• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Swarnamakshika hematinic rs017_gdg
 

Swarnamakshika hematinic rs017_gdg

on

  • 2,772 views

Preparation, physico- chemical analysis of swarna makshika bhasma & evaluation of its haematinic activity, an experimental study - dr. Jamakhandi mangala. B. , Department of rasashastra, Post graduate ...

Preparation, physico- chemical analysis of swarna makshika bhasma & evaluation of its haematinic activity, an experimental study - dr. Jamakhandi mangala. B. , Department of rasashastra, Post graduate studies and research center, Shri D. G. Melmalagi Ayurvedic Medical College, Gadag

Statistics

Views

Total Views
2,772
Views on SlideShare
2,772
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
29
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Swarnamakshika hematinic rs017_gdg Swarnamakshika hematinic rs017_gdg Document Transcript

    • “PREPARATION, PHYSICO- CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OFSWARNAMAKSHIKA BHASMA & EVALUATION OF ITSHAEMATINIC ACTIVITY, AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY”. BY DR. JAMAKHANDI MANGALA. B.Dissertation Submitted to the Rajiv Gandhi University Of Health Sciences, Karnataka, Bangalore. In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of AYURVEDA VACHASPATI (DOCTOR OF MEDICINE) IN RASASHASTRA Under the guidance of Dr. G.N. DANAPPAGOUDAR M.D.(Ayu) Asst. Professor Dept. of Rasashastra and Co-guidance of Dr. JAGADEESH G. MITTI, M.D. (Ayu), Lecturer, P.G.Dept. of RasashastraPOST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRAD.G M. AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE AND RESEARCH CENTER, GADAG – 582103 2007
    • Rajiv Gandhi University Of Health Sciences, Karnataka, Bangalore. DECLARATION BY THE CANDIDATE I here by declare that this dissertation / thesis entitled “Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Swarnamakshika Bhasma & Evaluation of its HaematinicActivity, an Experimental Study” is a bonafide and genuine research work carried outby me under the guidance of Dr.G.N. Danappagoudar, M.D.(Ayu), (Rasashastra), Asst.Professor Post graduate department of Rasashastra and under the Co-guidance of Dr.Jagadeesh.G. Mitti, M.D.(Rasashastra). Lecturer, Post graduate department ofRasashastra.Date:Place: Gadag. Dr. Jamakhandi Mangala. B.
    • SHRI D. G. MELMALAGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA. CERTIFICATE BY THE GUIDE This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Swarnamakshika Bhasma & Evaluation of its HaematinicActivity, an Experimental Study” is a bonafide research work done byDr. Jamakhandi Mangala. B. in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree ofAyurveda Vachaspathi. M.D (Rasashastra).Date:Place: Gadag. Guide Dr. G.N. DANAPPAGOUDAR M.D.(Ayu) Asst. Professor Dept. of Rasashastra, Post Graduate Research Center D.G.A.M.C. Gadag
    • SHRI D. G. MELMALAGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA. CERTIFICATE BY THE Co - GUIDE This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “Preparation, Physico-Chemical Analysis of Swarnamakshika Bhasma & Evaluation of its HaematinicActivity, an Experimental Study” is a bonafide research work done byDr. Jamakhandi Mangala. B. in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree ofAyurveda Vachaspathi. M.D (Rasashastra).Date: Co GuidePlace: Gadag. Dr. Jagadeesh G. Mitti, M.D. (Rasashastra). Lecturer, Postgraduate department of Rasashastra.
    • ENDORSEMENT BY THE H.O.D AND PRINCIPAL OF THE INSTITUTIONThis is to certify that the dissertation entitled “Preparation, Physico- ChemicalAnalysis of Swarnamakshika Bhasma & Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, anExperimental Study” is a bonafide research work done by Dr. JamakhandiMangala. B. under the guidance of DR. G.N. Danappagoudar M.D. (Rasashastra), Asst.Professor Postgraduate department of Rasashastra and co-guidance ofDr. Jagadeesh G. Mitti, M.D. (Rasashastra), lecturer, Postgraduate department ofRasashastra.DR. M.C. Patil, M.D. (Rasashastra) Dr. G. B. Patil.Professor & HOD Principal.Post graduate department of Rasashastra. D.G.M.A.M.C, GADAG.D.G.M.A.M.C, GADAG.Date:Place: Gadag
    • COPYRIGHT Declaration by the candidate I hereby declare that the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences,Karnataka shall have the rights to preserve, use and disseminate thisdissertation / thesis in print or electronic format for academic / researchpurpose.Date: Signature of ScholarPlace: Gadag Dr. Jamakhandi Mangala. B.© Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka.
    • ACKNOWLEDGEMENT By the grace of Lord Dhanvantari and Lord Nagarajuna and blessings of myelders I take an opportunity to express my profound sense of gratitude to distinguishpersonalities with whome I had inspired and benefied directly or indirectly during thecourse of this study. I acknowledge my sincere gratitude to our Principal Dr. G.B. Patil for providingnecessary facilities for this research work. I am extremely thankful to Dr. M.C. Patil H.O.D. for their whole heartedco-operation support & suggestion in this study. I express my deep sense of gratitude to my respected Guide Dr.G.N.Danappagoudar M.D. Asst. Proff D.G.M. A.M.C. Post Graduate Research Gadag.He has been very kind to guide me in research and for whose extra ordinary effortstremondus encouragement made into complete this work. I am extremely thankful & obliged to my Co-guide Dr. Jagadeesh Mitti, LecturerDGMAMC&RC Gadag for patiently going through the draft of thesis & correcting withprecious remarks which has been very useful. I wish to convey thanks to my respected Lecturer Dr. Girish Danappagoudar, DrMulugund, Dr Sankh, Dr KSR Prasad, Dr Shettar, Dr Belawadi, Dr Mulkipatil and DrSamudri for their great co-operation. & other Lecturere of our college for their help &suggestion during my post graduation studies. I would like express my sincere thanks to Sri V.M. Mundinimani librarian.Assistant Mr. S.B. Sureban and Kerur for providing books in time throughout the study. I
    • I thanks to Mr. T. M. Nandakumar for his help in statistical evaluation & ProffMr. Inamadar, Lecturer K.L.E’s College of Pharmacy, Gadag. For his help inExperimental study. I am thankful to Mr. Chaitrakumar for his neat keyboarding of this study. I am ever thankful to Sri G.S. Patil Ex MLA Chairman RGES Ron and Dr. L.R.Redder, Director RGES Ron for their constant moral support encouragement helpthroughout my work. With pleasure I extend my sincere gratitude to Dr S.D. Yarageri RMO, Smt P.K.Belwadi, Biradar, Smt Ekbote & Smt. Shamshad for their co-operation and help duringthe study. I take this moment to express my thanks to all my senior Post Graduates & myfriends Dr. Anita, Dr. Ganti, Dr. Pradeep, Dr. Jayashree. Dr. Rudrakshi, Dr. Kattimani,Dr. Kavitha, Dr. Sarwamangala, Dr. Shivaleela Kudari, Dr. Kamalakshi, Dr. Anu whostood with me all the way at my turmoil. I am highly indebted to my beloved Mother in Law Smt. Basamma and Father inLaw Late Shri Basappa and My Brother in Laws Sri Umesh, Suresh, Srishail andYellappa and their family and Gaddigoudar family. My parents Smt. Shanta and SriBalraj Jamkhandi and my Brothers Pradeep, Dr. Smt. Savitri and Dr. MrutyunjayaDandin and their family for their love and affection through out my dissertation work. I would like to extend my gratitude to Dr. Adi Principal RGES AMC Ron, and allstaff of RGES AMC College Ron and also my well-wishers Dr. I.B. Kotturshetty, Dr.M.P. Itigi and Smt. Gadiginamath, Dr. Bani. II
    • The list is incomplete without remembering my beloved husband Dr. B.B.Kataraki, Prof H.O.D. Siddanth Department RGES AMC, Ron. In one word he is myguru and my godfather who helped in all respects to complete this valuable dissertationwork. By his sacrificing nature and with his love only I have completed this work and atlast its my pleasure to remember my ever loving son Vivi for his inspiration (inspiringsmile in every movement). Lastly I pay my deep homage & tribute to my former teacher Late Dr. DilipKumar for whose encouragement & most valuable thought provoking advise made me tocomplete this work. DR. JAMAKHANDI MANGALA. B. III
    • Abbreviations1. Ananda Kanda AK2. Ayurveda Prakasha AP3. Bhava Prakasha Nighantu BPN4. Bhaishajya Ratnavali BR5. Charaka Samhita Ch.chi6. Kashyapa Samhita KS7. Parada Samhita P.S/Pa.sa8. Rasa Kamadhenu R.K.D9. Rasa Koumudi R. Kou10. Rasa Chandamshu RC/Racha11. Rasa Chintamani R.Chi12. Rasa Jala Nidhi R..J.N13. Rasa Tantra Sara R.T.S14. Rasa Tarangini RT15. Rasa Prakasha Sudhakara R.P.S16. Rasa Paddhati R.Pa17. Rasa Pradeepa R.Pr.18. Rasa yoga Sagara R.Y.S19. Rasa Ratnakara RR20. Rasa Ratna Samucchaya R.R.S21. Brihad Rasa Raja Sundara B.R.R.S22. Rasa Sara R.Sa23. Rasa Sanketa Kalika R.s. Ka24. Rasa Hridaya Tantra R.H.T25. Rasamritam R.A26. Rasarnava R27. Rasendra Choodamani Rachoo28. Rasendra Mangala Ra.ma29. Rasendra Sara Sangraha R.S.S30. Raja Nighantu R.N IV
    • 31. Rasopanishad R.U32. Sharangadhara Samhita Sha.Sa33. Sushruta Samhita Su.Sa34.Harita Samhita H.S V
    • ABSTRACTBackground and Objectives: Swarnamakshika is one among Maharasas, on reviewing the Ayurvedicclassics, it is evident that therapeutic use of Swarnamakshika has been in practicesince samhita period. Swarnamakshika is the most abundant copper bearing mineralcontaining copper, iron & sulphur which has given very much importance in bothDehavada & Dhatuvada. Our present study is aimed at obtaining genuine sample,preparation of bhasma as per classics and its chemical analysis and evaluation of itshematenic activity of an animal experiment.The Objective includes The Shodhana, Marana and Amrutikarana of Swarnamakshika and Physicochemical analysis of raw drug and bhasma and to evaluate its hemetinic activity inanemia.Methods:Shodhana of Swarnamakshika carried out by Nirvapana method in Nimbuswarsa for21 times.Marana with Nimbuswarasa bhavana and 10 Gajaputas were adopted.Amrutikarana by adding Panchamruta and subjected to teevragni for adding 3 hours.Experimental Study: In experimental study 36 albino rats have been selected and divided into 3groups Control, Positive control and treatment group, are made into evaluate thehemetinic activity of Swarnamakshika bhasma. The treatment group showed morehighly significant by comparing ‘t’ value. VI
    • TABLE OF CONTENTSSl. Name of Topic & Sub Topics Page No.No. 1 INTRODUCTION 1-22. OBJECTIVES 33. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Drug Review 4-26 Disease Review 27-544. MATERIALS AND METHODS Pharmaceutical Study 55-61 Analytical Study 62-67 Experimental Study 68-714. RESULTS 72-1075. DISCUSSION 108-1166. CONCLUSION 1177. SUMMARY 118-1198. BIBLIOGRAPHY 120-128 VII
    • LIST OF TABLESSl Tables Page N0No01 Table showing Synonyms of Swarnamakshika 802 Table showing Some of the important Copper Smelters in the 10 world03 Table showing Swarna Makshika Vargeekarana 1304 Table showing Ashuddha Swarna Makshika Dosha 1405 Table showing Guna & Karma of Swarna Makshika Bhasma 1906 Table Showing the Aharaja Nidana of Panduroga. 3007 Table Showing the Viharaja Nidana of Panduroga. 31-3208 Table Showing the Purvaroopa of Panduroga. 3309 Table Showing the Samanya lakshanas of Panduroga 3410 Table Showing the classification of Panduroga. 3511 Table Showing the Samanya lakshanas of Vataja Panduroga. 3612 Table Showing the Samanya lakshanas of Pittaja Panduroga. 3713 Table Showing the Samanya lakshanas of Kaphaja 37-38 Panduroga.14 Table Showing the Samanya lakshanas of 39-40 Mridbhakshanajanya Panduroga15 Table Showing Observations in each puta throughout the 59 process.16 Table Showing Analysis of Swarnamakshika Bhasma by 62-63 Ancient method17 Table Showing Intermediate calculations Anova table 72 myeloid to erythroid 48 hrs18 Table Showing Intermediate calculations Anova table 72 myeloid to erythroid 96 hrs19 Table Showing Intermediate calculations Anova table R.B.C 72 48 hrs20 Table Showing Intermediate calculations Anova table R.B.C 73 96 hours21 Table Showing Intermediate calculations Anova table Hb 48 73 hours22 Table Showing Intermediate calculations Anova table Hb 96 73 hours23 Table Showing Intermediate calculations Anova table 74 Pronormoblast 48 hours24 Table Showing Intermediate calculations Anova table 74 Pronormoblast 96 hours25 Table Showing Intermediate calculations Anova table 74 Normoblast 48 hours26 Table Showing Intermediate calculations Anova table 75 Normoblast 96 hours27 Table Showing Intermediate calculations Anova table 75 Reticulocytes 48 hours28 Table Showing Intermediate calculations Anova table 75 Reticulocytes 96 hours VIII
    • 29 Table Showing Intermediate calculations Anova table 76 Normocytes 48 hours 30 Table Showing Intermediate calculations Anova table 76 Normocytes 96 hours 31 to Table showing Comparison and Mean difference between 77-90 44 groups 31 (a) to 44 (a) 45 Table Showing Paired ‘t’ test table for the parameter 92 Myeloid to Erythroid 48 hours 46 Table Showing Myeloid to Erythroid Erythroid 96 hours 93 47 Table Showing RBC 48 hrs 94 48 Table Showing RBC 96 hrs 95 49 Table Showing Hb 48 hrs 96 50 Table Showing Hb 96 hrs 97 51 Table Showing Pronormoblast 48 hrs 98 52 Table Showing Pronormoblast 96 hrs 99 53 Table Showing Normoblast 48 hrs 100 54 Table Showing Normoblast 96 hrs 101 55 Table Showing Reticulocytes 48 hrs 102 56 Table Showing Reticulocytes 96 hrs 103 57 Table Showing Normocytes 48 hrs 104 58 Table Showing Normocytes 96 hrs 105LIST OF GRAPHS: Sl. No Graphs Page No 1 Graph Showing Paired ‘t’ test table for the parameter 92 Myeloid to Erythroid 48 hours 2 Graph Showing Myeloid to Erythroid Erythroid 96 93 hours 3 Graph Showing RBC 48 hrs 94 4 Graph Showing RBC 96 hrs 95 5 Graph Showing Hb 48 hrs 96 6 Graph Showing Hb 96 hrs 97 7 Graph Showing Pronormoblast 48 hrs 98 8 Graph Showing Pronormoblast 96 hrs 99 9 Graph Showing Normoblast 48 hrs 100 10 Graph Showing Normoblast 96 hrs 101 11 Graph Showing Reticulocytes 48 hrs 102 12 Graph Showing Reticulocytes 96 hrs 103 13 Graph Showing Normocytes 48 hrs 104 14 Graph Showing Normocytes 96 hrs 105 IX
    • LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS: Sl. No Photographs 1 Ashuddha Swarnamakshika 2 Nimbu swarasa 3 Tapta swarnamakshika bhasma 4 Nirvapana 5 Nirvapitta 6 Ater 11th Nirvapana 7 After 21st Nirvapana 8 Shodhita swarnamakshika choorna 9 Bhavana with Nimbu swarasa 10 Chakrikas of swarnamakshika 11 Subjected to Gajaputa 12 Powder of Swarnamakshika after 1st puta 13 Chakrikas after 2nd puta 14 Swarnamakshika bhasma after 10th Gajaputa 15 Amrutikarna of Swarnamakshika bhasma 16 Swarnamakshika bhasma after Amrutikarna 17 Administration of Test drug 18 Withdrawing the blood from cardiac puncture 19 Withdrawing blood from Orbit 20 Showing the femur bone of animal 21 Bone marrow on slide 22 Slide under the Microscope 23 Microphotograph showing myeloid to erythroid cell ratio in bone marrow of normal groups animals 24 Animals treated with plain Phenylhydrazine (48 hrs) 25 Animals treated treated with Plain Phenylhydrazine (96 hrs) 26 Animals Treated with Test sample (48 hrs) 27 Animals Treated with Test sample (96 hrs) 28 Microphotograph showing myeloid to erythroid cell ratio in bone marrow of normal group animals 29 Animals treated with Plain Phenyhydrazine (48 hrs) 30 Animals treated with Plain Phenyhydrazine (96 hrs) 31 Animals treated with test sample (48 hrs) 32 Animals treated with test sample (96 hrs) X
