangraha15, Brihat Rasa Rajasundara16, Ayurveda Prakasha17 4 Sadharana rasa Rasajalanidhi18 Resendrachintamani19, Rasa Ratnasamuchaya20, Rasaprakash sudhakara 21, 5 Rasadhatu Rasamruta22 YogartnakaraHingula Bheda No description about varities of Hingula is available in Rasahridaya tantra butwe get reference of Hingula bheda in other texts. 10 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of LiteratureTable No. 3 showing the bheda of Hingula Name of Grantha Charmara Shukatunda Hamsapada Anya Anandakanda + + + - 23 Rasendra Chudamani - + + - 24 Ayurveda Prakash + + + - 25 Rasa Ratna Samuchaya - + + - Rasaprakash Sudhakara - + + - 26 Rasatarangini 27 - - - Kritrima khanija Rasamrita 28 - - +Grahya Hingula Laxanas29The laxanas of ideal varity of Hingula is as follows:  Japakusuma Varnabha : Resembles the color of hibiscus flower  Peshane sumanoharaha : When triturated its colour becomes beautiful  Mahojwala : Reflects specially habiscus when exposed to sunlight.  Bharapurna : Heavy in weight  Sheweta rekha : Having silvery streaks  Pravalabha : Resembles like that of pravala.According to Rasendra Sara Sangraha Hingula possess Bimbiphala samana raktavarna. 11 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of LiteratureAshuddha Hingula sevana dosha, Tasya chikitsa30Ashuddha Hingula sevana may produce many grave symptoms such as1. Andhata2. Kshinata3. Klama4. Bhrama5. Moha6. Prameha It is treated similar to the ashuddha Parada bhakshanajanya dosha, shuddhaGandhaka should be administered for 2 months31.ShodhanaVarious shodhana methods are explained in different classics as follows:  Hingula should be kept in kushmanda khanda, pottali prepared and swedana done in Lakucha swarasa Portia dola yantra. 32  Subject Hingula to 7 bhavanas of Ardraka swarasa and lakucha swarasa 33  Subject Hingula to 7 bhavanas Ardraka swarasa. 34  Hingula should be subjected to bhavana with mahisha dugda and any amla rasa dravya for 7 times. 35  Hingula subjected for 7 bhavanas of Nimbuswarasa 36Hingula PropertiesRasaVarious opinions are available regarding the rasa of Hingula. 12 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of LiteratureTable No.4 showing the Rasa of Hingula according to different texts. Granthas Madhura Tikta Kashaya Katu Rasarnava + + - - Paradasamhita - + + + Ayurveda Prakash - + + + Rasendra Purana - + + + Dhanvantari Nighantu + + - - Raja Nighantu + + - -Guna37 Most of the Rasa Acharyas have considered Hingula as ushna gunayuktadravya.Virya and Vipaka No Rasa text has mentioned about virya and Vipaka of Hingula. ThoughDhanvantari nighantu is the text of dravyaguna vijnana, has mentioned that Hingula ishaving ushna virya and katu vipaka.Doshakarma38,39,40,41,42,43 Even though almost all the authors agree with the tridoshaghna karma of theHingula, some authors have mentioned kaphaghna or kaphapittagna action ofHingula as well.Table No. 5. Showing doshagnata of Hingula according to different authors.Dosha RPS RRS R.Chu B.R.R.S AP RT RA RJNTridoshaghna + + + - - - + +Kaphapittagna - - - + + - - -Kaphaghna - - - - - + - - 13 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of LiteratureKarma44 Sarva doshaghna, Agnivardhaka, Rasayana, Balya, Medya, Garavishanashaka,Netrarogaghna, Ruchikaraka, Loha Ranjana.Vyadhi Prabhava 45 Pramehaghna, Jwaragna, Hridrogahara, Kushtaghna, Amlapittahara,Kamalahara, and is also useful in Aruchi, Amavata, Pleehavruddi, Mandagni,Sandhivata, Hrillasa.Table No.06 Shows the prosperities of Hingula according to different granthas.Properties RPS RRS RC AP BRRS RT RJV RS RRSarvadoshaghnata + + + KP KP KV + - +Deepana + + + - + - + - +Atirasayana + + + - + - + - +Sarvarogahara + + + - - - + - +Vrishya - + + - - - + - +Jaranartha - + - - + - + - -Mehahara - - - + + + + + -Kushtagna - - - + + + + + -Aruchihara - - - + + - + + -Medya - - - + + + + + -Balya - - - + + + + + -Agnivardhaka - - - + - + + + -Netrarogahara - - - + + + - + -Hrillasa - - - + + - - - -Jwaragna - - - + + - - - -Kamalahara - - - + + + - - -Pleehari - - - + + + - - -Amavatari - - - + + + - - -Garavisha nashaka - - - + - + - - -Dehakantikara - - - - - + - - -Lohamaranartha - - - - - - - - -Dravanartha + - - - - - - - -Matra½ to 1 ratti [ 65mg to 125mg ] 14 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of LiteratureAnupanaMaricha, Guda, Pippali, Guduchi swarasa, Madhu, Ardraka swarasa, Tambulaswarasa.Satwapatana 46,47,48 Hingula satwa is Parada; hence Hingula is considered as chief source ofparada. Rasa can be extracted through various procedures viz patana, nadayantra etc.most popular and common method of extraction of Parada is through urdwapatana. Itis described in most of the granthas viz Ayurveda Prakash, Rasatarangini, RasendraSara Sangraha etc.Marana49,50 Generally marana is not advised for Hingula. Shodhita Hingula can be usedfor the preparation of yogas, however elaborate procedure for marana has beendescribed in Ayurveda Prakash, Brihat RasaRajaSundara etc.Vishishta Yoga 1) Ananda Bhairava Rasa 51 2) Hinguleshwara Rasa 52 3) Kaphaketu Rasa 53 4) Hingulad Rasasindoora 54 15 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of Literature Cinnabar55,56 Cinnabar is important ore of mercury, when used as a pigment it is calledVermillion. Nearly all mercury in the world is obtained from cinnabar. It occurs bothin crystalline and massive forms. The ore is a red crystalline mass that is easilydistinguished from all the red minerals by its peculiar shade of colour and its greatweight.General InformationChemical formula - HgsMolecular Weight - 232.66 gmComposition - Mercury (Hg)-86.221 and sulphur (S) –13.781Locality - Alma den, SpainSynonyms - Cinnabre, zinnoberVerities Verities are made according to colour and percentage of Hgs present in it.1) Cinnabar Native This is one of the most important ore of mercury. It contains 95% mercurySulphide and other impurities like carbon, silica, etc. It is bright and dark red incolour.2) Hepatic Cinnabar When percentage of Carbon impurities is higher in cinnabar, its colourbecomes darker like liver colour; such ore is called hepatic cinnabar.3) Meta Cinnabar In this type muddy dust is present in more percent which makes its colour stilldarker almost to black shade. 16 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of Literature4) Coral ore This ore specially occurring in Germany and Italy. When mercury sulphide incoral ore its separated, it is rosy in colour. It contains about 5% mercury.Physico Chemical Property Cinnabar is granular, massive or earthy, it some times occurs beautifullycrystallized in small complex and highly modified hexagonal Crystals. Usually thecrystals are rhombohedral or prismatic. It is cohineal red in colour often incliningbrown. Its streak is bright red. Adamantine to dull luster and perfect prismaticcleavage.Transparency - Opaque or translucentHardness - 2 – 2.5Specific gravity - 8.09Lustre - AdamantineOccurance - Generally it occurs due to the volcanic activity, also available near hot springs. Important places of occurrence are Spain, Western States of USA, Mexico.Solubility:It is insoluble in water and acids but dissolves in aquaragia and forms mercuricchloride.In the presence of a strong oxidizing agents like potassium chloride, it forms mercuricchlorideRoastingWhen Unconcentrated ore is roasted in air, Cinnabar is oxidized to mercuric oxideand sulphur dioxide is released and mercuric oxide so forms decomposes to givemercury and oxygen. 17 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of Literature 2Hgs+302 2So2+2Hgo 2Hgo 2Hg+O2The mercury thus obtained will be pure in nature.Mercury sulphide reacts with concentrated potassium Sulphide solution to give acomplex thiosalt. Hgs + K2S K2Hgs2 On sublimation mercuric sulphide becomes red. Extraction of Parada from Hingula In ancient days the only source of mercury was Hingula. Since olden days it isaccepted that Hingulotha Parada is pure and devoid of sapta kanchuka doshas andbelieved to posses the property similar to Gandhajeerna Suta57. In Rasa Ratanakaraalso it is advised to use Hingulotha Parada for all purposes.History Its references are not found in Prevedic, Vedic and Samhita period. Itsreferences are found since Rasarnava period. After, it has been explained in all Rasagranthas viz Rasaprakash Sudhakara, Rasendra Sara Sangraha, Anandakanda,Ayurveda Prakash, Rasatarangini etc. Vidyadhara yantra, Urdwapatana yantra etc. areused for the extraction of Parada.Hingulad Rasa karshana Vidhi Prior to extraction of parada, Hingula should be subjected to shodhana.Many procedures are described in Rasa texts for extraction of Parada from Hingula.They are following: 1) Urdwapatana yantra process 58 2) Adhapatana Yantra process 59 3) Tiryakapatana yantra process 60 4) Nada yantra process 61 18 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of LiteratureUrdhwapatana Method This method is more commonly followed for extraction of mercury. In thisprocess Hingula is triturated with Nimbu swarasa and made into chakrikas & kept insunlight for drying. They after being dried are kept in earthen pot covering withanother pot of same size and sealed at the joint with cloth and mrittika in such a wayso as to make it air tight. Then heat the lower pot and cool the upper pot with wetcloth so that mercury fumes can condense in the upper pot. Then allow theurdwapatana Yantra (Damaruyantra) to cool by itself and open the pot and collect themercury. If some amount of unburnt Hingula is remaining repeat the process andcollect the mercury.Superiority of Hingulotha parada62 Parada extracted from Hingula is considered to be best because it is free fromvarious types of doshas. Hence, the same does not need any further samskar and couldbe used even without subjecting to asthasamskaras. It is claimed that, Parada soextracted is capable of performing all the actions attributed to it. According toRasaprakash, Sudhakara” Hingulakrusta Parada possesses all the properties, which areseen in gandha jarita parada. Thus it is considered superior. 19 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of Literature Parada In Rasashastra, Parada has been given an elevated place. It is claimed that, itnot only cures the diseases and senility but also responsible for moksha. Its meretouch, vision of Parada can make the man free from all sins and bless him withpunya63. Mythological it is believed the Parada is originated by Lord Shiva. Paradahas got amalgamating quality because of which it carries the properties ofamalgamated materials. Hence it is successfully used as potent medicine in Ayurvedictherapeutics. It is a shining, silvery white metal, liquid at ordinary temperature. It isthirteen times heavier than water. Pure mercury does not possess taste and smell64.Synonyms of parada 65,66 Many synonyms of Parada are explained by different Rasacharayas dependingon factors such as its swaroopa, gati, dehavada, dhatuvada etc.Table No.7. Showing the synonyms of paradaSl Property SynonymsNo.1 Swaroopatmaka Galadroupyanibham, Mahavahni, Mahateja, Suvarna.2 Dharmika / Devatamaka Trinetra, Trilochana, Deva, Dehaja, Prabhu Rudraja, Lokesh, Vijendraja, Budha, Rajaswala, Shiva, Shivaveerya, Skanda, Harateja, Harabija, Shivabija, Pavana, Lokanath.3 Gatyatmaka Khechara, Chapala, Chala, Dhurtaka.4 Dehavadatmaka Amrita, Jaiva, Dehada, Paramamrita Parata, Parada, Mrityu nashana, Rasayana, Rasayana shreshta, Jaitra.5 Dhatuvadatmaka Divyarasa, Maharasa, Rasa, Rasendra, Rasesh, Rasottama, Rasadhatu, Rasaraja, Rasanath, Siddadhatu, Soota, Sootaka, Sootaratha, Mishraka.6 Vishishta guna Ananta, Amara, Yashade, Soubhagya, Sukshma, Kalikantaka.7 Darshanika Adyatmika Jeeva, Jaiva, Divya, Achintya. 20 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of LiteratureVernacular Name 67,68English - MercuryLatin Name - HydrargyrumSanskrit - ParadaHindi - ParaBengali - ParaGujarathi - ParaAssami Jivaka, inul HayataParsi - Simaba, JivahTelegu - PadarasamuKannada - PadarasaHistorical Review,69,70,71,72 In Indian Alchemy Parada is considered as one of the important drug. It hasgot ability to amalgamate with most of the metals. Indian history says that Parada isbeing used as a medicine since 6000 years.Vedic periodThe references of Parada are not available in prevedic, vedic and Upanishad period.Samhita Kala References of Parada are found in Charaka Samhita. Sushruta Samhita andAshtanga Hridaya. In Samhita Parada is used externally for lepanartha and its internaladministration is not found.Koutilya Arthashastra We find reference of Parada in Koutilya Arthashastra. In Swarna bhedaprakarana author has explained Rasavidda as one of the types of Swarna. 21 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of LiteratureRasaKala In all Rasagranthas we find the references of Parada. Even the old granthassuch as Rasendra Mangala, Rasarnava etc. include Parada as their major content.Most of Rasa granthas have described every aspect of Parada i.e., Parada paryaya,Parada utpatti, Parada dosha, Shodhana, different samskaras, marana etc.Occurance73 In Rasaratna Samucchaya, it is mentioned that in ancient times mercury wasfound mainly in Darada desha and also in Himalayas in small amounts. But now adays it is obtained mainly from the mines of Spain, America, Italy, Australia, British,China, Russia, Japan and Africa as Cinnabar or Metacinnabar. It occurs in 2 forms. 1. Native 2. Ore formOres of Mercury74 Generally mercury is found in the form of ores, the most important arecinnabar and Metacinnabar, which are in sulphide forms.Table No. 8 Showing the ores of parada along with their chemical composition. Sl No. Ores Chemical Composition 1 Cinnabar Hgs 2 Metacinnabar Hgs 3 Calomel Hg2Cl2 4 Living stonite 2sb2C3Hgs 5 Montrodyte Hgo 6 Falh ore 7 Bassenite 8 Gwadal kajrite 9 Living ore of mercury 10 Caronine ore of mercury 11 Brick ore of mercury 22 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of LiteratureBhedasBhedas of Parada described in various texts are based on following factors: 1. Depending on the color. 2. Depending on the place of origin.01. Depending on the Color 75 As soon as Parada is taken out of kupa, it has been classified into 4 varities onthe basis of its color and its luster.Table No.9 Showing the varities of Parada depending on the color and theirkarma also specified.Sl.No. Types Color Varna Karma1 Shweta White Brahmana Shwetakarma2 Rakta Red Kshatriya Therapeutics3 Peeta Yellow Vaishya Used in alchemy or to prepare gold.4 Krishna Black Shudra Used in Maintaining healthDepending on the Place of origin 76,77,78,79Table No. 10 showing the varieties of Parada depending upon the place of origin.Sl.No. Varieties Color Impurities Uses1 Rasa Rakta Which is free from all Rasayana types of impurities2 Rasendra Peeta Free from impurities Rasahara3 Suta Ishatpeeta Impurities present Rogahara4 Mishraka Mayura Impurities present Saravasiddi Chandrika dayaka VarnaParada dosha 80,81 Parada is highly reactive and it readily mixes with other dhatus. Henceprobability of impurities present in it is more. These are explained under the headingof Parada doshas in our classics. If are not eradicated by shodhana process can lead tomany diseases and even death. Some authors described the doshas or blemishes of 23 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of LiteratureParada collectively. In other granthas viz Rasa Ratna Samuchaya, doshas have beenconsidered in 3 groups: 1. Naisargika Dosha 2. Yougika Dosha 3. Oupadhika Dosha (Sapta Kanchuka Dosha)Table No.11 Naisargika Dosha and its effect on sharira. NAISARGIKA DOSHA Sl.No. Dosha Prabhava 1 Visha Mrityu 2 Agni Santapa 3 Mala MoorchaTable No. 12 Yougika Dosha and its effect on sharira YOUGIKA DOSHA Sl.No. Dosha Prabhava 1 Naga Jadya, Adhmana, Kushta 2 Vanga Jadya, Adhmana, KushtaTable No. 13 Oupadhika (Sapta kanchuka) Dosha and its effect Sl.No. Dosha Prabhava 1 Bhumija Kushta 2 Girija Jadya 3 Varija Vata sanghata 4 Two Naga Dosha Vividha dosha vikara 5 Two Naga Dosha Vividha dosha vikara Though Oupadhika doshas like Bhumija etc are also called sapta kanchuka, itis unclear why again different sapta kanchuka doshas have been described. This maylead to assumption that they are two different sets of doshas. 24 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of LiteratureThe names of sapta kanchuka doshas are as followsBhumija : Parpati.Girija : Patini.Varija : Bhedi.Two Naga dosha : Dravi, Malakari.Two Vanga dosha : Andhakari, Dhwankshi. Sapta kanchuka doshas are claimed to be responsible for various disorders,according to the Subhodini tika on Rasaratna Samucchaya.Parpati : Dries up the skin making it scaly.Patini : Cracking of the skin.Bhedi : Loose stools.Dravi : Liquifying the dhatus.Malakari : Aggravation of malas.Andhakari : Blindness.Dhwankshi : Hoarseness in the voice.Parada Grahya SwaroopaBahirujwala : Externally Parada is shiningMadhyahna surya pratimam : It looks like mid-day sun.Antah neelavarna : Internally it has bluish tinge.Effect of Ashuddha parada sevana 82 It is said in the texts that impure mercury if used internally may producevarious diseases in the body viz Vidaha, Krimi, Kushta, Agnimandya, Aruchi, Chardi,Jadya and even Mrityu. 25 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of Literature Thus it may cause serious ill effects and hence purified Parada should be usedfor medication. It is also said that shuddha Parada is like an amrita and ashuddha islike poison.Shodhana83 For elimination of Naisargika, Yougika and Oupadhika doshas, Parada shodhanais very important. Shodhana of parada has been broadly divided into 2 divisions. 1. Samanya and Vishesha Shodhana. 2. Group of Eighteen special procedures i.e. Ashtadasha Samskar. When Parada is to be used to prepare medicine to combat diseases, the first set ofshodhana is useful. If it is to be used for Rasayana karma then the Ashtadashasamskar has to be followed. Any Rasa karma has to be conducted in shubha nakshatra and shubha dina,worshiping Lord Shankara and Bhairava, because the studies have shown that thoseparticular days, time and worshipping will impart the efficacy in medicine. Hence itshould be necessarily followed.Samanya Shodhana84, 85 Different procedures are explained by various granthas for Samanya shodhanaof Parada.TableNo.14 Showing Samanya shodhana of Parada according to differentauthors: S.L.No. Shodhana dravyas used Procedure used 1 Sudharaja, Mardana done for 3 days, Vastraghalana 2 Lashuna, Saindhava Mardana for 7 days in taptakhalva, Prakshalana. 3 Tambula swarasa, Ardraka Mardana for 3 days, Prakshalana. swarasa, Ksharatraya With amla dravya. 4 Kumari swarasa, Mardana for 3 days prakshalana Chitraka, Raktasarshapa, with kanji. Brihati, Triphala kwatha. 26 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of LiteratureVishesha Shodhana86 Different acharyas have explained specific measures to eradicate the specificdoshas present in the Parada.Table No.15 Showing Vishesha shodhana of Parada according to differentauthors Sl.No. Dosha Shodhana dravyas Procedure used used 1 Naga dosha Gruhadhuma, Ishtika Mardana for 1 day, choorna, Haridra prakshalana with choorna, Urna bhasma kanji 2 Vanga dosha Indrayava Ankola Mardana, churna, Haridra prakshalana with churna, kanji. 3 Agni dosha Chitrakamula churna Mardana or Triphala churna, parada 4 Mala dosha Aragwada churna or Mardana, Kumari swarasa, prakshalana 5 Chapala dosha Krishnaduttura Mardana, panchanga, parada prakshalana 6 Visha dosha Triphala churna or Mardana, Chitrakamula churna prakshalana 7 Giri dosha Trikatu churna Mardana vastra ghalana 8 Asahya agni Gokshura churna Mardana doshaAshtadasha samskara87 The eighteen special procedure of shodhana of Parada can further be classifiedinto a sub group called as Astha samskara. It will have both properties i.e. Vyadhi 27 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of Literaturenashana and rasayana. Remaining 10 procedures are specially utilized in dhatuvada.They are as mentioned below. Rasayanartha Dhatuvadartha1) Swedana 5) Patana 9) Gaganabhakshana 14) Sarana2) Mardana 6) Rodhana 10) Charana 15) Ranjana3) Moorchana 7) Niyamana 11) Garbhadruti 16) Kramana4) Uttapana 8) Deepana 12) Bahyadruti 17) Vyadha 13) Jarana 18) BhakshanaPharmacological and Therapeutic properties of Shodhita Parada88Rasa : ShadrasaGuna : Snigdha, saraVirya : UshnaVipaka : MadhuraKarma : Yogavahi, Rasayana, Ativrishya, Balya, Vajikara, Drushitibala prada, Vayasthapaka, Bhukti, Muktiprada, Pushtikara, Deepana, Ayushkara, Agni Sandhukshana, Dehasiddikara, Lohasiddikara, Ropana, Krimighna.Dosha Prabhava : TridoshaghnaVyadhi Prabhava : Krimi, Kushta, Akshiroga, Kshaya, Tridosha roga, Papaja roga Sarvarogahara.Parada Marana89 Different acharyas have described several procedures of Parada marana.Method: Kajjali is prepared with 2 palas of Parada and 1 pala of Gandhaka, thenbhavana given with swarasa or kashaya of Parada maraka gana oushadhies and dried 28 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of Literaturelater it is kept in musha and sandhi bandhana made. Parada bhasma prepared bybhudhara yantra method.Matra90,91Parada can be administered for Vyadhi nashanartha as well as for Rasayanartha.Mruta parada : 2 rattiSwarna jarita parada : ½ rattiVaikranta jarita parada : ½ rattiVajra jarita parada : 1/4 rattiParada yoga : 1 rattiAnupana It has to be suggested according to Vyadhi.PatyapatyaPurana godhuma, Shalianna, Godugda, Gritha, Dadhi, Hamsodaka, Mudga, Yusha areincluded under patyavargaKakarshtaka gana, Masha, Kulutha, Anupa mamsa, Guru, Vishtambhi, Amla aharasevana, etc are included under apatya varga.Parada YogasKajjali92Makaradhwaja93Rasaparpati94Hemagarbha Pottali Rasa95 29 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of Literature Mercury96, 97,98,1. English Name :Quick silver2. Latin Name : Hydrargyrum3. Chemical Formula : Hg.2) Mercury is the only metal which is liquid at room temperature. It is shining, silverywhite heavy liquid easily divisible into globules. It is extremely mobile, readilyvolatises on heating. It is 13.5 times more dense than water and 1.2 times heavier thanlead. It exists in three forms metallic, mercurous and mercuric. Metallic mercury is(Hg2+) also known by the name quicksilver, i.e. a liquid metal having a bright silverluster. It exists in nature as metal itself and also found in sulphide form (Cinnabar).Metallic mercury is not poisonous if taken orally because it is not absorbed. Itvaporizes even at room temperature to an extent sufficient to permit inhalation totoxic amounts. Mercury depresses cellular enzymatic mechanisms by combating withsulphahydral groups.Physical Properties Colour : Silvery white. Atomic No : 80 Atomic Weight : 200.61 Specific Gravity : 13.59 Freezing Point : -390C Boiling point : 357.250CSimple tests of pure mercury 1. Boiling point of mercury is 357.250C. When metallic impurities are present, its boiling point changes to lower temperature. 30 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of Literature 2. Pure mercury does not stick to a clean glass, on the contrary impure mercury leaves behind its track on the clean glass. 3. Impure mercury when shaken for some time in an open air, it forms a thin film of blackish powder over its surface. This is due to oxidation of the metallic impurities. If mercury is pure, this does not occur.Chemical PropertiesEffect of Air: At ordinary room temperature, with low or high humidity, mercury is not at allaffected chemically. If it is heated in an open air gradually up to its boiling point, itreacts with oxygen present in the atmosphere to form oxide of mercury.Effect of water on mercuryWater at any temperature has not any chemical effect on mercury.Effect of Acids: Hydrochloric acid, dilute or concentrated does not cause any change inmercury chemically. Concentrated sulphuric acid also does not bring about anychange in mercury, however it produces sulphur dioxide gas when used in hot andconcentrated form. Hg+2H2SO4 Hgso4+2H2o+SO2Concentrated nitric acid reacts with mercury, to produce mercury nitrate and nitrogenoxide Hg+6HNo3 Hg (NO3)2 + No + 3H2o + No2Effects of Alkalies: Alkalies may it be concentrated or dilute, hot or cold do not have any effect onmercury5) Halogen compounds: 31 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of Literature Halogen and halogen compounds i.e Iodine, Bromide, Flourine, Chlorine andtheir compounds do have effects on mercury to from Iodides, bromides fluorides andchlorides.Hg + Cl2 HgCl2Amalgam Formation Mercury forms alloys with many metals and those are called amalgams.Metallic properties of such amalgams are very useful in different industries andmedicines.Absorption, Distribution and Excretion: The absorption, distribution and excretion of mercury and its compounds varyconsiderably with the chemical form of the metal. The soluble inorganic mercurial (Hg2+) readily gain access to the circulationwhen taken by mouth, although a considerable portion of ingested Hg2+ may remainfixed to the alimentary mucosa and the intestinal contents. Insoluble inorganicmercurous compounds, such as calomel (Hg2Cl2), may undergo some oxidation tosoluble, absorbable compounds. In suitable vehicles, inorganic mercurials may bereduced to elemental mercury and deposited as a grey to bliush pigment. In the blood,Hg+2 is first fixed to globulins and erythrocytes but later shifts to albumin, fromwhich it is redistributed tissues with a half-time of about 15 days. Within few hoursthe mercury is found in tissues in the following approximate order of decreasingconcentration. Pancreas, kidney, liver, spleen, blood, bone marrow, upper respiratoryand buccal mucosa, intestinal wall (especially colon), skin, salivary glands, heart,skeletal muscle, brain and lung. There is some evidence that mercuric salts can bestored in bones. Some tissues have a lower capacity bind to mercury than to others so 32 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of Literaturethat distribution may be dose dependant. Also the distribution changes over the courseof time. In the kidney, mercury is found primarily in the proximal tubules. Excretion of mercury starts immediately after absorption, mainly by way ofkidney and colon, and to a lesser extent via the bile and saliva. Small amounts are alsoexcreted in volatile elemental form, through both lungs and the skin. Most of themercury is excreted within 6 days after administration but traces may be detectedfrom months to even years. The absorption, distribution and excretion of the mercury of organicmercurials is determined by Physico-chemical factors and the extent of in-vivoconversion to inorganic mercury. Methyl mercury compounds, the most important ofthe environmental mercury contaminants, are lipid soluble and are rapidly and almostcompletely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.Therapeutic uses The inorganic mercuric salts, as well as certain organic compounds ofmercury, are employed chiefly as antiseptics and preservatives. Also certain mercurycompounds are effective parasiticides and fungicides when locally applied. Certaincomplex organic mercurial compounds are employed as diuretic. Mercurous chlorideis an absolute cathartic. The metal is of historical interest in syphilo therapy. Thespecific actions of mercury are: 1. Antiseptic 2. Anti syphilitic 3. Diuretic 4. CatharticMercury exhibits its therapeutic manifestation in a following manner:  Mercury ions are strong protein precipitants and act as antiseptic. 