    • Introduction INTRODUCTION Ayurveda is a system of Indigineous medicine which systematizes andapplies the knowledge about health and disease. Health is the supreme foundationof virtue, wealth, enjoyment and salvation Disease are the destroyers of health,goddness and even life itself. Ayurveda makes a land mark in the history of medicine by making freeuse of metallic preparations in the therapy without any untoward side effects. It isclear from the literature that in earlier time’s metals and minerals were used in theform of Ayskriti. These forms were not very suitable for their absoption. After thedevelopment of Rasa shastra. Metals like Swarna, Rajata, Tamra Loha etc, werefound therapeutically useful after processing them to various pharmaceuticalprocesses such as shodhana marana and amriteekarana Bhasmas have greatertherapeutic value because they get absorbed very easily in small doses into thebody because of their fineness. Swarna makshika Bhasma is one such a drug, which has been being usedsince ancient classics like charaka samhita, sushruta samhita, Astanga sangrahaetc,, to cure various disorders. Satwa of Swarnamakshika was the main ingredientin Jarana samskara, Vagabhatacharya in his Ratna samuchaya says that“Maksheeka dhatu sakalama yagnaha prano Rasendraya parma hi vrishyah. Durmelahoha dwayamelanascha, gunottarah sarvarasayanagrayah” Shows the importance of swarna makshika both in Dehavada andLohavada “Swarna bhava swarna makshikam” also shows the superiority ofswarnamakshika. 1 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Introduction So the present study is aimed at reviewing the literature ofswarnamakshika, shodha, marana amriteekarana & Chemical analysis and to findtherapeutic effect in pandu. The present day unwhole some food habits are influencing deficiencies ofvital. Nutrients and lead to nutritional disorders. The disease panduroga that isdealt in all Ayurvedic texts with its treatment which is very much similar toanaemia in later period. 2 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • ObjectivesObjectives 1) To do a comprehensive literary study on Swarna Makshika Bhasma. 2) To prepare Swarnamakshika Bhasma as told in classical texts. 3) To analyze the raw material, and final product. 4) To evaluate the Haematinic activity of Swarna makshika Bhasma in Pandu. 3 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Review of Literature SWARNAMAKSHIKAHISTROICAL REVIEW It is rather difficult to point out a definite date indicating the first use ofSwarnamakshika Bhasma. But a article survey of the Ayurvedic Literature wouldsuggest that we find the first mention of Swarna makshika bhasma as a medicamentright in the samhita or prior to that era there is no specific mention. This suggests thatthe importance of Swarnamakshika could be known a little earlier than the period ofsamhita. Scholars have decided the date of samhitas 3000 years B.C (R.R) on thisLiterary evidence we can calculate the date of the first use of Swarna makshika,which goes before 3000 years BC later on every book written on the Ayurvedictreatment and Hindu chemistry discussed in a lesser or greater degree regardingswarnamakshika. Even during Pre Buddha era. Parada was extensively used for the prupose ofPindasthairya. During fourth quarter of Buddha period Rasa shastra was very muchinfluenced by kaulas. In the same period the use of Swarnamakshika was stated forDehavada & Lohavada. To produce swarna beeeja for Rasakalpasiddhi had an uniqueplace. It is said that the main aim of kaulas was to extract satwa of swarnamakshika &Process it for jarana in parada.VEDIC PERIOD Without Tamra khanija (Swarnamakshika) one can not extract Tamra so itindirectly indicates that, Tamra would have been extracted from swarnamakshika. Asin Yajurveda (18/13) and Atharvaveda (11/3/7-8) reference of Tamra dhatu is 4 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Review of Literatureavailable. By this indirect references we can say that during vedic period people hadknowledge of Swarnamakshika.KAUTILYA ARTHASHASTRA In Kautilya arthashastra i.e 2nd Adhikara, 12th chapter he explains about TamraKhanija also he has mentioned 4 types of copper ore – Pingala, Hasita, Patelu andLohita In Upanishat kala also we can trace lot of discussions on Tamra.SAMHITA PERIOD1 In charaka samhita the medicinal importance of Swarna makshika wasexplained in the treatment of two main diseases Kusta and Pandu. In Kusta chikitsacharakacharya recomonded to use Parada, which is treated by Swarnamakshika andGandhaka1. In pandu roga chikitsa he has recommended Swarnamakshikadi yoga whichcontains mainly Swarnamakshika along with other minerals2. In Susruta samhita Acharaya explained Swarnamakshika in the context ofMadhumeha chikitsa. He has enumerated the synonyms, types of makshika and theirqualities etc3. In Astanga Sangraha Uattratantra Vridha Vagabhata explainedSwarnamakshika as a best Rasayana in”Rasayanavidhi” Chapter and alsomythological orgin, occurance and its tharapeutic qualities in detail4.RASASHATRA PERIOD During this period Acharya Nagarjuna author of Rasendra mangala (7-8thcentury) explains shodhana and Satwapatana of Swarnamakshika5. In 10th Century Rasahridaya tantra explains use of Swarnamakshika in Paradakarma6. 5 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Review of LiteratureRASARNAVAKARA (12TH CENTURY) Mythological origin of Swarnamakshika Shodhana and Shatwapatanaexplained7.13th Century – Rasaratana Samuchchay gave detailed description of Swarnamakshikaregarding its 1) Guna 2) Shodhana 3) Marana 4) Satwapatana He has condensed it under Maharasa group8.LAGHUTRAYEE Sharangadhara Samhita (14th century) Bhavaprakash (16th Century) have alsoexplained Swarnamakshika as Upadhaatu. Ayurveda Prakash Acharaya Madhava (12th century) gave description ofSwarnamakshika in Upadhaatu varga and also explains following9 1) Types 2) Synonyms 3) Occurance 4) Therrpeutic qualities 5) Shodhana and Marana Rasataranginikara (20th century) explains detail description and he consideredit under Upadhaatu Varga10.20th Century – Rasajalanidhikara explained almost all the Literature regardingSwarnamakshika from available previous texts11. 6 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Review of LiteratureSwarna Makshika Utpatti There are two mythological origin of Makshika and this is available in almostall Rasagranthas.1) After the completion of his role in the Mahabharata, Lord Krishna went into Yoganidra and a hunter, mistaking him as a deer pierced the sole of his foot by an arrow. Because of the injury, blood drops fell down from this wound on the ground and looking like the fruits of Nimba, these drops gave rise to the stones of Makshika12.2) According to Rasa Ratna Samucchaya, Lord Vishnu created Swarna Makshika, which was originated in Sameru Mountain, at the banks of river Tapee, Cheena desha and Yavana desha. During Madhava masa due to Sunrays Makshika shines like gold and is identified in these places13.Vernacular Names of Swarna Makshika1) Sanskrit - Suvarnamakshika, Maksheeka, Makshika.2) English - Copper Pyrites, Chalcopyrite3) Hindi - Sonamakhi, Sonamakkhi4) Kannada - Swarna Makshika5) Gujarati - Sonamakhi, Maksheeka6) Farsi - Sangaru Shanayu, Hazurushanyu7) Marathi - Sonumakki, Sonamakkhi, Dagadi Sonamukhi8) Arabi - Hazurunnur, Markasheesha, Maraksheeshaya, JhahaviSynonyms of Swarna Makshika14 xÉÑuÉhÉïqÉÉͤÉMÇü xuÉhÉïqÉÉͤÉMÇü WåûqÉqÉÉͤÉMüqÉç | qÉÉͤÉMÇü qÉÉͤÉMügcÉæuÉ iÉÉmrÉgcÉ kÉÉiÉÑqÉÉͤÉMüqÉç || 7 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Review of Literature qÉɤÉÏMükÉÉiÉÑgcÉ iÉjÉÉ iÉÉmÉÏeÉgÉcÉÉÌmÉ iÉlqÉiÉqÉç | DwÉixÉëÑuÉhÉïxÉÉÌWûirÉÉixÉÑuÉhÉïaÉÑhÉ xÉqrÉiÉÈ || xÉÑuÉhÉÉïï±ÑÌiÉqɨ§ÉÉ²É xuÉhÉïqÉÉͤÉMüqÉÑcrÉiÉå | iÉÉmÉÏiÉÏUpÉuÉiuÉÉŠ iÉÉmrÉÇ iÉÉmÉÏeÉqÉÑcrÉiÉå ||Table No: 1 Synonyms of Swarna Makshika Sl. Name AK RSS BPN AP BR RT RJN RP ARS No. 1 Makshikam + - - + - - + - - 2 Dhatumakshikam - + - - + + + + + 3 Taptam - + - - + - + - - 4 Tapee Samudbhavam - + - - + - + - - 5 Garudah - + - - + - + - - 6 Makshikah - + - - + - + - - 7 Pakshee - + - - + - + - - 8 Madhudhatu + - + - - + + - + 9 Brihadvarna - + - - + - - - - 10 Maksheekam + - - - - - - - - 11 Hemamakshikam + - - - - + - - + 12 Tapyam + - + + - - + + + 13 Tapeejam + - - + - - + + + 14 Tarkshyam + - - - - - - - - 15 Tapeedesha + - - - - - - - - Samudbhavam 16 Madhumakshikam - - - + - - + - - 17 Swarnamakshikam - - - + - + - + + 18 Makshikadhatu - - - - - - + - - 19 Suvarnamakshikam - - - - - + - - + 20 Makshika - - - - - + - + - 21 Tapya - - - - - + - - - 22 Maksheekadhatu - - + + - + - + - 8 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Review of LiteraturePrapti Sthana (Occurrence of Chalcopyrite): Makshika, which was obtained from the Kanyakubja, was just like gold andwas called as Swarna Makshika. The one which was obtained from the banks of riverTapee was called as Rajata Makshika and was inferior in quality withpashanabahulata, was just like Pancha Varna Suvarna15. India has about 310 million tons of Copper reserves and the average Coppercontent carries from 1.1 – 2.5% about 90% of these reserves are spread over Bihar,Rajasthan and Madhyapradesh. The most important deposits being located in theSingh Bhum Copper belt in Bihar. Mouhbhander and Khetri Copper Project(Rajasthan). By world standards Copper reserves are less in India. However, the geologicalsurvey of India is constantly exploring for new reserves. The mineral exploration ofcorporation has recently established the existence of copper reserves at Malanj Khand(M.P). At present HCL (Hindustan Copper Limited) is the sole producers in India andis able to meet about 42% of the country’s requirements. Chalcopyrite is the most abundant Copper-bearing mineral containing nearlyequals parts of copper, iron and sulfur. Chalcopyrite is mined and used as an ore ofcopper. Infact chalcopryrite is the most widely occurring copper mineral.Chalcopyrite is found together with other sulfides among primary ores of magmaticorigin. It is mined as cupriferous pyrite and pyrrhotite, which contain copper in solidsolution, or as disseminated grains of chalcopyrite. It also occurs in metalliferous veins in igneous rocks and in sediments as inupper shales (Kupferschiefer) of the Mansfield district of Germany. Chalcopyrite isalso a common mineral in the secondary enrichment zones of many ore deposits as for 9 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Review of Literatureexample, in the low-grade porphyry Copper ores at Bingham, Utah. Other placesinclude Chile, Peru, and Mexico, Europe, South Africa, Several USA sites and manyother around the world.Table No. 2: Some of the important Copper Smelters in the world:(Chalcopyrite its chemistry and metallurgy-by Fathi Habashi) Country Company Smelter EUROPEAustria Mantanwerke Brixlegg Brixlegg G.m.b.hFrance Societe Francais d’ Poissy Affinage dee cuivreGermany Norddeutsche Affinerie HambergItaly AMMI Aussa – corno AFRICARhodesia MessinA– Rhodesia Alaska smelting & Refining Co., LtdZaire Gecamines Liulu ASIAIndia Indian Copper Corp. Moubhander Hindustan Copper Corp Khetri Hindustan Copper Corp InglandhalJapan Mitsubishi mining Naoshima (2 plants) NORTHCENTRAL AMERICACanada International Nickel Corp Copper cliff conistonUSA American Aaetal Cartaret climax,Inc Phleps Dodge Douglas Copper Range White pineSwarna Makshika Bheda: Makshika is of two kinds viz-Swarna Makshika and Rajata Makshika. The SwarnaMakshika bearing golden tints was found in Kanyakubja; the other variety called asRoupya Makshika, which resembles Panchavarna Suvarna, contains much of the stonewas found in the banks of river Tapti. It was of inferior quality16. Anandakanda mentions two varieties as- Peeta and Shukla17 . 10 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Review of Literature Depending on the shape Swarna Makshika is of three types181) Kadamba 2) Karavellakhya 3) Tanduliyaka The author of Rasa Jala Nidhi has given one more classification as191) Yellow2) White3) Red They are also subdivided into four classes acc. to their shape due to thedifference in the location of the soil in which they were found20 viz; 1) Round like Kadamba 2) Like shells of Shuktika 3) Having the shape of fingers (elongated and round) 4) Like flakes of ashOf these varieties the one which is yellowish is called Swarna Makshika and it issuperior.Grahya Swarna Makshika Lakshana21: ÎxlÉakÉÇ aÉÑ xrÉÉqÉsÉMüÉÎliÉ ÌMügcÉiÉç MüwÉå xÉÑuÉhÉï±ÑÌiÉxÉÑmÉëMüÉzÉqÉç | MüÉåhÉÉåÎep£üiÉÇ xuÉhÉïxqÉÉlÉuÉhÉïÇ xÉÑuÉhÉïqÉɤÉÏMüÍqÉWû mÉëwÉxiÉqÉç || Should have swarnavarna, should be soft externally, should have heaviness,should have bluish and blackish shine, when it is rubbed on stone, some gold colorlines must be visible on the stone, should not have angles, on rubbing over hand blackcolor has to appear on hand. Swarna Makshika, which on being broken to pieces presents a surface brightwith golden tints, with a rather black interior, is superior to the common variety. Thisvariety of Makshika is called “ Brihad Varna “ or having a superior colour. It has got 11 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Review of Literatureother lakshanas also like22. Swarna Makshika has the appearance of gold, devoid ofangles, heavy and leaves a black impression when rubbed on the palm. The SwarnaMakshika which is superior in quality should have the following characteristics; goldlike complexion, heaviness, softness, a little blue tint, and causing a gold likeimpression when rubbed on a piece of touch stone (Kasha)23.Heya Swarna Makshika Lakshana24: xuÉUÇ mÉUÇ uÉæ aÉÑÂiÉÉÌuÉWûÏlÉÇ mÉëuÉרÉMüÉåhÉïÇ ZÉUsÉÉåWûMüÉpÉqÉç mÉëMüÐÌiÉïiÉÇ iÉimÉËUWåûrÉqÉåuÉ xÉÑuÉhÉïqÉɤÉÏMüÍqÉWûqÉrÉ¥ÉæÈ || Khara, alpabhara, with kona and which shines like loha should not be used forthe preparation of medicine.Swarna Makshika Vargeekarana: Different authors have given their individual opinions in the classification ofMakshika under Maharasa, Rasa, Uparasa or Upadhatu depending on theirexperiences and thoughts. Some of them considered Makshika as Prana of Paradahence it was put under Maharasa. Some thought it, as less significant in Paradaprayoga and hence put it under Rasa, Uparasa and Upadhatu. 12 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Review of LiteratureTable No. 3: Swarna Makshika Vargeekarana Sl. No. Grantha Nama Maharasa Rasa Uparasa Upadhatu 1 Rasarnava + - - - 2 Rasendra + - - - Choodamani 3 Rasa Prakasha + - - - Sudhakara 4 Rasa Ratna - + - - Samucchaya 5 Ananda Kanda - - + - 6 Rasopanishat + - - - 7 Rasapaddhati + - - - 8 Rasendra + - - - Chintamani 9 Rasamanjari - - + - 10 Rasendra Sara - - - + Samgraha 11 Bhavaprakasha - - - + Nighantu 12 Ayurveda - - - + Prakasha 13 Bhaishajya + - - - Ratnavali 14 BrihadRasaRaja - - - + Sundara 15 Rasa Tarangini - - - + 16 Rasa Jala Nidhi + - - - 17 Rasendra - - - + Sambhava 18 Ayurvedeeya + - - - Rasa Shastra 19 Parada Samhita - - - +Apakwa Swarna Makshika Dosha: If Shodhana of Swarna Makshika was not done properly or bhasma was notprepared properly or if it possesses chandrika it produces various disorders. 13 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Review of LiteratureTable No. 4 Ashuddha Swarna Makshika Dosha Sl. Dosha RR AK RSS BPN AP BR RT R BRRS No. J N 1 Agnimandya + + + + + + + + - 2 Balanasha + - + + + + - + - 3 Vrana + - + - - + - + - 4 Vibandha - - - - - + - + - 5 Gatraruk - - + - - + - - - 6 Marana + + + - - + - + - 7 Vishtambha + + + + + + - + - 8 Dourbalya - + - - - - - - - 9 Akshiroga - + - + + - - + - 10 Kusta - - - + + - + + + 11 Gandamala - - - + + - - + - 12 Halimaka - - - - - - + - - 13 Vayu prakopa - - - - - - + - - in koshta 14 Aandhya - - - - - - - - + 15 Kshaya - - - - - - - - + 16 Krimi - - - - - - - - + 17 Netraruk + - - - - - - - - 18 Vanti + - - - - - - - -Treatment: Kulattha kwatha or Dadima kwatha25.Swarna Makshika Shodhana:Different methods have been adopted for shodhana of Swarna Makshika like-Swedana, Panchana, Nirvapana and Puta method. 14 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Review of LiteratureShodhana by Swedana: Makshika is powdered and tied in cloth and swedana is done in kashaya orswarasa of kala marisha (vanya Meghanada) and shali (shaka vishesha) by dolayantravidhana. The Makshika which collects at the bottom is said as shuddha26. Swedana in Naramootra, kulattha kwatha, vetasa, amlavarga with Tankana andKatutrika by dolayantra vidhana for one day27. Makshika is kept in sooranakanda and swedana should be done in kulatthakwatha, kodrava kwatha, naramootra, amlavetasa, amla varga and katutrika. Againpanchana is done in rambhadrava28 Swedana for two hours in a mixture of matulunga and Eranda Taila (RasendraPurana). Swedana in kadali kanda swarasa or karkoti kanda swarasa by dolayantravidhana or swedani yantra vidhana29. Swedana in beejapoora rasa and saindhavalavana by dolayantra vidhana for one day30. Makshika is powdered and placed in thekalka of Jalini and meghanada, Swedana is carried out by dolayantra vidhana inkulattha kwatha31.Shodhana by Pachana: 3 parts of Swarna Makshika Choorna and 1 part of Saindhava lavana andnimbu swarasa should be taken in an iron vessel covered with sharava and to besubjected for teevragni, in between it should be mixed with lohadarvi. When it attainssindooravarna then it is allowed to become swangasheeta32. To the fine powder of Swarna Makshika kadali kanda swarasa is added heatedin teevragni for one hour. Nimbu swarasa is added to the fine powder of Makshika 15 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Review of Literatureand heated in an iron vessel in teevragni till it attains red colour like lotus. Thisprocedure can be repeated for 2-3 days33. Makshika was taken in a vessel and nimbu swarasa and Eranda taila should beadded, heated and mixed properly till the taila gets dried or upto 48 minutes and againheated in kadali kanda swarasa34.Shodhana by Nirvapana: Swarna Makshika should be heated and dipped in nimbu swarasa and thisprocedure should be repeated for 21 times35. Swarna Makshika should be heated anddipped in Triphala kwatha for 7 times36. Makshika is purified, if it is heated andimmersed in each of the following taila, takra, kulatha kwatha, and triphala kwatha37.Shodhana by Puta: The root of shigru is rubbed with the juice of agasti flower followed bypashanabheda. The whole thing is then rubbed with Swarna Makshika and made intoa ball, which duly dried is to be subjected to agni in an andha moosha by means of 20upalas. It is then to be rubbed as before and heated in the same way. The process isrepeated for six times38.Swarna Makshika Marana:Marana with Parada: Shuddha Swarna Makshika is taken and 18th part Shuddha Hingula is addedand bhavana of nimbu swarasa is given. Chakrikas were prepared, dried and subjected 16 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Review of Literatureto puta. Sadananda Sharma has advised to give 8 putas by adding same quantity ofshuddha Hingula in each puta39. Kajjali is prepared with equal quantity of Hingulottha Parada and shuddhagandhaka and added to shuddha Swarna Makshika. Here paka is done in Kupipakwavidhana. Sindoora is obtained from kanta pradesha and bhasma from tala. Bhavanadravya used is nimbu swarasa (Rasayana Sara).Marana with Moolika: Swarna Makshika, which is purified by Nimbu swarasa, is subjected to theGajaputa with the bhavana of nimbu swarasa. By this method, it attains bhasmata in10 putas with raktotpala dala colour40. Makshika is incinerated if it is rubbed with the decoction of kulattha kwatha ortakra or aja mootra and heated in a vessel and turned all the while by means of aladle41. Shuddha Makshika is to be rubbed with the swarasa of Kumari, made intochakrikas, dried and subjected to kukkuta puta for 27 times, which make it likeamrita42. Makshika attains bhasmata when it is heated with eranda taila, ghrita andmatulunga swarasa in mud pot and gets red colour. Here agni is specified asdridhagni.Marana with Gandhaka: Makshika attains bhasmata when it is rubbed with the juice of matulunga andequal quantity of shuddha gandhaka, confined in a moosha and then subjected tokrodha (varahaputa) puta for 5 times43. 