33 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of Literature  They stimulate secretory activities of many glands such as salivary, intestinal etc.  They interfere with reabsorption of fluid by the intestine (cathartic action)  The mercurial diuretics act primarily to inhibit water reabsorption by the tubules of the kidney and therefore interfering with reabsorbing function of the tubules.Other uses of mercury  It finds use in thermometers, barometers, manometers, and high vaccume air pumps.  It is used in extraction of gold and silver by amalgamation process.  Mercury is used in preparation of its alloys with other metals called amalgams.  Amalgams of tin, silver and gold are used in the dentistry.Mercury poisoningMercury is highly toxic, its ingestion may lead to a manifestation of many symptomsand even death.Acute poisoning Acute poisoning usually results from the oral ingestion of highly dissociatedinorganic preparations, although it may also result from inhalation of vapours ofelemental mercurial ointments applied tropically. Symptoms produced may vary fromone individual to other. Metallic taste, swollen and grayish appearance of the mouth, pharynx, andgastric mucosa, intense pain in the affected tissues, vomiting, nausea, severe, profuse,bloody diarrhea, oliguria, circulatory collapse, uremia, gangrenous colitis may beobserved. 34 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of LiteratureChronic poisoning Chronic mercury intoxication can result from wide variety of industrial,agricultural, and domestic exposures. It also occurs among those who have takeninternally for a prolonged period of excessive doses of mercury compounds. The symptoms produced are gingivitis, stomatitis, loosening of the teeth,salivation, metallic taste, colitis, retrogressive renal damage, loss of appetite,nutritional disturbances, anemia, hypertension and peripheral neuritis. The CNS isespecially involved, as evidenced by behavioral changes, mental depression,irritability, blushing, insomnia, intention tremors, occasionally hallucinations.Fatal dose : 1 – 4 gms.Fatal period : 3 – 5 days.Treatment  A source of sulphahydral-rich protein such as milk or raw eggs, is introduced into the stomach.  Copious lavage is performed with 5% solution of sodium formaldehyde sulphoxylate.  This provides an excellent local antidote. It reduces bivalent mercuric ion to the much less soluble mercurous form.  Intramuscular dimercaprol or a penicillamine is given to chelate the mercury and accelerate its excretion. Prompt therapy with metal-chelating agents affords the kidney almost complete protection from the toxic effects of mercury.  Fluid, electrolyte and cardiac abnormalities and shock must be corrected  Hemodialysis may be required to relieve uremia. 35 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of Literature Line of treatment remains same for chronic poisoning also. But response isslow to therapy and patient may remain ill health for years. GANDHAKA Gandhaka is next to Parada and has been explained in Dhatu Karma and in thepreparation of various Rasaushadhis. It is grouped under Uparasa Varga by authors ofdifferent Rasa classics like Rasa Hrudaya Tantra, Rasendra Chudamani, RasaPrakasha Sudhakara, Rasa Ratna Samuchchaya and Rasa Kamadhenu.Mythological origin99 Mythologically Gandhaka is said to be the result of churning of Ksheerasagaraand it is originated along with Amruta and said to origin from the menstrual flow ofParvati.Vernacular Names- Assami – Kiburit, Bengali – Gandhaka, English – Sulphur, Gujarati – Gandhaka, Hindi – Gandhaka, Marathi – Gandhaka, Parsi – Gogrid, Kannada – Gandhaka, Telugu– Gandhakamu.Synonyms100Saugandhika Putigandha NavanithaGandhapashana Atigandha Daityendra GandhiPamari Gandhamadana Rasa Gandhaka BaliKeetadhna Sugandhika Balivasa KruragandhaGandhika Kushtari Gandha Shulbari 36 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of LiteratureTypes of Gandhaka- Rasarnava explained three types of Gandhaka and remaining authorsexplained four types. The following table shows types of Gandhaka according todifferent Rasa Classics. Table no.16. Showing types of Gandhaka according to Rasa Classics Sl Types RRS101 AP102 RPS103 YR104 Ra.Chu105 1. Shuka Chanchunibha Shukatunda (Rakta) + + + + + 2. Shukapichchanibha + + + + + (Peeta) 3. Shukla (Shweta) + + + + + 4. Krishna (Black) + + + + + Table no.17 Showing types of Gandhaka and their qualities and uses106 Sl.No. Types Quality Used for 1. Shukachunchanibham Sreshta Dhatuvada 2. Shukapichchanibham Madhyama Rasayana Karma 3. Shukla Adhama Loha Marana 4. Krishna Jara Mrutyu NashanaGrahya lakshanas of Gandhaka1071. That which is clear. 2. Turmeric in colour.3. Shiny. 4. Smooth to touch like that of butter. The above said qualities are present in Amalasara Gandhaka which isrecommended for Rasa-Rasayana Karma.Pharmacological and Therapeutic Properties108, 109  Rasa : Katu, Tikta, Kashaya  Guna : Ushna, Sara, Snigdha  Virya : Ushna 37 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of Literature  Vipaka : Madhura (R.C.), Katu (RRS; AP)  Karma : Deepana, Pachana, Vishahara, Jantughna, Rasayana, Balya, Veerya Vardhaka, Kandu, and Visarpahara.  Dosha Prabhava : Kaphavatahara, Pittavardhaka  Vyadhi Prabhava : Garavishahara, Kshudra Kushtahara, Kasa, Shwasa, Agnivardhaka, Rasayana, Dadruhara.Doshas of Gandhaka110 -According to Rasa classics, Gandhaka has two types ofdoshas;  Sila Churna (Physical impurities like clay, sand etc)  Visha (Chemical impurities Viz., arsenical, lead etc) Gandhaka should be purified before administering internally other wise it willproduce the diseases like Kushta, Bhrama, Klama, Paithika Roga, Balakshaya,Shukrakshaya, Veeryahani and Kandu.Shodhana – According to Rasa classics the Shodhana of Gandhaka can be carried out byusing following dravyas: Godugdha, Nimbu Swarasa, Tankana, Goghrita, KaranjaTaila, Ardraka Swarasa, Bhringaraja, Kanji, and Ajadugdha.Methods of Gandhaka Shodhana111,112,113 - Gandhaka is taken in darvi with equal amount of Cow’s Ghee and melted on Mrudu Agni. This liquified Gandhaka is poured into another vessel which contains Cow’s Milk through a cloth tied over the mouth of the vessel. After that it is taken out and washed with hot water. 38 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of Literature Gandhaka is melted and poured into a vessel containing Bhringaraja Swarasa and boiled for some time and this process is repeated for seven times. A vessel with wide mouth is filled with Cow’s Milk with a cloth tied on the mouth of the vessel. The powdered Gandhaka should be spread on this and covered with a broad Sharava. Cow dung cakes are then spread upon the Sharava and ignited. After self cooling the manibhakara Gandhaka is collected and washed with water and this process is called as Kurma puta Gandhaka Shodhana.Dose of Gandhaka114- 1 to 8 Ratti.Pathya115- Mamsa Bhakshana of wild animals and birds, Cow’s Milk, Ghee and Rice.Apathya116- Kshara, Amla, Atilavana, Katu, Vidahi and Stree sevana should beavoided.Gandhaka Yogas117 – Kajjali; Gandhaka Rasayana; Rasa Parpati; Makaradhwaja; Rasa Sindura and Samira pannaga Rasa. 39 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of Literature SULPHUR118 The name sulphur is derived from the Sanskrit word “Sulveret” through theLatin Sulphurium.History- The ancients probably due to its frequent occurrence in Free State knewSulphur. Aryans, Greeks, Romans and Indians used it for fumigation and as medicine.The Bible refers to be as “Brimstone” meaning “Burning Stone”. Antony lavoiserplaced it among the elements in 1777, which was regarded as “Principle of fire”. It isestimated as the 9th most abundant element in the universe.Occurrence- Sulphur is distributed in nature both in free and combined form. Free sulphuris found in volcanic regions in Sicily. Approximately 0.06% of earth’s crust containssulphur. Pure sulphur contains traces of Selenium, Tellurium and Arsenic some timesmixed with Bitumen and Clay. Sulphur is found because of sublimation or interaction of Sulphurous vapourdecomposition of pyrite and other Sulphide mineral. There are important minerals andcompounds containing sulphur such as:Sulphides: Zinc Blend (ZnS), Galena (PbS), Copper Pyrites (CuFeS2), Cinnabar (HgS), Iron pyrites (FeS).Sulphate: Gypsum (CaSO4 2H2O), Barytes (Ba SO4), Epsom salt (MgSo4 7H2O), Ferrous sulphate (FeSo4 7H2O) Traces of sulphur occur as H2S in Volcanic gases, organic substance such aseggs, proteins, garlic, mustard, onion, hair and wool. It is an essential non-metal andis a minor constituent of fats, body fluids and skeleton muscles. Sulphur appears assolid and liquid form. 40 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of LiteratureSolid - Rhombic and MonoclinicLiquid - S and S (Amorphous sulphur)Some of the basic information on sulphur is as follows:  Name : Sulphur  Symbol : S  Atomic Number : 16  Atomic Mass : 32.06. Amu  Melting point : 112.80C  Boiling point : 444.60C  Number of Protons/ Electrons: 16  Number of Neutrons : 16  Classification : Non Metal  Crystal structure : Orthorhombic  Varna : Yellow  British spelling : Sulphur  IUPAC spelling : SulfurImportance of Sulphur to man As a constituent of proteins, essential amino acids, important vitamins and hormones. Sulphur makes up 0.25% of our body weight, meaning that an average adult human body contains around 170 gms of sulphur, of which most occurs in the amino acids cysteine, cystine and methionine. 41 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of Literature Sulphur is involved in the formation of bile acids, which are essential for fat digestion and absorption. It also helps to keep skin, hair and nails healthy. No specific sulphur deficiency diseases are known, however deficiency of sulphur is linked to the skin disorder eczema and also imperfect development of hair and nails. Sulphur containing foods are vegetables (Radishes, Carrots and Cabbage), milkproducts (Cheese), Sea food and Meat protein. 42 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of Literature Kaseesa Kaseesa is considered under Uparasa varga. It is a compound of iron andsulphur, it being a sulphate of Iron. It is made artificially and found in native formalso97. Artificially it is produced by the reaction of sulphuric acid on iron98. Now daysit is mostly made artificially.Synonyms119, 120,121,122 Different paryayas of Kaseesa are listed by various acharyas depending on itsorigin action, properties and specific characteristics.Table No.18 Showing synonyms of Kaseesa according to different Acharyas.Paryayas R.S.S A.P R.A R.TKasisa + + + +Kashisha - + - +Dhatukasisa + + - -Pushpa kasisa - - - +Panshukasisa - - - +Pamshukam - + - +Dhatu Ranjaka + - - -Khechara + - + -Khaya + - + +Vernaculars Names123English : Green vitriolHindi : KasisMarathi : Hira kasBengali : Hira kasGujarati : Hiro kasArabic : Jajarujhar 43 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of LiteratureParsi : Jajs objaTelegu : AnnabedhiClassification of Kaseesa124, 125,126Kaseesa is explained under different titles by our acharyas.Table No. 19 Showing classification according to different granthas.Sl.No. Class Granthas1 Uparasa Rasachintamani, Rasarnava, Rasendra Purana, Rasahridaya Tantra, Rasaratna Samucchaya, Brihat RasaRajaSundara, RasendraSaraSangraha, Rasaprakash sudhakara.2 Upadhatu Sharangadhara Samhita, Rasatarangini3 Dhatu Varga Rasamrita In Charaka Samhita, Kasisa is described under Bhouma gana, and in ushakadigana in Sushruta Samhita, while in Ashtanga Hridaya it is described as Parthivadravya.OccuranceIt is found in native form as well as made artificially. It is available naturally resulting from decomposition of Iron pyrites by theaction of atmospheric moisture and found in small quantities where iron pyrite occurs.Malenterite, which is available naturally (not abundantly) found in USA, Bavaria,Sweden, Spain and Bihar, Punjab in India.Artificial preparation Kasisa is prepared in laboratories by adding sulphuric acid to iron fillings.Varities of Kaseesa Different varieties are explained in different granthas based on its origin andcolor. 44 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of LiteratureTable No. 20 Showing varities of Kasisa according to origin.Reference Churna Pushpakasisa Pamshu Valu kasisa kasisa kasisa 108R.T + + -A.P 109 - + + -RRS 110 - + - +R.Ch 111 - + - +R.PS 112 - + - +Table No. 21. Showing varities of Kasisa according to Color.Reference Shweta Peeta Krishna Harita Rakta kasisa Kasisa kasisa kasisa kasisaRAN 113 + + + -AK + + + - +RP 114 + + + - -BRRS115 + + + - -RJN116 + + + + -Grahya Kasisa127 Of all different verities of Pushpakasisa, which is told as peeta varnaja, isgrahya and it is used for different therapeutic purpose. In Rasamrita, Yadavaji has mentioned that Pushpakasisa is one which isartificially prepared and is the ideal for medicinal purpose.Shodhana of Kasisa128, 129,130,131 Different shodhana methods are explained in various texts. 45 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of LiteratureTable No.22 Showing various procedures for purification of Kasisa.Sl.No Dravya used in Procedure used Yantra Reference Shodhana used1 Nimbu swarasa Bhavana for a Khalva BRRS, RJ.N, day RP2 Jambiri swarasa Bhavana for a Khalva RSS day BRRS, RP3 Bhringaraj swarasa Bhavana for 3 Khalva RP, RJN, RA times4 Bhringaraj swarasa Swedana for 3 Dolayantra R.T, RPS, hrs BRRS, R.P, A.P5 Bhringaraj swarasa Klinna RRS, R.C, RJN6 Stri shonita Bhavana Khalva BRRS, R.P, RRS, RJN,7 Panchapitta Bhavana Khalva RP, BRRS, RRS8 Kasamarda rasa Bhavana Khalva RANPharmacological and Therapeutic properties of Kasisa Slight difference of opinion exists among different acharyas regarding Rasa ofKasisa.Table No.23. Showing Rasa of Kasisa according to different Acharyas.Rasa RPS RRS RKD BRRS AP RA RJN RTAmla + + + + + - + -Kashaya + + + + + + + +Tikta - - - - + - - -Guna132 : All Rasa granthas mentioned it as Ushnagunayukta. Rasendra Sara Sangraha has mentioned Snigdha guna also 46 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of LiteratureVirya133 : Ushna.Vipaka : Katu.Dosha prabhava134 : Vatahara, kaphahara.Karma135 : Netrya, Keshya, Kesharanjaka, Pataranjaka, Balya, Kandughna, Vishahara, Rajapravartaka, Jwaragna.Vyadhi Prabhabva136 : Rasavad gunakaraka, Mootra kriccha, Ashmari, Shwitra, Pandu, Kamala, Kshaya, Vrana , Pleehari Pittaja vikara, Apasmara and Netra rogahara.Kasisa Marana137, 138Many methods of Kasisa marana are explained in different Rasa texts.I Method Kasisa Sukshma churna is prepared, 7 bhavanas with Kanji is given andsubjected to laghuputa. Rakta varna bhasma is obtained, which is again triturated withNimbu swarasa and laghuputa given. This process to be repeated till Kasisa loses itsamlata. By this sarvadosha rahita, vimala bhasma of Kasisa is obtained.II Method Kasisa should be given bhavana with Nimbu swarasa. Chakrika prepared anddried in sunlight, they are sealed inside sharava samputa and heat is applied using10kg of vanopalas. The procedure is repeated till Kasisa bhasma becomes free fromsour taste and acquires red color like Gairika. Kasisa is a ferrous sulphate, which can be used after its shodhana only. It doesnot need marana process. However some texts have recommended its marana. Its redcolored bhasma can be prepared within three to four putas. By subjecting it tobhasmikarana process the ferrous sulphate changes to ferric or ferrous oxide, which 47 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of Literatureimparts red colour to it. From the therapeutic point of view there is not muchdifference between shodhita and marita Kasisa.Kasisa Bhasma Guna139 Kasisa bhasma has properties similar to Loha bhasma but it is speciallyindicated for Kushta and Shwitra.Matra of Kasisa140 Shodhita Kasisa : ½ - 2 ratti Kasisa Bhasma : Loha bhasma samana matra is indicated.Anupana Triphala churna MadhuSatwapatana141 The satva of Kasisa can be obtained by adopting the similar process of TuvariSatwapatana, i.e. it should be triturated with Kshara and Amla dravyas and heatedintensively to obtain satwa. Ferrous Sulphate142, 143English Name : Green vitriolChemical Name : Ferrous SulphateChemical Formula : Feso4 7H20Atomic Weight : 278.0 It is the hydrated salt, which contains 20% iron. It consists of pale, bluish-greenishcrystals or granules. In moist air crystals of ferrous sulphate rapidly oxidize andbecome coated with a brownish yellow basic ferric sulphate and must then not be usedfor medicinal purposes. The drug is odorless and has a saline, astringent taste. 48 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of Literature Ferrous sulphate may be obtained by dissolving scrape iron in dilute sulphuricacid. Solubility: It is completely soluble in 1 in 1:5 of water 1 in 0.5 of boiling waterand practically insoluble in alcohol. The British pharmacopoeia specifies that a 5%solution in water has a PH of 3.0 to 4.0. It is usually dispensed as pills or tablets coated to protect them from moisture. Thesalt is mixed with glucose or lactose to protect it against oxidation. Ferrous sulphatecontains about 60mg of Iron in 300mg. Ferrous sulphate syrup contains 40mg of salt(8mg of Iron) in each millimeter. The average adult dose is 2 tsp thrice daily forchildren who weigh from 15-35 kg, 1tsp twice daily for children who weigh from 15-35 kg, 1tsp twice or thrice daily is advocated. Properties and uses: Light green crystals of ferrous sulphate lose water and turnbrown on exposure to air due to oxidation. 4Feso4 + 2H2o + o2 4Fe (OH) SO4 Basic Ferric sulphate.On heating it decomposes as follows 2FeSO4 Fe2 O3 + SO2 + SO3 With Nitric oxide, ferrous sulphate turns black due to the formation of nitroferrous sulphate, FeSO4 NOReducing property: It is a good reducing agent, for e.g. it declorises acidifiedpotassium permanganate and turns into acidified potassium dichromate green. With ammonium sulphate, it gives ferrous ammonium sulphate (Mohar’s salt), Fe(NH4)2 SO4 6 H2O. This is not oxidized so readily as ferrous sulphate and is thereforeused in volumetric analysis in preference to ferrous sulphate. 49 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of LiteratureUses: It is extensively used in Iron deficiency anaemia. Ferrous sulphate is largelyused in manufacture of blue-black ink and as mordant in dyeing and tanningindustries.Toxicity: Ferrous sulphate rarely proved fatal to adults but it has produced fatalpoisoning in children under the age of 4 years who took proprietary sugar coatedferrous tablets mistaking them for sweets. Each tablet contains 180mg of FeSO4 2mgof CuSo4 and 2mg of manganese sulphate. It is believed that iron released from tabletshas a necrotising effect on stomach and intestine and this disturbs the normal mucosalblock and releases ferritin into the stream and allows toxic quantity of iron to beabsorbed. 50 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of Literature KAJJALI 144Definition - Shodhita Parada and Shodhita Gandhaka alone or in combination, with otherUparasa and different Dhatus is mixed and triturated without adding any liquid to anypowder. This is called Kajjali. It should be free from any shining particles. Generally apart from Kajjali the colour of prematerial used to prepareKupipakwa Rasayana depends on the ingredients used; for eg: Red colour in HinguladRasa sindura. Ash colour in Rasa pushpa and so on. Any powdered prematerial thatwhich is filled into Kupi should be smooth i.e. which is having Slakshnatva andSukshmatva like that of Kajjali and should also pass Rekhpurnata, Nischandrata andLoha Pareeksha. For the present study equal quantity of Parada, Gandhaka and Kaseesa aretaken according to the reference and mardana is done without using any liquid till themixture becomes slakshna choorna. BAKUCHI BEEJA(Psoralia corylifolia - Papilionaceae) 145Description:This is an Ayurvedic herb. It is found in many parts of India.Useful part: Bakuchi Seeds,ConstituentsThe chief active principle of the seeds is an essential oil; and a fixed oil, a resin, andtraces of a substance of alkaloidal nature. The seeds of psoralea coryfolia containsessential oil (in pericarp to the extent of about 0.05 - 0.12%), a fixed oil, a resin, avolatile terpenoid oil and two crystelline principles psoralen (c11 H6 o3)m.p 162 c. 51 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of LiteratureIso - psoralen m.p 112c. A crystelline substance called psorolidin (c16 H14 o4)m.p315c has been isolated from the pericarp. Psoralin and Iso-psoralen are oil solublefurocoumrins.Actions and Uses:This herb is so effective in the treatment of leprosy that it was given the name ofKushtanashini. Seed powder is used to treat leprosy and leucoderma internally. It isalso applied in the form of paste or ointment externally. The unsaponified oil has beenused with success in case of leucoderma and psoriasis.It was shown to improve the color of skin (including removing white spots), hair, andnails. For instance, an ointment made by combining one part of an alcoholic extract ofthe seeds with two parts of chaulmugra oil and two parts of lanoline has been found tobe effective in treating leucoderma, white leprosy, psoriasis, and other inflammatoryskin diseases and febrile conditions. The oil can be used either internally or as asimple ointment externally. Gently rub the oil once or twice daily. The proportion ofthe active ingredients may be increased if needed. Seeds are also used for scorpionsting, and snake-bite. Bakuchi is Aromatic, anthelmintic, antibacterial, antifungal,diuretic, diaphoretic, laxative, stimulant, and aphrodisiac. Changeri146Latin Name - Oxalis CorniculataSynonyms - Changeri, AmlapatrikaVividhabhashanam – Hindi – TinapatiyaBengali - AmarulaPunjabi - Khatti BhuttiMarathi - AmbutiKannada - Pullampurachi 52 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of LiteratureEnglish - Indian sorrelHabitat – All over IndiaChemical Constitutents – Pottasium and oxalic acids are present.Guna – Laghu ruksha Rasa – Amla, kashayaVipaka – Amla Virya – UshnaDoshakarma – Pittavardhaka, Kaphavatahara due to ushnaveeryaMatra – Swarasa – 5-10mlPrayojya anga – Panchanga Haratal (Orpiment)147Chemical Formula – AS2S3 Arsenic trisulphateVividha bhashanam1) Sanskrit - Haritalam2) Hindi - Haratala3) English - OrpimentSynonyms Aala Karchura Kharjura Chitragandha Tala Talaka Natabhushana Natamandanaka Pinjara Peetanaka Mallagandhaja Romahrata Vanshapatra Vangari Vidalaka Shailushabhushana Haratala Haritala 53 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of LiteratureOccurance The chief source is Iron and it is also found in Burma and China. In India it isfound in U.P., Artificially it is prepared by heating arsenic and sulphur together, in anaerobic condition. Orpiment occurs in the oxidized portions of Arsenic veins it isassociated with antimony ores.CharacteristicsIt is Golden yellow heavy snigdh and shiny has layer of thin sheets.Physical Properties 1) Orpiment is insoluble in water 2) It can be easily powdered, as it is fragile 3) It is extremely toxic 4) When heated in air, it burns out and sulphur dioxide and arsenic oxide are formed.Haratala Prakara Haratala Dividha prakitam patradhyam pindasangayakam ||Two types of haratalas 1) Patraharatala 2) Pindaharatala out of these two patraharatala is good for therapeutic use.Patraharatala – It is in the form of thin fine layers like mica. They are golden yellowand shiny. It is also called as vanshapatri haratala.Pinda haratala – It is in the form of small or large pieces. It has no layers it containssoil and other impurities. Pinda haratala is solid form. According to some scholarsHaratala is three types patra, panda and tabaka haratala.Tabaka Hartala – It is prepared artificially it contains arsenic and sulphur. It ischemically pure. It is most used for medicinal purpose but is used to prepare colourpaints. 54 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of LiteratureHaratala Shodhana Coarse powder of Haratala is wrapped in a pottali and steaming is performedwith the help of Dolayantra, in the juice of Kushmanda or lime water or kshara waterof Tila. The liquid used for steaming should be four times to that of Haratala.Haratala marana - Purified Haratala is processed with the thick decoction of rootsof palasha, for 3 times. Then it is rubbed with the mahisha mutra and chakrikas areprepared. These are kept in Sharava and samprutikarana is done and heated with 10vanopalas. This procedure is repeated 12 times.Tests for Bhasma – Haratala Bhasma is white in colour varitara and rekhapurnashould be done. According to Ayurveda Prakasha when Haratala bhasma is put on fire smokeshowed not appear. If it happens so that of bhasma is apakava and is subjected to agniagain.Properties – Rasa – Tikta Katu, Veerya – UshnaVipaka – Katu Dhoshagnata – Vatakapha haraUses – Haratala bhasma is the choice if remedy for various skin diseases. It is alsobeneficial is treating gout, syphilis and gonorrhoea. It is aphrodisiac improves thecomplexion and adds to the longivity.Matra – 15 to 60 mg with saindhava or guduchi kwatha.Yogas – Switralepa, Rasamanikya, Samirpannag rasa, Chaturbhuja rasa, Smritisagarrasa, sutikabharan rasa etc. 55 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of Literature GOMUTRA Gomutra is used as medicine since good old days. Acharyas have prescribedthe treatment for various diseases, by the use of cow’s urine. Charaka has prescribedGomutra in Katuskanda in Charaka chikitsasthana148 and sustruta shirovirechanaadhyaya. 149 Urine of animals like, Sheep, Goat, Cow, Buffalow, Elephant, Camel, Horse,Ass, Ox, and Human are used as medicine. In these cows urine contains ammonia inconcentrated form, is frequently used for purification of drugs and minerals.Sanskrit : MutraHindi : PesabEnglish : Urine.Synonyms : Gomutra, Gojala, Goambu, Godrava150.Pharmacological Properties:Rasa : Katu, Tikta, Kashaya, Madhura, Lavana.Guna : Teekshna, Ushna, LaghuVeerya : UshnaVipaka : KatuDoshagnata : Kaphavata shamaka, pitta prakopaUses : Internally as laxative, diuretic, and used in the preparations of various medicines like Punarnava mandura, Marichadi tail etc., it is also recommended by Chakradatta as a vehical for castor oil given as purgative. 151 56 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of Literature MADHUSynonyms : Madhu Makshika vanta Maakshika Varativanta Kshaudra Bhringavanta Saaraga PushparasodhbhavaVarieties : 152 Maakshika Chaatra Bhramara Ardya Kshaudra Aouddhalaka Pautika DaalaHabitat : Some dwell in forests and build their home (hive) attached to the branches oftall trees, some build them inside the crevices of the trees.Composition : 153 Dextrose, Levulose, Wax, volatile oils, proteids, mucilage, colouring matter,formic acid, some other substances contained are pollen dust, ethesealoil, variousphosphates, lime, Iron etc.,Pharmacological Properties: 154Rasa : Madhura, KashayaGuna : Laghu, Rooksha, SookshmaVeerya : SheetaVipaka : Katu, Madhura 57 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Review of LiteratureDoshaghnata : Kaphapitta ShamakaAction : Yogavahi, Chakshushya, Deepaka, Swarya, Krimighna, Vranashodhaka, Vranaropaka and Vatakara.Uses : It is useful in Raktapitta, Kasa, Swasa, Prameha, Krimi, Kusta, Arsha, Atisara, and also as anupana in many diseases. 58 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Disease review INTRODUCTION Switra is defined as a skin disorder of skin which brings about the white colouredpatches on the body the occurrence of the lesions of body is not restricted to a particulararea, it may occur randomly anywhere. Ayurveda which is defined as “the science of life”, a clear description of thisdisorder along with line of treatment can be seen enumerated in detail. Sushruta samhita,Charaka samhita and other ancient classics advised treatment for switra, by both externaland internal administration of medicaments, For external application Lepas, Tailas, Kalkaetc, and internal administration in the form of Kashayas, churnas, vatis, Asava, Arishtaetc have been described. The fact that etiology, pathogenesis and treatment of Kushta and switra aresimilar and is being supported by all Acharyas in the classics therefore separate nidanaand samprapti etc are not specified with regards to switra155. According to Sushrutha samhita the description of switra goes as follows. Switra is described as Kilasa and said to be an alternative or variety of kushta. Itis of 3 types 1) Vataja 2) Pittaja and 3) Kaphaja. The difference between the kushta andkilasa lies in the fact that kilasa vitiation is restricted to skin and it is devoid of exudationas against kushta. Vataja Kilasa is circular, whitish red in colour and is coarse andassociated with loss of hair. Pittaja Kilasa resembles the colour of lotus petals and isassociated with burning sensation. Kaphaja Kilasa is white in colour, unctous, wide andassociated with itching. (Ref: Su.Ni.Cha. 5/17)156. Acharya Charaka gives the following explanation regarding switra. 59 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Disease review Duruna, Varuna and Switra are the three synonyms of Kilasa. (Ref: Cha.Chi.7/173)157. All the other scholars more or less agree with the opinions of Sushruta andCharaka as far as etiology, Pathogenesis, signs and symptoms, prognosis and treatmentare concerned. In the modern system of medicine the disease is compared with vitiligo. It is a skin disease causing a localized loss of pigmentation in which patientdevelops white spots in the skin which vary in size and location. The spots occur whenpigment cells, or melanocytes are destroyed and the pigment melanin can on longer beproduced Vitiligo is more commonly known as leucoderma, which simply means white(leuco) skin (derma) i.e.; a skin disorder where it looses its normal colour. Vitiligo is spontaneous irregular depigmentation of skin, which can occur at anyage. Scientifically its cause is very poorly understood, it is not contagious and istechnically not a serious health problem. But people with vitiligo and their families andfriends known that it can cause much suffering because of social effect on the change inappearance. (Ref. N.V.F)158. Vitiligo affects all races and it is stated that it occurs in 1% of the world’spopulation. The exact cause remains unknown. However, there are theories suggestingautoimmune link, hormonal connection etc., often observed in the family members. Theprecipitating factors have been identified as due to pressure of tight clothes or certain 60 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Disease reviewoccupational hazards such as wearing certain rubber hand gloves. (Ref: Text Book ofDermatology Vol II By D. S. Wilkison, Arthur Rook) Most vitiligo goes untreated. The treatment is difficult and often not completelyeffective. The treatment involves giving the patient’s photo sensitizing compounds thenexposing them to ultra violet light in sunrays. Topical or oral 8 – Methoxypsoralen orTrimethylepsoralen treatment must be repeated multiple times in order to achieve evenpartial repigmentation. Course and prognosis of vitiligo is variable and some what unpredictable, mayremain static, spread or repigment but usually the condition is gradually progressive.Sometimes extending rapidly over a period of several months and then remainingquiescent for many years and spontaneous repigmentation may be noted. (Ref. Handbookof dermatology and Venerology159. social hygiene handbook II edn.) The main stay of treatment for vitiligo, PUVA (Psoralin Ultra violet A irradiation)can cost close to $6000 (Rs. 2,95,000) or more per patient. This figure is based on 1-1 ½years of treatment. Therefore many patients are unable to receive proper care for thedisease. (Ref: Vitiligo website contents © 1998 A.D.A.M. software, inc.,)160. The surgical treatment for vitiligo is looked in for when vitiligo has not changedin the last years of treatment or has not or on longer responds to PUVA treatment or skinhas never permanently lost its colour (pigment) Surgical approaches comprise 1) Epidermal grafting 2) Thin thiersch grafting 3) Mini grafting 61 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Disease review 1) Epidermal grafting Normally pigmented epidermis is separated from the dermis of the donor site by suction blistering of the skin at a negative prenure of 200-mm Hg. In vitiligo epidermal grafting has been found particularly useful in the segmented type 2) Thin Thiersch grafting Thin split graft were performed in cases with long standing quiescent lesions, ranging from 6 to 100 cm2 in area, resistant to medical treatment. 3) Mini Grafting Mini grafting is performed by implanting small punch graft 3-4 mm apart within minute beds perforated in the depigmented recipient area. The most preferred size of the punch for donor and recipient sites is 1-2 mm for convenience of handling and for appropriate cosmetic results. (Ref: N.V.F)161. Vitiligo is a disease of cosmetic deformity, and a social problem. The effectivetreatments are yet to be found out, as the response rate is very much less with the presentremedies available. If we go through the Ayurvedic literature, we find many medicines described forthe Switra. It is necessary to put the medicament to the test of time in the intense ofpatients. Going through the literature we find the mention of Jalapippali and some otheringredients for eradication of Switra. Hence it is thought of to put this approach i.e,application of Jalapippali, Kshara for the management of Switra. (Ref: Su.Chi. 9/21-22)162. 62 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Disease review HISTORICAL REVIEW Historical review reveals a vast information regarding kushta along with switra.Vedic Period: Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samaveda, and Atharvanaveda are four Vedic texts wherewe can get the references about Kushta and switra. In Rigveda, a story is narrated, “Gosha” daughter of Kakshavathy, was refused byher husband when she was inflicted by swetha kushta, Ashvinikumaras pioneers inmedical profession treated and cured her disease which made her to regain her maritalstatus. (Ref: Rigveda 1/117/7) In Yajurveda it has been said that Chandra (moon) wasaffected with disease Kilasa. (Ref: Yajurveda 30/31)163. In Rigveda, Kilasa is the name used to describe the spotted deer, which hasstriking resemblance with te disease kilasa, where hypopigmentary patches are diffusedover the body without any ulcers. (Ref: Rigveda 5/53/1)164 In Atharvanaveda switra term is not directly described, but kilasa, palitha term areused in place of switra. Ref: Atharvanaveda 1/23/25 165. In Atharvanaveda and Kaushika sutra rama, Krishna, Asikini are the medicinalherbs described as remedy for the malady kilasa, Daarila a commentator says Bhringaraj,Indravaruni and Neeli are the drugs described as Rama, Krishna and Asikini respectively. The fourth drug appreciated in te maintenance of varna is Rajini. Daarila, commentating on koushika sutra at first used the terms “switra”. BothTaitareeya brahamana and Tandya brahamana have mentioned the term switra. Persons suffering from switra and their progeny are disqualified for wed lock asper the direction of manu. (Ref. Manusmriti 3/7)166. 63 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Disease review Acharya Bhela and Kashyapa described switra lakshanas and chikitsa briefly. (Ref. Bh.S.Chi.Ch.6) Sushruta and charaka mentioned all the detailed descriptions of switra. In Astanga sangraha as well as Astanga Hridaya, the switra roga is dealt in detailin the chapter of “Kushta Switra Krimi Nidhana Chikitsa”. Ref: As. San.Ni. 14/As. Hri. Ni 14 In Madhava Nidhana, Bhavaprakasha, Vangasena, Gada Nigraha, Chakradattaand Yogaratnakara also explained switra roga. (Ref. M.N. 49th Chap/B.P.M.K. 54/45-46/Y.R 492) Sharangadhara, has explained the bhedas of switra along with chikitsa. (Ref: S.S.P. Khanda 7/90) Unani system of medicine mentions switra as “Bars”. The term vitiligo was first used by Roman physician celsus in the 2nd AD. The earliest references to the disease was found to have been made in 2000 BC inthe period of Aushooryan, mentioned in the ancient literature of Iran-e-Tibble-e-Iran. In 1550 BC information regarding vitiligo was noted in “Ebers Papyrus”. In 1400 BC mention of leukoderma as a variety of leprosy along with prescriptionof several herbal remedies is met with in the Indian book, Atharvanaveda. The suggestedAyurvedic herbal remedies in the book highlighted the value of Vasuchika which wasmuch identified with plant Psoralia Corylifolia the oil from whose seeds (Bakuchi Beeja)contains active Furocoumarin. This was the chief therapeutic agent for treatingleukoderma in India until upto 4th or 5th decade of the present century. 64 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Disease review A similar drug “pu-ku-c” for treating leukoderma has also been referred to theancient Chinese literature. Much later in the 13th century “Ibn-Eb-Bitar” in Egypt mentioned cure ofleucoderma by an Egyptian herb known as “Ammi Majus” from the fruit extracts ofwhich important Furocoumarins were eventually identified in the 20th century. In Vinay pitah, the Buddhist sacred book in 624-544 BC white spot disease of theskin was mentioned as “Kilasa”. The white spots were also described in Levincus chapter 13 in the old testamentunder the Hebrew-word- “Zoraat”. This word was translated as “Lepra”. In the Greek andEnglish translation of the Bible. Thus the confusion regarding the vitiligo leprosy in old testament is equallyresponsible for the social stigma attached to the white spots on the skin.Work done so far here and elsewhere- 1) Studies on Switra and its management. By Dahiya. J.1983. (Jamanagar). 2) Survey of Switra in Jamanagar and vieinity in reference to its Nidana and Chikitsa. By Patel. A.K. 1984 (Jamanagar). 3) Switra men Kakodumbar ka prayogika Adyayana. By Thokore. M.R. 1989 (Jamanagar). 4) Management of Switra with special reference to Bakuchi by Shankar. K. 1986 (Trivendrum). 5) Roll of Lepa in the management of Switra with reference to Bakuchadi lepa, clinical study. By Chandrashekhar 1995 (Bangalore). 65 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Disease review AYURVEDIC REVIEWVyutpathi of Kushta, Kilasa and Switra The term “Switram” is derived from “Swit” dhatu and “Rak” Pratyaya. Switrameans white, whiteness or conch shell, and a cowrie. Therefore anything that is white incolour comes under preview of “Swit” dhatu. By adding “Shak” Pratyaya to this dhatu, itgives us the meaning of the diseased condition i.e, (Switra) white leprosy. A whiteleprous spot on the skin. This derivation is according to Amarakosha. The synonym ofthis term is Swetha Kushta. In Shabda Kalpa Druma it is defined as “Kushnati Sharirastha shonithamVikushte iti Kushta. In Yogaratnakara, Kushta Nidhana, Kushta defined as “Twachaha KurwantiVaivarnya Dushtaha Kushatamushanti Tat”. Even when the vitiation continues due to negligence it starts gradually spreadingthroughout the body, by the way of disfigurement of the skin. The condition is calledKushta. In Samhitas and in the Atharvanaveda “Kilasa” has been used as a synonym forswitra. Thus the derivation of Kilasa grammatically may find its use which can be asfollows. The term Kilasa is Akarant, Strilinga, Prathama Vibhakti and Ekavachana. The disease, which brings about white discolouration and turns the normal colourto fade due to vitiation is called as Kushta. (Ref: Shabda Kalpa Druma) According to Kashyapa “Shwetabhavamichanti switram”, switra is a diseasewhose whitish tinge of the skin is a predominant symptom. (Ref: Kas.Kus. Chji) 66 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Disease review Vitiligo is the name in the present day medical practice, Some believes that it isderived from Latin word “Vitelus” = vale = pale pink flesh of calf. Since the clinicallesions resembled white patches of a spotted calf. Some other believe that is derived from the French word vitium = deflect.Blemish, fault vitiligo = a skin eruption, acquired leuco pathia, appearance on the skinwhite patches of greater or lessor extent, due to loss of pigment without any other tropicchanges. Vitiligo denotes an acquired primary, usually progressive melanocytopenia ofobscure etiology, clinically manifested by circumscribed achromic molecules. Oftenassociated with leucotrichia and histologically by degeneration and disappearance ofmelanocytes in the involved skin. RACHANA AND KRIYA SHAREERA OF TWAK The description regarding Twak and its appendages are enumerated in this contextsince Twak is the site of lesion.Nirukti of twacha (etymology) “Twak” is feminine gender, it is also used in the form of “Twacha”. The wordTwacha can be derived by adding “Yatte” and “Taap” pratyaya in the suffix to the word“twach”. By adding “Aach” pratyaya to the word “Twak” the word “Twacha” isobtained.The word “Twacha” means1) Skin of a man or a serpent. 2) Bark. 3) It is sense of thouch. 4) Rind. 5) Any cover orcoating. “Yadwa twachati Samrunoti Sarwa Sareeranmiti Twachaha” 67 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Disease review Shabda Ratnavali describes twacha as that which covers the entire body. According to Shabda Kalpadruma twacha is described as “Yadwa tanoti vistarayati Iti twacha” That which covers the entire body is called as twacha.EMBROYOLOGY Union of Shuddha shukra and shonita in the presence of Satwa within theGarbhashaya leads to the formation of Garbha. The satwa is influenced by Swa Karma,Kleda etc., (A.Hri. Sha. 1/1) The skin in its embryonic stage, is developed just as the “layer”, developed afterboiling milk on the top most layer. Ref: Su.Sa.Sha 4/4167 In Sushruta Samhita Shareera Sthana the four types of complexion explainedduring the embryonic stage, later on influence the colour of a normal healthy individualafter birth. This is mainly due to permutation and combination of panchamahabhutas. Ifapamahabuta predominantly combines with Tejo mahabutas more predominantly withprithvi mahabhuta the embryo attains Krishna varna. If more of Prithvi mahabhuta andAkasha mahabuta combine together it imparts Krishnashyama varna. If more of Aapmahabhuta and Akshamahabhutas combine together the colour that it imparts to theembryo will be Gourashyama varna. (Ref: Su.Sa.Sha 2/37, Su.Sa.chi 2/35) The factors, which are soft in its components, are categorized under the matrujabhava that is the soft tissues and delicate substances of the body are being derived fromthe maternal characteristics during the embryonic stage. 68 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Disease review Twak, mamsa, meda, majja, nabhi, hrudaya, amashaya, garbhashaya, yakrita,pleeha, kloma, antra and guda form the matruja bhavas. (Ref: Cha.Sa.Su 3/6, Su.Sa.Sha3/31)Structure of Twak: Some authors opine that there are 7 layers and some opine 6 layers. However, thelayers of Twak as described in classics can be quoted as follows. Acharya Sushruta describes 7 layers of skin. The first layer of twacha is called as Avabhashini. This layer imparts all thecolours (4 types) to the skin and also reflects 5 types of chayas. It measures about 1/18thvreehi agrabhaga. The Dalhana teeka for the above shloka is as follows: Here sarva varnam indicates that all 4 types of Gouradhi varnas are beingimparted by means of Bhrajakagni. The pancha chayas which are formed by panchamahabhutas are also being reflected. ‘Cha’ indicates that prabha also has to beconsidered. He quotes form Charak Indriya Sthana which says chaya is reflected at acloser distance while prabha is reflected at a longer distance. While describing thepramanas of these 7 layers of Twacha dalhana specified that Vreehi denote completesurface area of “Vreehi Dhanya” and this is imagined to be divided into 20 equal parts.Out of which this layer has pramana equal to 1/18th part of Vreehi like wise 1/16th etc.,division are also being described. Angushtodhara (Twacha) pramana denotes the pramanais equal to 6th part of the total 20 parts of Vreehi. The second layer is called as Lohita. The third layer is called as “sweta”, Thefourth layer is called as “Tamra” and measures about 1/8th part of Vrihi dhanya. It forms 69 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Disease reviewthe diseases like Kilasa and kushtha. The fifth layer is called as “Vedini” The sixth layeris called as “Rohini”, The seventh layer is called as “Mamsadhara”. (Ref: Su.Sha.Ch 4/4) According to acharya charaka, there are only six layers and first have beenidentified by name as udakadhara and asrugdhar and remaining are identified by themanifestation of different disease .the disease switra occurs in the third layer of the skin. (Ref:cha .sha. 7/4) Twacha is considered as the upadhatu of Mamsa dhatu. (Ref: Ch.Chi.Cha. 15/17) Twacha is the srothomoola of mamsa vahasrothas (Ref: Su.Sa. Sha. Cha. 9/12, Ca. Sa. Vi. Cha 5/7) Twacha is sparshanendriya. That is it is one of the five jnyanendriyas. (Ref: Ch. Sa. Su. Cha 8/8, Su. Sa. Sha. Cha 1/6, Ch. Sa. Su. Cha 8/10) The raktadi dhatus along with twacha forms the shakhagata rogamarga or bahyaroga marga. (Ref: Ch. Sa. Su. Cha 11/48) 70 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Disease review SWITRA BHEDA AND NIDANASWITRA BHEDAAccording to Sushruta Samhita 1) Vataja – Mandala, Aruna varna 2) Pittaja – Padma pattavarna, Daha, Parusha, Paridwashi 3) Kaphaja – Swetha, Snigdha, KanduAccording to Charaka SamhitaBheda Dosha Dushya Lakshana1) Daruna Vata Rakta Rakta varna2) Aruna Pitta Mamsa Tamra varna3) Switra Kapha Meda Sweta varna (Cha. Sa. Chi. Cha. 7/173)According to Ashrya 1) Raktashrita Switra 2) Mamsashrita Switra 3) Medashrita Switra (Cha. Sa. Chi. Cha 7/173) 71 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Disease reviewNIDANA The fact that Etiology, pathogenesis and treatment of Kushta and Switra aresimilar is being supported by all the acharyas in the classics. Therefore separate Nidanaand Samprapti are not specified by the acharyas with regards to switra. In Ayurveda the term Kushta is used in a wider sense. It denotes all the afflictionsof the skin. In Ayurveda description of 18 types of Kushta is available. Switra is notconsidered among 18 types of kushta. However due to its resemblance to kushta, it isdescribed along with kushta as saperate entity. Kashayapa has considered switra also oneof the 18 types of Kushtas. Nidana of switra is identical to that of Kushta. Intake of incompatible foods and drinks excessive intake of liquid, uncoutousfood and forecefully suppressing the urge for vomiting and other natural urges. Excessiveindulgence in vyayama, exposure to hot sunrays or agni after excessive food, improperpractice of sheeta ushna, laghanam and Bhojanadi Kriyas. Immediate intake of sheetalajala when subjected to excertion (Shrama) and fear (Bhaya), complications (Vyapt) ofvamana, virechanadi panchakarmas. Excessive in take of masha, moolaka, pishtanna, tila,ksheera, guda and indulging in sexual act, sleeping during day time disobedience to guruand vipras committing sins constitute the various causative factors. All acharyas areunanimously with the above causative factors in the formation of Kushta. (Ref: Cha. Sa. Chi 7/4-8) Uttering falsehood, ungratefulness, abusing God, disobedience towards gurus,committing sins misdeed of previous birth and Virudha aharas form the causative factorsof Kilasa or Switra. (Ref: Cha. Chi. 7/177) 72 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Disease review The virudha Aharas can be grossly considered as follows. (According to variousclassics.) Milk with mady and amla dravya, milk with guda, milk with mamsa, consumingpreparation of hayanak, yavaka, uddalaka, cheenaka and koradusha along with milk,curds or buttermilk, kulatta, masha, atasi or Kusumbha. Consuming chilichima fish with milk, consuming of pippali, kakamachi, lakucha,maricha, with curd and ghee. Combination of fish, milk and amla rasa, raddish withjaggery, Dugdha, madhu and Rohini shakas , Nava dhanyas, Vasa Dugdha, guda, madhuand mamsa, gramya, anupa and jaleeya mamsa. Etc., (Ref: A. Hr. Su. 7/30-36)Viruddha Vihara The following factors are described as viharajanya nidans: Chardi vega nigraha and other adharaneeya vegadharana, sheetala jala sevan, soonafter atapa sevana, are mentioned by Charaka and Sushruta, Diva swapna, vyayama,atisantapa bhuktopa sevanam, shrama, seethambu-sevanam, ajeeranapi vyavaya sevana,improper following the rutu charyas, sudden change in cold to heat and heat to cold foodsubstances, exposure to fumes or agni for long period etc constitute the variousantagonistic viharas.Karmaja: As Ayurveda belief in Remicamation, Poorvakritha papakarma, abusing vipra, guru etc., killing of Brahmins, femalesand elderly people are mentioned by sushruta. Use of money or material acquired throughtheft or robbery, sadhunindana, insult etc constitute the various karmaja nidana. (Ref: A. Hr. Su. 7/ Cha. Su. 26) 73 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Disease review The poorva roopa cannot be appreciated clinically in any patient as far as switraroga is concerned. Switra is produced by the same nidanas as that of kushta. It is also called as“Kilasa” and it is difficult for treatment hence called as “Dharunam” but this is devoid ofexudation as in Kushta. It is produced by the derangement of tridosha and tridhatus. (Ref: A.S.Ni. Cha 14/39) Acharya Indu describes switra as a disease which follows same nidana,doshadushya, samprapti aadi ghataka as that of Kushta. This disease switra is also calledKilasa and Daruna but does not possess the main property of exudation. This disease iscaused due to vitiation of tridhatus by the Tridoshas. The Tridhatus are rakta, mamsa andmeda dhatu. The doshika classification is mainly based on the type of discoloration. (Ref: Indu Teeka As. Ni. 14/31) The vatadhikya switra is aruna varna (blackish red), Pittadhikya switra is tamravarna (copper red) and resembles the colour of lotus petals, it has burning sensation andis associated with loss of hair. The kaphadhikya switra is sweta varna (white) associatedwith itching and wide. The three types vataja, pittaja and kaphaja all predominant inRakta, mamsa and meda dhatu respectively. The commentator says – three dhatus involved are so classified depending uponthe colour of the disease. If the switra is rooksha and aruna varna then it is theashayasthana of Rakta dhatu. If it is tamra varna then it is situated in the mamsa dhatuand if it is white in colour then it is situated in meda dhatu. (Ref: A.S.Ni. 14/41-41). Acharya charaka gives the following explaination regarding switra. (Ref: Ch. Sa. Chi. Cha. 7/173) 74 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Disease review Daruna, Varuna Switra are the three synonyms given to kilasa. This kilasa is threetypes according to tridhoshas predominance. Tachcha indicates darunam charunamswitram. Here prayaha indicates that is probable that it may be ekadoshaja, dwidoshaja.But Sushruta says kilasa is restricted to ‘twak’ alone and does not exhibit kushtalakshanas which have already penetrated Raktadi dhatus. Here switra which is known tomanifest in raktadi dhatu only implies that raktadi dosha only are to be considered andnot all the raktadijata samasta lakshanas. (Ref: Cha. Chi. 7/173). 