17 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Review of Literature Makshika is to be rubbed with the one fourth of its quantity of shuddhagandhaka with Eranda taila and made into chakrikas, which are to be confined with ina samputam and subjected to Gajaputa. In some of the texts Acharyas have said to puthusk of paddy on all sides in the same procedure and some Acharyas have usedmatulunga swarasa as bhavana dravya. Number of puta also varies.Shu. Swarna Makshika + ¼th Shu. Gandhaka and bhavana of Eranda taila andsubjectd to 8 Gajaputa44.Shu. Swarna Makshika + ¼ th Shu. Gandhaka and bhavana of matulunga swarasa andsubjected to 3 Gajaputa45.Shu. Swarna Makshika + ¼th Shu. Gandhaka and bhavana of Eranda taila andsubjected to Gajaputa by keeping the husk of paddy from above and down46.Amriteekarana of Swarna Makshika Bhasma: The drug processed in this method turns to amritatulya and produces sameeffect in the body. It also removes the remained doshas in the bhasma. By givingputas bhasma attains teekshnata, ushnata, rookshata etc.properties to nullify these andproduce snigdhata, soumyata and sheetalata in the bhasma, amriteekarana is adopted.Amriteekarana is essential in Swarna Makshika because it contains tamra butamriteekarana of Makshika is not mentioned anywhere in the text. Swarna MakshikaBhasma has to be taken in Iron pan should be heated and panchamrita is to be addedand closed with a lid. Heat it till it becomes nirdhooma. Remove on next day. Colourbecomes black, Again grind with Triphala kwatha and subject to varahaputa. Repeatthe procedure for 5 times then it attains red colour and this is acoording to thereference available in Rasendra Chintamani. 18 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Review of LiteratureGuna and Karma of Swarnamakshika bhasma47 xÉÑuÉhÉïqÉÉͤÉMÇü uÉ×wrÉÇ qÉkÉÑUÇ iÉÑ UxÉrÉlÉqÉç | ÌiÉ£Çü xuÉrÉïgcÉ cɤÉÑwrÉÇ Ì§ÉSÉåwÉkÉlÉÇ mÉUÇ qÉiÉqÉç || ¤ÉrÉqÉzÉïÍxÉ qÉåWûÉÌlÉ ÌuÉÌuÉkÉÉ oÉÎxiÉuÉåSlÉÉÈ | mÉÉhÉïQÒû¶ÉrÉjÉÑMÑü¸ÉÌlÉ ÌuÉwÉSÉåwÉÉÌSMüÉlÉç WûUåiÉ || eÉÏhÉÉïeuÉUqÉmÉxqÉÉU qÉlSÉlÉsÉqÉUÉåcÉMüqÉç || AÌlÉSìÉÇ lÉÉwÉrÉirÉÉzÉÑ rÉÉåaÉuÉÉÌWû mÉUÇ qÉiÉqÉçTable No. 5 Guna & Karma of Swarna Makshika BhasmaSl Grantha Rasa Guna Veerya Vipaka Doshag Karma.N Nama hnatha o1. Rasarnava Tikta - - - Kapha Meha, Arsha, Madhura Pitta Kshaya, kusta nashaka, Balya, Yogavahi, Rasayana, Jwara, Sanniptanashaka.2. R.R.S Madhura Laghu Sheeta Katu - Jara, Vyadhi, Vishanashaka3. A.K Kashaya Ushna - - - Rasayana, Kusta, Tikta Shosha, Hikka, Madhura Vrana nashaka Katu4. R.S.S Tikta - - - Kapha Kshaya, Meha, Madhura Pitta Arsha, Krimi, Kusta, Balya, Rasayana, Yogavahi.5. R.P.S - - - - - Jwara, Pandu Pramehanut, Grahani, Kamala Shoola nashaka6. B.R.R.S Tikta Laghu - Katu - Durnama, Kusta Bhootanashana, Pandu, Prameha, Kshayanashaka7. R.T. Madhura - - - Tridosha Vrishya, Tikta Chakshushya, Rasayana ,Swarya 19 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Review of LiteratureMatra48 aÉÑgeÉɲåiÉÈ xÉqÉÉUprÉ oÉsÉMüÉsÉɱmÉå¤ÉrÉÉ | aÉÑgeÉÉ̲iÉrÉmÉrÉïliÉÇ qÉÉͤÉMÇü rÉÉeÉrÉåΰwÉMçü || In most of the Rasagranthas the dose of Swarna Makshika Bhasma is notmentioned whereas according to Rasa Tarangini by considering the Bala and Kala thedose is ½ Gunja to 2 Gunja i.e. 60mg- 250 mg.Modern review of Chalcopyrite Chalcopyrite is the most abundant copper bearing mineral containing nearlyequal parts of copper, iron and sulfur. Its name is derived from the Greek wordChalkos that means copper, i.e., chalcopyrite is the copper-containing pyrite, orcopper pyrites as it was once known. Pyrite is derived from the Greek word pyroswhich means fire in reference to the fact that pyrite ignites when heated in air. Although chalcopyrite is usually written as CuFeS2 a better representationwould be Cu2S. Fe2S3 reflecting the fact that copper in this mineral is mainly presentin the cuprous state while iron is mainly in the ferric state. Chalcopyrite (or copperpyrite) looks like, and is easily confused with pyrite, FeS2 Chalcopyrite is one of theminerals referred to as Fool’s gold because of its bright golden colour. But real gold isa more buttery yellow and is ductile and malleable. As an ore of copper, the yield of chalcopyrite is rather low in terms of atomsper molecule. It is only 25% when compared to other copper minerals such aschalcocite, Cu2S-67%, Cu2O-67% covelete CuS-50% or bornite Cu5FeS4-50%.However, the large quantities and widespread distribution of chalcopyrite is acommon mineral and is found in almost all sulfide deposits. Fine crystals ofchalcopyrite have a unique character and can add to anyone’s collection. 20 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Review of LiteratureStructure and Physical Properties• Colour - brassy yellow, tarnishes to irridescent blues, greens, yellows and purples.• Luster - metallic.• Transparency – crystals are opaque• Crystal system-tetragonal bar 42m.• Crystal habits-are predominatly the disphenoid, which is like two opposing wedges and resembles a tetrahedron crystal sometimes twinned. Also commonly massive and sometimes botryoidal cleavage is rather poor in one direction.• Fracture- Conchoidal, brittle• Hardness - 3.5-4.• Specific gravity - 4.2• Streak - dark green.• Bonding –covalent• Melting point-880°C.Natural single cyrstals of chalcopyrite behave as a typical semiconductor.Chalcopyrite has relatively high lattice energy compared to other sulfides. 21 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Review of Literature NIMBUKA49,50 For the present study Nimbu swarasa was used for shodhana ofSwarnamakshika in the 4th procedure or method of shodhana. It is an important dravya of amlavarga. In rasa classics, it is explained forshodhana and marana of various metals and minerals.GanaCharaka : Phalavarga, AmlavargaSushruta: PhalavargaVagbhata: PhalavargaKula : Jambira kulaFamily : RutaceacBotanical Name : Citrus AcidaVeranacular Names:Sanskrit – Nimbuka English – LimeHindi – Nimbu Kannada - LimbayTelgu – Nimmapandu, Tamil – ElumichhaiMarathi – LimbuSynonyms:Amlajambira DantaghnaJantumari ShodhanaAmlasara JambeeraNimbuka Rochana 22 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Review of LiteratureHabit:Medium sized bushy shrub or treeLeaves : Leaflets oblong, elliptic, racemes short.Flowers : Small, petals usually four.Fruit : Usually small. Globose or ovoid, rind thick or thin, pulp pale, very AcidicHabitat : It is available throughout IndiaUseful part ; Fruit, Twak, PatraPharmaco – therapeutic Properties :Guna – Laghu, Tikshna Rasa - AmlaVipaka – Madhura Veerya - UshnaDoshaghnata : Kaphavatashamaka, PittavardhakaKarma : Deepana, Rochaka, Anulomana, Pachaka, KrimighnaRogaghnata : Agnimandya, Trishna, Udarashoola, Chardi, Aruchi, Vibandha, Kasa, Shawasa, Krimi.Chemical Composition: Lemon juice contains citric acid 7-10%, phosphoric and malic acids. Alsocitrates of potassium and other bases. Sugar, Mucilage, and Ashes. Cellulose, Vitamin– A, Vitamin C, Citrine 76%, Citrol 7-8% and Sulphuric acid. 23 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Review of LiteratureAmrutikarna Upayogi Dravyas1. Godugda 2. Gogrutha 3. Dadhi 4. Madhu 4. Sitha.1. Godugda51RasapanchakasRasa - Madhura,Guna - Snigda , Shlakshna, MriduVeerya - SheetaVipaka - Madhura.Dosha karma - Vata pitta shamakaKarma - Bramhana, Vrishya, Madhya, Balavardhaka, Jeevaniya & AsthisandhanakaraRogaghnata - Pandu, Rakta pitta, Yoni roga, Shukra dosha, Mootra roga, Pradara roga etc & it is pathya in vata pittaja vikara Cows milk promotes long life it is reguvinator good for those emaciated afterinjury, increases intelligence, strength & breast milk. It cures kasa, thrishna, jeernajwara, mootra krichra & rakta pitta.2. Gogrutha52RasapanchakaRasa - MadhuraGuna - Soumya, MruduVeerya - SheetaVipaka - Madhura 24 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Review of LiteratureDosha - Vatapitta shamakaKarma - Chakshushya, Balya Rasayana, Vrushyam, Medhya.Rogagnata - Unmada, Apasmara, Jwara.3. Dadhi53RasapanchakaRasa - Madhura, Amla, Kshaya anurasaGuna - SnigdhaVeerya - UshanaVipaka - MadhuraDosha - Vata shamakaKarma - Balya, Deepana, Rochaka.Rogagnata - Peenasa, Vishama jwara, Atisara.4. Madhu54RasapanchakasRasa - Madhura, Kashaya anurasaGuna - Rooksha, LaghuVeerya - SheetaVipaka - MadhuraDosha - Tridosha shamakaKarma - Deepana, Lekhana, Hridya, Netrya, Balya, Vruna ropaka.Rogagnata - Chardi, Visha, Shwasa, Kasa, Raktapitta, Krimi, Trishna, Murcha. 25 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Review of Literature5. Sita55RasapanchakasRasa - Ati madhuraGuna - Snigda, saraVeerya - SheetaVipaka - MadhuraDosha - Vata pitta ShamakaKarma - Ruchya, Vrushya, TrishnaghnaRogagnata - Moorcha, Charchali, Jwara, Vamana, Raktavikara, Nashaka. 26 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Disease Review DISEASE REVIEWNIRUKTI AND PARIBHASHA In Ayurveda, different diseases are named on the basis of signs and symptoms,the origin of the disease, location of exhibiting its symptoms. Here the disease Pandu isnamed on the basis of “Varna.” The word “Pandu” is derived form “Padi–Nashne” dhatu by adding “Ku”Pratyaya to it. For Pandu specifically the Nashana will be of the Varna i.e. the colour,which is said by acharya Charaka as “Vaivarnya.”56 Thus the derivation of the word“Pandu” indicates the abnormal colouration of the body. Pandustu Peetabhagardhaha Ketaki Dhuli Sannibham |57 Pandu is a mixture of shweta and peeta varna in equal proportions, whichresembles the colour of pollen grains of Ketaki flower. Pandu Haridra haritaan Varnancha Vividham Stwachi | Sa Pandurogaha Ityuktaha || Pandu Haridra Haritan Pandutwam Tesham Chaadhikam | The disease in which, twacha becomes Pandu, Haridra, Harita varna is known asPanduroga.58 Padutwenopalakshitaha Rogaha Pandurogaha | The disease in which Pandubhava, Pandutwa or Panduvarna is more is known asPanduroga.59 27“Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Disease ReviewRELATION BETWEEN RAKTA, PITTA AND PANDU. In describing the rupas of Panduroga, acharya charaka has described symptomslike Vaivarnya, Ojogunakshayam, hataprabha, Alparakta nissara. Hence, it is necessary toknow the role of Raktadhatu and Pittadosha which play a predominant role in themaintenance of the complexion of the body. Rakta has been considered as a key factor forthe Jeevana, and Poshanakarma of the body. According to Maharshi Sushruta, Raktam Jeevam Iti Sthiti:|60 But, the proper functions of rakta can be expected only in its pure form as said byacharya charaka. Tadvishuddham Hi Rudhiram Balavarnasukhayusha | Yunakti Pranianam Prana: Shonitam Hyunuvartate ||61 As per the classics, raktadhatu is derived from rasadhatu. Rasa is an aqueousfluid. It is a transparent and colourless substance due to the predominance ofJalamahabhoota and due to predominance of Teja mahabhoota it is reddish in colour. Rasadhatu is sara of Shadrasayukta ahara called Poshya dhatu. When this poshyadhatu undergoes pachana by agni derived from pitta, it transforms into raktadhatu. Due tothe action of ranjaka pitta on rasa, it gets transformed into reddish colour substance i.e.Rakta. Acharya Sushruta has mentioned the main site of rakta is Yakrit and Pleeha.62Ranjaka pitta is located in Yakrit and Pleeha, plays a major role in ranjana karma ofRasadhatu. According to Vagbhata site of Rajaka pitta is amashaya.63 On the bases of above description it can be deducted that rakta depends on pitta,which transforms rasa into rakta, and bala, varna, ayu depends on rakta. 28“Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Disease Review Pandu is said as Pitta pradhana vyadhi.64 In all types of paittika disordersobviously there will be impairment of pitta i.e. in either vriddhi or kshaya stage. It can be said that pitta plays an important role in the formation of rasaraktadidhatus as agni is represented by pitta in body which brings about good and bad effectsaccording to its normal or abnormal state.65 When pachaka pitta gets vitiated and due to its adverse effect, the digestiveprocess gets disturbed thereby dhatu formation. Ranjaka pitta also plays vital role information of rakta, hence its vitiation also affect the formation of rakta. The vitiation ofsadhaka pitta disturbs the functions of hridaya and rakta parisanchalana. Hence, the sthayidhatus are poorly nourished. As a result, due to rakta kshaya, Bhrajaka and Alochakapitta also becomes durbala in performing their normal functions. Hence, varioussymptoms of pitta are observed in Panduroga. Thus it can be inferred that pitta plays a vital role in manifestation of diseasePandu. 29“Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Disease ReviewNIDANA PANCHAKA Disease can be diagnosed by the study of Nidana, Purvaroopa, Roopa, Upashayaand Samprapti.NIDANA66, 67.68 The different authors have explained many nidanas for manifestation of thedisease Pandu. For the sake of convenience it can be categorized under different groups.A. Aharaja NidanaTable No. 6. Showing the Aharaja Nidana of Panduroga.Sl. Nidana Ch Su Va Sl. Nidana Ch Su Va01. Amlarasa sevana + + + 08. Tilataila sevana + + -02. Kshara seavnaa + - - 09. Madya sevana + - -03. Lavana rasa sevana + + + 10. Mrit bhakshana + + -04. Ati ushna bhojana + - - 11. Teeskhnahara sevana - + -05. Viruddha bhojana + - - 12. Atikatu sevana - - +06. Nishapava sevana + - - 13. Ati kashaya sevana - - +07. Masha sevana + + - Charaka mentioned Pandu in Santarpanajanya vyadhi.69 Above said nidanas arecauses for pitta pradhana tridoshas prakopa and Mandagni. Acharya Madhavakar, 30“Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Disease ReviewBhavaprakash, Yogaratnakar have followed the Susrutha’s version.70 These types ofahara may lead to disturb in digestive and assimilative process, leading to Panduroga.B. Viharaja NidanaTable No. 7. Showing the Viharaja Nidana of Panduroga.Sl. Nidana Ch Su Va Sl. Nidana Ch Su Va01. Amlarasa + + + Manasika factors sevana02. Kshara seavnaa + - - 11. Bhaya + - -03. Lavana rasa + + + 12. Krodha + - + sevana04. Ati ushna + - - 13. Kama + - + bhojana05. Viruddha + - - Pratikarma Vaishamya bhojana06. Nishapava + - - 14. Snehatiyoga + - - sevana07. Masha sevana + + - 15. Vegavidharana in vamana + - - karma 16. Amatisara sangaha + + -Manasika factors 31“Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Disease Review08. Chinta + - - 17. Dushtaraktanigraha in + - - Raktarsha09. Shoka + - - 18. Snehavibhrama + - - Causes related to vihara deals with both physical and mental activities as well asiatrogenic cause i.e. Pratikarma vaishamya.C. Nidanarthakara Roga Panduroga can manifest as secondary to some other disorders like – Raktarbuda71 Raktarsha75 Asrgdhara72 Pleehodara76 Raktapitta73 Yakrutodara77 Yakrit-pleeha roga74 Pittaja Prameha78 All leads to either rakta kshaya due to bleeding or vikrita doshas which results inPanduroga. 32“Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Disease ReviewPOORVAROOPA79, 80, 81 The Panduroga manifests with following prodromal signs and symptoms –Table No. 8. Showing the Purvaroopa of Panduroga.Sl. Purvaroopa Ch Su Va Sl. Purvaroopa Ch Su Va lakshana lakshana01. Hritspandana + - + 08. Mritbhakshaneccha - + -02. Rukshya + - + 09. Akshi kuta shotha - + -03. Swedabhava + - + 10. Avipaka - + -04. Shrama + - + 11. Aruchi - - +05. Twacha sphutana - + - 12. Peetamutrata - + +06. Sthivana - + - 13. Peeta purisha - + -07. Gatrasada - + + 14. Alpa vanhita - - + Madhavakara, Bhavaprakasha and Yogaratnakara have followed Sushruta’sversion.82ROOPA The term roopa implies to both the signs and symptoms by which a disease isidentified. These can be classified as – 01. Pratyatma lakshana (Cardinal sign & Symptom) 02. Samanya lakshana (General sign & Symptom) 03. Vishesha lakshana (Distinguisheing features of doshanubandha) 33“Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Disease ReviewPratyatma Lakshana: Pandurvarna is considered as Pratyatma lakshana of Panduroga. This colour isalmost similar to pollens of Ketaki flower.Samanya lakshana: The Samanya lakshanas of Panduroga mentioned in the classics other than Pandutacan be considered as below –Table No. 9. Showing the Samanya lakshanas of Panduroga.83,84 Sl. Roopa Ch Su Va Sl. Roopa Ch Su Va 01. Panduta + + + 13. Shwasa + - + 02. Karna kshweda + - + 14. Gaurava + - + 03. Hatanala + - + 15. Gatra peeda + - - 04. Daurbalya + - + 16. Shunakshikuta + - + 05. Sadana + - + 17. Harita varna + - - 06. Annadwesha + - + 18. Hataprabha + - + 07. Shrama + - + 19. Kopanatwa + - - 08. Bhrama + - + 20. Shishira dwesha + - + 09. Gatrashoola + - + 21. Nidralu + - - 10. Jwara + - + 22. Pindikodweshtana + - - 11. Aruchi + - + 23 Sheerna lomata + - - 12. Gatramadata + - - 34“Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Disease ReviewVishishta Rupa The lakshanas which are specifying the involvement of particular doshas andthere by helpful in differential diagnosis of Panduroga. The classification of Panduroga is made with reference to samanya samprapti.Though the classification is made on the bases of involvement of particular dosha, theprime factor involved is pitta dosha.85Classification of Panduroga:86,87,88,89Table No. 10. Showing the classification of Panduroga. Sl. Prakara Ch Su Ah As BP YR MN 01. Vataja + + + + + + + 02. Pittaja + + + + + + + 03. Kaphaja + + + + + + + 04. Tridoshaja + + + + + + + 05. Mridbhakshnanajanya + - + + + + + The description of vishishta rupa according to classification of Panduroga ispresented as follows – 35“Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Disease ReviewVataja Panduroga Lakshana:90Table No. 11. Showing the Samanya lakshanas of Vataja Panduroga. Sl. Ch Su Va Sl. Ch Su Va Lakshana Lakshana 01. Krishna angata + - - 09. Toda + - + 02. Krishna nakhatwa - + - 10. Kampa + - + 03. Krishnekshanatwa - + - 11. Parshwaruk + - + 04. Krishna sira - + - 12. Shiroruk + - + 05. Krishna ananatwa - + - 13. Shopha + - + 06. Ruksha netrata - + - 14. Anaha + - + 07. Rukshangata + - - 15. Asya vairasya + - + 08. Angamarda + - - 16. Balakshaya + - + 36“Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Disease ReviewPittaja Panduroga lakshana 91Table No. 12. Showing the Samanya lakshanas of Pittaja Panduroga. Sl. Ch Su Va Sl. Ch Su Va Lakshana Lakshana 