75 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Disease review SAMPRAPTI The process of manifestation of the disease by the morbid doshas due to variouscausative factors circulate throughout the body and stagnate in a succeptible part or anorgan or the body producing various symptoms inside the body is called as Samprapti. The very fact connected with process of the disease at its various stages isconsidered as Samprapti. That is all the stages from the very contact of the body with letus to the development of the disease including all its Avasthas are together called asSamprapti of the disease (Ref: A. Hri Ni 1/8).Classification of Samprapti It is of 5 types: 1) Sankhya 2) Vikalpa 3) Pradhanya 4) Bala 5) Kala samprapti (Ref: A. Hri. Ni. 1/9) There is no specific samprapti mentioned in any treatises of Ayurveda. It has beenonly said that both Kushta and Switra are having common causative factors and alsotreatment (Ch. Chi 7/172). It is thus inferred that Samprapti of Kushta holds good forswitra also may be a little deviation can be inferred in the pathogenesis of switra.Ultimately the treatment which is exactly aimed at disintegration of pathological agenciesgives a clue that kushta chikitsa and switra chikitsa are one and same excepting somespecific drugs which are more effective in switra. Even some lakshanas differ from ksshtathis also concludes a variation in the samprapti of switra in comparison to kushta. The important cordinal symptom of switra is discoloration of twacha. This pointhas more value when we are discussing about samprapti of switra. The mechanisminvolved in the creation and maintenance of varna, chaya and phabha gets impaired. Thispresents a picture of discoloration of skin. 76 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Disease review Coming to the samprapti of switra can be enumerated as follows: The various nidanas like virudha aharas viz., dugdha with fish, radish jaggery,fish milk and lemon, intake of preparation of hayanaka etc. vitiate the three doshas whichin turn derange the dhatus resulting in the dislodgement of the doshas in the disease pronearea namely in the bahya roga marga. After having located in twak or bahya roga margathe symptoms of the diseae are manifest. The papa karmas even though not traceable perfectly in the former and presentbirth also is said to be responsible in the manifestation of the disease according to variousAcharyas. Table No. 24. VYAVACHEDHAKA NIDANAS.No SWITRA KUSHTA1. It is confined only to the skin It is confined to the first, third and fifth especially to the 4th layer i.e, Tamra layer of the skin. layer of the skin.2 Usually only one dosha Not only predominance of single dosha but predominance is seen. samsarga and sannipatha doshas also are seen.3. Only three dhatus Rakta, Mamsa All the 7 dhatus are involved. and meda dhatu are affected.4. It is devoid of krimis Krimis form the precursors of kushta5. Destruction of dhatus do not occur Destruction of all the dhatus occur if the kushta is left untreated.6. It is devoid of any exudation from Almost all types of kushta obviously are the skin lesion associated with exudation.7. It is not infections or contagenous It is contagenous and there is a strong back ground for this on prolonged contact.8. It is not always hereditary, but is Kushta is also herediatary and other 77 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Disease review various encountered to the causative factors like mithyahara vihara Poorvajanama kruta aparadha, sadhu form factors specially indicated for kushta. ninda and papa kriya are the main Herediatary alone is not the sole cause. causative factors which specially indicated.9. Anaesthetic patch is not observed. Anaesthetic patch is observed in certain types and in fact it is one of the main prodromal symptoms of kushta. (Ref: Su. Ni. 5/17) SADHYASADHYATA According to Indu teeka the description is as follows. The varna which is obtained probably due to 2 factors viz., Vatadi doshas andRaktadi dhatus are difficult to cure in the ascending order. Amongest them vataja switra which manifest in rakta dhatu is difficult to cure.That of pittaja switra which manifest in mamsa dhatu is more difficult than the formerthat off Kaphaja switra which manifest in meda dhatu is difficult amongst varieties. The patches where hair is not involved that which is not very extensive and whichis not attached one another as far as doshika symptoms are concerned possible to cure.The patch resulting form burns, occurring in genitalia, palms and feet, lips and chromicone are possible for treatment. Sushruta, Vagbhata, Madhavakara are in full agreement with charaka acharya inthis regard. (Ref: Cha. Chi. 7/175, Su. Ni. 5/17, A.S. Ni. 14/42, A. Hri Ni. 14/40) 78 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Disease review SAMANYA AND VISHESHA CHIKITSA All the acharyas are unanimously in agreement with the similarity in the treatmentof Kushta and Switra. Switra is envisaged by both dosha and karma vyadhi. Based on this viewDaivavyapashraya Yuktivyapashraya and Satwavajaya method of treatment are alsoadopted. Chakrapani commenting on switra chikitsa mentioned that kushta chikitsa holdsgood even for switra chikitsa. However, it should be adopted in proper method. (Ref: Cha. Chi. 7/166) Sushruta says that treatment can be started soon after the appearance of purvaroopa. He further explain the special line of treatment apart from the general line oftreatment. When the doshas are located in each dhatu the special line of treatment isindicated. When doshas get ashraya in Twak (Rasa) shodana karma and lepas areadvised. When doshas get in rakta dhatu shodana, alepana, kashayapana, raktamokshana,arista and mandapana is indicated. If doshas get lodged in Meda dhatu. It becomes yapyaby its virtue. (Ref: Su. Chi. 9/6) Nashya karmas, dumra pana are also indicated to avoid the complications after thepurifactory measure. The medicinal preparations prescribed in the classics are to beadopted to follow the above procedures. Raktamokshana in cases of hard, coarse lesions are indicated with the help ofAlabu, Shringa or Jalouka as the case may be. 79 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Disease review Bahya prayoga like Lepa Kshara, Udgarshana are also indicatged after teunifactory measures. Shamana chikitsa by means of kushtagna dravya being administeredorally also is said to be effective in kushta. (Ref: Cha. Chi. 7/46-54) Charaka while describing the vishesha chikitsa for switra emphasizes upon thepurifactory measures. He in fact says that it always advisable to adopt samshodhanabefore adopting the treatment for switra. For the purgation malayura rasa with guda is indicated. The procedures a switrinshould follow after complete vishodhana of the body is as follows. The patient should be oleated and exposed to sun’s rays. After being purged theabove procedure for 3 days, when even the patient falls thirsty only peya should beadministered. (Ref: Cha. Chi. Cha 7/162-63) The above procedures induce blisters which should be burst open by thorns andallowed for the exudation to ooze out completely form the lesion. For another fortnightpatient should be given a decoction of malayurarasa, asana, priyangu, shatapushpa alongwith paneeya kshara of palasha. All the medication prescribed for kushta are efficacious in switra also provided. Itis supplemented with decoction of Khadira which is par excellence. (Ref: Cha. Chi. 7/164-6). Apart from this various leaps have been indicated in switra roga.Lepas: 1) Lepa of bakuchi, Laksha, gorochana, rasanjana, sowiranjan, loharaja. 2) Kshara of malatipushpa buds soaked in elephant’s ichor. 3) Manashila and Peocock’s bile triturated together to form a paste. 80 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Disease review 4) Neelotpala, kushta, saindhava lavana, triturated with hastimutra. 5) Kadali kshara or ashes of donkey’s bone are mixed with cow’s urine. 6) Moolaka beeja and avalagunja beeja tritutated in gomutra. 7) Manashila vidanga, kareesha, gorochana, swarna, kaseesa and saidhava lavana. (Ref: Cha. Chi 7/167-70) 8) Sushrutacharya also explains many such lepas and internal medicines, Vagbhatacharya explains many yogas for switra. 9) The later authors of rasashastra have several contributions to switragna. Lepas and oral medicines. Amongst them is the switrahara lepa is one. a. Gunja phala churna can be used as a switrahara lepa or b. Manashila and apamarga in equal quantities an applying with gomutra cures switra. 10) Sushrutacharya advise to pack the lesions once this blisters are burst open. Various switragna lepas like. a. Krishna Sarpa mashi mixed with vibhitaki taila. b. Lepas of vit of kukkuta is applied as lepa. c. Gajalendaja (Jalapippali) Kshara mixed with hasti mutra and bakuchi beeja are added to this and pills prepared out of this applied. (Ref: Su. Sa. Chi. 9/18-22).Internal Medicine: Mustadi churna, Madwasava, Kanakabindurarista,Mahatiktakagritha, Mahakadhiragritha, Mahaneelagritha, Mahavajrakagritha,Manibadhraguda, Somarajigritha, Mahaballathaka, Tiktagritha, Mahatiktagritha,Mahaballathaka avaleha etc., 81 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Disease reviewFlask shaped alveoli. The number alveoli may vary from 2 to 5 in number but in someinstances there may be many as 20.Sudoriferous Glands: The Sudoriferous glands or sweat glands (glandualai sudoriferae) are found inalmost every part of the skin. Each consists of a single tube, the deep part of which isirregularly coiled in to an oval or spherical ball, named the body of the gland while thesuperficial ball or duct traverses the dermis and cuticle and opens on the surface of skinby a funnel shaped operture. In this superficial layers of the dermis the duct is straight butin the deeper layers it is convoluted or even twisted. Where the epidermis is thick as inthe palms of the hands soles of the feet, the part of the duct passes through it is spirallycoiled. The size of the gland varies. They are especially large in those regions where theamount of perspiration is great as in the axillae where they form as thin, mamillated layerof reddish colour which corresponds exactly to the situation of the hair in this region theglands are also large in the gain.Melanin: It is density filter that decreases that harmful effects of ultra violet light on theskin and hereby provides protection against acute skin burn reactions and curomicactimic damage.Definition: Melanin is defined as a protein bound polymer formed by the oxidation oftyurosime by tyrosijnate to dihydroxyphenyle alanine (dopa) within melanocytes whichare specialized epidermal dentritic cells of neural crest origin. The structure of melanin is 82 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Disease reviewunknown because in melanin is so insoluble that all attempts to degrade it intoindentifiable fragments have failed.The Melanocytes: Melanocytes are dendrite cells that synthesize and secreate melanin containingorangelled called melanosomes. They are derived from precursors in te neural crest thatmrgrage to the epidermis, various mucous epithelia, hair follicles, dermis, retina, avealtract leptomeninges, inner ear and other tissues, primitive melanocytes are first found inthe skin during the eighth week of fetal life. There are two donor of integumtory melanin. Eumelanin produce din elliposoidalmelanosomes account for the brown and black colours of both skin and hair. Pheomelanin produced in spherical melanosomes amount for the lighter colour ofhair, ranging in hue from yellow to reddish brown. But the types of melanin are formedpartially by the mediation of tyrosinate a copper containing enzyme. PIGMENTATIONS OF SKIN Modern science says that the colour of the human skin is derived from a variety ofchemical and physical properties associated with skin structure. Normal colour of the skin is dependant on haemoglobin both in the oxygenatedand reduced state, carotenoids and melanin pigment. There are 5 pigments are known to influence the skin colour. They are mentionedas follows: 1) Melanin is a yellow to black pigment which is more found in Basal layer of epidermis (in Stratum Malphighi). Melanin contribute colour quality to the skin and protect the human being from the ultraviolet rays. 83 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Disease review 2) Melonoid is supposed to be a degradation product of melanin and is diffused through the epidermis melanoid has a different absorption band of visible light. 3) Carotene is yellow orange pigment and present in lipid rich areas (stratum corneum, subcutaneous etc). This adds yellow colour to the skin of women than of man. 4) Oxy-haemoglobin imparts reddish colour to the skin colour and is evident in areas where there is rich arterial supply i.e, face, neck, soles, palm and nipples. 5) Reduced haemoglobin contributes bluish and purple colour character to skin colour and in more evident is lower of the trunk. Melanin concentration and skin thickness have a tendency to suppress thehaemoglobin pigment colour component affects. Two types of melanin pigmentation occurs in man. The first “Constitutive” skincolour. That is the amount of melanin pigmentation which is genetically determined inthe absence of sun exposure and other influences. The second one is the “Facultative”(Inducible) skin colour or tan which resulted form exposure to sun. Variation in the thickness of the skin modify the skin colour subjects with thinepidermis have red colour complexion and with a thicker epidermis look yellower.Thicker epidermis is less transparent than thin one. As the transparent stratum corneumscatters light slightly the deeper layer appears blue. (C.C. Chatterjee). Bruno-bloch is the person who elucidated the mode of melanin formation,according to him melanin is formed from tyrorine through the intermediatory state of di-oxy-phenyl alamine (DOPA), unclanocytes which contains enzymes which correcttyrorine in to undanin in the following manner. 84 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Disease review Tyrorin Tyrosinae DOPA DOPA oxidize Melanin The ultrastructure of melanocyte and melanin formation has been deeply studiesby F. T. Z. Partichetal. From Golgi body of the cell arises a vacuole like premalano.Some which incorporate zinc and becomes a melahozome. In latter becomes heavy andloose tyrorinate actively to be transformed in to melanin granules. (Ref: P. N. Bhel -300). Melanin formation in physiologically under the control of melanocyte stimulatinghormone (MSH) of te pitutory gland, the sun x-rays and ultraviolet rays, photo sensitizingagents etc., stimulate the formation of melanin. (P.N. Bhel – 309). Mechanism of hypopigmentation and photophysiology of pigmentation 1) Alteration in the number of melanosom i.e, decreased (tuberous selerosiss) or absent (vitiligo). 2) Decreased tyrosinare activity and melanisation causes hypopigmentation. Eg. Phenyl Ketanusia. 3) If transfer of melanin from melanocytes to keratinocytes is prevented, hypopigmentation results. 4) It contact melanocytes with keratinocytes is prevented eg.: Ordema occurring in azema and aging. 5) In linea verciscolor, hypopigmentation occurs due to inhibition of melanin synthesis, by the products of fungal metabolism. This is often referred to as pseudo hypopigmentation. 85 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Disease review VITILIGODefinition: A skin condition in which there is loss of pigment from areas of skin resulting inirregular white patches with normal skin texture.Aetiology Vitiligo affects all races and it is stated that it occurs in 1% of the world’spopulation. An epidermiological survey on the Island of Bornholm in Denmark found theprevalence to be 0.38%. it is likely that this figure applies to other countries in north westEurpoe. Various theories are suggested for the aetiology of vitiligo. An autoimmunehypothesis is based on the clinical association of vitiligo with number of disordersconsidered to be also auto immune. Organ-specific autoantibodies to thyroid, gastric parietal cells and adrenal tissueare found in the serum more frequently in patients with Vitiligo than in generalpopulation. A specific antimelanocyte antibody cannot be found using standardimmunoflourecent techniques. However a complement fixing antibody to melanocyteshas been found in the serum of seoeral patients who is addition to vitiligo and alopeciaareata, mucocutaneous conditions and multiple endocrine insufficiencies. Recentlyantibodies to normal human melenocytes have been detected using a specific immuneprecipitation array. The neurogenic hypothesis suggests that a compound is release at peripheralnerve endings in the skin which may inhibit melanogenesis, and could have a toxic effecton melanocytes. Though vitiligo may sometimes occur in a dermatonmal distribution and 86 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Disease reviewelectron microscope shows abnormalities of ternminal portions of peripheral nerves thereis little support for this hypothesis. Lerner suggests that melanocytes destroys themselvesdue to a defect of a natural protective mechanism that removes toxic melanin precursors.The melanocytes self-destruct hypothesis is based on the clinical features of vitiligo andon experimental studies on cutamous depigmentation by chemical compounds that have aselective lethal effect on functional melanocytes. These compounds can produce aleukoderma that is indistinguishable from idio-pathic vitiligo.PATHOLOGY There is a marked absence of melanocytes and melanin in the epidermis.Histochemical studies show a lack of dopapositive melanocytes in the basal layer ofepidermis. Electron microxopy studies confirm the loss of melanocytes, which appear tobe replaced by Langerhans cells. In the epidermis of the areas around the margins ofvitiligo are abnormalities of the keratinocytes as well as degenerating melanocytes. Thereis an increased cellularity of the dermis and occasional coloidamyloid bodies are found.In inflammatory vitiligo where there is raised erythematous border there is an infiltrate oflymphocytes and histiocytes. This infiltrate is also found in the marginal areas of somebiopsier.CLINICAL FEATURES: Vitiligo can begin at any age but in 50% of cases it develops before the age of 20.this condition is slowly progressive. Hypomelanotic macules are usually first noted on the sun exposed on area of skin,on the face or backs of hand. These areas are prone to sunburn. Rarely, itching in teabsence of sunburn may occur. Damage to the “normal” skin frequently results in an area 87 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Disease reviewof depigmentation – an isomorphic of Kobner phenomenon. Stren may play a part intriggering off further depigmentation. The amcalanotic macules in vitiligo are found particularly in areas that arenormally hyperpigmented. Eg. The face, axillae, groins, areolae and genitalia. Areassubjected to repeated friction and trauma are also likely to be affected eg: the backs ofhands, feet, elbow, knees and ankles. The distribution of the lesion is usuallysymmetrical, though sometimes it is unilateral and may have a dermatomal arrangement.Rarely there is complete vitiligo but a few pigmented areas always remains. The macules have a convex outline, increase irregularly in size and fuse withneighboring lesions to form complex patterns. The hairs in the patches frequently remainnormally pigmented, but in older lesions the hairs too are often amelonitic. The marginsof the lesions may become hyperpigmented. The main symptoms is the cosmeticdisability, though some patients present because of sunburn in the amelonotic areas. The condition is gradually progressive sometimes extending rapidly over a periodof several months and then remaining quiescent for many years. Spontaneous repigmentation is noted in about 10-20% of patients, most frequentlyin sun-exposed areas. It is usually seen in younger patients the repigmentation being quitetrivial and mainly perfollicular. In addition to premature grayness of the hair, uvetis also rarely occurs. 88 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Disease reviewASSOCIATED DISORDER: A number of conditions occur in association with vitiligo and are listed asfollows: 1) Thyoid disease (Hyperthroidism and hypothyroidism) 2) Pernicous anemia 3) Addison’s disease 4) Diabetes mellitus 5) Hypoparathyroidism 6) Myastehnia gravis 7) Alopecia areata 8) Morphoea and lichen sclerosu 9) Halo nervus 10) Malignant melanoma. Hali naevi occur not frequently and often antidote the onset of vitiligo. Areas ofdepigmentation sometimes develop in patients with malignment melanoma. Vitiligo withuveitis, central nervous system involvement and premature graying of hari occur in thevogi-koyanagi syndrome.DIAGNOSIS The distribution the age of onset and the hyperpigmented border will suggest thediognosis. In peibaldism the lesions are present at birth, are usually confined to the headand trunk and rarely show a hperpigmented border. Careful examination of the texture ofthe unpigmented skin should exclude lichen sclerous and scleroderma. Post inflammatoryleukoderma, which is frequent in the darker races, shows an irregular mottling of 89 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Disease reviewhypeiprgmented and hypopigmented blotches. Hypomelanosis of the affected skin iscommonly seen in pityrians alba, producing slightly scaly areas on childrens’ faces.Hypopigmented slightly scaly macules are seen in pityrians, versicolor. These areas oftenfluoresce a golden yellow when examined under a wood’s lamp. The hypomelanoticmacules in leprosy are anaesthetic.TREATMENT The treatment of vitiligo is unsatisfactory and in most cases the patient is bestadvised to seek effective cosmetic camouflage for the lesions on exposed skin. In sunnyclimates the prescription of sunscreens is often necessary. Treatment with systemic psoralens 4, 5, 8 trimethylopsoralen (TMP and 8-methoxyprovalen (8 MOP) combined with exposure to sunlight or to light sourcesproviding high intensity long-wave or light is effective in a proportion of cares. Thepatient is instructed to take the psorclens in a dosage of 0.6 mg/kg body weight 2 hrbefore carefully controlled graduated exposure to sunlight, preferably around midday.Therapy is continued for atleast 6 months and for some several years. In the majority of patients the areas retain the pigment long after psoralen therapyhas been discontinued. The use of topical applications of psoralens is hazardous and wayresult in untowards blistering of the skin. In some patients the more patent topical corticosteroid prepartins 0.1%betamethoasone valerate and 0.05% clobestasol propionate, are effective in producingrepigmentation of areas of vitiligo. 90 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Disease review In those patients with extensive vitiligo and only a few residual areas ofhyperpigmentation skin bleaching creams as 20% monobenzylether of hydroguinone areof use.(Ref: Text book of Dermatology Vol II 1986: 4th edited by Arthur Rook, D.S. Wilkinson,F. J.G Ebling R.H champion, J. L. Burton., Blackwell scientific publication Oxford,London.)SURGICAL TREATMENTSurgical approaches comprise 1) Epidermal grafting 2) Thin Thiersch grafting 3) Mini grafting1) Epidermal grafting Normally pigmented epidermis is separated from the dermis of the donor site bysuction blistering of the skin at a negative prenure of 200-mm Hg. In Vitiligo epidermalgrafting has been found particularly useful in the segmented type2) Thin Thiersch grafting Thin split graft were performed in cases with long standing quiescent lesions,ranging from 6 to 100 cm2 in area, resistant to medical treatment.3) Mini grafting Mini grafting is performed by implanting small punch graft 3-4 mm apart withinminute beds perforated in the depigmented recipient area. The most preferred size of thepunch for donor and recipient sites is 1-2 mm for convenience of handling and forappropriate cosmetic results. (Ref: N.V.F.) 91 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Methodology MethodologyMethodology adopted in the present study includes following headings. 1) Pharmaceutical study 2) Analytical study 3) Clinical studyPharmaceutical Study Pharmaceutical study means the practical experience of preparing medicinesfrom raw drugs. Practical experience is most essential for vaidya as described inRasaratna Samucchaya (RRS 6/4) that Rasa shastrajna must have the quality ofKushala Rasa Karamani. Rasashastra is a science, which mainly deals with minerals and metals. Theseminerals cause some toxic and untoward effects if are not properly processed. Hencepreparation of mineral drugs requires more skill and only way of obtaining skill isthrough repeated practicals and careful observations during the process. This section deals with identification, selection and processing of raw drugsand preparation of Switrarirasa and lepa, which is explained in R.R.S. 20/63.Study design A detailed and clear description of steps taken to prepare the trial drugRasapushpa is being put under following headings:Step 1 : Identification and collection of raw drugsStep 2 : Shodhana of raw drugsStep 3 : Preparation of Switrari rasa & lepa. 92“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • MethodologyMethodStep 1 : Identification and collection of raw drugs Proper identification and collection of raw drugs are need of the hour for theAyurvedic formulations by which quality of the medicine can be assured. Rasapushpacomprises following ingredients: Switrari rasa Switrari lepa Hingulotha Parada Haratala Gandhaka Bakuchi Kaseesa Special request was made to the local herbomineral drugs shop dealer to getthe particular quality raw drugs and those were screened for classical grahya andagrahya laxanas and were certified by concerned departments.Step 2: Shodhana of raw drugs Shodhana is the process, which makes metal and minerals fit for therapeuticuse by eliminating toxic substances present in the drug. Shodhana is done by manymethods viz Mardana, Bhavana, Swedana, Nirvapa etc with particular vanaspatidravya swarasa or kwatha etc. It is necessary to increase therapeutic efficiency ofdrug, hence proper shodhana of ingredients used in Rasapushpa preparation wasconducted.Practical No 1 Name of the practical : Hingula Shodhana Reference : Rasatarangini 9/16-17 Date of Commencement : 5-8-2007 Date of Completion : 15-8-2007 Materials : Hingula - 500gms, Nimbu swarasa -QS Method : Bhavana Equipment : Khalavayantra, Juice extractor. 93“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • MethodologyProcedure Hingula shodhana was done by giving 7 bhavanas with Nimbu swarasa. 500 gm of Hingula was taken and finely powdered in Khalva yantra. Required quantity of Nimbu swarasa was extracted from lemons with the help of juice extractor. For the first Bhavana, 170ml of Nimbu swarasa, the quantity sufficient to immerse Hingula was added. It was subjected for continual and cautious mardana till powder completely absorbs the swarasa. Mardana has to be continued till Hingula dries up completely & becomes powder again. This completes one bhavana. Like this bhavana was repeated for another six times taking fresh swarasa each time.Observations  For first bhavana the quantity of Nimbu swarasa required was quite more than the subsequent bhavanas.  The Hingula was solid in form, and red in color with glistening white/mercurial lines.  It took 30 minutes to powder the block of Hingula and it possessed glistening particles at the initial stage of mardana.  Glistening particles disappeared at the end of 30 minutes and Hingula was finely powdered.  The clump of Hingula was comparatively dull in color but brilliant red color could be appreciated only after it was finely powdered. 94“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • MethodologyTable No. 25. Observations made during Hingula shodhana.No. of Shodhana Day Quantity of swarasa in ml Time taken 01 1 175 ml 8 02 3 170 ml 8 03 5 165 ml 7.45 04 7 165 ml 8 05 9 165 ml 8 06 11 165 ml 8.30 07 13 165 ml 9  After completion of 7 bhavanas, Hingula was taken out from the khalva and washed in a steel vessel with water thoroughly and allowed to settle.  Washing of Hingula was done for another 2 times  Settling of Hingula at the bottom took 6 hours after which the water was decanted.  Totally it took 17 days for Hingula shodhana.Precautions  Khalva yantra was clean and dry before carrying out the procedure.  Hingula was finely powdered before adding Nimbu swarasa.  Bhavana dravya i.e Nimbu swarasa was just sufficient to immerse the powder of Hingula so as to avoid more liquidity resulting in spilling of the drug from Khalva.  Mardana was carried out cautiously allowing peshani to move entire length of Khalva yantra.  At the end of each bhavana, mardana was done slowly as the material becomes stickier. 95“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Methodology  When the material was completely dried up by mardana then only it was considered as the completion of one bhavana and fresh swarasa was added for next bhavana.  After the completion of 7 bhavanas, Hingula was washed with water until it loses its snigdhata and amlatva and attain ujjwala varna.ResultTable No.26. Showing the results of Hingula shodhana Initial weight of Hingula 500 gms Final weight of Shodhita Hingula 550 gms Weight after prakshalana 530 gms Total weight gain 30 gmsCauses of weight gainDue to the addition of solid contents present in Nimbu swarasa.Practical No. 2 Name of the practical : Preparation of Hingula Chakrikas. Date of Commencement : 1-9-2007 Date of Completion : 18-9-2007 Materials : Shodhita Hingula – 500gms, Nimbu swarasa - 130ml Method : Bhavana Equipment : Khalvayantra Procedure  500 gms of Shuddha Hingula taken and finely powdered in khalva yantra.  Then 130ml of Nimbu swarasa added and mardana was done.  Mardana was continued till the proper consistency was obtained. Then chakrikas were prepared and dried in shade. 96“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • MethodologyObservations  It took 5 hrs of mardana to get the proper consistency.  Chakrikas dried completely in 20 days.  The average measurement of chakrikas Thickness – 3.5 mm Circumference – 3-31/2cmPrecautions  Clean and dry Khalva yantra was taken.  