01. Gatra peetata + - + 09. Amlodgara + - - 02. Haritabha + - + 10. Daurbalya + - - 03. Murcha + - + 11. Peeta mutrata + + - 04. Jwara + + + 12. Shosha + - - 05. Daha + - + 13. Peeta vitkata + + - 06. Trishna + - + 14. Bhinna Varchas + - - 07. Sheetakamata + - + 15. Katukasyata + - + 08. Sweda + - + 16. Tama + - +Kaphaja Panduroga lakshana 92Table No. 13. Showing the Samanya lakshanas of Kaphaja Panduroga. Sl. Ch Su Va Sl. Ch Su Va Lakshana Lakshana 01. Shwetavabhasata + - + 11. Shwayathu + - - 02. Shuklakshita - + + 12. Shukla mutra + + - 03. Shukla nakha - + + 13. Shukla mala + + - 04. Shukla ananatwa - + + 14 Tandra + - + 05. Gaurava + + - 15 Chhardi + - + 37“Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Disease Review 06. Sadana - - - 16 Praseka + - - 07. Murchha + - - 17 Lomaharsha + - + 08. Bhrama + - - 18 Klama + - - 09. Shwasa + - - 19 Kasa + - - 10. Alasya + - - 20 Aruchi + - -Tridoshasja Panduroga lakshana Vitiation of all the doshas causes severe degree of dhatushaithilya and dhatugauravata leading to dhatu and Oja kshaya. The features of sannipataja pandu are explained only in Hareeta samhita. All otherauthors have stated that it manifests due to the vitiation of all the doshas and consideredas asadhya type of Panduroga.Hareeta Samhita9301. Tandra 10. Kshudartata02. Alasya 11. Moha03. Shotha 12. Trishna04. Vamana 13. Klama05. Kasa06. Hrillasa07. Shosha08. Vitbheda09. Jwara 38“Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Disease Review As per the opinion of Brihattrayee’s the lakshanas of Vataja, Pittaja andKaphaja Panduroga were seen severely in Tridoshaja Panduroga depending on theirdegree of vitiation.94Mridbhakshanajanya Pandu – Acharya charaka95 and Vagbhata96 have explained Mridbhakshanajanyapandu. Further, Madhavakara, Yogaratnakara and Bhavaprakashakar have alsofollowed the Charaka’s version.97 But Sushruta has not considered it separately. HereMridbhakshana is considered as a Nidana for Panduroga rather than an individualtype. The person who is addicted to consuming Mrid like Kashaya, Ushara(Ksharanurasa), Madhura rasa will vitiates Vata, Pitta and Kapha dosha respectively.The Mrid moreover, produces srotovarodha without undergoing pachana leading toIndriya balahani and Teja, Veerya and Ojas kshaya. Thus manifesting Panduroga,which can cause Bala, Varna and Agni nasha.Mridbhakshanajanya Panduroga lakshanaTable No. 14. Showing the Samanya lakshanas of Mridbhakshanajanya Panduroga. Sl. Ch Va MN BP Yo Lakshana 01. Shoonaganda + - + + + 02. Shoonakshikoota + - + + + 03. Shoona bhru + - + + + 04. Shoona pada + + + + + 05. Shoona nabhi + + + + + 39 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Disease Review 06. Shoona mehana + + + + + 07. Krimikoshta + - + + + 08. Atisara + + + + + 09. Sasrik Mala Pravritti + + + + + 10. Kaphayukta malapravritti + + + + +SAMPRAPTI The causes of Panduroga that are explained under the heading of Nidana leadsto vitiation of Tridosha but however, pitta is dominating dosha irrespective of type ofPandu. Acharya Charaka and Vagbhata mention the detailed Samprapti of Panduroga.The intake of pitta pradhana ahara in excess, pitta situated in hridaya aggravates, it ispropelled by aggravated (balina) vayu through dashadhamani that spreads all over thebody. The vitiated pitta affects in between twak and mamsa leads to vitiation of twak,mamsa, vata, asrik, thereby produces various varna like Pandu, Haridra and Hareeta,due to Panduvarna pradhanata it is called as “Panduroga”. 98,99 According to acharya Sushruta, indulgence of Nidana leads rakta pradushanathat causes vitiation in Twak causes the Pandubhava therefore it is called as“Panduroga”.100 40 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Disease Review Samprapti of Panduroga Nidana Sevana AgnidushtiPradushya Raktam Prakopa of Pitta pradhana doshas Agnimandya Hridaya Samvasthita Amavisha Utpatti Vimarga gamana of pitta by vitiated by vayu Twak Mamsantarashrita. Kapha, Vata, Rakta, Twak, Mamsa dushti. Rakta kshaya Bala, varna, oja kshaya. Vaivarnya Panduroga 41 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Disease Review PHYSIOLOGY OF BLOOD FORMATION101,102Development of Red Blood CorpusclesTheories of Origin: There are two theories: intravascular and extravascularIntravascular: RBC,s were formed only in intravascularly from the capillaryendothelium.Extravascular: As per this theory RBC,s produced from extravascular cell, i.ehaemocytoblast which burrows in to the blood sinuses, multiply there and mature innormal erythrocytes. This is the most popular theory.Site of Development: However the site of development of RBC,s in the embryonicstage and foetus is different from the after birth stage.Stages of blood formation: In embryos foetus. There are three successive stages ofblood formation in the embryo and foetus namely 1) Mesoblastic haemopoiesis : First 2 months of embryonic life 2) Hepatic haemopoiesis: 2nd to 5th month. 3) Myeloid period of haemopoiesis: After 5th month.After birth: The bone marrow is the main site of erythrogenesis. During early yearsall bones are filled up with blood forming red marrow but after 20th year, RBCformation in this location stops. Only the upper ends of femur and humerus, vertebrae,ribs and the flat bones produce red cells.Erythropoiesis: The erythrocytes are produced in the bone marrow and are destroyedby the reticuloendothelial system. The maturation of erythrocytes occurs throughseveral stages. The precursor cell in the bone marrow is haemocytoblast proliferateand give rise to proerthroblast, which is subsequently converted to early normoblastintermediate and late normoblast. The nucleus of the late normoblast becomes 42 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Disease Reviewpyknotic along with the appearance of a reticulum, resulting in the formation of areticulocyte. It takes the reticulocyte approximately 2 day to mature in to a normalerythrocyte. Stages of RBC formation Haemocytoblast Proerythroblast Early normoblast Intermediate normoblast Late normoblast Reticulocyte ErythrocyteFactors controlling erythropoiesis: The red cells are constantly being destroyed and are regenerated. The rate ofdestruction and regeneration are same. Here certain factors are necessary for theformation and maturation of red cells. 1) Diet : Food, rich in first class proteins, that supply amino acids for the synthesis of globin of haemoglobin. 2) Erthrocyte stimulating factor (ESF) : O2 tension in the tissues, i.e decrease in oxygen content stimulates erythropoiesis. 43 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Disease Review 3) Stimulus for maturation. a) Extrinsic factors : Iron, Copper, Manganese, Calcium, vitamins (B12) etc. b) Intrinsic factors : Bile, Gastric juice, Thyroxine etc. Due to the union of these two factors there will be a production of one more product i.e Antianaemic principle. This principle absorbed by mucous membrane and reaches the bone marrow and this helps in the maturation of RBC,s.ANAEMIA103,104 Anaemia can be defined as a haemoglobin concentration in blood below thenormal range appropriate for the age and sex of the individuals. In adults, the lowerextreme of normal haemoglobin is taken as 14.0g/dl for males and 12.0g/dl forfemales. A decrease in the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood is termed as“Anaemia.” The haemoglobin content of the erythrocytes determines the oxygencarrying capacity. Hence, a reduction in the blood haemoglobin level and in thenumber of circulating erythrocytes are characteristics of Anaemia, Although haemoglobin value is employed as the major parameter fordetermining value is employed as the major parameter for determining whether or notAnaemia is present, the red cell count, haematocrit (PCV) and absolute values ofMCV, MCH, and MCHC provide alternate means of assessing Anaemia.Patho-physiology of Anaemia105 Subnormal level of haemoglobin causes lowered oxygen carrying capacity ofthe blood. This in turn initiates compensatory physiologic adaptations such as – 01. Increased release of oxygen from haemoglobin. 02. Increased blood flow to the tissues. 44 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Disease Review 03. Maintenance of the blood volume. 04. Redistribution of blood flow to maintain the cerebral blood supply. Tissues with high oxygen requirement such as the Heart, CVS, and the skeletalmuscles during exercise, bear the brunt of clinical effects of Anaemia.Clinical features of Anaemia The haemoglobin level at which symptoms and signs of anaemia developdepends upon following factors – 01. The spread of onset of Anaemia – Rapidly progressive Anaemia causes more symptoms than Anaemia of slow onset, as there is less time for physiological adaptation. 02. The severity of Anaemia – Mild Anaemia produces no symptoms or signs but a rapidly developing severe Anaemia may produce significant clinical features. 03. The age of the patient – The young patients due to good cardiovascular compensation tolerate Anaemia quite well as compared to the elderly.Symptoms In symptomatic cases of Anaemia, the presenting features are tiredness, easyfatiguability, generealised muscular weakness, lethargy and headache. In olderpatients there may be symptoms of cardiac failure, angina pectoris, intermittentclaudication, confusion and visual disturbances.Signs A few general signs common to all types of Anaemia are as follows – 01. Pallor – Pallor is the most common and characteristic sign, which may be seen in the mucous membranes, conjunctiva and skin. 45 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Disease Review 02. Cardiovascular System – A hyperdynamic circulation may be present with tachycardia, collapsing pulse, cardiomegaly, midsystolic flow murmur, dyspnoea on exertion and in case of elderly congestive heart failure. 03. Central nervous system – The older patients may develop symptoms like attacks of faintness, giddiness, headache, Tinnitus, drowsiness, numbness and tingling sensation of the hands and feet. 04. Occular manifestations – Retenal haemorrhages may occur if there is associated vascular disease or bleeding diathesis. 05. Reproductive system – Menstrual distribances such as amenorrhoea and menorrhagia and loss of libido are some of the manifestations involving the reproductive system in Anaemia subjects. 06. Renal System – Mild proteinuria and impaired concentrating capacity of the kidney may occur in severe Anaemia. 07. Gastrointestinal system – Anorexia, flatulence, nausea, constipation and weight loss may occur.Investigations of the Anaemia subject After obtaining the full medical history pertaining to different general andspecific signs and symptoms in order to confirm the presence of anaemia its type andits cause the following plan of investigations is generally followed. A. Haemoglobin estimation – The first and foremost investigation in any suspected case of Anaemia is to carry out haemoglobin estimation. Several methods are available, but most reliable and accurate is Cyanmethaemoglobin (HiCN) method Drabkin soultionj and spectrophotometer. If the haemoglobin value is below the lower limit of the normal range for particular age and sex, the patient is said to be anaemic. 46 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Disease ReviewB. Peripheral blood film estimation – The haemoglobin estimation in invariably followed by examination of peripheral blood film for morphologic features after staining it with Romanowsky dyes (Leishman’s Staining). The following abnormalities we can look for in the smear study. a. Variation in size – Microcytosis (Iron deficiency anaemia) Macrocytosis (Megaloblastic Anaemia) Dimophic b. Variation in shape – Poikilocytes. c. Inadequate haemoglobin formulation – Hypochromasia. d. Compensatory erythropoiesis e. Miscellaneous changesC. Red cell indices – An alternative method to diagnose and detect the severity of anaemia is by measuring the red cell indices – a. In iron deficiency and thalassaemia MCV, MCH and MCHC are reduced. b. In Anaemia due to acute blood loss and haemolytic Anaemia MCH, MCV and MCHC are all within normal limits. c. In Megaloblastic Anaemias, MCV is raised above the normal value.D. Leucocytes and platelet count – Measuring of Leucocytes and platelet count helps to distinguish pure anaemia form pancytopenia in which red cells, granulocytes and platelet counts are often elevated.E. Reticulocyte count – reticulocyte count is done in each case of anaemia to assess the marrow erythropoietic activity. In acute haemorrhage and in haemolysis, the reticulocyte response is indicative of impaired marrow function. 47 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Disease Review F. Erythrocyte sedimentation Rate – The ESR is non-specific test used as a screening test for anaemia. It usually gives a clue to the underlying organic disease but Anaemia itself may also cause to rise in ESR. G. Bone marrow examination – Bone marrow aspiration is done in cases where the cause for anaemia is not obvious. In addition to these general tests, certain specific tests are done in different types of anaemias.Classification of Anaemia A. Pathophysiologic I. Anaemia due to impaired red cell production. a. Acute post-haemorrhagic Anaemia. b. Chronic blood loss. II. Anaemia due to impaired red cell production. a. Cytoplasmic maturation defects – i. Deficient haem synthesis – Iron deficiency anaemia. ii. Deficient globin synthesis – Thalassaemic syndromes. b. Nuclear maturation defects – Vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency and Megaloblastic Anaemia. c. Defect in stem cell proliferation and differentiation – i. Aplastic Anaemia. ii. Pure red cell aplasia. d. Anaemia of chronic disorders. e. Bone marrow infiltration. f. Congenital Anaemia. III. Anaemia due to increased red cell destruction (Haemolytic Anaemia) 48 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Disease Review B. Morphologic I. Microcytic, hypochromic. II. Normocytic, Normochromic. III. Macrocytic, Normochromic.Iron deficiency Anaemia The commonest deficiency disorder present throughout the world is irondeficiency, but its prevalence is higher in developing countries. The factorsresponsible for iron deficiency in different populations are variable and are bestunderstood in the context of normal iron metabolism.Iron metabolism106 The amount of iron obtained form the diet should replace the losses form skin,bowel and genitourinary tract. These losses together are about 1 mg daily in an adultmale or in non-menstruating female. While in menstruating woman there is anadditional iron loss of 0.5-1 mg daily. The iron loss required for haemoglobin synthesis is derived form two primarysources –01. Ingestion of foods containing iron (e.g. Leafy vegetables, Beans, Meats, Liver, etc.)02. Recycling of iron form senescent red cells.Absorption 01. The average western diet contains 10-15 mg of iron out of which only 5-10% is normally absorbed. 02. In pregnancy and in iron deficiency, the proportion of absorption is raised to 20-30%. 03. The iron is absorbed mainly in the duodenum and proximal jejunum. 49 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Disease Review 04. Iron from diet containing haem is better absorbed than non-haem iron. 05. Absorption of non-haem is enhanced by factors such as ascorbic acid (Vitamin C), Citric acids, Sugar, Gastric secretions and Hydrochloric acid. 06. Iron absorption is impaired by factors like medicinal antacids, milk, pancreatic secretions, phytates, phosphates, ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) and tannates contained in tea. 07. Non-haem iron is released as ferrous or ferric form but is absorbed exclusively as ferrous form. The iron balance in the body is maintained largely by regulating the absorptive intake by intestinal mucosal cells, so called Mucosal block. 08. The factors, which determine this mucosal intelligence, are unknown. When the demand for iron is increased there is increased iron absorption, while excessive body stores of iron causes reduced intestinal iron absorption.Distribution In an adult iron is distributed in the body as under – 01. Haemoglobin – Present in the red cells, contains most of the body iron (65%). 02. Myoglobin – Comprises a small amount of iron in the muscles (35%). 03. Haem and Non-haem enzymes – eg. Cytochrome, Cutalase, peroxidase, succinic dehydrogenase and falvoproteins constitute a fraction of total body iron (0.05%). 04. Transferrin bound iron – Circulates in the plasma and constitutes another fraction of total body iron (0.5%). All these forms of iron are in functional forms. 50 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Disease Review 05. Ferritin and haemosiderin – These are the storage forms of excess iron (30%). Thus, are stored in the mononuclear phagocytic cells of the spleen, liver and bone marrow and in the parenchymal cells of the liver.Iron transport and utilization After absorption, iron circulates in the blood bound to beta globulin fraction,siderophilin or transferrin. Transferrin is present almost exclusively in the plasma andextra vascular space and serves to transport iron from the site of absorption andstorage to the areas of its utilization. The liver parenchymal cells are the major site oftransferrin synthesis. The labile iron pool (mainly ferritin) is that part of the body iron which isreadily available for utilization of haemoglobin synthesis. Iron quickly enters this pool 01. After absorption form the intestines 02. After release form the RBC breakdown 03. Following parental injections. If the amount entering this labile pool is in excess of needs, then it istransferred into storage pool. The daily iron turnover has been estimated to beapproximately 35 mg. The major contribution to this 21 mg comes form the normal red cellsdestruction. About 3 million red cells are destroyed every second. Iron released formdestroyed red cells is thus reutilized. About 11 mg of iron is contributed by that fraction which is not used forhaemoglobin production during its stay in the marrow. While remaining 2-3 mgcomes form the storage sites, intestinal absorption and the extra cellular fluid. Form these 35 mg of iron about 32 mg, enters the erthropoietic labile pool, apoorly defined compartment, primarily in the bone, for erythropoiesis. Approximately 51 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Disease Review1mg of iron goes for storage and into extra cellular fluid each and about 1 mg isexcreted, mainly in urine and sweat.Pathogenesis Iron deficiency anaemia develops when the supply of iron is inadequate for therequirement of haemoglobin synthesis. Initially, the negative iron balance is madegood by mobilization form the tissue stores so as to maintain haemoglobin synthesis.It is only after the tissue stores of iron are exhausted that the supply of iron to themarrow becomes insufficient for haemoglobin formation so that state of the followingfactors – 01. Increased blood loss. 02. Increased requirements. 03. Inadequate dietary intake. 04. Decreased intestinal absorption.EtiologyI. Increased Blood Loss 01. Uterine e.g. Excessive menstruation in reproductive years, repeated miscarriage, at onset of menarche, post menopausal uterine bleeding. 02. Gastrointestinal e.g. Peptic ulcer, haemorrhoids, hook worm infestation, cancer of stomach and large bowel oeasophages varices, hiatus hernia, chronic aspirin ingestion, uncreative colitis, diverticulosis. 03. Renal tract e.g. Haematuria, haemoglobinuria. 04. Nose e.g. Repeated apitaxis. 05. Lungs e.g. Haemoptysis.II. Increased Requirements 01. Spurts of growth in infancy, childhood and adolescence. 52 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Disease Review 02. Prematurity. 03. Pregnancy and lactation.III. Inadequate Dietary Intake 01. Poor economic status. 02. Anorexia e.g. in pregnancy. 03. Elderly individuals due to poor dentition, apathy and financial constraints.IV. Decreased Absorption 01. Parietal or total gastrectomy. 02. Aschlorhydria. 03. Intestinal malabsorption such as in coeliac disease.Clinical features Initially, there are usually no clinical abnormalities. But subsequently,inaddition to features of undergoing disorders causing anaemia, the clinicalconsequences of iron deficiency manifest in two ways – Anaemia itself and Epithelialtissue changes. 01. Anaemia – The onset of iron deficiency anaemia is generally slow. The usual symptoms are of weakness, fatigue, dyspnoea on exertion, palpitations and pallor of the skin. Mucous membranes and sclerae. Patients may have unusual dietary cravings such as pica. Menorrhagia is a common symptom in iron deficient women. 02. Epithelial tissue changes – Long standing chronic iron deficiency causes epithelial tissue causes epithelial tissue changes in some patients. The changes occur in nails (Koilonychia or spoon shaped nails), tongue (Atrophic glossitis), mouth (Angular stomatitis) and oesophagus causing dysphagia 53 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Disease Review form development of thin webs at the postericoid area (Pulmmer – Vinson Syndrome).Treatment The management of iron deficiency anaemia consist of 2 essential principles – 01. Correction of disorder causing the anaemia – The underlying cause of iron deficiency is established after thorough check-up and investigations. Appropriate medical or preventive and surgical measures are instituted to correct the cause of blood loss. 02. Correction of iron deficiency – This can be compensated by two ways – a. Oral Therapy – Administration of oral salts such as ferrous sulfate, tablets containing 60 mg of elements iron is administered thrice daily, but side effects occurs like nausea, abdominal discomfort, diarrhoea. b. Parental therapy – This therapy is indicated in cases who are intolerant to oral iron therapy, in GIT disorders such as malabsorption. This is hazardous and expensive when compared with oral administration. Total dose is calculated by a simple formula multiplying the grams of haemoglobin below normal with 250 mg of elemental iron is required for each gram of deficit haemoglobin. The adverse effects include hypersensitivity reactions, haemolysis, hypertension, circulatory collapse, and vomiting and muscle pain. 54 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Meaterals and Methods MATERIALS AND METHODS1. Pharmaceutical study. 2. Analytical study. 3. Experimental study.1) Pharmaceutical study This section deals with identification preparation of Swarnamakshika bhasma. Preparation of Swarnamakshika bhasma includes various processes likeshodhana, marana and Amriteekarana In Rasashastra texts get different shodhana and maran procedures forswarnamakshika with various ingredients. In those particular study according toRasatarangini for shodhana Nirvap in Nimbu rasa and for marana with nimbu rasabhavana and 10 gajaputa and for amriteekarna (according to Siddinandan Mishra)Panchamrita has been selected.Objectives a) Preparation of Swarnamakshika bhasma b) Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma. c) Haematinic study of Swarnamakshika bhasma.Materials • Major raw material • Other raw material • Yantras and UpayantrasMajor raw material The major raw material of the present study is swarnamakshika 1 Kg ofchalcopyrite was collected from the local market.Other raw material The other raw materials used for present study is Nimbu Phala 55 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Meaterals and MethodsYantras: Khalvayantra (Pestle and mortar)Upayantras: Mud vessel, weighing machine, Gas stove, Knife, Juice extractor, Mesh,Forceps etc.Method of Preparation The method of preparation of swarnamakshaka bhasma is done under thesesteps 1) Identification and collection of raw drugs 2) Shodhana of swarna makshika 3) Marana of swarna makshika 4) Amriteekarana of swarnamakshikaMethod selected for shodhana in the present study 1) Nirvap in Nimbu rasa (21 times)SHODHANA OF SWARNAMAKSHIKA85Date of Commencement - 05/02/2007Date of Completion - 11/02/2007Reference - R.T. 21/15,16,17Materials - Swarnamakshika pieces 1 Kg Nimbu Rasa – 1.5 litresProcess - Nirvap – 21timesProcedure1) Preparatory Procedurea) Extraction of Nimbu Rasa- medium Nimbu fruits were taken, cut at the centre andjuice was extracted by manual method, filtered through a clean cloth and the juice wascollected. 56 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Meaterals and Methods2) Main procedure Pieces of swarnamakshika were kept on intense fire till the pieces becomes redhot and then dipped in Nimbu rasa. This procedure repeated for 21 timesInitial quantity - 1000gmsFinal quantity - 960gmsLoss weight - 40gmsObservations Shining surface is lost after 2nd nirvapa process Turns to black clour on successive Nirvapa process 11th Nirvapa colour changes to brick red. Smell of burning sulphur is felt Bluish flame around the specimen during heating Becomes brittle gradually Loss of weight – may be due to quantity of sulphur is burnt Mechanical loss (Temperature range -2000C to 2500C) 57 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Meaterals and Methods SWARNAMAKSHIKA MARANA86Equipments – Sharava, Cloth , Mud, Cowdung, Khalva yantra.Materials - Swarnamakshika – 1kg Total Nimburasa – 960mlProcess - Bhavana – 960ml / Bhavana Gajaputa – 10 times as per classics Ref – R.T. 21/23,24,25 Wt of Cowdung – 120gmDate of commencement- 17-02-2007Date of completion - 28-04-2007Total duration - 70 daysMethod • Above mentioned shuddha swarnamakshika powder was taken in Khalvayantra. • Added required amount of nimbu rasa. • Mardhana was done for 12-14 hrs. • When the content becomes paste like semisolid, small chakrikas were made and dried on sharavas. • After chakrikas gets dried properly the sharva samputa was prepared by sealing the edges of sharava with multani mitti smeared, cloth and dried. • Next subjected to Gajaputa with the heat. • 1000 cow dungs 58 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Meaterals and Methods• Next day when the puta becomes swanga sheeta the sharava samputa was taken out and opened and collected chakrikas carefully and weighed and powdered.• The swarnamakshika Bhasma was collected and weighted. The same procedure was repeated for 10 times.• Each time bhavana of nimbu rasa was given to sawranamakshika bhasma.• After each puta. Swarna makshika bhasma was weighed & noted.• During each trituration the quantity of nimbu rasa was reduced gradually.• The range of trituration time 10-12 hrs for each bhavana.• The average drying time of chakrikas under sunlight was for 10-12 hrs.• About 1000 upalas were used for each puta, wt of each cowdung was 120 gm. Table No-15. Observations in each puta throughout the process. S.L. Wt after Clour Odour Taste Touch Cha Varitar Rekha No each puta ndri purna initial wt ka 1000gm 1 995gms Reddish Odour Kashaya Rough +++ - - brown less 2 980gms do +++ - - 3 975gms do +++ - - 4 960gms do Slightly +++ - + smooth 5 958gms do Do +++ - ++ 6 945gms do ++ + +++ 7 952gms do Niswadu Do ++ + +++ 8 950gms Brown Smooth + ++ +++ 9 948gms do - + ++ +++ 10 946gms do do - +++ +++ 59 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Meaterals and MethodsGeneral Precautions: 1. Trituration was done properly to get fine swarnamakshika particles. 2. Chakrikas were dried well before subjecting to puta. 3. Sandhibandhana of sharava samputa was done properly and dried well before each puta. 4. Bhasma was collected carefully after opening the sharava samputa when it attains swangasheeta. AMRITIKARANA OF SWARNAMAKSHIKA BHASMA87Ref siddhnandau mishra, 2nd chapter PP 382Ingredients: Swarnamakshika bhasma - 946 gms Panchamruta - 950 mlDate of Commencement : 02/05/2007Date of Completion : 02/05/2007Duration : 3 HrsProcedure: Preparatory Procedure Godugda - 190 ml Goghrita - 190 ml Godugdha - 190 ml Madhu - 190 ml Sita - 190 ml Above mentioned ingredients were mixed properly. Main Procedure: Swarna makshika bhasma taken in a iron pan & placed over teevragni & equal quantity of panchamruta added to bhasma & the mixture was covered with sharava & teevragni was given. Before it become nirdhoom 60 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Meaterals and Methods the iron pan was removed from agni. Left for swangasheeta for one day. After one day the bhasma was collected & weighed. Duration: 12 noon to 3 pm (3 hours) Temperature: 6000C Observation: • Dhooma started immediately after keeping on fire. • Starting, dhooma was of pleasant smell. • Latter (1/2 hour) it became irritative. • After 1 hour dhooma became very thick. • After 2nd hour, gradually the intensity of dhooma reduced.Quantity of Bhasma obtained : 930 gmsColour of Bhasma : Krishna Varna 61 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Materials and Methods ANALYTICAL STUDY The metallic & mineral preparation of ayurvedic pharmacopoeia should beanalyzed for physical& chemical properties to confirm the genuinely & safety beforeadministration to the patients. Hence it is essential to adopt modern analyticalmethodology for better understanding & interpretation of physico - chemical changesoccurred during the process. In the present study sample is collected at the completion of the preparation &subjected to ancient & modern analytical methods i.e. physical & chemical analysisfor bhasma at D.G.M. Ayurvedic Medical College Gadag, Bangalore Test HouseBangalore & Physical analysis at J.T. Pharmacy College Gadag .Ancient ParametersTable No.16 Showing Analysis of Swarnamakshika Bhasma by Ancient methodSl.No. TEST OBSERVATION AND RESULT Swarnamakshika Bhasma 1 Varna Dark Brown colour 2 Gatarasatvam (Rasa) Niswadu 3 Sparsha (Slakshnatvam Mrudutva and Slakshnatva was felt by simple touch and Mrudutvam) with finger tips 4 Gandha Non- Perceivable 5 Rekhapurnatva The Bhasma was rubbed in between first finger and thumb. It penetrates into the furrows of the fingers - Positive 6 Varitaratva A small amount of Bhasma was carefully sprinkled in beaker full of water. It was found that total portion of Bhasma was floating on the water surface - Positive 62 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Materials and Methods 7 Nischandratvam The Bhasma observed in bright sunlight. It was not having any lusture – Positive 8 Amlapareeksha For Bhasma when putted some drops of Curd juice it does not change to green.Physical test for Swarnamakshika Bhasma1. Total Ash – Take about 2 gms accurately weighed, ground drug in a previouslytared silica dish, previously ignited and weighed. Scatter the ground drug in a fineeven layer on the bottom of the dish. Incinerate by gradually increasing the heat notexceeding dull red heat (4500C) until free from carbon. Cool and weigh. Calculate thepercentage of ash with reference to air dried drug.Result : Swarnamakshika bhasma - 98.4%2. Acid insoluble ash: The ash obtained was taken with dilute HCL filtered throughWhitman no. 42 filter paper. The residue was washed with hot water till it was freefrom chloride. The residue was taken in a crucible, dried & ignited at a lowtemperature. Calculated the percentage of acid insoluble ash with reference to themoisture free drug.Result : Swarnamakshika bhasma - 1.16%3. Loss on ignition at 10000 c :One gms of Swarnamakshika bhasma accuratelyweighed was taken in a previously dried & weighed porcelain crucible heated on anelectrically heated muffle furnace 10000 c for about one hour. It was cooled &weighed; from the weight of ash obtained the ash value was calculated. (d – a) Ash value = --------------- c (d – a) = weight of ash c =weight of samples 63 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Materials and MethodsResult : Swarnamakshika bhasma - 1.6%4. Loss on drying 1100c -1gram of accurately weighed and heated on electric ovenup to 1100c and again weighed, the difference in weighed was calculated by Initialweighed-weighed after 1100c=- gram.Result : Swarnamakshika bhasma - 0.49%5. Determination of Alcohol soluble extractive:Procedure : Macerate about 5 grams of the air dried sample with 100ml of ethanol in aclosed flask for twenty four hours, shaking frequently during six hours and allowingto stand for eighteen hours. Filter rapidly taking precautions against loss of solventevaporate 25ml of the filterate to dryness in a tared flat bottomed dish and dry at1050C, to constant weight and weigh. Calculate the percentage of alcohol solubleextractive with reference to the air dried drug.Result : Swarnamakshika bhasma - 10.45%6. Determination of water soluble extractive :Procedure: Macerate about 5 grams of air dried drug with 100ml of chloroform waterin a closed flask for twenty four hours, shaking frequently during six hours andallowing to stand for nineteen hours. Filter this and pipette 25ml of this liquid andevaporate to dryness in a tared flat bottomed dish and dry at 1050C, to constantweight. Calculate the percentage of water soluble extractive with reference to air drieddrug.Result : Swarnamakshika bhasma - 15.21%7. Determination of pH: The pH value of an aqueous liquid may be defined as, thecommon logarithm of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion concentration expressed ingrammes.The pH value of a liquid is determined by potentiometrically by means of aglass electrode and a suitable pH meter. 64 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Materials and MethodsResult : Swarnamakshika bhasma - 2.92%8. Estimation of Copper: Preparation of Electro-Acid Mixture: -150ml Conc. HNO3+ 150ml Conc. H2SO4 + 500ml of Distilled water. 50 ml of solution obtained afterfiltering the silica and being made upto 250ml Out of 250ml of madeup solution istaken in a beaker of 150ml and 50ml of Electro-Acid mixture is added. Boil of excessbrown fumes and dilute to N 300ml with cold distilled water. Solution is electrolysedusing Platinum gauze electrode. (Cathode) Before electrolysis wt. Of the electrode istaken and it is again weighed after electrolysis. This procedure is repeated severaltimes till the complete removal of copper from the solution.Result : Swarnamakshika bhasma - 16.8%9. Estimation of Iron: Solution from which Copper is removed is made up to 250mlin a standard flask by adding distilled water. From this 25ml of solution. Is pipetted,and ammonia is added till it emits smell. Again and HCl till it becomes brown oryellow in colour. Stannous Chloride is added to the hot solution. Until yellow/browncolour disappears. Add 1 or 2 drops in excess. It is cooled under tap. 10ml ofsaturated mercuric chloride is added at a stretch. Milky white precipitate is obtained.20 ml mercuric chloride is added at a stretch. Milky6 white precipitate is obtained.20ml of H2SO4 + H3 PO4 (Phosphoric Acid) mixture and few drops of diphenylamineindicator is added and titrated against Std. K2Cr2O7 (Pot. Dichromate) Note down theend point. Initially the colour of the solution will be green but later it attains violetcolour. Note the point of colour change from green to violet. This is considered astitre value.Result : Swarnamakshika bhasma - 38.07% 65 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Materials and Methods10. Estimation of Sulfur: About 5 gm sample is taken in abeaker. Silica and Copperare removed as above and the filtrate is collected in a beaker. To the filtrate 2 gms ofammonium chloride is added. Add 1:1 Ammonia till all the 3rd groups elements areprecipitated. Digest and filter through No. 40 whatsman filter paper. Wash severaltimes with 2% hot Ammonium nitrate solution. The filtrate collected in a beaker isacidified with 1:1 HCl. To the hot solution os this add 10% Barium chloride solution.So that sulfur precipitates as Barium Sulphate (BaSO4) Digest for half an hour andallow to settle. Then filter through No. 42 whatsman filter paper.Result : Swarnamakshika bhasma - 3.29%11. Finess- Fine powder, all the particles passed through the sieve no.8512. Solubility: About one gram of the sample was weighed and dissolved in 10 ml of thesolvents. When the sample did not dissolve, an excess of solvent by 10 ml quantity upto 100 ml was added and noted that was slightly soluble in water (1 gram of sample in100 ml of water) and slightly soluble in Alcohol (1 gram of sample in 600 ml to 1000ml of chloroform) and slightly soluble in chloroform (1 gram sample in 600 ml to1000 ml alcohol).Result : Swarnamakshika bhasma- Slightly soluble in water, slightly Soluble in alchohol, insoluble in Chloroform.13. Disintegration Test apparatus Sample was tested separately in plain water at 160C, water maintained at 310Cat pH 4 and following procedure were followed: 66 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Materials and MethodsProcedrue: 1. The capsules were placed in the tubes of the DTA. The plastic discs were placed over the capsules to avoid floating and impact a slight pressure on the capsules. 