Mardana was done carefully to avoid the spillage of content from khalva yantra.ResultsInitial weight of Hingula : 500gmsWeight of Chakrikas : 480gmsCause of weight loss  Due to the adherence of Hingula to Khalva yantra.  While preparing chakrikas.Practical No. 3 Name of the practical : Hingula Satwapatana Date of Commencement : 26-9-2007 Date of Completion : 29-9-2007 Reference : Rasatarangini 5/38,39 Materials : Hingula chakrika – 240gms Method : Urdwapatana Equipment : Damaruyantra, Gas stove, cloth 97“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • MethodologyProcedureWhole procedure was divided into 3 stages. 1. Preparation of Chakrikas. 2. Preparation of Urdwapatana yantra 3. Parada Nishkasana.Preparations of Chakrikas:Same as Practical No. 2Preparations of DamaruyantraMaterials required – Two earthen pots of equal sizeCloth – 4 x 60cms, Multani mrittika.Method  Mouth surface of two pots was rubbed on a smooth stone with sand to make the facing surfaces of mouth even.  Dried chakrikas of shodhita Hingula was weighed as 240gms and were kept in a lower pot.  This pot was covered with another pot of same size.  The gap left at the union of two mouths of pot was with multani mrittika smeared thread.  Then sandhi bandhana was done with cotton cloth strip smeared with multani mrittika and it was allowed to dry for a day.Parada Nishkasana  When sandhi bandhana dried i.e. on next day Damaruyantra was kept on gas stove and heat was given continuously for 8 hours.  While heating cold pad was maintained on the upper pot for condensation of sublimed parada. 98“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Methodology  Temperature was maintained at 350o –400oC  After swangasheeta, Damaruyantra, sandhibandhana was carefully removed. Parada, which was sublimated on upper pot was collected by doing prakshalana with hot water.  After prakshalana, parada was filtered through a clean cloth and was collected in a clean and dry glass jar.ObservationsTable No. 27. Temperature recorded during the procedure. Time Temperature 0 Hours 300C 1st Hour 1500C 3 Hours 2800C 5 Hours 3600C 7 Hours 3800C 8 Hours 4050C  Temperature was recorded with the help of pyrometer at regular intervals.  After one hour of agni smell of Gandhaka was noticed.  After opening of Damaruyantra, globules of mercury were seen adhered to the upper part of the pot.  Chakrikas of Hingula in the lower part was completely burnt.  Mercury obtained was very much shining.Precautions o The upper pot was maintained with cold pad to ensure proper condensation of Parada. 99“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Methodology o Sandhibandhana was properly done without leaving a gap at the junction of two pots. o The water has not wet the sandhibandhita area.Results  Total time taken : 3days  Weight of Chakrikas : 240 gms  Weight of Parada extracted : 135 gmsNote: The same extraction procedure was followed for another sample.Practical No. 4 Name of the practical : Hingula Satwapatana. Date of Commencement : 8-10-2007 Date of Completion : 12-10-2007 Same as practical No. 03ResultsTotal time taken : 2 daysWeight of chakrikas of Hingula : 240Weight of parada obtained : 130Practical No. 5 Name of the Practical : Parada shodhana Reference : Rasatarangini 5/40,41 Date of Commencement : 15-11-2007 Date of completion : 17-11-2007 Materials : Hingulotha Parada : 250gms Haridra: 16 gms Method : Mardana Equipment : Khalvayantra 100“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • MethodologyProcedure  16 gms of Haridra taken and finely powdered in Khalva yantra.  250gm of Parada was added and subjected for continual and cautious mardana.  After 30 minutes of mardana, little quantity of Parada split up into small particles.  After 1 hour of mardana yellow color of Haridra turned into pale brown color.  As mardana continued pale brown color gradually depended.  Mardana was done for 2 days. Each day 8 hours mardana is conducted.  Then on 3rd day Parada is squeezed out with the help of cloth.Observations  A little quantities of Parada disintegrated into small particles.  After one hour of mardana yellow color of Haridra changed to brown colour which become more deepened with mardana.  Haridra was shiny in appearance.  Parada secured after 2 days of mardana  It was very bright in appearance.Precautions o Khalva yantra was clean and dry before carrying out the procedure. o Haridra was finely powdered before adding parada. o Mardana was done cautiously so as to avoid spilling of Parada.ResultInitial weight of Parada : 250 gmsFinal weight : 245 gms 101“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • MethodologyPractical No. 2Name of the Practical : Gandhaka ShodhanaReference : Rasatarangini (8/21-22)Date of Starting : 22-12-07Date of Completion : 28-12-07Materials : Amalasara Gandhaka: 500 gms Bhringraj Swarasa : (5 litres), Ghruta: Q SMethod : DhalanaApparatus Required : Mortar with pestle, Spatula, Vessel, Clothe, Measuring Cylinder, Gas stove, Thermometer.Procedure: Amalasara Gandhaka was weighed exactly 1/2 kg and kept in mortar. Total 1/2 kg Gandhaka shodhana was carried out. First fine powder was made. Initially Bhringaraj was crushed to prepare Kalka and juice was extracted with the help of cloth. Gandhaka was taken in steel vessel smeared with little ghee. In another vessel 500 ml of Bhringaraj Swarasa was taken and its mouth was covered with a piece of cloth and was tied properly. Gandhaka was melted on hot plate at 120oC. When Gandhaka was totally melted it was immediately poured into the Bhringaraj Swarasa through cloth. Gandhaka was obtained from the bottom of vessel in the form of a flake. Gandhaka was then washed with hot water, dried and powdered. The same process was repeated for 7 times. 102“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Methodology Every time fresh Swarasa was used.Observations: When Gandhaka was completely liquefied it forms a homogenous mixture. When liquefied Gandhaka was poured in vessel containing Bhringraj Swarasa, impurities in the form of dust was observed in cloth. Colour of shodhita Gandhaka was greenish tinged yellow. Shodhita Gandhaka was collected in the form of cake. Bhringraj Swarasa was found hot after dropping liquefied Gandhaka into it where in temperature was around 500C and it took 25 minutes to self cool. The colour of the water turned to greenish after washing Gandhaka with hot water. After drying the final colour of Shodhita Gandhaka became light greenish yellow.Precautions: Heating of Gandhaka should be done on a mandagni. The Gandhaka to be liquefied needs constant stirring while heating. When Gandhaka gets completely liquefied it should be immediately poured into the vessel containing Bhringraj Swarasa with caution. Shodhita Gandhaka should be washed with hot water, dried and powdered. The process should be repeated for 7 times. Every time fresh Swarasa and little ghee should be taken.Table no.28. Showing the observations done during Gandhaka shodhana. Shodhana Date Wt. of Qty. of Wt. of Loss of no. Gandhaka Bringaraj Gandhaka Gandhaka taken Swarasa obtained 1st 22-12-07 500gms 500 ml 445 gms 05 gms. 2nd 23-12-07 445 gms 500 ml 430 gms 15 gms. 3rd 24-12-07 430 gms 500 ml 420 gms 10 gms. 103“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Methodology 4th 25-12-07 420 gms 500 ml 400 gms 10 gms. 5th 26-12-07 410 gms 500 ml 390 gms 10 gms. 6th 27-12-07 400 gms 500 ml 380 gms 10 gms. 7th 28-12-07 390 gms 500 ml 370 gms 10 gms.Total time taken for the practical – 7 days.Quantity of Ashuddha Gandhaka taken – 500 gms.Quantity of Shodhita Gandhaka obtained – 370 gms.Total weight loss – 130 gms.Causes of weight loss:1. Some particles of Gandhaka remain adhered to cloth and vessel.2. While washing small particles of Gandhaka floats away with water.3. filteration of physical impurities like stone, dust etc.Table no.29. Showing the Physical Examination of Gandhaka before and aftershodhana.Test Amalasara Gandhaka Shodhita GandhakaAppearance Stony Thicker flake likeColour Dull yellow Pale yellow with scattered greenish Black spots.Smell Sulphurous smell Odourless to faintly characteristic.Collision sound Stone like MetallicFragility Hard More fragilePractical No. 6 Name of the practical : Kasisa Shodhana Reference : BrihatRasaRajaSundara (28.chpt) Date of commencement : 21-11-2007 Date of completion : 22-11-2007 104“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Methodology Materials : Kasisa: 300 gms Nimbu swarasa: 100 ml Method : Bhavana. Apparatus : Khalva yantra.Procedure  Kasisa was taken in Khalva yantra and finely powdered.  100ml of Nimbu swarasa was taken in measuring flask and was poured slowly into Khalva yantra containing Kasisa churna.  Kasisa churna was completely immersed in Nimbu swarasa.  Then mardana was done continuously and cautiously till Kasisa completely absorbs the swarasa and becomes dried.Observations  Ashodhita Kasisa was bluish green in colour, lustrous, and crystalline in nature.  After powdering Kasisa became lusterless.  It took 25 minutes to powder the kasisa finely.  On After 2 hours of mardana Kasisa turned into viscous mixture.  Mardana was done for 10 hours.  After shodhana Kasisa become whitish green in colour.Precautionso Before adding Nimbu swarasa, Kasisa was finely powdered.o Mardana was done slowly to avoid loss of Kasisa by spilling out.o After shodhana, Kasisa dried well and weighed. 105“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • MethodologyTable No. 30. Physical examination of Ashodhita and Shodhita Kasisa Observation Ashodhita ShodhitaConsistency Shining crystals Fine powder lusterlessColor Bluish green Pale greenTouch Hard, solid, rough Soft, fineSmell Slightly metallic Smell of Nimbu swarasaResultQuantity of Kasisa : 300 gmsQuantity of Kasisa obtained : 275 gmsLoss of weight : 25 gmsCauses of weight lossSome amount of Kasisa adhered to Khalva yantra.Some amount of Kasisa spilled out during mardana.Practical No. 7 Name of the practical : Preparation of Prematerial Reference : RRS 20/146-148 Date of commencement : 9-1-2007 Date of completion : 14-1-2007 Materials : Hingulotha Parada : 360gms Shodhita Gandhaka : 360gms Shodhita Kaseesa : 360gms Method : Mardana Equipment : Khalvayantra 106“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • MethodologyProcedure Hingulotha Parada, shodhita gandhaka and Shodhita Kaseesa were taken in equal quantity and mardana was done in Khalva yantra for 48 hours. As mardana continued, Parada was split up into smaller and smaller particles. Daily 8 hours of mardana was done and it took 6 days for completion of this procedure.Observations Laxanas of Prematerial were observed only after 48 hours of mardana. At the end of 5 hours whole mixture became very fine powder. The consistency of Prematerial was kajjalabha i.e. very soft and smooth except the kajjala varna. When Prematerial was rubbed between the fingers it filled the furrows of the finger (rekhapurnatwa) For confirmation of nischandrata, a little pinch of Prematerial was added to a drop of water on the palm and rubbed gently and observed in sunlight. No free particles of mercury were traced in Prematerial.Precautions o Clean and dry Khalva yantra was used. o Uniformity of mardana was maintained through out the procedure. o Mardana was done carefully to avoid spillage of fine powder of Prematerial.Results o Initial weight of ingredients : 1080gms o Weight of Prematerial : 1045gms o Loss of weight : 35gms 107“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • MethodologyCauses of weight loss  Spilling of Prematerial during mardana.  Some particles of Prematerial adhere to Khalva yantra which becomes difficult to collect.Practical No. 8 Name of the practical : Preparation of Golaka Reference : R.R.S. 20/146-148 Date of commencement : 10-1-2007 Date of completion : 10-1-2007 Materials : Kajjali : 1045gms Tulasi swarasa : 100ml Method : Mardana Equipment : KhalvayantraProcedure Kajjali is trituarated with tulasi swarasa. As mardana continued, Parada was split up into smaller and smaller particles. After getting consistency golakas are prepared in the size 2 cms in diameters.Observations Laxanas of golakas are dark black, Shiny in colour. Golakas are dried in shadow after drying the colour of golakas will be whitish gray.Precautions o Clean and dry Khalva yantra was used. o Uniformity of mardana was maintained through out the procedure. o Mardana was done carefully to avoid spillage of fine powder of Prematerial. 108“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • MethodologyResults o Initial weight of ingredients : 1045gms o Weight of Prematerial : 1145gms o Weight gain : 100gmsCauses of weight gain  Adding tulasi swarasa to the ingredientsPractical No. 9 Name of the practical : Preparation of Changeri kalkaavarana to the golakas Reference : R.R.S. 20/146-148 Date of commencement : 12-1-2007 Date of completion : 12-1-2007 Materials : Kajjali : 1045gms Changeri kalka : 1kg Method : Mardana Equipment : KhalvayantraProcedure Changeri kalka is prepared. That kalka is completely covered to the golakas. Kept for drying in sun rays.Observations Changeri kalka is very fibrous in nature so fine paste of kalka is not found  The laxanas of golakas are greenish in colour.  1 Golaka weight (wet) – 40gms  1 Golaka weight (dry) – 30gms 109“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • MethodologyPrecautions o Clean and dry Khalva yantra was used. o Uniformity of mardana was maintained through out the procedure. o Mardana was done carefully to avoid spillage of fine powder of Prematerial.Results o Initial weight of ingredients : 1145gms o Weight of Prematerial : 1545gms o Weight gain : 400gmsCauses of weight gain  Applying Changeri kalka to the golakas.Practical No. 101. Name of the preparation : Marana of Switrari rasa. Date of commencement : 15 – 1 – 08 Date of completion : 20 – 1 –08 Reference : R.R.S. 20/ 146-1482. Equipments :- 1. Mrut sharava of diameter is 12 angula 2. Vanaphalas 3. Match box 4. Cotton cloth – 2 meters 5. Jute thread – 85 cm3. Drugs :- a.Switrari rasa golaka : 1545gms b.Gopi chandana : 250 gms c. Vanophala : 1000 110“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Methodology d. Water _ Q.S4. Procedure :- A. Preparation of sharava samputa: Two equal sized mruta sharava were taken, the borders of both sharavas are rubbed on stone with sand & water to bring uniformity on the sharavas border. a. Dried golakas were arranged in one layer in the sharava which was covered with another sharava of same size. b. A jute thread of 85 cms length smeared with gopi chandana paste was fixed to fill the gap between the two sharava & sealing was done. c. Gopi chandana smeared cloth was uniformality pasted over the sandhis of sharava for sandhibandhana made it air tight & kept for drying. d. After complete drying another layer was done & dried.B. Puta preparation: a. A pit of Gaja puta measuring about 60 angulas length, breadth & height was made & 700 vanopalas were arrangd at the center, dried sharava samputa was kept & covered with 300 vanophalas & fire was given lighting camphor balls at 4 corners of pit at the lavel of sealed sharava samputa. b. After self cooling sharava samputa was taken out, sandhi bandhana was scraped & opened carefully & the golakas were collected & weighed.D. Observation : a. Time taken for complete burning was 10 – 11 hours. b. After the Gaja puta the weight of the switrari rasa was reduced to 155 gms & some powder was adherent to the bottom of sharava which could not be removed. 111“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Methodology c. After the Gaja puta the golakas becomes soft to touch fragile & there was no remarkable change in colour.E. Precaution : a. Each time the size & shape of golakas were maintained b. Uniform application of Changeri kalka to the golakas were maintained. c. Before applying gopichandana thread & cloth were made wet. d. Care should be taken to avoid the gap between two sharavas. e. Gopi chandana smeared cloth should be applied in such way that after complete drying of the previous one, another coating should be made. After puta the material is collected carefully and mardana is done in clean and dry kalvayantra. That product is switrari rasa which is in churna form. The colour of switrari rasa is dark brown in colour Preparation of Switra lepaPractical No 11 Name of the practical : Hartala shodhana Reference : RRS 3/70 Date of commencement : 12-12-2007 Date of completion : 12-12-2007 Materials : Ashodhita haratala : 30gms Choornodaka : 1 ½ ltr Method : Swedana Equipment : DolayantraProcedure Ashodhita Haratala pieces are kept in four folded cotton cloth and made into potali. 112“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Methodology Potali is suspended in Dolayantra containing churnodhaka. Swedana is done for three hours in MandagniPrecautions Potali does not touches the bottom of pot. Agni should be manda After swedana Haratala should be washed with hot water.Observations Colour of Haratala will not changes Colour of Churnodaka becomes yellowish and thickResults o Initial weight of ingredients : 30gms o Weight of Prematerial : 25gms o Weight loss : 5gmsCauses of weight loss  During swedana and prakshalana 5 gms of haratala will be loosed because of adhering to the potali vastra.Practical No 12 Name of the practical : Bakuchi shodhana Reference : Dravya Guna vignana P-177 Date of commencement : 06-12-2007 Date of completion : 12-12-2007 Materials : Ashodhita bakuchi beeja : 1kg Gomutra : 1 ltr Method : Sthapana Equipment : Earthen pot 113“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • MethodologyProcedure Ashodhita bakuchi beejas are soaked in gomutra. Every day gomutra should be changed. After seven days that bakuchi beejas are dried in sun rays.Precautions Completely bakuchi beejas are immersed in gomutra Every day fresh gomutra is used.Observations After first day the bakuchi beejas become swollen Every day the quantity of gomutra will be increased.Results o Initial weight of ingredients : 1kg o Weight of Prematerial : 80gms o Weight loss : 20gmsCauses of weight loss  Damaged bakuchi beejas are removed  During each time gomutra changing some of the bakuchi beejas will be lossed.Practical No 12 Name of the practical : Preparation of switra lepa varti Reference : Sha.Sa.Pra.Kha. 10/41 Date of commencement : 16-12-2007 Date of completion : 17-12-2007 Materials : Shodhita haratala : 25gms Shodhita bakuchi beeja : 75gms Gomutra : QS 114“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Methodology Method : Mardana Equipment : KhalvayantraProcedure Shodhita haratala and bakuchi beejas are made into fine powder separately Add these churnas in khalvayantra uniformly Gomutra bhavana should be given for one day After one day the paste of material should be collected and made into vartiPrecautions Fine powder of two drugs Uniformity of mardana was maintained through out the procedure. Mardana was done carefully to avoid spillage of fine powder of Prematerial.Observations The kalka of material is soft and yellowish in colourResults o Initial weight of ingredients : 1kg o Weight of Prematerial : 1kg o Weight loss : 20gmsCauses of weight loss  Paste will adhered to the Khalvayantra and peshani.  During varti the paste will lossed due to adhered to the hands. 115“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Methodology Analytical Study168 The Rasoushadhies mentioned in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia should beanalyzed for physical and chemical properties to confirm the genuinity and safetybefore administration to the patients. Hence it is essential to adopt modern analyticalmethodology for better understanding and interpretation of physico-chemical changesoccurred during the process. In the present study, Switrari rasa and switra lepa prepared according toclassical method is collected and subjected to modern analytical methods at HanagalShri Kumareshwar college of Pharmacy, Bagalkot and XRD is done at NationalChemical Laboratory, Pune.Analysis of Switrari rasa1) Organoleptic characters Colour : Dark Brown Smell : Odourless Touch : Smooth2) Loss on drying at 1100C 2gms of Switrari rasa weighed accurately in a silica crucible and dried in ahot air oven at 1100C till a constant weight is obtained. The difference in weight wascalculated and the result is attached.Result: 17.92% w/w3) Determination of Total Ash Take about 2gm accurately weighed, ground drug in a previously tared silicadish, previously ignited and weighed. Scatter the ground dry in a fine even layer onthe bottom of the dish. Incinerate by gradually increasing the heat not exceeding dull 116“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Methodologyred heat (4500C) until free from carbon, cool and weigh. Calculate the percentage ofash with reference to the air-dried drug.Result: 18.06% w/w4) Acid Insoluble Ash Boil the ash obtained in the process described under determination of total ashfor 5 minutes with 25ml of dilute hydrochloric acid. Collect the insoluble matter on anash less filter paper wash with hot water and ignite. Weigh it and calculate thepercentage of acid insoluble ash with reference to the air dried drug.Result: Not more then 70% w/w5) Water soluble Ash Boil the ash for 5 minutes with 25ml of water, collect the insoluble matter in aGooch crucible, or on an ashless filter paper, wash with hot water and ignite toconstant weight at a low temperature. Substract the weight of the insoluble matterfrom the weight of the ash, the difference in weight presents the water soluble ash.Calculate the percentage of water-soluble ash to the moisture free drug.Result: Not more then 40% w/w6) Flow Property: Switrarirasa, which is a very fine powder is subjected to flow property test i.e“Angle of repose” by which we can analyze goodness of flow property.Angle of repose: It is the maximum angle that can be obtained between thefreestanding surface of a powder heap and the horizontal plane i.e. tan = 2h/D. Where D is the diameter of the circle and “h” is the height of the powder heap.This test involves the hollow cylinder, half is filled by Switrarirasa with one endsealed by transparent plate. The cylinder is rotated about its horizontal axis until thepowder surface cascades. The curved wall is lined with sand paper to prevent 117“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Methodologypreferential slip at this surface. If the value comes between 200-400 indicatesreasonable flow potential.Result : Angle of repose – 40.140.7) Flow rate: A simple indication of the ease with which a material can be induced to flowis given by application of a compressibility index “I = [1-V/V0] x 100”Where “V” is the volume occupied by sample of the powder after being subjected to astandardized tapping procedure.V0 = Volume before tapping procedure. In this procedure, one measuring cylinder is taken and is filled withSwitrarirasa. The level of the Switrarirasa should be noted. Then at a height of 2 cmcontinuous 10 tapping should be done after that the level of the Switrarirasa in thecylinder is once again noted and value “I” is calculated with respect to the V0 and Vvalue. If the value of “I” is below 15% usually having good flow rate.Result : 43% w/w8) The fineness of particle test It can be possible to use the ordinary microscope for particle size measuring inthe range of 0.2 micrometers to about 100 micrometers. According to microscopemethod, the fine powder was sprinkled on the slide covered with covering slip andplaced on a mechanical stage. Initially standardization of micrometer was carried outby coinciding with the lines of both ocular micrometer and stage micrometer andstandardized by using the formula. SM / OM x 10 = m In the next step, the stage micrometer was removed and the mounted slide wasplaced on a mechanical stage and focused. The particles are measured along the 118“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Methodologyarbitrarily chosen fixed lines covered by the particles using the ocular micrometer.The size of the particle was calculated using the standard value.Result : 8.34  0.249) Solubility tests Water Insoluble Chloroform Insoluble Alcohol Soluble10) Identification of Sulphur:Eschka Mixture: Mix two parts by weight calcined magnesia with one part of anhydrous sodiumcarbonate.Procedure: Cover the bottom of a 50ml crucible with 0.5gm of Eschka’s mixture Weightaccurately the appropriate quantity of the sample material and mix it immediatelywith 2gms of Eschka’s mixture and put evenly on the previously weighed Eschka’smixture Level the contents by tapping gently on a bench. Cover this uniformly with0.5gm of Eschka mixture. Place crucible in the muffle furnace. Raise thetemperature from room temperature to 8000C +250C in about one hour and then heatfor further 90 minutes. Transfer the ignited mixture as completely as possible from the crucible to abeaker containing 25 to30 ml of water. Wash out the crucible thoroughly with about50 ml of hot distilled water and add the washings to the contents of the breaker. Add carefully sufficient quantity of concentrated hydrochloric acid to dissolve thesolid matter, warming the content of the breaker to effect solution. Boil for 5 Minutes 119“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Methodologyto expel carbon dioxide. Add drop wise from a pipette, warm 5% Barium chlorinesolution. Stir the solution constantly during the addition. Allow the precipitate tosettle for a minute or two. Then test the supernatant liquid for complete precipitation by adding a few dropsof Barium chloride solution. If a precipitate is formed, add slowly a further 3 ml ofthe reagent allow the precipitate to settle as before and test again, repeat this operationuntil an excess of Barium Chloride is present. When an excess of the precipitatingagent has been added, keep the covered solution hot, but not boiling for an hour(steam bath) in order to allow time for complete precipitation. The precipitationshould settle and a clear supernatant liquid should be obtained. Test the latter with afew drops of barium chloride solution for complete precipitation. If no precipitateobtained, the Barium sulphate is ready for filtration. Filter the solution through an ash less filter paper (Whatman No. 42) Wash theprecipitate with small portion of hot water. Dry the paper and place it in a silica orporcelain crucible, previously ignited to redness and cooled in a desiccators andweighed. Gradually increase the heat until the paper chars and volatile matter isexpelled. Do not allow the paper to burst into flame as mechanical loss may thusensure. When charring is complete, raise the temperature of the crucible to dullredness and burn off carbon with free excess of air. When the precipitate is whiteignite the crucible at red heat for 10-15 minutes. Allow the crucible to cool in air,transfer it to a desiccators and when cold, weigh the crucible and contents. Repeatuntil constant weight is attained. A blank is necessary. Calculate the percentage of sulphur converting Bariumsulphate X 0.1374. 