2. The tube was allowed to move up and down and DT noted all the capsules had passed through the sieve 67 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Materials and Methods EXPERIMENTAL STUDY107,108Evaluation of Haematinic Activity in Albino ratsDate of commencement : 20-6-2007 to 23-6-2007Haemoglobin EstimationPrinciple: Sahli’s method Iron deficiency anaemia is a most frequent disease in the developing countrieslike India.The common clinical features of iron deficiency anaemia are malaise,bodyache,loss of appetite,physical and mental stress etc. Acute anaemia can be induced in laboratory animals by usingPhenylhydrazine dissolved in Dimethylsulphoxide.Later Test sample will be given tocorrect the Anaemia by proper procedure. Male albino rats weighing between 175-200gms wee taken from KLE’sPharmacy college animal house and whole study was carried out in the experimentallaboratory attached with the InstituteRequirements: Shali’s hemometer, Thin glass rod (stirrer) and micropipette of 20cubic millimeter capacity, pricking needle, N/10 HCl, distilled water, 70% alcoholand absorbent cotton. Animals: Albino rats (175-200gms,Overnight fasted) Trial drug Swarnamakshika bhasmaTotal RBC Count:Principle: Neubauer’s methodRequirements: Neubauer’s counting chamber, RBC pipette, Thomas coverslip,watch glass, RBC dilution fluid, pricking needle, 70% alcohol, xylon and microscope. 68 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Materials and MethodsDrugs: Phenyl hydrazine dissolved in Dimethyl sulphoxide (To induce anaemia) 5% carboxy methyl cellulose. (To make the suspension of bhasma) Trial drug Swarnamakshika bhasma 0.1N Hydrochloric acid, Distilled water, 70% alcohol (For estimation of Haemoglobin)Animal selection: 36 healthy male rats(175-200gms) of Albino strain were selected for thepresent study. The animals were grouped in 3 groups (12 rats in each group) andplaced accordingly in different cages as 6 animals in each cage. The animals wereprovided with food and water ad libitum.Fixation of Rat dose: To calculate the Rat dose from Human dose, the formula isRat dose = Human dose x surface area factor 0.018Procedure: The rats were divided into 3 groups. The rats of group I were not given any treatment and served as normal. The rats of group I & group III were given 25mg phenyl hydrazine/kg body wt which was dissolved in Dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) (250 mg/ml) Group II animals served as Positive control group (PC) were not given any treatment. Swarnamakshika bhasma is mixed with 5% carboxymethyl cellulose and made a suspension. This suspension was administered to animals of Group III immediately after administration of Phenylhydrazine orally. The doses were calculated according to body weight of 200 gms weighing albino rats. 69 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Materials and Methods 6 rats from each groups were sacrificed ( by ether anaesthasia) after 48 hours. The remaining 6 rats from each groups were sacrificed after 96 hours.The various haemotological and biochemical parameters were estimated and also thestudy of bone marrow was carried out.Bone marrow studyRequirements: Infant bone marrow needle microscope with oil immersion lens.Selection of Animals: Albino rats of either sex weighing between 150-200 gm breeds in animalhouse were selected for the study. They were housed individually in polypropylenecages in well-ventilated rooms. The rats were kept under observation for seven dayswith standard laboratory diet. After which they were examined for their normal healthand then subjected to experimental study.Procedure109: The femur bones of the rats were dissected out immediately after theywere sacrificed. The femur bones were cleaned, their heads were cut and bonemarrow was flushed out with the help of infant bone marrow needle. The flushedbone marrow was transferred to a clean slide and thin film was prepared. The slidewas air dried and then fixed with methanol. The bone marrow slides were stained bywrights stain and observed under the microscope using oil immersion lens.The various parameters observed on the slides were: • Myeloid : Erythroid cell ratio • Pronormoblast count • Normoblast count • Reticulocytes count 70 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Materials and Methods • Normocytes contHaematological parmeters: Blood samples were aspirated from all the animals by cardiac puncture, fromrat hearts before sacrificing the haematological parameter estimated were. 1) Hb 2) Hb % 3) Red blood cell count 4) Hemoglobin content. These parmeters were analyzed at K.L.E.S’s college of pharmacy, Gadag. Biochemical Parameters Bone Marrow study The various parameters observed on the slides were 1) Pronormoblast count 2) Normoblast count 3) Reticulocytes count 4) Normocytes count 5) Myeloid : Erythroid cell ratio 71 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Results Experimental Study The results of the present study are based on the values of Parameterslike Hematological parameters, Bone marrow parameters. In Hematologicalparameters Hb and RBC and in Bone marrow parameters like Erythroid,Pronormoblast, Normoblast, Reticulocytes, Normocytes.Table No. 17 Intermediate calculations Anova table myeloid to erythroid 48 hrsSource of Degrees of Sum of Mean F-Value p Value RemarkVariation freedom squares sum of SqTreatment 2 36.754 18.377 438.696 <0.01 H.SResidual 15 0.6283 0.04189Total 17 37.383Table No. 18 Intermediate calculations Anova table myeloid to erythroid 96 hrsS.V D.F S.S M.S.S F value p Value RemarkTreatment 2 33.174 16.587 757.85 <0.01 H.SResidual 15 0.3283 0.0218Total 17 33.3283Table No. 19 Intermediate calculations Anova table R.B.C 48 hrsS.V D.F S.S M.S.S F value p Value RemarkTreatment 2 29.49 14.745 163.83 <0.01 H.SResidual 15 1.36 0.090Total 17 30.86 72 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • ResultsTable No. 20 Intermediate calculations Anova table R.B.C 96 hoursS.V D.F S.S M.S.S F value p Value RemarkTreatment 2 30.27 15.135 229.318 <0.01 H.SResidual 15 0.99 0.066Total 17 31.26Table No. 21 Intermediate calculations Anova table Hb 48 hoursS.V D.F S.S M.S.S F value P Value RemarkTreatment 2 45.412 22.706 585.206 <0.01 H.SResidual 15 0.582 0.0388Total 17 45.995Table No. 22 Intermediate calculations Anova table Hb 96 hoursS.V D.F S.S M.S.S F value P Value RemarkTreatment 2 37.68 18.84 588.75 <0.01 H.SResidual 15 0.48 0.32Total 17 38.16 73 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • ResultsTable No. 23 Intermediate calculations Anova table Pronormoblast 48 hoursS.V D.F S.S M.S.S F value P Value RemarkTreatment 2 1887.4 943.7 547.72 <0.01 H.SResidual 15 25.588 1.725Total 17 1913.0Table No. 24 Intermediate calculations Anova table Pronormoblast 96 hoursS.V D.F S.S M.S.S F value p Value RemarkTreatment 2 611.50 305.75 228.854 <0.01 H.SResidual 15 20.050 1.336Total 17 631.55Table No. 25 Intermediate calculations Anova table Normoblast 48 hoursS.V D.F S.S M.S.S F value p Value RemarkTreatment 2 840.54 420.27 2361.06 <0.01 H.SResidual 15 2.677 0.178Total 17 843.22 74 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • ResultsTable No. 26 Intermediate calculations Anova table Normoblast 96 hoursS.V D.F S.S M.S.S F value p Value RemarkTreatment 2 568.81 284.405 82.772 <0.01 H.SResidual 15 51.547 3.436Total 17 4877.5Table No. 27 Intermediate calculations Anova table Reticulocytes 48 hoursS.V D.F S.S M.S.S F value p Value RemarkTreatment 2 40.779 20.389 65.94 <0.01 H.SResidual 15 4.638 0.3092Total 17 45.417Table No. 28 Intermediate calculations Anova table Reticulocytes 96 hoursS.V D.F S.S M.S.S F value p Value RemarkTreatment 2 33.051 16.5255 8.71 <0.01 H.SResidual 15 28.46 1.8973Total 17 51.515 75 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • ResultsTable No. 29 Intermediate calculations Anova table Normocytes 48 hoursS.V D.F S.S M.S.S F value p Value RemarkTreatment 2 56.36 28.18 24.806 <0.01 H.SResidual 15 17.05 1.136Total 17 73.45Table No. 30 Intermediate calculations Anova table Normocytes 96 hoursS.V D.F S.S M.S.S F value p Value RemarkTreatment 2 131.15 65.515 28.66 <0.01 H.SResidual 15 34.32 2.288Total 17 165.48 76 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • ResultsTable No. 31 (a) Treatment Mean Difference Control 4.8 Treatment 3.01 1.79* Positive Control 1.3 3.5* 1.71** Significant CD = 2.13 2 x 0.4189 ------------------------ = 0.795 6From Table No. 31 (a) 1) The treatment are not alike 2) The highest treatment mean effect is 4.8 due to the control group. 3) If a choice is made among the three, treatment, control group is the best and most effective, of choice made between treatment and positive control group, which differ significantly the treatment group is preferred since the mean effect due to treatment group is more than the positive control group. 77 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • ResultsTable No. 32 (a) Treatment Mean Difference Control 4.8 Treatment 3.98 0.82* Positive Control 1.6 3.2* 2.38** Significant CD = 2.13 2 x 0.0218 ----------- = 0.368 6From Table No. 32 (a) 1) The treatment are not alike 2) The highest treatment mean effect is 4.8 due to the control group. 3) If a choice is made among the three, treatment, control group is the best and most effective, of choice made between treatment and positive control group, which differ significantly the treatment group is preferred since the mean effect due to treatment group is more than the positive control group. 78 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • ResultsTable No. 33 (a) Treatment Mean Difference Control 8.26 Treatment 6.8 1.48* Positive Control 5.13 3.13* 1.67** Significant CD = 2.13 2 x 0.09 ------------------------ = 0.368 6From Table No. 33 (a) 1) The treatment are not alike 2) The highest treatment mean effect is 8.26 due to the control group. 3) If a choice is made among the three, treatment, control group is the best and most effective, of choice made between treatment and positive control group, which differ significantly the treatment group is preferred since the mean effect due to treatment group is more than the positive control group. 79 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • ResultsTable No. 34 (a) Treatment Mean Difference Control 8.36 Treatment 7.41 0.95* Positive Control 5.26 3.1* 2.16** Significant CD = 2.13 2 x 0.066 ------------------------ = 0.315 6From Table No. 34 (a) 1) The treatment are not alike 2) The highest treatment mean effect is 8.26 due to the control group. 3) If a choice is made among the three, treatment, control group is the best and most effective, of choice made between treatment and positive control group, which differ significantly the treatment group is preferred since the mean effect due to treatment group is more than the positive control group. 80 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • ResultsTable No. 35 (a) Treatment Mean Difference Control 14.1 Treatment 13.33 0.77* Positive Control 10.41 3.69* 2.92** Significant CD = 2.13 2 x 0.0388 ------------------------ = 0.2422 6From Table No. 35 (a) 1) The treatment are not alike 2) The highest treatment mean effect is 14.1 due to the control group. 3) If a choice is made among the three, treatment, control group is the best and most effective, of choice made between treatment and positive control group, which differ significantly the treatment group is preferred since the mean effect due to treatment group is more than the positive control group. 81 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • ResultsTable No. 36 (a) Treatment Mean Difference Control 14.32 Treatment 13.63 0.69* Positive Control 10.96 3.36* 2.67** Significant CD = 2.13 2 x 0.032 ------------------------ = 0.2199 6From Table No. 36 (a) 1) The treatment are not alike 2) The highest treatment mean effect is 14.32 due to the control group. 3) If a choice is made among the three, treatment, control group is the best and most effective, of choice made between treatment and positive control group, which differ significantly the treatment group is preferred since the mean effect due to treatment group is more than the positive control group. 82 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • ResultsTable No. 37 (a) Treatment Mean Difference Control 31.15 Treatment 27.13 4.02* Positive Control 7.7 23.45* 19.43** Significant CD = 2.13 2 x 1.725 ------------------------ = 1.615 6From Table No. 37 (a) 1) The treatment are not alike 2) The highest treatment mean effect is 31.1 due to the control group. 3) If a choice is made among the three, treatment, control group is the best and most effective, of choice made between treatment and positive control group, which differ significantly the treatment group is preferred since the mean effect due to treatment group is more than the positive control group. 83 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • ResultsTable No. 38 (a) Treatment Mean Difference Control 31.91 Treatment 25.76 6.15* Positive Control 17.68 14.23* 8.08** Significant CD = 2.13 2 x 1.336 ------------------------ = 1.42 6From Table No. 38 (a) 1) The treatment are not alike 2) The highest treatment mean effect is 31.91 due to the control group. 3) If a choice is made among the three, treatment, control group is the best and most effective, of choice made between treatment and positive control group, which differ significantly the treatment group is preferred since the mean effect due to treatment group is more than the positive control group. 84 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • ResultsTable No. 39 (a) Treatment Mean Difference Control 74.2 Treatment 66.58 7.62* Positive Control 57.41 16.79* 9.17** Significant CD = 2.13 2 x 0.178 ------------------------ = 0.5188 6From Table No. 39 (a) 1) The treatment are not alike 2) The highest treatment mean effect is 74.2 due to positive control group. 3) If a choice is made among the three, treatment, positive control group is the best and most effective, of choice made between treatment and control group, which differ significantly the treatment group is preferred since the mean effect due to treatment group is more than the control group. 85 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • ResultsTable No.40 (a) Treatment Mean Difference Control 67.51 Treatment 56.8 10.71* Positive Control 54.66 12.85* 2.134* Significant CD = 2.13 2 x 3.436 ------------------------ = 2.279 6From Table No. 40 (a) 1) The treatment are not alike 2) The highest treatment mean effect is 67.51 due to the positive control group. 3) If a choice is made among the three, treatment, positive control group is the best and most effective, of choice made between treatment and control group, which differ significantly the control group is preferred since the mean effect due to control group is more than the treatment group. 86 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • ResultsTable No. 41 (a) Treatment Mean Difference Control 8.33 Treatment 6.8 1.53* Positive Control 66 3.67* 2.14** Significant CD = 2.13 2 x 0.3092 ------------------------ = 0.683 6From Table No. 41 (a) 1) The treatment are not alike 2) The highest treatment mean effect is 8.33 due to the treatment group. 3) If a choice is made among the three, treatment, treatment group is the best and most effective, of choice made between control and positive control group, which differ significantly the control group is preferred since the mean effect due to treatment group is more than the control group. 87 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • ResultsTable No. 42 (a) Treatment Mean Difference Control 8.33 Treatment 6.8 1.53* Positive Control 4.66 3.67* 2.14** Significant CD = 2.13 2 x 1.8973 ------------------------ = 1.693 6From Table No. 42 (a) 1) The treatment are not alike 2) The highest treatment mean effect is 8.33 due to the treatment group. 3) If a choice is made among the three, treatment, treatment group is the best and most effective, of choice made between control group and +ve group which differ significantly the control group is preferred since the mean effect due to control group is more than the positive control group. 88 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • ResultsTable No. 43 (a) Treatment Mean Difference Control 7.00 Treatment 6.94 0.06* Positive Control 4.57 2.43* 1.5** Significant CD = 2.13 2 x 1.136 ------------------------ = 1.31 6From Table No. 43 (a) 1) The treatment are not alike 2) The highest treatment mean effect is 7.00 due to the treatment group. 3) If a choice is made among the three, treatment, control group is the best and most effective, of choice made between treatment and positive control group, which differ significantly the treatment group is preferred since the mean effect due to treatment group is more than the positive control group. 