120“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • MethodologyResult: 9.96% w/w11) Estimation of FeSo4: Solution of Ferous sulphate when treated with barium chloride solution, yielda white precipitate which is insoluble in hydrochloric acid. Solutions of Ferous sulphate when treated with lead acetate solution, yield awhite precipitate which is insoluble in ammonium acetate solution and in sodiumhydroxide solution.Result: 6.7% w/w12) Estimation of mercuryProcedure – Dissolve about 0.3gms of the sample in 5ml of aquaregia and add 100ml ofwater. Add 40ml of 0.05N EDTA, 5ML OF Ammonia buffer solution and 0.5ml ofsolochrome black indicator. Titrate the solution with 0.05 M Zinc sulphate until theblue colour changes to purple (do not overshoot the end point), add 3 gms ofpotassium iodide, swirl to dissolve. Allow to stand for two minutes. Then, continuethe titration with zinc sulphate solution to the same end point as before. Each ml Zincsulphate solution required after addition of potassium iodide = 0.0103 Hg. Result:Mercury : 8.3% w/w XRDx-ray diffraction methodDefinition : X-ray diffraction is a technique through which the special arrangement ofstructural units of a substance in the crystalline state i.e., investigating the interior or acrystal. 121“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • MethodologyPrinciple : Bragg’s law of diffraction of x-ray by crystals is applicable according to himwhen an x-ray beam strikes a crystal surface at an angle portion of the beampenetrates to the second layers of atoms and so on. The cumulative effect of thisscattering from the regularly spaced centers of the crystal is nothing but diffraction ofthe beam.The important requirement of diffraction are:a) The Spacing between layers of atoms must be roughly the same as the wavelength of the radiation.b) The scattering centers must be specially distributed in a highly regular way.Various methods of x-ray diffraction : Lane photographic method. Bragg x-ray spectrometer method. Ratting crystal method Powder method.Sample preparation : The samples are ground to a fine, homogenous powder and held in the beamof thin walled glass or the specimen may be mixed with a suitable non-crystallinebinder and moulded into a suitable shape. As a result large number of small crystallites are oriented in all possible directionsand when x-ray beam traverses the material a significant number of particles areexpected to be oriented in such a manner that Bragg’s a equation for reflection fromevery possible inter planar spacing becomes satisfied. When the x-ray beam is diffracted by a fine powder, made of small crystallites,diffraction will take place for all crystallites whose planes spacing of atom d make anangle or reflection () to that incident beam, and the diffracted beam will lie on a 122“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Methodologycone of semi apex angle 2. The minimum interplanar spacing giving a diffraction isat : d =  / 2,  = 900 A complete study of the sample assumes all possible angular positions in the path of the x-rays, should give a unique result for each substance.Applications : X-ray diffraction provides a convenient and, practical means for qualitative identification of crystalline compounds where the x-ray diffraction pattern is unique for each crystalline substance. Quantitative analysis of x-ray diffraction is done by comparing the intensity of a chosen diffraction line in a standard mixture. X-ray diffraction is employed in investigating the interior of a crystal. (size and shapes of individual crystal vary but interfacial angle remain constant). Used in detecting the structures of complex natural products such as steriods, vitamins and antibiotics.Advantages: X-ray methods are non-destructive. X-ray analysis done to crystalline samples in any physical state of sub-division.Disadvantages: The accuracy of the analysis depends on the surface preparation, reliability of standards, stability of x-ray tube output and the number of x-ray photos counted. Instrumental and sample variable affect the analysis.Note: Report is enclosed 123“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Methodology Physico chemical properties of Switra Lepa1) Organoleptic Characters: Colour : Yellowish green Smell : Irritant Touch : Smooth2) Loss on drying at 1100C 2gms of Switrari lepa weighed accurately in a silica crucible and dried in a hotair oven at 1100C till a constant weight is obtained. The difference in weight wascalculated and the result is attached.Result: 11.02% w/w3) Determination of Total Ash Take about 2gm accurately weighed, ground drug in a previously tared silicadish, previously ignited and weighed. Scatter the ground dry in a fine even layer onthe bottom of the dish. Incinerate by gradually increasing the heat not exceeding dullred heat (4500C) until free from carbon, cool and weigh. Calculate the percentage ofash with reference to the air-dried drug.Result: 12.06% w/w4) Acid Insoluble Ash Boil the ash obtained in the process described under determination of total ashfor 5 minutes with 25ml of dilute hydrochloric acid. Collect the insoluble matter on anash less filter paper wash with hot water and ignite. Weigh it and calculate thepercentage of acid insoluble ash with reference to the air dried drug.Result: Not more then 80% w/w 124“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Methodology5) Water soluble Ash Boil the ash for 5 minutes with 25ml of water, collect the insoluble matter in aGooch crucible, or on an ashless filter paper, wash with hot water and ignite toconstant weight at a low temperature. Substract the weight of the insoluble matterfrom the weight of the ash, the difference in weight presents the water soluble ash.Calculate the percentage of water-soluble ash to the moisture free drug.Result: Not more then 60% w/w6) Identification of alkaloids Silica get 60 F254 Merck pre-coated plates. Mobile phase – Chloroform: Methanol (90.10) Location reagent – Dragendroff’s reagent. Procedure – Weigh about 2gms of the sample into a separating flash. Add about 20ml water Alkalize with dilute ammonia and extract with two quantities 25ml of chloroform Filter through anhydrous sodium sulphate. Evaporate the chloroform layer to the residue obtained. Add about 1 ml of methanol. Shake well to dissolve and spot about 10-ul solutions on the TLC plate. Elute the plate with mobile phase to3/4” of the plate. Dry the plate at 1050C and spray the plate with dragendroff’s regent. If alkaloids are present brownish red sports were obtained in the sample solution.Result : Dragondroff’s test – Alkaloids Present Wagner’s test – Alkaloids Present.7) Solubility tests Water Soluble Chloroform Slightly Soluble 125“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Methodology Alcohol Insoluble8) Determination of pH – The pH value of the sample was determined by a digital pH meter. Onepercent solution was prepared, as the sample was dry and solid in the form of pills.The pills were powdered. One gram of the sample was weighed accurately anddissolved in 100ml of water pH was noted in the digital pH meter.Result: PH value: 7.369) Estimation of Arsenic: Arsenious salts: neutral solutions react with silver nitrate to form yellowprecipitate of silver arsenite – soluble in ammonia solution and in nitric acid. Arsenious salts in neutral solutions react with solution of copper sulphate toform green precipitate which on boiling gives a red precipitate of cuprous oxide.Result: 8.3% w/w N.P.S. Test169 Qualitative test for the identification of switrari rasa by N.P.S. testDefination: When a drop of clear solution of clear solution of a substance that is underexamination is put on one of the chemical reacting papers, a spot with a series ofchanges in colour and pattern will appear. It is the study of this spot and colour atthere successive phases spreading over there different time intervals is known as theNamburi Phased Spot Test.Materials Required 1) Reagents 2) Whatman’s paper No. 1 126“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Methodology 3) Gloss rod, Vessels, Tray, Glass capillaries 4) Centrifugal and semi micro test tubeProcedure: Includes the following steps 1) Preparation of reagents 2) Preparation of drug solution 3) Preparation of chemical reacting paper 4) Direction for preparing solution 5) Spotting and its observationsa) Preparation of Reagents 30 ml To Prepare Concentrated Acid Distal water5 NH No3 10 ml 20 mlNote – Always add acid to distilled water with constant strring.b) Preparation of Drug Solution 1) Take 0.25 gm of Switrari Rasa sample into a test tube and add 0.5 ml of 5 NHNo3. 2) Shake the test tube now and then (Centrifuge) 3) Transform the solution with sediment into a semi micro test tube after 24 hrs. 4) Allow it to stay for 1 hour or two hrs until a clear layer forms.c) Preparation of 10% Potassium iodide paper Readymade papers are not available in market. So we should prepare thesepapers 1) Take Whatman’s filter paper no.1 is suitable for this purpose. Cut the papers into small pieces 14cm x 8cm. 2) Take 10 gm of potassium iodide and mix with 100ml of distilled water. Stir continuously until potassium iodide dissolved. 127“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Methodology 3) Same as above 2.5% of Potassium ferrocyanide solution and papers are prepared.Observations 1) On 10% of Potassium iodide paper. 1st Phase – seen within 5 mins is called immediate reaction. A brick red solid spot forms. 3rd Phase – (3hrs after 1st Phase) A brick red solid spot divides into 2 zones is known as standard spot. The brick red colour in the periphery of spot indicates presence of Kajjali 2) On 2.5% Potassium Ferro cyanide paper The 3rd phase is known as standard spot for switrari rasa. In this phase a wide bleached white central spot forms with chocolate coloured margin.Precautions 1) While adding the reagents or preparing solution continous stirring is done. 2) A small quantity of clear solution drawn using dropper. Do not disturbed the solution of sedimentation. 3) The centre of the paper should not be hold to avoid level slightest folding or wrinkled of the papers other wise the formation of spot disturbed. 4) Put a drop of solution on the chemical reacting paper 1cm from above the level of the paper. 5) 2nd drop was put immediately and exactly over the first drop to make a spot. 6) The spot studied under open day light. 128“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Methodology Clinical MethodologyThe methods adopted in the study are discussed as under.A) Source of data:-a) Patients suffering from Switra are selected from P.G.S.A.R.C. Dept ofKayachikitsa OPD of D.G.M. Ayurvedic Medical College and Hospital by PresetInclusion and exclusion criteria.b) Literary: - Literary aspects of study are collected from classical Ayurvedic andcontemporary texts and updated with recent Medical Journals.B) Method of collection of data:-a. Study Design: Prospective clinical trail.b. Sample size : A minimum of 30 patients are taken in randomized selectionc. Study duration :60 days – treatment scheduled. Follow up: 30 dayse. Administration of Drug: Internally Switrari rasa 65mg / day, increased 65mg daily upto 60 days withMadhu. Externally Switra lepa Q.S. rubbed in water to paste and applied all over theeffected skin.C) Exclusion criteria:-1. Patients below 10 years irrespective of sex are excluded: because the children underthe age of 10 may not be co-operative and also are notaccepted for any trail. Thus the below 10 years of age children are excluded.2. Patients above 60 years of age, irrespective of sex are excluded: 129“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Methodologybecause the old age people are of Vata ages and above the age of 60 may not beaccepted as they are under the influence of degeneration. Thus the above 60 years ofage people are excluded.3. Pregnant women and lactating women are excluded: because the drug may beplacental barrier, thus pregnant women and lactating women are excluded.4. Patients suffering from other systemic disease are excluded: Because the othersystemic diseases may mask the disease original and the effect of the trail drug maynot elicited perfect. Thus the Patients suffering from other systemic disease areexcluded.5. Patients with Burnt areas are excluded: Because the burnt area skin losespermanently melanocytes and scar is formed, which is a irreversible white patchmimics the Vitiligo. Thus the Patients with Burnt areas are excluded.6. The patches over lips and mouth angulations are excluded: The patches over lipsare excluded because the application over the area is not possible as it is a cornifiedtissue. Thus the people with such lesions are excluded.7. The genital area patches are excluded: Because, of the application as generally isnot possible and may cause irritation to that part due to Haratala and bakuchi. Thussuch cases are excluded in the study.D) Inclusion criteria:-1. All the Patients other than that of exclusive criteria are included in the study.2. Patients with classical symptoms of Switra as explained in Ayurvedic classics anddiagnosed case of Vitiligo according to the contemporary diagnostic system areincluded. 130“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • MethodologyF) Method of Diagnosis:1. Medical history: Evaluation and diagnosis of Vitiligo require obtaining thefollowing information:i. The age of onset of the white spots; Vitiligo rarely begins before the age of 6months.ii. Family history of Vitiligo and early greying of the hair (i.e., significant loss of haircolour before the age of 30 years)iii. Inflammation, irritation, or rash preceding the white sports.iv. Potential precipitating events including emotional stress, physical illness, sunburn,or other forms of cutaneous forms occurring within 2 to 3 months prior to the onset ofde pigmentation.v. Personal stress to the patient resulting from the diseasevi. Ocular or auditory dysfunction.vii. Previous forms of therapy, either systemic or topical, how the therapy wasprescribed, and the effects or toxicity of the treatment.viii. Stability or progression of the disease.ix. Allergies and personal family history of atopy.x. Occupational hazards and hobbies to define chemical exposures that might beresponsible for chemically induced Vitiligo.xi. Personal or family history of associated diseases including thyroid disorders,premature graying, alopecia areata, diabetes mellitus, collagen vascular diseases,permicious anaemia, and addision’s disease; personal history of other disordersaggravated by photo exposure or of photosensitivity. 131“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Methodology2. Physical examinationThe diagnosis of Vitiligo is based exclusively on the clinical examination of thepatient. The physical examination includes the following findings; the presence ofacquired asymptomatic depigmented macules or patches, usually without clinicalsigns of inflammation. Hypopigmented lesions may coexist with depigmented lesions.Such trichrome lesions are often observed in individuals with darker skin. TrichromeVitiligo is characterized by depigmented, hypopigmented, and normally pigmentedskin. About2% to 5% of patients may exhibit one or more depigmented lesions with dermatitic/inflamed borders. Vitiligo lesions may be found in any area of the body. The initiallesions are frequently found on the hands, forearms feet, face and lips. The borders ofthe lesions are usually discrete and well defined. The distribution of skin lesions, the number, and the approximate surface areaof the integument involved by de pigmentation should be determined in order toestablish the baseline extent of the disease. Some investigators classify Vitiligo intotwo groups — generalized and segmental. Others subclass generalized Vitiligo intothree subcategories;a) Generalized: Symmetric macules or patches occurring in a random distributionover much of the body; acral / acrofacial depigmented macules or patches confined tothe extremities and /or face; focal/localized isolated macules or patches on one or twosites of the body.b) Segmental: Vitiligo restricted to one portion of the body such as one leg, oneportion of the trunk, or the face. The lesions are rarely if ever distributed in adermatomal pattern. 132“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • MethodologyOther important physical findings include acquired depigmented hairs within avitiliginous region and poliosis of scalp hair, eyelashes, eyebrows, and/or beard hair. Areas of hypopigmentation and hyperpigmentation of the choroid and retinalpigment epithelium may be evident by ophthalmologic examination. The presence orabsence of uveitis also should be determined. This examination is best done by anophthalmologist. Referral to an ophthalmologist is of particular importance if thepatient has complaints of photophobia, decreasing visual acuity, or poor night vision.For patients with fair skin, such as those with skin types I and II, detection ofdepigmented or hypopigmented patches of Vitiligo may require the use of a wood’slamp to delineate the areas of involvement. In-patients with darker skin, a wood’slamp examination also can be helpful to assess the degree of hypopigmentation ordepigmentation in individual lesions.3) Diagnostic testsIn most instances the diagnosis of Vitiligo is based on the history and physicalexamination. However, I some instances additional diagnostic tests may be indicatedto differentiate Vitiligo from conditions that may mimic it clinically. These conditionsinclude piebaldism, nevus depigmentosus, nevus anemicus, postinflammatorydepigmentation hypopigmentation, pityriasis alba, tinea versicolor, discoid lupuserythematosus, and scleroderma. In addition, certain tests are sometimes helpful todetect the presence of associated systemic disorders such as thyroid disease,pernicious anemia, diabetes, or Addison’s disease. Some useful tests include thefollowing.a) Biopsy from the border stained with fontana Masson technique to differentiateVitiligo from some of the aforementioned conditions. Melanocytes are decreased inthe early stages of Vitiligo. As the disease progresses, they are completely absent. 133“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • MethodologyOther changes include basilar vascuolopathy, exocytosis of lymphocytes, spongiosis,and lymphohistiocytic infiltrates, especially in inflammatory Vitiligo. For mostpatients a biopsy is not necessaryb) Baseline blood chemistry may include a complete blood count, a differential witherythrocyte sedimentation rate, and thyroid function studies including thyroidstimulating hormone. In addition, tests for antiparietal cell, antithyroid (thyroglobulinand microsomal), and antinuclear antibodies are frequently indicated. These tests aremore important if signs or symptoms of endocrine disease or collagen vasculardisease are present. Abnormal test values should be followed clinically or bylaboratory examination as indicated.c) If patients are to undergo photo chemotherapy, a baseline ophthalmologicexamination and antinuclear antibody determination are advisable. Some physiciansrecommend a repeat of these tests at 6- month intervals. Other at 12 month intervalswhile on PUVA therapy. Inappropriate diagnostic tests include serum alpha-MAS levels, serum ACTHlevels, hair analyses, and trace metal analyses.G) Assessment of result Subjective and objective parameters will be assessed for result.I) Subjective parameter: Signs and symptoms as designed in classical texts.1. Rukshata: becoming skin dryness at depigmented surface is identified asdifferent grades are as follows –Grade 0 – Normal skin drynessGrade 1 – MildGrade 2 – ModerateGrade 3 – Severe 134“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Methodology2. Parushata: becoming skin roughness at depigmented surface is identified asdifferent grades are as follows –Grade 0 – Normal skin roughnessGrade 1 – MildGrade 2 – ModerateGrade 3 – Severe3. Paridwamshi: getting dusty skin at depigmented surface is identified as differentgrades are as followsGrade 0 – Normal dusty skinGrade 1 – MildGrade 2 – ModerateGrade 3 – Severe4. Daha: getting burning sensation of skin at depigmented surface is identified asdifferent grades are as followsGrade 0 – No Burning sensationGrade 1 – MildGrade 2 – ModerateGrade 3 – Severe5. Roama Patana: getting hair falling at depigmented surface is identified asdifferent grades are as followsGrade 0 – No hair fallGrade 1 – MildGrade 2 – ModerateGrade 3 – Severe 135“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Methodology6. Kandu: getting itching at depigmented surface is identified as different grades areas followsGrade 0 – No itchingGrade 1 – MildGrade 2 – ModerateGrade 3 – Severe7. Kleda: getting moisture skin at depigmented surface is identified as differentgrades are as followsGrade 0 – Normal skinGrade 1 – MildGrade 2 – ModerateGrade 3 – Severe8. Srava: getting discharge at depigmented surface is identified as different grades areas followsGrade 0 – Normal skinGrade 1 – MildGrade 2 – ModerateGrade 3 – SevereII) Objective parameterFor the assessment of results the following objective parameter were consideri) Colourii) Marginiii) Numberiv) VASI score. 136“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Methodology To assess the effect number and VASI score were consider as they are withoutgrading before and after treatment. To assess the improvement in colour and marginthe following grading were given.1. Colour: The colour of your skin is due to an interaction between(1) Pigment composition and concentration and(2) The dermal blood supply. The grades are as followsGrade 0 – Normal skin colourGrade 1 – Non-unified normal skinGrade 2 – Pigmentation is more than depigmentationGrade 3 – Depigmentation equal or more than pigmentationGrade 4 – Depigmentation more than pigmentationGrade 5 – Complete Depigmentation2. Margin: margins of the lesions are enumerated as grades are as follows.Grade 0 – Normal skin colour attributedGrade 1 – Hyper pigmented thick broad width graduated marginGrade 2 – Hyper pigmented broad width graduated marginGrade 3 – Hyper pigmented well defined marginGrade 4 – Hyper pigmented thin edge marginGrade 5 – Ill defined margin3. VASI score: When patients or physicians try to determine how well a particular treatmentworks for Vitiligo, it is often difficult to compare different treatment options. There isno standardized measure for the amount of Vitiligo someone has and how it respondsto treatment. There is a standard for psoriasis known as the PASI (psoriasis Area andSeverity Index) score, which has been quite helpful in comparing different treatment 137“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Methodologyoptions in numerical terms. The PASI has been the basis for the FDA in its evaluationof the rapid increase in new psoriasis treatments. This is not the case for vitiligo.Presently, when a patient wants to determine how well Narrow Band UVB (NBUVB)may work for their Vitiligo they are given the statistic that is often not intuitive.The first step of the VASI is to divide the patient into various body regions such asthe arms, trunk, legs, hands and feet. Then, using the assumption that a palm of thehand is equivalent to 1% of the body surface, the physician determines how much ofthe skin is affected by Vitiligo. Then the physician determines what percent of theskin is depigmented by referring back to standardized pictures of various degree ofpigmentation (see attached pictures) Sum of value of product of palm units X Extent of depigmentationVASI = Total Body surface areaII) Over all assessment Over all assessment of the results are done considering the cumulative effectof subjective and objective parameters. The disease is not totally manageable with inthe scheduled time, the grades of assessment of results made as under.1) Cured:Colour – Normal skin colourMargin – Normal or No marginsNumber –100% reductionVASI – VASI score is “Zero”2) Well Responded:Colour – non unified normal skin colourMargin – hyper pigmented thick broad width graduated marginNumber – more than 75% reduction 138“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • MethodologyVASI – more than 75% reduction3) Moderately Responded:Colour – pigmentation equal to depigmentationMargin – hyper pigmented broad width graduated marginNumber – more than 50% reductionVASI – more than 50% reduction4) Poorly Responded:Colour – depigmentation is more than pigmentationMargin – hyper pigmented well defined marginNumber – less than 50% reductionVASI – less than 50% reduction5) Not responded:Colour – No pigmentation developedMargin – No changes in marginNumber – No reductionVASI – No reduction 139“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Methodology 140“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Results RESULTS Present study registers 35 patients, out of 40 approached patients. The percentagesof patients undertaken from the scrutinised are 87.5%. Out of the 35 patients of Switra 33(94.28%) patients were undertaken for the study. Out of 33 patients 3 (9.09%) patientswere discontinued hence their data has not been included in the assessment. Theremaining 30 (90.9%) patients of Switra viz. Vitiligo, fulfilling the criteria of diagnosisand inclusive criteria were included in the study. Vitiligo area scoring index (VASI) isconsidered as a specific objective parameter for the assessing patients in the presentstudy. All the patients were examined before and after the trail, according to the casesheet format given in the annex. Both the subjective and objective criteria were recorded.The data recorded are presented under the following headings. A. Demographic data B. Evaluating disease Data C. Result of the Switrari rasa and Switra lepa in Switra D. Statistical analysis of the subjective (clinical) and objective parametersA) Demographic data: The details of Age, Gender, Religion, and Occupation etc. of the 30 patients are asfollows. 141 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Results Table. No. 31. Demographic Data of trail in Switra with Switrari RasaS.L. OPD Age Gender Religion Occupation Economical Food Results No No Status Habits1 6014 41 M H ACT MID VEG MR2 0391 16 F H ACT MID VEG PR3 581 37 F H ACT MID VEG MR4 453 16 F H ACT HMC VEG PR5 1834 30 F H ACT MID VEG PR6 638 10 F MU ACT MID VEG WR7 1413 23 F H ACT MID VEG WR8 1974 10 M H ACT POOR MIX WR9 1836 16 M H ACT MID VEG WR10 1838 28 M H ACT MID VEG WR11 1837 11 F H ACT HML VEG WR12 1840 17 F H ACT MID VEG WR13 1841 43 F H ACT HML VEG MR14 1842 12 M H ACT MID VEG PR15 1843 40 F H ACT MID VEG VVR16 0642 28 M H LAB POOR MIX PR17 0234 45 M H ACT HML VEG WR18 1020 38 M H LAB POOR MIX NR19 1844 18 F H ACT MID VEG MR20 1846 12 F MU ACT HML MIX VVR21 485 24 M H ACT MID VEG MR22 1847 28 F H ACT MID VEG VVR23 2145 22 F H ACT MID MIX MR24 2361 27 M H SED MID MIX MR25 2021 30 F MU ACT MID MIX MR26 2363 21 M H ACT MID VEG WR27 2359 19 M H ACT MID VEG PR28 2358 13 F H ACT HML VEG WR29 0732 15 M H ACT MID VEG MR30 1010 18 M MU LAB POOR MIX PR M =Male, F = Female, H = Hindu, Mu = Muslim, ACT = Active, SED = sedentary, LAB = Labour, POOR = poor, MID = Middle class, HMC = Higher Middle Class, VEG = Vegetarian, MIX = Mixed diet, CUR = cured, WR = Well Responded, MR = Moderately Responded, PR = Poorly Responded, NR = Nor Responded 142 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • ResultsA) Demographic data: The details of Age, Gender, Religion, and Occupation etc. of the 30 patients is asfollows.A1) Distribution of patients by Age – gender Intervals of 10 have considered from the ages 10 to 50 as discussed in themethods. In the study it is revealed that skin discoloration is continued from the ages of10 and even less ages and as the age advances the samples are settled to have Vitiligo. Atthe older age group of 40-50 only 3 (10%) patients are reported. Where in 30-40 agegroup reported with 3 (10%) and 5 patients in each group of male and female in total 10(33.3%) reported from the ages of 20-30. larger sample age group 10-20 reported with the14 (46.7%) patients with the symptoms of Switra vis-à-vis Vitiligo. The tabulation isdepicted as under.Table No. 32. Distribution of patients by age gender in Switra with switrari rasa and switra lepa. Age Male Patients Female Patients Total Patients Number % Number % Number % 10-20 6 20 8 26.67 14 46.7 20-30 5 16.66 5 16.67 10 33.3 30-40 1 3.33 2 6.67 3 10 40-50 2 6.67 1 3.33 3 10 Total 14 46.66 16 53.34 30 100 Here in this study an attempt is made to understand the male female responses tothe management with respect to that of the age groups. 143 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • ResultsGraph No. 1. Distribution of patients by Age-gender in Switra with Switrari rasaand switra lepaTableNo. 33. Results of Patient by age in Switra with Switrari Rasa and switra lepa Age % % % % % % Total No of Moderate Not Poor Respond Respond Respond Respond patient Cured Poor Well10-20 15 50 0 0 6 20 2 6.66 6 20 1 3.3320-30 09 30 1 3.33 2 6.66 4 13.3 2 6.66 0 030-40 03 10 1 3.33 0 0 2 6.66 0 0 0 040-50 03 10 0 0 0 0 3 10 0 0 0 0Total 30 100 2 6.66 8 26.6 11 36.7 8 26.6 1 3.33 Observations of result in the study are good as the cured (6.66%) and wellresponded are 8 (26.6), in total is 33.33% of the patients included in the study. As theobservations are expressed the early age groups are responded well and the late ages arenot. Thus the age impact is observed in the study as this disease of depigmentation is welltackled at the early ages than that of late ages. 144 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • ResultsTable No. 34. Results of Patient by Gender in Switra with Switrari Rasa and switra lepa % % % % % % Total No of Moderate Not Poor Respond Respond Respond RespondGender patient Cured Poor Well Male 14 46.6 0 0 4 13.3 6 20 4 13.3 0 0Female 16 53.4 2 6.66 4 13.3 5 16.7 4 13.3 1 3.33 Total 30 100 2 6.66 8 26.9 11 36.7 8 26.6 1 3.33 The male female ratio in the study is 7:8 patients. The percentage of thedistribution does not show any gender differentiation to get this skin disease, except asmall lean towards Female population. The observations are 14 Patients i.e. (46.6%) maleand 16 patients i.e. (53.4%) were female. As the results observed, out of 14 (42.86%)males much are distributed between well to moderate response but no body got cure. Outof 16 female patients, 2 cured and 9 patients well and moderately responded show thatthe disease regression with the present trail is relevant for the female population. Thetabulation shown above is pictorially expressed below.Graph. No. 2. 23.4 Male Fem ale 46.6 145 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • ResultsTable No. 35. Results of Patient by Relegion in Switra with Switrari Rasa and switra lepa % % % % % % Total No of Moderate Not Poor Respond Respond Respond RespondReligion patient Cured Poor Well Hindu 26 86.7 2 6.66 7 23.3 10 33.4 7 33.3 0 0Muslim 04 13.3 0 0 1 3.33 01 3.33 1 3.33 1 3.33Christia 00 00 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 nOthers 00 00 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 Total 30 100 2 6.66 8 26.6 11 36.7 8 36.6 1 3.33 For the convenience of the study, the religion groups are noted as Hindu, Muslim,Christian and Others. The maximum number of patients are noticed from the Hinducommunity as the ratio of community at the study area is more i.e. 26 (86.67%) alongwith Muslim patients 4 (13.33%). At the results observed, out of 26 (86.66%) of Hindupatients, 2 (6.66%) patients cured, 7 (23.33%) patients’ well responded and 10 (33.33%)patients moderately responded. 7 (23.33%) patients poorly responded and no patients arefrom the group of not responded reported. On the other hand the results observed atMuslim community are, out of 4 (13.33%), one patient (3.33%) in each group of wellresponded,Graph No. 3. 0 13.3 0 Hindu Muslim 86.7 146 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • ResultsTable No. 36. Distribution and Results of Patient by Occupation in Switra withSwitrari Rasa and switra lepa % % % % % % Total No of Moderate Not Poor Respond Respond Respond RespondGender patient Cured Poor WellSedatary 01 3.33 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3.33 0 0 Active 26 86.7 2 6.66 8 26.6 11 36.6 4 13.7 1 3.33 Labour 03 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 10 0 0 Total 30 100 2 6.66 8 26.6 11 36.6 8 26.6 1 3.33 The distribution of the patients in the occupational groups are enlisted andpictorially presented above. It clearly expresses that the patients those whoa re moreactive are prone to get this skin disease Switra which is said as the anxiety prone. A veryhigh number of 26 (86.7%) of the patients are recorded in this group. As the results areobserved, out of 26 (86.7%) of active patients, 2 (6.66%) cured, 8 (26.66%) patients arewell responded, 11 (36.66%) patients moderately responded, 4 (13.66%) patients poorlyresponded and 1 (3.33%) patient not responded to the treatment.Graph. No. 4 10 3.33 Sedentary Active Labour 86.7 147 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • ResultsGraph No. 5. Results of Patient by Occupation in Switra with Switrari rasa andswitra lepaTable No. 37. Distribution and Results of Patient by Economic status in Switra withSwitrari Rasa and switra lepa % % % % % % Total No ofEconomics Moderate Not Poor Respond Respond Respond Respond patient Cured status Poor Well Poor 04 13.3 0 0 1 3.33 0 0 3 10 0 0Middle 20 66.6 2 6.66 6 20 8 26.6 4 13.3 0 0 H 06 20 0 0 1 3.33 3 10 1 3.33 1 3.33MiddleHigher 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Total 30 100 2 6.66 8 26.6 11 36.7 8 26.6 1 3.33 As the distributions are observed, out of 30 patients a maximum of middle classi.e. 20 (66.66%) are witnessed. As the results are encourage in the trail for middle classpeople 2 (6.66%) cured, 6 (20%) well responded, 8 (26.66%) moderately responded, 4(13.33%) patients poorly responded and no patient of not responded reported. Out of the4 poor patients only one (3.33%) well responded and rest of 3 (10%) poorly responded. 148 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • ResultsFrom the higher middle group one each in the well, poor and not responded along with 3(10%) in moderately responded. The tabulation and graph are given below.Graph No. 6 25 20 20 15 Patients 10 6 4 5 0 0 Poor Middle Higher Higher middleTable No. 38. Distribution and Results of Patient by Diet in Switra with SwitrariRasa and switra lepa % % % % % % Total No ofConsumpti Moderate Not Poor Respond Respond Respond Respond patient Cured Poor Well Diet onVegetar 21 70 2 6.66 6 20 7 23.3 6 20 0 0 ianMixed 09 30 0 0 2 6.66 4 13.3 2 6.66 1 3.33 Diet Total 30 100 2 6.66 8 26.6 11 36.7 8 26.6 1 3.33 The diet variances in the Switra with distributions and results observed are asunder. Out of 21 (70%) of vegetarian patients, all most all are responded to themanagement except 6 (20%) patients who are poorly responded. On the other hand mixeddiet consumers 1 (3.33%) not responded, 2 (6.66%) poorly responded and no one curedapart from 2 (6.66%) well responded and 4 (13.33%) patients moderately responded, is asdescribed above in table. 149 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • ResultsGraph No. 7 30% Vegetarian Mixed diet Slice 3 70%Table No. 39. Data record to diseasePresent complaints – Data of patient of present complaints in mailSL. Opp Twak Roma Rukshata Parushata ParidwashiNo No. Shwetata vivarna1 6014 +2 0391 +3 581 +4 453 +5 1839 + + +6 638 + +7 1413 +8 1974 +9 1836 + + +10 1838 +11 1837 + +12 1840 +13 1841 +14 1842 +15 1843 +16 0642 + +17 0234 +18 1020 + +19 1844 +20 1846 + +21 485 +22 1847 +23 2145 +24 2361 +25 2021 +26 2363 + + 150 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Results27 2359 + +28 2358 +29 0732 +30 1010 + +Distribution of Patient by Present complaints in Switra Presenting Complaints Patient Before PercantageTwak Shwetata 30 100Roma Vivarnata 03 10Rukshata 05 16.66Parushata 02 6.66Paridwashi 0 0 As the above table explains about the different symptoms evaluated at the studyunder the heading of Switra vis-à-vis Vitiligo with the presenting complaints put forthhere. The first and fore most complaint is hypo-pigmentation i.e. Twak Swetata (100%)patients in the study is reported. The next most common complaint is Roma Vaivarnyatai.e. hair discoloration with 3 patients (10%) reported. The third complaint is kandu –itching with the Rookshata – dryness is found in each 5 (16.66%) patients. Daha andParushyata found only in 2 (6.66%) patients each in the study. The graphicalrepresentation is as under. Graph No. 8. Distribution of Patient by Present complaints in Switrari rasa and switra lepa. 151 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • ResultsDistribution and Result of Patients by Mode of OnsetTable No. 40. Distribution and results of patients by mode of on set in switra withSR and SL % % % % % %Mode of on Total No of Moderate Not Poor Respond Respond Respond Respond patient Cured Poor Well setGradual 28 93.3 1 3.33 8 26.6 11 36.7 7 23.3 1 3.33Sudden 02 6.67 1 3.33 0 0 0 0 1 3.33 0 0 Total 30 100 2 6.66 8 26.6 11 36.7 8 26.6 1 3.33Graph.9. 6.67 Gradual Sudden 93.3 The mode of onset is studied here is observed as more (28) patients of gradual andonly 2 patients of sudden in nature, suggests the gradual mode of onset with causativefactors in the pathogenesis of Switra. Each one of sudden and gradual onset got cured intotal. Only one patient had poor response in the gradual group. All other patients aregradually responded to the treatment depicted in the above table and graph.Table No. 41. Distribution and results of patient by Family history in Switra withSR & SL % % % % % % Total No of Moderate Not Poor Respond Respond Respond RespondHistoryFamily patient Cured Poor WellPresent 05 16.6 0 0 3 10 0 0 2 6.66 0 0Absent 25 83.3 2 6.66 5 16.6 11 36.6 6 20 1 3.33 Total 30 100 2 6.66 8 26.6 11 36.7 8 26.6 1 3.33 152 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • ResultsGraph No. 10. 16.60% Present Absent Family History 83.30% The family history is studied here is observed as more (25) patients of no familyhistory and only 5 patients of family history in nature, suggests the disease may not bewith hereditary factors related but the dietetic causative factors in the pathogenesis ofSwitra. Each of categories has the poor responses, but non family history patients showcure in the study. Only one patient of no response is in the non family history patient group. Allother patients are gradually responded to the treatment depicted in the below table andgraph.Table No. 42. Distribution and results of patients by Chronicity in Years in switrawith SR and SL % % % % % % Total No ofChronicity Moderate Not Poor Respond Respond Respond Respond patient Cured in Yrs Poor Well < 1yr 10 33.3 2 6.66 5 16.6 2 6.66 1 3.33 0 01-2 Yrs 12 40 0 0 3 10 4 13.3 5 16.6 0 03-4 yrs 05 16.6 0 0 0 0 4 13.3 1 3.33 0 0 5 and 03 10 0 0 0 0 1 3.33 1 3.33 1 3.33 above Total 30 100 2 6.66 8 26.6 11 36.7 8 26.6 1 3.33 153 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • ResultsGraph No. 11. 10 16.6 33.3 <1 year 1 to 2 years 3 to 4 years 5 & above 40 The chronicity history is studied here is observed as more (10+12) patients arethan 2 years of history and only 8 patients are of longer duration, suggests the disease bewith long non curative. Each of categories has the poor responses, but more than ofhistory (one) patient show no response in the study. The cured patients are of from than 1year duration. All other patients are gradually responded to the treatment depicted thebelow table and graph.Table No. 43. Distribution and results of patients by Incidence of initial site of onset in switra with SR and SL % % % % % %initial site ofIncidence of Total No of Moderate Not Poor Respond Respond Respond Respond patient Cured onset Poor Well Head 0.7 23.3 1 3.33 2 6.66 3 10 1 3.33 0 0 and Neck Trunk 06 20 0 0 1 3.33 3 10 2 6.66 0 0 Upper 13 43.3 1 3.33 4 13.3 3 10 4 13.3 1 3.33extremi ty Lower 04 13.3 0 0 1 3.33 2 6.66 1 3.33 0 0extrimit es Total 30 100 2 6.66 8 26.6 11 36.7 8 26.6 1 3.33 154 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • ResultsGraph No. 12. 13.3 23.3 Head & Neck Trunk Upper extermity Lower extrimites 43 20 The Incidence of initial site of onset history is studied here is observed (7+13)patients are of either to head neck or upper extremities history and only 6 patients oftrunk exposure along with 4 patients on lower extremities, suggests the disease withmuch on exposed parts. Each of categories has the poor responses, but one shows noresponse in the study had lesionsTable No. 44. Distribution and results of patients by Incidence of distribution oflesions in switra with SR and SL % % % % % %Incidence ofdistribution Total No of Moderate of lesions Not Poor Respond Respond Respond Respond patient Cured Poor WellSymme 22 73.3 1 3.33 4 13.3 9 30 7 23.3 1 3.33 tricalAsymm 08 26.6 1 3.33 4 13.3 2 6.66 1 3.33 0 0etrical Total 30 100 2 6.66 8 26.6 11 36.7 8 26.6 1 3.33Graph No. 13. 100 80 7 3 .3 60 P a t ie nt s 40 2 6 .6 20 0 s ym m e t ric a l A s ym m e t ric a l 155 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • ResultsTable No.45. Distribution of patient by Ahar nidana in Switra with Switrari rasaand Lepa Ahar Nidana Total No of Patient PercentageAnashana 04 13.33Adhyasana 13 43.33Asurnadyasara 02 6.66Astivana 03 10Ati anila 02 6.66Kelatha 00 0Masha 00 0Dadhi 05 16.66Atidrava 05 16.66Navanna 00 0Ahsnigdha 00 0Ati guru 04 13.33Taila 06 20Virdha Ahara 30 100Mansa 09 30 The Nidana observed in the Switra are as above. Out of 30 patients maximum ofNidana observed is viruddha Ahara (100%) along with 13 (43.33%) patients ofAdhyasana. No patients are reported with Kulutha, Masha, Moolaka, Navanna andAtisnigdha Ahara. The table shown above and graph below as here.Graph No. 14. Distribution of patient by Ahar nidana in Switra with Switrari rasaand switra lepa 156 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • ResultsTable No. 46. Distribution of patient by Vihar nidana in Switra with Switrari rasaand Switra Lepa Vihar Nidana Total No of Patient PercentageVegadharana 04 13.33Diwaswapana 05 16.66Atiyavaya and papakas 00 00Sheeta salasana 03 10Atap sevan 00 00Table No. 15. Distribution of patient by Vihar nidana in Switra with Switrari rasaand Switra Lepa The vihara Nidana observed in the switra are as above. Out of 30 patientsmaximum of Nidana observed is of 5 patients’ diwaswapna (16.66%) along with 4Vegasandharana (13.33%) patients and 3 (10%) of sheeta jala snana after undergoingshrama and bhaya. The table and graph are shown above. Switrari rasa (internal) andSwitra lepa (external) in Switra –– ResultsTable No. 47. Assesment of subjective parameters in switra Subjective Patient Before Patient after Patient Changed % parameters ChangedRukshata 5 1 4 80Parusha 2 1 1 50Daha 2 1 1 50Kandu 4 2 2 50Guruta 1 0 1 100 157 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • ResultsTable No. 48. Assesment of objective parameters in switra Objective Mean Before Mean after Mean % parametersColour 4.06 1.866 2.0194Margin 4.13 1.866 2.266Number 13.76 9.76 3.99VAST 1.174 0.579 0.595 The subjective parameters which are considered here show marked response withgood percentage of relief. At the objective parameters all has shown the variances on thepositive declination in the study.Table No. 49. Result in Switra with Switrari Rasa and switra lepa Result No of Patient Percentage Cured 02 6.67 Well responded 08 26.66 Moderate 11 36.67 responded Poor responded 08 26.66 Not responded 01 3.34 Total 30 100Graph No. 16. 3.34, 3% Cured 6.67, 7% 26.66, 27% Well responded 26.66, 27% Moderate responded Poor responded 36.67, 36% Not responded 158 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • ResultsTable No. 50. Statistical analysis of the clinical and objective parameters Subjective parameters statistical analysis in switra with switrari rasa and switra lepa.Subjective Mean SD SE T value P value significanceParametersRookshata 0.266 0.52 0.095 2.804 > 0.05 NSParusha 0.066 0.365 0.066 1.0 > 0.05 NSDaha 0.1 0.402 0.073 1.36 > 0.05 NSKender 0.3 0.65 0.018 2.523 > 0.05 NSGuruta 0.13 0.434 0.0791 1.68 > 0.05 NSNot Significant = NSSubjective Mean SD SE T value P value significanceParametersColour 2.2 0.961 0.175 12.53 < 0.001 HSMargin 2.26 1.04 0.191 11.84 < 0.001 HSNumber 4.06 5.686 1.03 3.94 < 0.001 HSVASI 0.296 0.435 0.079 3.72 < 0.001 HSHighly Significant Individually all the objective parameters show high significance by comparing pvalue. The parameter colour, margin, S. Copper show high significance than the otherparameters (By comparing t value). The parameter S. Copper show more net mean effect,with more variations, where as VASI show less mean effect with less variation (bycomparing mean and SD). In the head and neck the parameters colour and margin showhigh significance than the number. Where as VASI show non significance (by comparingp & t values). In the trunk region the parameters colour and margin shows highsignificance, but the parameters number and VASI are not significant (by comparing p &t values). In upper limb the parameters margin and colour show high significance thannumber. The parameter VASI is not significant in upper extremities (by comparing p & tvalues). In the lower extremities the parameters colour and margin show highsignificance but the parameters. 159 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Discussion DISCUSSION This chapter deals with analysis of apparent reasons and interpretations ofobservations and results of the study. It can be studied under following headings: 1) Review of Literature 2) Pharmaceutical study 3) Analytical study 4) Clinical studyReview of Literature: Although there are many other preparations mentioned in Rasashastra classics, themethod of preparation of Khalvi rasayana has its own significance because of specificpharmaceutical process as mardana supplied in this procedure stabilizes firm bondingbetween the constituents, forming a coordinating complex with a wide range oftherapeutic efficacy.Switrarirasa Switrarirasa is a sagandha, saagni, parada moorchana it is described by AcharyaVagbhata in his Rasaratna samuchaya text in 20th chapter.Switralepa Switralepa is a one of Rasoushadhi contains Haratala and Bakuchi which aretriturated with Gomutra. It is described by Sharangadhara samhita madhyama kanda.Hingulotha Parada Hingulottha Parada was taken since textual references substantiate sufficiently forpurity of Hingulottha Parada as devoid of Sapta Kanchuka doshas. And as good asSamaguna Jeerna Gandhaka. For this Urdhva patana yantra was used. Parada thus 160 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Discussionobtained was bright shining & in liquid form. Heating was continuous for 7 hrs. Thereason would be Hingula dissociate at around 6200C & here 6500C – 7000C temperaturewas maintained. The odour of Sulphur was perceivable in first three hours may be due toformation of Sulphurdioxide gas in partial roasting. HgS + O2 Hg + So2 The impurities like Naga & Vanga etc., which have high boiling points do notsublimate & remains in the bottom may be the logic in calling Parada devoid ofKanchuka doshas. This process all together helps to get Parada with out under going toAshta vidha samskaras. Thus extracted Hingulotha Parada was triturated with Haridra churna to ensurethe purity of parada along with furthur increasing its bioavailability by making it suitablefor human body metabolism. Haridra possess shothaghna, vishagana, krimighna and many other importantproperties. It is also known antioxidant. By the process of mardana, some qualities ofHaridra may get inherited in Parada due to samskara effects.Gandhaka Stands next to Parada in importance as it is believed to impart many desirableproperties and reduces toxic effect of parada. The Gandhaka which is clear, yellow incolour just like Shukapiccha, transparent and as smooth and glistening as butter isknown as “Amlasar Gandhaka” recommended for Rasakarma is selected for shodhanapractically pure sulphur may contains traces of selenium, tellurium and arsenicsometimes mixed with bitumen and clay. According to Rasa texts, Pashana and Visha. If 161 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Discussionthese impurities are not removed before use, Gandhaka is likely to produce manydiseases. Hence, Shodhana is adopted prior to its use for therapeutic purpose.Kasisa For preparation of Switrarirasa pushpa kasisa is selected for shodhana.Pharmaceutical part:Shodhana or raw materials: The Raw drugs were purified and processed one by one and HinguladRasasindura was prepared. In this study all the major raw materials were subjected toShodhana. Nimbu Swarasa was used for the Shodhana of Hingula by subjecting it toBhavana for 7 times. Nimbu Swarasa might help in detoxification of Hingula due to itsAmla Rasa and moreover it is complex of organic acids such as citric acid and mallicacid, which may react with the unwanted materials in Hingula and form a complexsoluble in water, which is justified by the recommendation of Prakshalana with water.The quantity of Nimbu Swarasa in each Bhavana varied with slight reduction. In last 2bhavana, time taken for the completion of the procedure was increased which may be dueto the Ardrata present in the Hingula and on an averge 170ml of nimbu swarasa wasrequired in each Bhavana. As per the reference of Rasatarangini, Hingula was washedwith water thoroughly so that it may help in the separation of water soluble complex ofimpurities till it attains Ujjwala varna and loses sneha and amlata of the bhavana dravya.Hingula gained weight after shodhana, may be due to the addition of solid organiccontents present in the nimbu swarasa. 162 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Discussion Shodhana of Gandhaka was carried out according to reference of Rasa Tarangini(8/21-22). Screening of all the Rasa texts reveals that most of the Acharyas have advisedthe Shodhana of Gandhaka by milk. Shodhana by other materials like Bhringarajindicated according to the need for therapeutic purpose. Likewise, use of BhringrajSwarasa as Shodhana drug is also mentioned. Moreover, Acharya Charaka and Sushrutahave recommended the use of Bhringraj in Switra. (Ch.Vi. 22/115) & 9Su.Ut. 51). Shodhana of Gandhaka in Bhringaraj swarasa alleviates the Pittadosha. The basicconcept, to detoxify Gandhaka and to process it with Pittashamaka substances remainsthe same. Thus in the present study, Bhringraj was taken as Shodhana drug for Gandhaka. In this practical, Gandhaka Shodhana was done at a temperature of about 120-1500C. gandhaka was melted and poured in Bhringraj Swarasa for 7 times to procureshodhita Gandhaka.Kasisa Shodhana Kasisa Shodhana was done by giving bhavana with Nimbuswarasa. Differentmethods of Shodhana of kasisa were described by various acharyas, but this method wasbeing easiest and commonest in routiene practicals. All instructions mentioned forbhavana, in classics are followed. During the procedure 25gms of Kasisa was lost whichmight be because of adherence to equipments and spilling out of Khalva yantra. Chemically kasisa is ferrous sulphate, which is soluble in water, hence the purityof kasisa is related to its water soluble content. By bhavana with Nimbuswarasa, waterinsoluble content of kasisa might reduce and thus help in shodhana of kasisa. 163 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • DiscussionSwitararirasa Preperation For present study switrarirasa nirmana by Khalvirasayana method as mentioned inRasaratna samuchaya was adopted.Preperation of PrematerialKajjali Shodhita Parada and Shodhita Gandhaka and Kasisa are triturated continuously, Generally apart from Kajjali the colour of prematerial used to prepare SwitrarirasaRasayana depends on the ingredients used; for eg: Gray colour powdered prematerial thatshould be smooth i.e. which is having Slakshnatva and Sukshmatva like that of Kajjaliand should also pass Rekhpurnata, Nischandrata and Loha Pareeksha. For the present study tulasiswarasa bhavana is given to the kajjali and preparegolaka after drying changeri kalkavarana should be done, after drying they should be keptin sharava samputa and sandhivandana is done. Changeri kalka is fibrous in nature which prevents the evaporation of parada andother volatile principles during puta.Gajaputa In Gajaputa pit 700 cow dungs cakes are placed first after keeping sarava samputaagain 300 cowdung cakes are arranged and ignited, after swangasheeta material iscollected and ground in kalvayantra for proper mixing.Yield of Switrarirasa Weight of Prematerial Weight of Switrarirasa 900gms 200gms The result reveals that on an average 25% yield of switrarirasa was found. 164 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Discussion Switralepa Gomutra shodhita bakuchi beeja and shodhita haratala are made into fine powderand triturated along with gomutra for one day.  After consistency varti is prepared about one inch long and 1 cm in diameter.  For enhancing the viryata avadhi of lepa churna, to make application easy varti should be done.Analytical Part Analysis of any drug should be known before experimental and clinical trials. Inpresent study Switrarirasa and lepa was sent for physico chemical analysis at HanagalShri Kumareshwara College of Pharmacy, Bagalkot and NCL at Pune.Organoleptic Characters: Reveals that the switrari rasa is dark brown in colour,practically insoluble in water, and soluble in alkaline media.Loss on drying: Loss on drying is 17.97% w/w which suggests that presence of moisturein Switrarirasa indicates presence of kaseesa.Total ash: is 18.06%w/w which indicates presence of organic matter in the final product,which may be inherited during shodhana procedure.Acid insoluble ash is 70%w/w indicates which is more soluble in acid.Water soluble contents: is 40% w/w is insoluble in water indicates that Switrarirasasample does not contain any impurities.Flow property: Since the drug is powder state, it was tested for its flow property. Thisinvestigation suggests necessity of any adjuncts for proper flow of drug during capsule or 165 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Discussiontablet preparation. Flow property was identified by angle of repose (Tan) and flow rateby compressibility index (I). Angle of Repose (Tan) is 40.140 which suggests that flow property is good. Itscompressibility index is 30%, which suggests that flow rate is moderate.Particle size: Particle size of drug was viewed under microscope and calculatedaccording to procedure. Arithmetic mean was calculated. Arithmetic mean of Switrarirasa is 8.34 micrometer. It signifies the fineness ofparticle size. The test shows that smaller the particles, better the absorption capacity ofcompounds.The percentage Gandhaka, Kaseesa, Parada Total content of sulphur is 9.96% w/w, Ferrous sulphate is 6.7% w/w and contentof mercury in Switrarirasa is 8.3%w/w according to British pharmacopoeia mercury inrasayogas should be 80% w/w this sample is very near to the value mentioned in B.P. Thepercentage of sulphur and ferrous sulphate are also nearer to limit in pharmacopoeialstandards of Ayurvedic formulations.Namburi Phased spot test : The samples of Switrari rasa as matched the Standards ofNPST.Analytical study of SwitralepaOrganoleptic characters: Vartis are yellowish, green and smooth to touch, havingirritant smell of gomutra. 