89 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • ResultsTable No. 44 (a) Treatment Mean Difference Control 9.67 Treatment 6.24 3.43* Positive Control 5.66 4.01* 0.58* Significant CD = 2.13 2 x 2.288 ------------------------ = 1.86 6From Table No. 44 (a) 1) The treatment are not alike 2) The highest treatment mean effect is 9.67 due to positive control group. 3) If a choice is made among the three, treatment, positive control group is the best and most effective, of choice made between treatment and control group, which differ significantly the treatment group is preferred since the mean effect due to treatment group is more than the control group. 90 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Results To know the mean effect of treatment of the three groups, the statisticalanalysis is done by using completely randomized design. By assuming that the meantreatment effect of the drug in three groups is same. If the hypothesis is rejected that is treatment shows significant, to know whichpair treatment means differ significantly. We final out the critical difference that is theleast difference between any two means to be significant. CD = t 0.05 2S 2E ----------- KWhere t 0.05 = The t- table value for error degrees of freedom.2S 2E = Mean error sum of squaresK = No of observation in the group. From the study all parameters show highly significant (at p<0.05) to knowwhich pair treatment means differ significantly,the conclusion can be taken asfollows.Comparing these difference with the critical difference, we find that 1) Control group differs significantly from each of the treatment.The treatment group and positive control group also differ significantly 91 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • ResultsTable No. 45 Paired ‘t’ test table for the parameter Myeloid to Erythroid 48hoursGroup Mean SD SE t value p Value RemarkControl 4.8 0.126 0.051 94.11 <0.001 H.SPositive 1.3 0.2 0.081 16.049 <0.001 H.SControlTreatment 3.01 0.263 0.10 30.1 <0.001 H.SGraph - 1 Paired T test table for the parameter of Erythroid at 48 hours 6 5 4 en Ma 3 Series1 2 1 0 Control Control +ve Treatment Group 92 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • ResultsTable No. 46 Myeloid to Erythroid Erythroid 96 hoursGroup Mean SD SE t value p Value RemarkControl 4.80 0.126 0.051 94.11 <0.001 H.SPositive 1.60 0.178 0.013 21.91 <0.001 H.SControlTreatment 3.98 0.132 0.054 73.70 <0.001 H.SGraph - 2 Paired T test table for the param eter Erythroid at 96 Hours 6 5 4 3 Series1 2 1 0 Cont rol Cont rol +ve Treat ment G r o up 93 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • ResultsTable No. 47 RBC 48 hrsGroup Mean SD SE t value p Value RemarkControl 8.26 0.30 0.121 68.26 <0.001 H.SPositive 5.13 0.30 0.121 68.26 <0.001 H.SControlTreatment 6.80 0.16 0.06 6.85 <0.001 H.SGraph - 3 Paired T test table for the param eter of R.B.C at 48 hours 9 8 7 6 Mean 5 Series1 4 3 2 1 0 Control Control +ve Treatment Group 94 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • ResultsTable No. 48 RBC 96 hrsGroup Mean SD SE t value p Value RemarkControl 8.36 0.25 0.10 83.6 <0.001 H.SPositive 5.26 0.24 0.09 58.44 <0.001 H.SControlTreatment 7.41 0.27 0.11 67.36 <0.001 H.SGraph - 4 Paired T test table for the parameter Of R.B.C. at 96 hours 9 8 7 6 5 Mean Series1 4 3 2 1 0 Control Control +ve Treatment Group 95 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • ResultsTable No. 49 Hb 48 hrsGroup Mean SD SE t value p Value RemarkControl 14.10 0.17 0.073 193.15 <0.001 H.SPositive 10.41 0.17 0.07 148.71 <0.001 H.SControlTreatment 13.33 0.23 0.095 140.31 <0.001 H.SGraph - 5 Paired T test table for the param eter of Hem oglobin at 48 hours 16 14 12 10 Mean 8 Series1 6 4 2 0 Control Control Treatment +ve Group 96 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • ResultsTable No. 50 Hb 96 hrsGroup Mean SD SE t value p Value RemarkControl 14.32 0.13 0.056 255.71 <0.001 H.SPositive 10.96 0.25 0.10 109.6 <0.001 H.SControlTreatment 13.63 0.10 0.042 324.52 <0.001 H.SGraph - 6 Paired T test table for the param eter of Hem oglobin at 96 hours 16 14 12 10 Mean 8 Series1 6 4 2 0 Control Control +ve Treatment Group 97 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • ResultsTable No. 51 Pronormoblast 48 hrsGroup Mean SD SE t value p Value RemarkControl 31.150 2.14 0.874 35.64 <0.001 H.SPositive 7.70 0.48 0.200 38.5 <0.001 H.SControlTreatment 27.13 0.53 0.218 124.44 <0.001 H.SGraph - 7 Paired T test table for the param eter of Pronorm oblast at 48 hours 35 30 25 20 Mean 15 Series1 10 5 0 Control Control Treatment +ve Group 98 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • ResultsTable No. 52 Pronormoblast 96 hrsGroup Mean SD SE t value p Value RemarkControl 31.91 1.69 0.69 46.17 <0.001 H.SPositive 17.65 0.41 0.170 103.82 <0.001 H.SControlTreatment 75.76 0.98 0.402 188.45 <0.001 H.SGraph - 8 Paired T test table for the parm eter of Pronorm oblast at 96 hours 80 70 60 50 Mean 40 Series1 30 20 10 0 Control Control Treatment +ve Group 99 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • ResultsTable No. 53 Normoblast 48 hrsGroup Mean SD SE t value p Value RemarkControl 57.41 0.40 0.164 350.6 <0.001 H.SPositive 74.20 0.49 0.201 369.154 <0.001 H.SControlTreatment 66.58 0.36 0.147 452.92 <0.001 H.SGraph - 9 Paired T test table for the parameter Normoblast at 48 hours 80 70 60 50 Mean 40 Series1 30 20 10 0 Control Control +ve Treatment Group 100 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • ResultsTable No. 54 Normoblast 96 hrsGroup Mean SD SE t value p Value RemarkControl 56.80 0.244 0.100 525.92 <0.001 H.SPositive 67.51 0.33 0.135 500.07 <0.001 H.SControlTreatment 54.66 3.18 1.300 42.046 <0.001 H.SGraph - 10 Paired T test table for the parameter Normoblast at 96 hours 80 70 60 50 Mean 40 Series1 30 20 10 0 Control Control Treatment +ve Group 101 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • ResultsTable No. 55 Reticulocytes 48 hrsGroup Mean SD SE t value p Value RemarkControl 6.80 0.098 0.0140 48.57 <0.001 H.SPositive 4.66 0.808 0.330 14.121 <0.001 H.SControlTreatment 8.33 0.516 0.210 39.68 <0.001 H.SGraph - 11 Paired T test table for the parameter of Reticulocytes at 48 hours 10 8 6 Mean Series1 4 2 0 Control Control Treatment +ve Group 102 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • ResultsTable No. 56 Reticulocytes 96 hrsGroup Mean SD SE t value p Value RemarkControl 6.940 1.389 0.567 12.169 <0.001 H.SPositive 4.570 1.651 0.674 6.78 <0.001 H.SControlTreatment 7.00 1.019 0.416 16.826 <0.001 H.SGraph - 12 Paired T test table for the parameter of Reticulocytes at 96 hours 8 7 6 5 Mean 4 Series1 3 2 1 0 Control Control Treatment +ve Group 103 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • ResultsTable No. 57 Normocytes 48 hrsGroup Mean SD SE t value p Value RemarkControl 5.68 1.04 0.428 13.27 <0.001 H.SPositive 9.67 0.80 0.330 29.303 <0.001 H.SControlTreatment 6.24 1.29 0.527 11.84 <0.001 H.SGraph - 13 Paired T test table for the parameter of Normocytes at 48 hours 12 10 8 Mean 6 Series1 4 2 0 Control Control Treatment +ve Group 104 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • ResultsTable No. 58 Normocytes 96 hrsGroup Mean SD SE t value p Value RemarkControl 5.15 1.76 0.720 7.15 <0.001 H.SPositive 11.23 1.44 0.590 19.033 <0.001 H.SControlTreatment 5.94 1.29 0.527 11.271 <0.001 H.SGraph - 14 Paired T test table for the parameter of Normocytes at 96 hours 12 10 8 Mean 6 Series1 4 2 0 Control Control Treatment +ve Group 105 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • ResultsMyeloid to erythroid cell ratio: 1) The results obtained indicated that treatment of Phenylhydrazine has resulted in sharp decreased in the myeloid to erythroid ratio i.e 1.3 and 1.60 at 48 and 96 hours. 2) The animals treated with Swarnamakshika Bhasma showed a significant increase in the myeloid to erythroid ratio i.e 3.01 and 3.98 at 48 and 96 hours of treatment respectively, when compared to positive control group.Pronormoblast: 1) The results obtained indicated that treatment of Phenythydrazine has resulted in sharp decreased in the Pronormoblast i.e 7.70 and 17.68 at 48 and 96 hours. 2) The animals treated with Swarnamakshika Bhasma showed a significant increase in the Pronormoblast i.e 27.13 and 25.76 at 48 and 96 hours of treatment respectively, when compared to positive control group.Normoblast: 1) The results obtained indicated that treatment of Phenylhydrazine has resulted in sharp increase in the Normoblast: i.e 74.20 and 67.51 at 48 and 96 hours. 2) The animals treated with Swarnamakshika Bhasma showed a significant decrease in the Normoblast i.e 66.58 and 54.66 at 48 and 96 hours of treatment respectively when compared to positive control group.Reticulocytes count: 1) The results obtained indicated that treatment of Phyenylhydrazine has resulted in sharp Decreased in the Reticulocytes i.e 4.66 and 4.57 at 48 and 96 hours. 106 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Results 2) The animals treated with Swarnamakshika Bhasma showed a significant increase in the Reticulocytes i.e 8.33 and 7.00 at 48 and 96 hours of treatment respectively, when compared to positive control group.Normocytes: 1) The results obtained indicated that treatment of Phenylhydrazine has resulted in sharp increase in the Normocytes : i.e 9.67 and 11.23 at 48 and 96 hours. 2) The animals treated with Swarnamakshika Bhasma showed a significant decrease in the Normocytes: i.e 6.24 and 5.94 at 48 and 96 hours of treatment respectively, when compared to positive contol group. To study the individual effect of all the parameters, the statistical analysis wasdone by using paired t-test by assuming that the drug is responsible for the change inthe readings after the treatment in parameters erythriod control group shows morehighly significant than the others in both the hours. (By comparing ‘t’ value) in theparameter RBC all groups showed more highly significant in 96 hrs than the 48 hrs bycomparing t value, In the parameter Hb control group and treatment group are moresignificant in 96 hrs where as positive control group is more highly significant in 48hrs (by comparing t value) In the parameter pronormoblast all groups highlysignificant in 96 hrs. In norm oblast the control group and positive control group aremore significant in 96 hrs. but treatment group was more highly significant in 48 hrs.in reticulocyte all the groups are more highly significant in 48 hrs. in normocytes allthe groups are more significant in 48 hrs. 107 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Discussion DISCUSSION The present study entitled on “preparation, Physico chemical analysis ofSwarnamakshika Bhasma and Evaluation of its Heamatnic activity and experimentalstudy” has been carried out.Discussion on Review of Literature Swarnamakshika is an important member of the family of Indian chemistrysubstance specially the minerals. Swarnamakshika has unique place both in dehavada& lohavada. It has been in use for the treatment since samhita kala. In Vedic period &Koutylya Arthashastra also says about Tantra dhatu. But no where the nameSwarnamakshika is seen, though it is an important Khanija used as to extract tamra. By these we can impress that people had knowledge of swarnamakshika 3000years back, however Vedas lack the information. In purnas, samritis also reference ofthis is unavailable. From Drug review from the review of Swarnamakshika it isobserved that Swarnamakshika is grouped under Maharasa varga by differentAcharyas before 16th century. And the Rasacharyas after 16th century have includedthe swarnamakshika under Upadhatu varga. As the Swarnamakshika is the source oftwo main dhatus viz copper and iron, by the influence of modern chemistry the recentRasacharyas might have grouped it under Upadhatu varga. Author of Rasendra sarasangraha & Rasajalanidhikara have included swarna makshika under uparasa vargaand also Rasajalanidhi. As Swarnamakshika used in parada karmas. It is included inuparasa varga. Swarnamakshika is considered as “Rasendra prana” i.e its usage is inevitablein various mercurial operations. And it has been told that swarnamakshika is bestamong all Rasayanas i.e Rasayanagrahya. This might be the reason that earliestRasacharayas have included that swarnamakshika under maharasa varga. 108 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Discussion Intake of ashodhita swarnamakshika may give rise to many complications likeKusta, andhya, vanti and even marana also. Hence shodhana and marana proceduresare mentioned. For shodhana different acharyas adopted various procedures likepachana nirvapana depending on their research experience. In the process of marana also different types of putas, different bhavanadravyas different medias like parada, gandhaka & moolika were explained. Accordingto modern metallurcgical science, chalcopyrite is derived from Greek word pyroswhich means that ignites when heated on fire. Chalcopyrite looks like and is easilyconfused with iron pyrite. It is one of the minerals referred to as gold fool’s goldbecause of its golden colour. But the real gold is more buttery yellow and is ductileand melliable. As an ore of copper, the yield from chalcopyrite is very low in terms of atomsper molecule, however the abundant availability has made it popular than otherminerals of copper. Fine crystals of chalcopyrite have an unique character and can addto any ones collection.Discussion on Shodhana The raw drug was subjected to shodhana, shodhana process is aimed toremove harmful impurities present in the drugs and also converts minerals drugs intosuitable forms for further treatment with marana process. Swarnamakshika shodhana was done by nirvapa in nimbu swarasa, The drugis heated to red hot and quenched in the nimbu swarasa. Here by intense heating somebonds may loosen in the drug and by sudden quenching the loosen bonds may breakand some impurities may get absorbed in the nimbu swarasa. Repeating thisprocedure for 21 times may provide sufficient time and possibility for the reactions tooccur and volatile impurities make and evaporated resulting in detoxification of 109 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • DiscussionSwarnamakshika. Nimbu swarasa might have given some organic qualities to theSwarnamakshika and enhanced in the existing therapeutic qualities ofSwarnamakshika. After quenching in the nimbu swarasa there was a fair chance in thereactions resulting in the chemical changes in the swarnamakshika and volatileimpurities may get evaporated resulting in detoxification of swarnmakshika. Thecolour of the nimbu swarasa changed to black at the end of the each nirvapa. It mightbe due to the release of some toxic substances. Weight loss is due to the evaporationof the sulphur content i.e, removed as sulphur dioxide from the mineral and also dueto the procedure and iron present in it may combine with oxygen and for iron oxidewhich may be held responsible for the appearance of red colour in the compound.Discussion Marana Initially the colour of the chakrikas were black, after subjecting to first andsecond gajaputa colour of the chakrikas were not changed and also chakrikas werevery hard. After 4th puta change in colour and hardness was noticed. Black colour tolight red colour, and chakrikas became smooth. Gradually the chakrikas became verysmooth and also colour changed to dark red this might be due to the conversion ofiron into iron oxide. After 10th puta we have got fine brick red colour bhasma.Bhasma passed rekha purna pareeksha at 5th puta and passed varitara pareeksha after10th puta and also passed amla pareeksha (as mineral contains copper its bhasmashould be free from kashaya rasa and should not give rise to the appearance of greencolour if tested on curd. It indicates the bhasma is free form the presence of free metalcontent) and Avami pareeksha.Discussion on Gajaputa Temperature - Approximately the peak temperature obtained during 10 110 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Discussion Gajaputa was 9000C with slight variation. Peak Temperature observed after 2 hrs 30 min Approximately, the difference attaining peak temperature after ignition was found varying 20 to 25 min among 10 Gajaputas. Swangasheeta was observed after 18-20 hrs after peak temperature with slight variation amongst 10 Gajaputas. The slight variation which were observed during different puta were due to gradual inclination and spread of heat from one to another moulded vanaphala, varies at each Gajaputa procedure and per vanaphala quantum heat also differs from each vanaphala respectively. Swangasheeta time also varies due to the same rules.Discussion on Amritikarana Amritikarana helps to remove the remaining doshas present in the bhasmaeven after marana process. It reduces the teekshanata and rookshata of bhasma andalso reduces toxic effect of bhasma. For Amritikarana Panchamrita was selected ingredients of panchamrita arehaving snigdha, mridu, shlakshna guna and sheeta veerya (except madhu), these helpsto remove the Rukshata and teekshna of bhasma. In the drugs review the action ofpanchamrita dealt that balya, rasayana, vrushya, medhya, deepana, brahmana,jeevaneya and tridosha shamaka are to be considered here, so it enhance the propertyof bhasma to subside the lakshanas of pandu as they nourish the rasadhatu. According to modern the milk contain large proportion of calcium phosphateis an important salt required for the formation of bone, it gives strength to the body.Curd produces bone marrow, gives strength to the body helps in digestion and it is ananti dote for copper. Ghee is tonic, nutrients and cooling agent. Madhu acts as a 111 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Discussiondemulcent, and it contains glucose fructose, and sucrose and also traces amount ofvitamins, proteins hence it is good nutrient to the patient. So these enhance theproperty of bhasma and also definitely notified that it enhance panduhara property ofswarnamakshika bhasma.Discussion on Analytical StudyThis part exposes the hidden facts about the final product when it was criticallyanalysed with the help of physical and chemical parameters.Organoleptic characters: Swarnamakshika bhasma are dark brown in colour, andfine touch.Total ash: 1.6%. in Swarnamakshika bhasma This indicates the presence of organicmatter in the final product may be imported during shodhana procedure.Acid insoluble ash is 1.6% in Swarnamakshika bhasma it indicates the low acidinsoluble acid ash values facilitates the easy absorption of drug.Loss on ignition at 10000C: 1.6 % shows organic material in the bhasma.Loss on drying: It shows the end product contain 0.49% of moisture inSwarnamakshika bhasma.Alcohol soluble extractive: is 10.45%Water soluble extractive: is 15.21% It indicates absorption of the bhasma in gut.pH: report showed that pH was 2.92 in Swarnamakshika bhasma recommends thatthe final product is acidic.Fineness of Particle: This shows the particle size are fine in nature, which is able toenter into the small capillaries and rate of absorption of drug is directly proportionalto the particle size of drug the particle size is fine so the absorption is quick. 