166 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • DiscussionLoss on drying: is 11.02%w/w suggest that negligible amount of moisture in lepa henceproduct will not be affected from microorganisms.Total ash: is 12.06% w/w which indicates presence of organic matter in the final productwhich may be inherited during shodhana and mardana procedure (Gomutra).Acid insoluble Ash: not more then 80% w/w indicates that this drug is soluble in acid.Water soluble Ash: is more then 60% w/w is soluble in water which is helps forabsorption after application. (varti is applied along with water).pH value: 7.36 which is alkaline in nature.Estimation of arsenic: 8.3% w/w which is nearer to standards of CCRS. Clinical study  Clinical trial was conducted over 30 patients with confirmed diagnosis of Switra. Each patient was given 65mg of Switrari rasa once with honey, per day 65 mg is increased upto 60 days and Switralepa is given for external application along with Jala for 30 days with a follow up period of 15 days.  The study was single blind prospective clinical trial and the patients were selected as per the inclusion criteria.  Documentation of observation and results was done. The demographic data discloses that miximum number of patients at the older age group 40-50 only 3 (10%) patients are reported. Where in 30 to 40 age group reported with 3 (10%) and 5 patients in each group of male and female in total 10 (33.3%) reported from 167 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Discussion the ages of 20-30. Larger sample age group is 10-20 reported with the 14 (46.7%) patients with the symptoms of switra. Female patients were more affected than the male patients. In this trial 2 patients of females were cured. Most of the patients are Hindu and Muslim religion (86%) as the area is dominated by these community. The incidence of chronicity of the disease was found more (55%) in between 20- 30 years; this suggests the nature of disease and relative resistance to other faculty medicines. In most of the cases (50%) family history of Switra was absent as the family history of atopy may have less role over the disease. Most of the patient (80%) had influence of ahara over the disease which exemplifies the importance of pathya and nidana related to Switra mentioned in the classical text. Complaints of Switra were present in all cases registered. Invariably in most of the patients chief complaints as Twak shwetata, Roma vivarnata, Rookshata, Romapatana, Kandu, Kleda, Srava were present. This shows that the disease is characterized by the presence of these signs and symptoms. Distribution of lesions of Switra is more symmetrical (73.3%) then asymmetrical. 168“Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Discussion  Some of the patients having Kandu, Kleda, Srava, by applying the lepa during treatment that can be subsided by applying Ghee over affected area.  Over all assessment of the results was done on the basis of subjective and objective parameters.  Statistical valuations of all the parameters individually confirm high significance.  Hb% of the most patients has raised significantly may stand for the Haemo concentration effect of the drug.  Significant reduction in VASI Score recommends the effect of Switrari rasa and lepa enhances the repigmentation of the skin. Mode of actionIngredients of SwitrarirasaParada : Krimigna, Tridoshagna, Rasayana, YogavahiGandhaka : Kusthagna, Kaphavatahara, Rasayana,Kaseesa : Switragna, Raktashodhaka, Kushtagna,Ingredients of SwitralepaHaratala : Kushtagna, JwaragnaBakuchi : Kushtagna Parada, Gandhaka and Kaseesa are main ingredients of Switrarirasa. It is havingproperty such as Krimigna, Tridoshagna, Rasayana and Yogavahi properties. Switrari rasa in its finest state of subdivision slowly absorbs into the gut andproduces systemic action. 169 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Discussion Presence of Kaseesa which gives repigmentation to the skin with association ofParada and Gandhaka and causing soothing action on skin.  Deepana and Pachana action of Parada, Gandhaka and Kaseesa causes amapachana action. This helps chikitsa sutra of Switra, once the amapachana is done the nirama lakxhana would appear.  Yogavahi guna of Parada enhances activities of Gandhaka and Kaseesa.Mode of action Switralepa  Bakuchi is having action of the melanocyte stimulation. The drug Bakuchi is drug of choice in vitiligo and which has been successfully using by various system of medicines in various forms.  In present study, Bakuchi which used in application was purified in Gomutra for 7 days.  In western system of medicine the available drugs for vitiligo obtained from Bakuchi are trioxalen and methoxalene.  Kushmanda swarasa shodhita Haratala is best drug for Switra.  By its Ushna, Teekshana, Lekhana gunas may help in rejuvenation of the melanocytes.  Some patients are having sensitive symptoms against lepa, due to arsenic content of formulation. While applying ghee over affected area can normalized. 170 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Pharmacological Properties of Switrari rasaS.No Drug Name Rasa Guna Veerya Vipaka Doshagnata Karma 1. Parada Shadrasa Yogavari Ushna Madhura Tridoshaja Rasayana Krimighna 2. Gandhaka Katu, Tikta Snigdha Ushna Madhura Kaphavatahara Deepana, Pachana, Kashaya Sara Krimighna, Switragna, Vishagna, Rasayana 3. Kaseesa Kashaya Grahi, Ushna Amla Kaphavathara Vishagna, Switragna, Amla rasa Keshya, Netrya Pharmacological properties of Switra lepa 1. Haratala Katu Snigdha Ushna Katu Kaphavathara Deepana, Kushtgna, Raktadusti nashaka 2. Backuchi Katu, Tikta, Rasa Laghu, Ushna Katu Kaphavatahara Twachya, Kandugna, beeja Ruksha Krimighna, Switrahara 171
    • Conclusion CONCLUSIONSwitrari rasa is a sagandha, saagni, parada murchana which is a kalvi rasayana.  Shodhana of Parada, Gandhaka and kaseesa with Haridra, Nimbuswarasa and Bhringarajaswarasa are certainly have a role in detoxifying and potencifying drugs.  After Gajaputa of Switrari rasa, Kajjali is suitable for absorption.  Switrari rasa is dark brown in colour odour less insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol.  Switrari rasa is acidic in pH  Loss on drying is revealing the presence of moisture content due to Kaseesa.  Total ash is reveals that presence of moisture.  Fineness of particle size signifies rate of absorptions..  The total sulphur (9.96% w/w), Kaseesa (6.7% w/w) and mercury 8.3% w/w content present in switrari rasa is near to the standards specified.  Switralepa is Yellowish green in colour, irritant, smooth, soluble in water, slightly soluble in chloroform and insoluble in alcohol.  Test for alkaloids is present due Bakuchi beeja and Shodhana dravyas.  pH value is 7.36 shows that which is alkaline in nature  Estimation of arsenic is 8.3% w/w shows arsenic content is near to the standard specified.  The result reveals that switrarirasa and lepa has got good result against switra. 172 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Conclusion  Switrarirasa & lepa has shown better zone of inhibition of switra compared to modern drugs.Limitations 1. Sample size was small 2. The period of study was limited. 3. Limited to that of one particular geographical area. 4. Longer follow up was not done.Further scope Of present clinical study were best choice of compound preparation in themanagement of switra further scope. A separate study with external application group and internal medication group isrequired to assess the effect of the individual preparation since the present study heightshis combination action of the both external & internal preparation. Finally it can be very safely concluded that the above mentioned drugcombination has a positive role in the management of his disease switra. The resultsobserved in the present study calls for further enlarged clinical study at different centers. 173 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Summary SUMMARY The present dissertation work is entitled as “preparation, physico chemicalanalysis of Switrarirasa and lepa in evaluation of switra”. In this study an attempt wasmade to prepare Rasapushpa following classical procedure its analysis and clinical studywas assessed. The study includes topics such as Introduction, Objectives, Review of Literature,Methodology, Observation and Results, Discussion and Conclusion.Introduction It depicts the importance of Ayurveda and Rasashastra. The significance ofRasoushadhis in switra are mentioned. The causes of viteligo and their role in epidemicsis described. The concept of switra according to our classics is mentioned. Finally theimportance and need for the present study is discussed.Objectives Aim and objectives of the study is stated.Review of Literature It includes drug review, disease review, procedure review and clinical study. It includes description of Hingula, Parada, Gandhaka, Kaseesa, Haratala andBakuchi according to both Ayurvedic and modern concepts. Regarding their bheda,shodhana and pharmacological properties are included and Anupana dravya, Madhu wasdescribed. The procedure of Switrari rasa and Switra lepa methods were dealt in detail. 174 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Summary It includes disease nidana, poorvaroopa, roopa etc are described and patients areselected for the study were described. It includes observations and results of clinical study are described with photos.Pharmaceutical study It deals with practical works performed during the present study. Totally 20practicals were conducted. They are shodhana of Hingula, Hingulasatwapatana, Parada,Gandhaka, Kaseesa, Haratala, Bakuchi shodhana. Practicals done for preparation ofswitrari rasa and lepa are mentioned for each practicals, observations and precautionstaken are mentioned. At the end of practical, quantity of initially taken material and endproduct was narrated.Analytical study It deals with physico chemical analysis of switrarirasa and switralepa wasanalysed for organoleptic characters, loss on drying, particle size, pH values, and for thepercentage of mercury, sulphur, ferrous sulphate and arsenic content were also carriedout.Clinical study The study was carried out by single group method. In this study selection ofpatient were done by only on the basis of inclusive criteria. The observations were done on the factors like age, sex, religion, occupation, foodhabits, family history, chronicity, age and sites of first onset, colour, margin, number andVASI score of the mandalas. 175 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • SummaryResults Recorded observations were analysed. It reveled that the most of the patients arefrom less than 30 years of age, Hindu, middle class and active. The complete cure was observed, 6.66% i.e 2 patients who are having small lesionand recent onset. The remaining patients were also relieved moderately, from theirsymptoms. Clinical and statistical analysis reveals that the systemic corrections can be donewith internal preparation and the local stimulation by synthesis of melanin throughexternal application may be effective in the management of switra vis-à-vis Vitiligo. 176 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • DEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES IN RASASHASTRA D.G.M.A.M.C.GADAG SPECIAL CASE SHEET FOR “SWITRA”Guide: Dr. G.N. Danappagoudar, M.D (Ayu), Schoar: Dr. Kavita. S. MittalakodAsst Prof. P.G. Dept of Rasashastra. M.D. ScholarCo- Guide: Dr. J.G. Mitti M.D (Ayu),Lecturer, P.G. Dept of Rasashastra1) Name of the Patient Sl.No2)Father’s / husband’s name OPD No3) Age Years IPD No4) Sex Male Female5) Religion Hindu Muslim Christian Other6) Occupation Sedentary Active Labour7) Marital status Married Unmarried Widow8) Economical status Poor Middle Higher middle Higher class9) Address Contact No: Pin10) Selection Included Excluded11) Schedule Initiation Completion Date Date12) Result Well responded Moderately responded Responded Not responded Discontinued13) INFORMED CONSENT I Daughter/Wife of amexercising my free will, to participate in above study as a subject. I have been informed to my satisfaction,by the attending physician the purpose of the clinical evaluation and nature of the drug treatment. I am alsoaware of my right to opt out of the treatment schedule, at any time during the course of the treatment.SIGNATURE OF SCHOLAR SIGNATURE OF PATIENTEzÀÄ £Á£ÀÄ ²æÃ/²æêÀÄw ___________________________________________________ £À£À߸ÀéEZÀѬÄAzÀ PÉÆqÀĪÀ aQvÁì ¸ÀªÀÄäw. ¥Àæ¸ÀÄÛvÀ £ÀqÉ¢gÀĪÀ aQvÁì ¥ÀzÀÞwAiÀÄ §UÉÎ £À£ÀUÉ aQvÀìPÀjAzÀ ¸ÀA¥ÀÇtðªÀiÁ»w zÉÆgÉwzÀÄÝ ªÀÄvÀÄÛ AiÀiÁªÁUÁzÀgÀÄ aQvÉì¬ÄAzÀ »AwgÀÄUÀ®Ä ¸ÁévÀAvÀæ÷å«zÉ JAzÀÄ w½¢gÀÄvÉÛ£É. gÉÆÃVAiÀÄ gÀÄdÄ/Patients Signature Management of “Switra” with Shwitrari rasa and lepa 1
    • A. PRADHANA VEDANASl. No. Complaints Before After1. Twaka Swetata2. Roma Vivarnata3. Rukshata4. Parushata5 ParidwanshiB. ANUBANDHI VEDANASl. No. Associated Complaints Before After1. Vruna2. Pandu3. Shareera Gouravata4. Daha5. Roma patana6. Kandu7. Kleda8. SravaC. VYADHI VRUTTANTA a. How it was noticed ? Intentional / Accidental b. Mode of on set Sudden / Gradual c. Initial site of lesion d. H/o any physical injuryTrauma: What sort of itAccident Abrasion Scratches of itch Post surgeryOther factors:Shoes Gloves Bindis Tight clothing Management of “Switra” with Shwitrari rasa and lepa 2
    • e) Psychotic traumas 1) Cause 2) After what time patch appear f) Patient suffering any systemic disease g) Any skin disorders reported h) H/o of heredity Maternal Paternal RelationD. CHIKITSA VRITTANTAE. VYAYAKTIKA VRITTANTAAhara Vegetarian MixedRasa M A L Kt TK KSpreferedVyasana Tea/coffee Tobacco SmokingNidra Sound DisturbedMootra Normal Poly urea MicturiapravruttiMala Normal Loose ConstipatedpravruttiRaja Regular Irregular MenopausepravruttiF. SAMANYA PAREEKSHA01 Pulse 02 B.P. 03 Temp.04 R.R. 05 weight 06 HeightG. DASHAVIDHA PAREEKSHA Prakruti Satmya Vikruti Satwa Sara Ahara shakti Samhanana Vyayama shakti Pramana Vaya Management of “Switra” with Shwitrari rasa and lepa 3
    • H. ASTASTHANANadi Dosha Mutra Pravritti Gati Varna Purnata Gandha Spandana KatinyaJihwa Adra Shushka Mala Sama Nirama Lepa NirlepaShabdha Sparsha Sheeta UshnaDrik AkritiI. SPECIAL EXAMINATION OF SKINa) Site of LesionSl.No Part Right Left Area of lesion %1. Arm B A2. Forearm3. Thigh4. Leg5. Foot6. Trunk7. Back8. Neck9. FaceDistribution Symmetrical AsymmetricalNumberSize Smaller Small Big Gross (1-1.0cm) (1-5cm) 5-15cm (7-15cm)Colour Red Copper red WhiteSurface Dry MoistMargin Thin Thick Extending Non differentiableHair Krishna Tamra Shweta AlomataAny system Involved Management of “Switra” with Shwitrari rasa and lepa 4
    • J. EVALUATION OF AYURVEDIC ETIOLOGY1. NIDANA. Ahar Sambhandhi NidanaMityahar Anashana Adhyashan Ajeerna AdhyshanaDravyata Navanna AtidravaRasa Atilavan AtiamlapradhanyataDhanya Chanak Masha Yava KulatyaShaka MoolakavargaMamsa MatsyavargaTail Tila taila Kusumb tailaKsheer Dadhi TakravikritiVrishya Dadhi vada Dugdha & Lavan Dadhi & GritaAhar tailaB. Vihar Sanbhandhi NidanVega dharan Divaswapna AtivyavayaAtapsevan Sheeta jala snana & pana after Shrama Bhaya2. PoorvaroopaPoorvaroopa When it was observedAtiswedaParushaVivarnataKanduDaha3. RoopaSl.No Laxana Present / Absent1. Twak Arunata2. Tamra varna3. Shweta varna4. Rookshata5. Parusha6. Paridwanshi Management of “Switra” with Shwitrari rasa and lepa 5
    • 4. Vinischayaa) Doshaja b) Vrunaj5. Sadya sadhyataB. Exclusion CriteriaS.L.No Investigations Before After1. Hb%2. TC3. D.L.C4. Polymorphils5. Lympocytes6. Eosinophils7. Monocytes8. Basophils9. ESR6. Chikitsa kramaInternal yoga - Switrari rasa (Churna)External yoga - Switra lepaAnupan - Madhu Management of “Switra” with Shwitrari rasa and lepa 6
    • ASSESSMENT SHEET Clinical Parameters During treatment schedule Follow up Subjective parameters F1 F2 F3 15 days 30 days 60 days 1) Twak shwetata and Rukshata 2) Parushata 3) Paridwarshi 4) Daha 5) Romapatana 6) Kandu 7) Kleda 8) Srava Objective parameters 1) Causes of patch 2) Margin of patch 3) No of patch 4) VASI Score Sum of value of product of plam units x extent of depigmentationVASI = _____________________________________________________ Total body surface areaInvestigators Note: Signature of Guide: Signature of Scholar:(Dr. G.N. Danappagoudar,) M.D (Ayu), (Dr. Kavita. S. Mittalkod) Management of “Switra” with Shwitrari rasa and lepa 7
    • Bibliography BIBLIOGRAPHY1. Ambikadatta Shastri,Susruta Samhita,Nidanastana,5th chapter,17th sloka,15th edition,2002,Chokamba Sanskrit samstana, Varanasi, page no 249.2. Seung-Kyung Hann and James J, Norland, Vitiligo, 1st chapter, 1st edition, 2000, Panthaer publishers’ private limited, Bangalore, page no 3.3. Ambikadatta Shastri,Susruta Samhita,Nidanastana,5th chapter,17th sloka,15th edition,2002,Chokamba Sanskrit samstana, Varanasi, page no 29.4. Acharya Madhava, Ayurevda Prakash, Edited by Gulraj Sharma Mishra, 2nd Edition, Edition, Vanranasi, Chowkambha Sanskrit Bhawan 2000, 2nd Chapter Shloka-69, pp 272.5. Acharya Yadavaji Trikramji, Rasamritam, translated by Sri Damodar Joshi, 2nd Edition, Vanranasi, Chowkambha Sanskrit Prakashana 2003, 1st Chapter pp 26.6. Shri Sadananda Sharma, Rasatarangini, Edited by Kashinath Shartri, 11th Edition New Delhi, Motilal Banarasidas publications., 1979, 9th Taranga, Shloka 1-2, pp 198.7. Acharya Yadavaji Trikramji, Rasamritam, translated by Sri Damodar Joshi, 2nd Edition, Vanranasi, Chowkambha Sanskrit Prakashana 2003, 1st chapter pp 26.8. Shri Siddanandana Mishra, Ayurevda Rasashastra, 5th Edition, Varanasi, Chowkambha Orientalia, 1994, Sadharanarasavarga, pp 484.9. Acharya Yadavaji Trikramji, Rasamritam, translated by Sri Damodar Joshi, 2nd Edition, Vanranasi, Chowkambha Sanskrit Prakashana 2003, 1st chapter pp 26.10. Shri Gopal Krishana, Rasendra Sara Sangraha, translated by Dr. Ashok D. Stapute, 1st Edition Vanranasi, Chowkambha Krishnadas Academy, 2003, 1st Chapter, pp 148.11. Shri Sadananda Sharma, Rasatarangini, Edited by Kashinath Shartri, 11th Edition New Delhi, Motilal Banarasidas publications., 1979, 19th Taranga, Shloka 41, pp 301.12. Acharya Madhava, Ayurevda Prakash, Edited by Gulraj Sharma Mishra, 2nd Edition, Varanasi, Chowkambha Bharati Academy, 1999, 2nd Chapter, Shloka-78- 82, pp 275-276. 177 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
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    • Bibliography25. Shri Vagbhatacharya, Rasa Ratna Samucchaya, Edited by Dr. Indradev Tripathi, 2nd Edition, Varanasi, Chowkambha Sanskrit Bhawan, 2003, 3rd Chapter, Shloka 147, pp 41.26. Acharya Yashodhara, Rasaprakasha Sudhakara, Siddiprada commentary by Siddanandana Mishra, 2nd Edition, Varanasi, Chowkamha Orientalia, 1999, 6th Chapter, Shloka 85, pp 130.27. Shri Sadananda Sharma, Rasatarangini, Edited by Kashinath Shartri, 11th Edition, Varanasi, Motilal Banarasidas, 2000, 9th Taranga, Shloka 4, pp 199.28. Yadavaji Trikramji Acharya, Rasamritam, translated by Sri Damodar Joshi, 2nd Edition, Varanasi, Chowkambha Sanskrit Bhawan, 2003, 6th chapter Shloka 85, pp 130.29. Shri Sadananda Sharma, Rasatarangini, Edited by Kashinath Shartri, 11th Edition, Varanasi, Motilal Banarasidas, 1979, 9th Taranga, Shloka 3, pp 199.30. Ibid, 9th Taranga, Shloka 11, pp 200.31. Shri Dattaram Chowbe, Brihatrasaraja Sundara, 3rd Edition, Varanasi, Chowkambha Orintalia, 2000, uparasa Prakarana, pp 168.32. Shri Indradev Tripathi, Rsasrnava, 4th Edition, Varanasi, Chowkambha Sanskrit Series, 2001, 7th Patala, Shloka 236, pp 60.33. Acharya Yashodhara, Rasaprakasha Sudhakara, Siddiprada commentary by Siddanandana Mishra, 2nd Edition, Varanasi, Chowkamha Orientalia, 1999, 6th Chapter, Shloka 86, pp 130.34. Shri Vagbhatacharya, Rasa Ratna Samucchaya, Edited by Dr. Indradev Tripathi, 2nd Edition, Varanasi, Chowkambha Sanskrit Bhawan, 2003, 3rd Chapter, Shloka 152, pp 41.35. Shri Sadananda Sharma, Rasatarangini, Edited by Kashinath Shartri, 11th Edition, Varanasi, Motilal Banarasidas, 1979, 9th Taranga, Shloka 14-15, pp 202.36. Ibid, 9th Taranga, Shloka 16-17, pp 202.37. Acharya Madhava, Ayurevda Prakash, Edited by Gulraj Sharma Mishra, 2nd Edition, Varanasi, Chowkambha Bharati Academy, 1999, 2nd Chapter Shloka-77, pp 275. 179 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Bibliography38. Acharya Yashodhara, Rasaprakasha Sudhakara, Siddiprada commentary by Siddanandana Mishra, 2nd Edition Varanasi, Chowkamha Orientalia, 1983, 6th Chapter, Shloka 87, pp 130.39. Shri Vagbhatacharya, Rasa Ratna Samucchaya, Edited by Dr. Indradev Tripathi, 2nd Edition Varanasi, Chowkambha Sanskrit Bhawan, 2003, 3rd Chapter, Shloka 150, pp 41.40. Acharya Somadeva, Rasendra Chintamani, 1st Edition, Varanasi, Chowkamha Orientalia, 1984, 11th Chapter, Shloka 108, pp 165.41. Acharya Madhava, Ayurevda Prakash, Edited by Gulraj Sharma Mishra, 2nd Edition, Vanranasi, Chowkambha Bharati Academy, 1999, 2nd Chapter Shloka-72, pp 275.42. Shri Sadananda Sharma, Rasatarangini, Edited by Kashinath Shartri, 11th Edition Varanasi, Motilal Banarasidas, 1979, 9th Taranga, Shloka 18, pp 202.43. Acharya Yadavaji Trikramji, Rasamritam, translated by Sri Damodar Joshi, 2nd Edition, Varanasi, Chowkambha Sanskrit Bhawan, 2003, 4th Chapter shloka 52, pp 26.44. Acharya Yashodhara, Rasaprakasha Sudhakara, Siddiprada commentary by Siddanandana Mishra, 2nd Edition Varanasi, Chowkamha Orientalia, 1999, 6th Chapter, Shloka 108-109, pp 195.45. Shri Sadananda Sharma, Rasatarangini, Edited by Kashinath Shartri, 11th Edition Varanasi, Motilal Banarasidas, 1979, 9th Taranga, Shloka 18-19, pp 202.46. Ibid, 9th Taranga, Shloka 38, pp 82.47. Acharya Madhava, Ayurevda Prakash, Edited by Gulraj Sharma Mishra, 2nd Edition, Varanasi, Chowkambha Bharati Academy, 1999, 2nd Chapter Shloka-83- 85, pp 277.48. Shri Vagbhatacharya, Rasa Ratna Samucchaya, Edited by Dr. Indradev Tripathi, 2nd Edition Varanasi, Chowkambha Sanskrit Bhavan, 2003, 3rd Chapter, Shloka 154, pp 41.49. Acharya Madhava, Ayurevda Prakash, Edited by Gulraj Sharma Mishra, 2nd Edition, Varanasi, Chowkambha Bharati Academy, 1999, 2nd Chapter Shloka-76, pp 275. 180 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Bibliography50. Shri Dattaram Chowbe, Brihatrasaraja Sundara, 3rd Edition, Varanasi, Chowkambha Orientalia, 2000, uparasa prakarana pp 165-166.51. Shri Govindadas, Bhaishajya Ratnavali, Edited by Kaviraj Ambikadatta Shastri, 17th edition, Varanasi Chowkambha Sansthana, 2002, 5th Chapter, Shloka 473-482, pp 82.52. Ibid, 5th Taranga, Shloka 483, pp 82.53. Shri Sadananda Sharma, Rasatarangini, Edited by Kashinath Shartri, 11th Edition, Varanasi, Motilal Banarasidas, 1979, 24th Taranga, Shloka 106-109, pp 667.54. Ibid, 9th Taranga, Shloka 31-33, pp 204.55. Shri Damodar Joshi, Rasashastra, edited by Dr. K.P. Saikumari Amma, Trivandurum Publication division, Ayurveda college, pp 174-175.56. htpp =1/mineral galleries. Com/mineral data/sulfide/cinnabar/cinnabar.57. Sri Vidya vasudeva Malashankara Dwivedi, Parada Vijnaneeyam, 3rd edition, Sri Sharma Ayurveda Mandira, 1997, 2nd Chapter pp 22-23.58. Acharya Madhava, Ayurevda Prakash, Edited by Gulraj Sharma Mishra, 2nd Edition, Varanasi, Chowkambha Bharati Academy, 2000, 2nd Chapter Shloka-83- 85, pp 277.59. Shri Vagbhatacharya, Rasa Ratna Samucchaya, Edited by Dr. Indradev Tripathi, 2nd Edition, Varanasi, Chowkambha Sanskrit Bhawan, 2003, 3rd Chapter, Shloka 154, pp 41.60. Acharya Yadavaji Trikramji, Rasamritam, translated by Sri Damodar Joshi, 2nd Edition, Varanasi, Chowkambha Sanskrit Bhawan, 2003, 4th Chapter Shloka 16, pp 11-12.61. Shri Siddanandana Mishra, Ayurvediya Rasashastra, 5th Edition, Varanasi, Chaukambha Orientalia, 1994, Parada prakarana, 3rd chapter, PP 109.62. Shri Sadananda Sharma, Rasatarangini, Edited by Kashinath Shartri, 11th Edition Varanasi, Motilal Banarasidas, 1979, 5th Taranga, Shloka 38, pp 82.63. Shri Gopal Krishana, Rasendra Sara Sangraha, translated by Dr. Ashok D. Stapute, 1st Edition, Varanasi, Chowkambha Krishnadas Academy, 2003, 1st Chapter, pp 6.64. Acharya Yadavaji Trikramji, Rasamritam, translated by Sri Damodar Joshi, 2nd Edition, Varanasi, Chowkambha Sanskrit Bhavan, 2003, 4th Chapter pp 3. 181 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
    • Bibliography65. Sri Vidya vasudeva Mulashankara Dwivedi, Parada Vijnaneeyam, 3rd edition, Sri Sharma Ayurveda Mandira, 1997, 1st Chapter pp 2.66. Acharya pandit Vishwanath Dwivedi, 2nd edition, Varanasi, Nagpur, Sharma Ayurveda Mandira, 5th Chapter, pp 154.67. Acharya Trikramji Acharya, Rasamritam, translated by Sri Damodar Joshi, 2nd Edition, Varanasi, Chowkambha Sanskrit Bhawan, 2003, 1st Chapter pp 3.68. Dr. Nadakarni, Indian Materia Media, 2nd edition, Mumbai, Popular Prakashana, 1976, volume 2, pp 67.69. Sri Vidya vasudeva Mulashankara Dwivedi, Parada Vijnaneeyam, 3rd edition, Sri Sharma Ayurveda Mandira, 1997, 1st Chapter pp 2.70. Agniversha, Charaka Samita, 7th Chapter, Chikitsasthana, Shloka 70-71, Kashinath Shartri, 5th edition, Varanasi, Chowkambha Sanskrit Samsthana, 1997, p 260.71. Shushruta Acharya, Sushruta Samhita, 25th Chapter, Chikitsasthana, Shloka 39, Kaviraj Ambikadatta Shastri, 8th edition, Varanasi Chowkambha Sanskrit Samsthana, 2000.72. Shri Vagbhatacharya, Asthanga Sangraha, 32nd Chapter, uttaratantra, Shloka 31-32, K.R. Srikantha Murthy, 1st Edition, Varanasi Chowkambha Orintalia, 1996, pp 503.73. Acharya Vagbhata, Rasa Ratna samucchaya,_Edited by Ambikadatta Shastri 9th Edition, Varanasi, Chaukambha Amarabharati Prakashana, 1998, 1st Chapter, Shloka 88; pp 10.74. Shri Gopalkrishna, Rasandra Sara Sangraha, translated by Dr. Ashok, 1st Edition, Varanasai, Chaukambha krishnadas Academy, 2003, 1st Chapter, pp 875. Acharya yashodhar, Rasaprakash Sudhakara, Siddiprada commentary by S Siddanandana Mishra, 1st Edition, Varanasi, Chaukambha Orientalia, 1983, 6th chapter, shloka 87, pp 130.76. Acharya Indradev Tripathi, Rasarnava, 4th Editon, Varanasi, Chaukambha Sansrkrit Series, 2001, 10th Patala, shloka 4, pp 13077. Acharya Madhava, Ayurveda Prakash, Edited by Shri Gulraj Sharma Mishra, 2nd Edition, Varanasi, Chaukambha Bharati Academy, 1999, 1st Chapter, pp 18.78. Shri Dattaram choube, Brihat Rasa Rajasundara, 3rd Edition, Varanasi, Chaukambha Orientalia, 2000, 1st Chapter, Shloka pp 5 182 “Preparation, Physico Chemical Analysis of Switrari rasa & lepa, their Clinical Efficacy on Switra”
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