112 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • DiscussionSolubility: Swarnamakshika was slightly soluble in water and alchol and insoluble inchloroform. It indicates more covalent in nature and having slight ionic character andalso indicates slow absorption in the gut.Assay for Copper, Iron and Sulphur: Percentage of copper 16.8%, Percentage ofIron 38.07% and Percentage of sulphur 3.29% due to the reduction in total mass of theraw drug the percentage of copper, iron and sulphur very increased in the ash.Discussion on Pharmaceutical procedures Pharmaceutical procedures adopted in the present study were sohdhana by(nirvapa in nimbu swarasa), Marana, (by nimbu swarasa bhavana and gajaputa) andAmrutikarana (with panchamruta).Discussion on Experimental study An experimental study has been conducted so as to ascertain the haematinicaction of test drug. Another important objective of this study was to evaluate theaction scientifically i.e in terms of duration, mode of action etc. The action was tested by using the phenylhydrazine as the anaemic agent toinduce anaemia in the rats. The group I was not given any treatment and served asnormal Group II was treated with Phenylhydrazine 25 mg/kg body weight orally,which was dissolved in dimythlsulphoxid control group. Group III was treated withSwarnamakshika bhasma. Phnylhydrazine is used for the treatment of polyeythemia. It is also used forinduction of experimental anaemia in animals. Phenylhydrazine treatment decreasesthe total blood volume, haemoglobin content and red blood cells countPhnylhydrazine increases the fragility of RBC’s oxyhaemoglobin and myoglobinreact with Phnylhydrazine to yield a derivative of haemoglobin containing N- 113 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Discussionphenylprotoprophrin in which the haemogroup is modified free radicals generatedafter treatment of phenylhydrazine lead to RBC’s haemoglobin. After 48 hours & 96 hours 6 rats from each group were sacrificed & varioushaematological and biochemical parameters were estimated. The parameters of groupII animals indicated in graph. The drug is responsible for the change in the readings after the treatment, inparameters erythriod to myeloid ratio control group shows highly significant than theothers in both the hours. (By comparing ‘t’ value) in the parameter RBC all groupsshows more highly significant in 96 hrs than the 48 hrs by comparing t value, In theparameter Hb control group and treatment group are more significant in 96 hrs whereas positive control group is more significant in 48 hrs (by comparing t value) In theparameter pronormoblast all groups highly significant in 96 hrs. In norm oblast thecontrol group and positive control group are more significant in 96 hrs. but treatmentgroup is more significant in 48 hrs. In reticulocyte all the groups are more significantin 48 hrs. in normocytes all the groups are more significant in 48 hrs. Swarnamakshika bhasma is soumya kalpa of Tamra, Loha, and Gandhaka. It issaid as having madhura, tiktarasa, madhura vipaka and sheeta veerya and is veryuseful in tridoshaja disorder. Madhura vipaka sheeta veerya etc properties helps inPandu. The analytical study has proved the presence of elements like copper, iron,zinc and silica in the end product. Copper is useful in improving R.B.C. count as wellas Hb% in the blood as it promotes the absorption of iron. (By Dr. S.K. dixit 1966)and Loha is used as medicine ever since the origin of the Ayurveda as shown inCharaka samhita. It is considered best oushadhi for Pandu roga. Combination ofcopper and iron, is best medicine for Pandu roga. 114 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • DiscussionDiscussion on RBC and Hb In the control group the RBC and Hb contents were standard and the phenylhydrazine treated group showed disease in the RBC and Hb value as theSwarnamakshika treated group showed significant increase in number of RBC’s andHb content The RBC and Hb increase due to Swarnamakshika bhasma is true increase andmay be due to the drug effect at the level of erythropoesis and the stimulation oferythropoesis and enhancement of Hb level. Therefore it can be inferred that the drugSwarnamakshika is possessing Haematinic activity and Pro RBC synthesis activity.Discussion on Bone marrow study Swarnamakshika bhasma showed significant increase in myeloid to erythroidratio which indicates the drug effect on erythropiosis. This effect may be due to thecopper and iron pro metabolic activity and also due to the correction of premoleculardifeciency and stimulation of retizulo endothelial system. Hence it can be inferred thatSwarnamakshika bhasma is a complex mineral trace elemental supplement, whenused in prescribed dose and manufactured as per classical guide lines helps instimulation of bone marrow and erythropisis at myeloid to erythroid ratio level. Thiseffect has the credit of pro erythropiosis with out organic and phytosublimentation.Hence it can be stated that, Swarnamakshika is a mineral trace elemental supplementwhich can be used to increase myeloid to erythroid ratio and hence useful in themanagement of anaemia. However, the control group showed normal cells andpositive control treated with Phenylhydrazine showed decrease in myeloid toerythroid cell ratio and hence it can be said that swarnamakshika bhasma is better thanothers. 115 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Discussion Swarnamakshika bhasm showed significant increase in pronormoblasts andreciculocytes, which shows pro erythropoiesis activity or erythropoiesis stimulationactivity of the drug. It may be due to the supplementation of copper and iron togetheras trace elements in biologically acceptable form required in erythropoiesis. It is alsoto be noted that Iron supplementation, copper supplementation, or other traceelemental supplementation is desired but as copper ion helps in augmentedmetabolism of Iron the effect of Swarnamakshika can be justified pro normoblast andpro reticulocyte activity of swarnamakshika bhasma is hence a true drug effect. Itindicates the level of activity of Swarnamakshika bhasma and its metaboliccomponents. This effect may be due to its supplementation or metabolic enzymecorrection activity where as positive control group treated with phenylhydrazinecaused decrease in pro normoblast and reticulocyte content. Hence it can be said that,swarnamakshika bhasma is having positive actual drug effect over erythropoiesis bymeans of increasing pronormoblast and recticulocyte count However it is be notedthat Swarnamakshika bhasma is a mineralo metallic trace elemental nano particle anddo not contain any aminoacid or other orgasupplements which are required inerythropoiesis even then swarnamakshika bhasma is showing pro erythropoiesisactivity mean while the drug has shown decrease in normoblast the normocyte leveland positive control has increased normoblast and normocyte count which may be dueto the effect of Swarnamakshika bhasma is more inclined at myeloid to erythroid cell,pronormoblast and reticulocyte level where as phenylhydrazine is better at the level ofnormoblast and normocyte level. 116 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Conclusion CONCLUSIONIn this research work we have drawn following conclusions from various sections ofthe work.• Swarnamakshika was included in Maharasa varga as it is useful in both Dehavada and dhatuvada.• For any study ideally the sample should be according to the specifications. The sample in the present study is absolutely as per the classics.• Physical and chemical analysis is essential for the quality control of the durg as well as standardization.• Among the various shodhana procedure mentioned in classics Nirvapa for shodhana was found to be more effective.• Shodhana and Marana makes Swarnamakshika free from the doshas.• Desired Bhasma lakshanas were attained after 10th Gajaputa.• Shodhana makes Swarna Makshika free from the doshas, as ashodhita Makshika is harmful to the body.• Swarna Makshika Bhasma is a Rasayana and Shamanoushadha• As it contains Iron and Copper is useful in improving RBC count as well as Hb % in the blood and also copper promotes absorption of iron.• No side effects of Swarna Makshika were obseved during the study. An honest and sincere effort is put in this study, to have all the details. But for the time constraint, there could be more scope to have detailed study in this subject. 117 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Summary SUMMARY This Dissertation work entitled “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis ofSwarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An ExperimentalStudy” comprises eight chapters namely Review of Literature Objectives,Methodology, which is sub divided into Pharmaceutical study, Analytical study andExperimental study, Results, Discussion, Conclusion & Summary.Introduction: A brief Introduction, which gives complete idea of the subject, is givenin the beginning. It depicts the importance of Rasashastra, its position and importance.Aims and Objectives: of the present study are mentioned in the Objective chapter.Review of literature: Drug review is explained with respective ancient and recentadvances.Drug review: Historical references of Swarnamakshika with Synonyms,classifications, occurance, properties, grahya agrahya lakshanas and swarnamakshiakadohsa and shodana, marana, amrutikarana, matra and usage. Modern view ofSwarnamakshika has been explained with physical and chemical properties.Disease review: It deals with Pandu with its Nirukti and Paribasha, Nidana,Samprapti, Poorvaroopa, Roopa, Upadrava etc.Materials and methods: Here it deals about Pharmaceutical, Analytical andHaematinic activity. Pharmaceutical includes Shodhana and preparation ofSwarnamakshika bhasma.Analytical Study: Deals about Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika andSwarnamakshika Bhasma.Experimental study: It dealt with selection of animals, collection and mode ofadministration of drugs, experimental parameters were mentioned. 118 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • SummaryDiscussion: Discussion on Drug review has been discussed. In the part ofPharmaceutical discussion. Shodhana, Marana, Amrutikarana, Gajaputa, Analyticaland Experimental study and their rationalities were discussed and also it includeslogical interpretation of results and also probable mode of action of Swarnamakshikabhasma.Conclusion: Possible conclusions were drawn.Summary: Summaries the entire work. 119 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • BibliographyBibliography 1) Pandit Kashinath Shastry, Charaka samhita II (Chikitsa sthana), 71,72, Pno 211 2) IBID 16th chapter, sloka no 78,79,Pno 425 3) Naranay Rama Acharya Kavayathirtha, Sushrutha samhita (Chikitsa sathana), with Nibhandha sara sangraha Commentary of Sri Dalhana Acharya, Choukhamba publications 2003 (Reprint) 13 chapter, Shloka No 17,18, Pno 456 4) Vaidya Ayanta Damodar Athavale Astanga Sangraha of Vruddha Vagbhata Indu Vyakhya sahita Uttara Tantra. Srimad Ateya Prakashana Pune, 1980, 49th chapter Shloka no330-340, Pno 938-939 5) Kaviraja H S Sharma Rasendra Mangalam of Nagarajuna Choukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi, Ed 1st, 1st chapter Shloka No 44-45, 2nd chapter Shloka No 26-31, 53, Pno 19,36-37,45 6) Srigovinda Bhagavatpadacharya, Rasahrudya Tantra, Ajmeer, Kr4ishna Gopal Ayurveda Bhavan, Ed 2nd, 3rd Chapter Shloka No 18, Pno 68 7) Indradev Tripathi Rasarnava, Edited by S.K. Dixit, Krishna Das Academy Varanasi, Ed 4th 2001, 7th chapter Shloka no 3-16, Pno 86-88 8) Ambikadatta shastry Rasa Ratna Samucchaya, Choukhambaamarabharati Prakashan, Varanasi, Ed 8th, 1998, 2nd Chapter Shloka no 73-88, Pno 48-50 9) Acharya Srimadhava Ayurveda Prakasha Edited by Gulraj Mishra, Choukhamba Bharathi Academy, Varanasi, Reprint 1999, 4th Chapter Shloka No1-17, Pno 407-412 10) Sri Sadananda Sarma, Rasatarangini, Edited by, Kashinath Shastry, Motilal Banarasi Das, Varanasi, Ed 11th, 1979, Reprint 2000, 21st chapter, Shloka No 1-54, Pno 519-530 11) Bhudeb Mukherji, Rasajalanidhi, Dwitiya Khanda, Choukhamba Publishers, Varanasi, Ed 3rd 1988, 1st Chapter, Pno 61-77 12) Rasarnavam, Raschandrika commentary of Dr. Indradev Tripathi, 4th edition, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Sanskrit Series, 2001, pp no. 442, pg no.86 13) Shri Vagbhatacharya, Rasa Ratna Samucchaya, commentary by Ambikadatta Shastry, 9th edition, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Amarabharati Prkashana,1995, ppno. 646, pg no. 48 120 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Bibliography14) Sri Sadananda Sharma Rasatarangini, Edited by, Kashinath Shastry, Motilal Banarasi Das, Varanasi, Ed 11th 1979, Reprint 1994, 21st chapter, Sloka no.1,2,3 Pg no. 519.15) Rasarnavam, Raschandrika commentary of Dr. Indradev Tripathi, 4th edition, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Sanskrit Series, 2001, chapter 7, pp no. 442, pg no.8616) Shri Vagbhatacharya, Rasa Ratna Samucchaya, commentary by Ambikadatta Shastry, 9th edition, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Amarabharati Prkashana,1995, chapter 2, ppno. 646, pg no. 4817) Shri Vagbhatacharya, Rasa Ratna Samucchaya, commentary by Ambikadatta Shastry, 9th edition, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Amarabharati Prkashana,1995, chapter 2, ppno. 646, pg no. 4818) Shri Vagbhatacharya, Rasa Ratna Samucchaya, commentary by Ambikadatta Shastry, 9th edition, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Amarabharati Prkashana,1995, chapter 2, ppno. 646, pg no. 4819) Ananda Kanda ,Tanjore Library, Govt. of Tamil Nadu, 1952, chapter 1, ppno. 724, pg no.53220) Ananda Kanda ,Tanjore Library, Govt. of Tamil Nadu, 1952, chapter 1, ppno. 724, pg no.53221) Sri Sadananda Sharma Rasatarangini, Edited by, Kashinath Shastry, Motilal Banarasi Das, Varanasi, Ed 11th 1979, Reprint 1994, 21st chapter, Sloka no.4 Pg no. 520.22) Bhudeb Mukherjee, Rasa Jala Nidhi, Vol II, 3rd edition, varanasi, Chaukhambha Publishers, 1998,pp no. 296, chapter 1, pg no. 62, 6323) Vaidya Bhagvan Dash, Vaidya Lalitesh Kashyap, Iatrochemistry (Rasashastra) based on Ayurveda Sankhyam of Todarananda, 1st edition, New Delhi, concept Publishing company, 1994, pp no.525, pg no.31024) Sri Sadananda Sharma Rasatarangini, Edited by, Kashinath Shastry, Motilal Banarasi Das, Varanasi, Ed 11th 1979, Reprint 1994, 21st chapter, Sloka no.5 Pg no. 520.25) Pandit Dattaram Chaube, Brihad Rasa Raja Sundara, 3rd edition, Varanasi, Chaukhambha orientalia,2000, pp no.552, pg no.107.26) Shri Sadananda Sharma , Rasa Tarangini, 11th edition, New Delhi, Motilal Banarasidas,2000, chapter 21, pp no772, pg no. 520. 121 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Bibliography27) Pandit Dattaram Chaube, Brihad Rasa Raja Sundara, 3rd edition, Varanasi, Chaukhambha orientalia,2000, pp no.552, pg no.107.28) Shri Sadananda Sharma , Rasa Tarangini, 11th edition, New delhi, Motilal Banarasidas,2000, chapter 21, pp no772, pg no. 521, 522.29) Shri Nitya Natha Siddhaa, Rasa Ratnakaara, Rasa Khanda, Rasa Chandrika commentary of Dr. Indradev Tripathi, 1st edition, Chaukhambha Amarabharati Prakashan, 19855,pp no.116 pg no.51.30) Ananda Kanda ,Tanjore Library, Govt. of Tamil Nadu, 1952, chapter 1, ppno. 724, pg no.533.31) Acharya Bindu, Rasa Paddhati, 1st edition, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Orientalia, 1987, ppno.183, pg no. 100.32) Ananda Kanda ,Tanjore Library, Govt. of Tamil Nadu, 1952, chapter 1, ppno. 724, pg no.534.33) Ananda Kanda ,Tanjore Library, Govt. of Tamil Nadu, 1952, chapter 1, ppno. 724, pg no.534.34) Acharya Shalinatha, Rasa Manjari, 1st edition, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Orientalia, 1995, pp no. 182, pg no.40, 41.35) Shri Sadananda Sharma , Rasa Tarangini, 11th edition, New delhi, Motilal Banarasidas,2000, chapter 21, pp no772, pg no.522.36) Shri Vagbhatacharya, Rasa Ratna Samucchaya, commentary by Ambikadatta Shastry, 9th edition, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Amarabharati Prkashana,1995,chapter 2, ppno. 646, pg no. 48.37) Shri Sadananda Sharma , Rasa Tarangini, 11th edition, New Delhi, Motilal Banarasidas,2000, chapter 21, pp no772, pg no.522.38) Shri Vagbhatacharya, Rasa Ratna Samucchaya, commentary by Ambikadatta Shastry, 9th edition, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Amarabharati Prkashana,1995, chapter 2, ppno. 646, pg no. 48.39) Bhudeb Mukherjee, Rasa Jala Nidhi, Vol II, 3rd edition, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Publishers, 1998,pp no. 296, pg no.63.40) Ananda Kanda ,Tanjore Library, Govt. of Tamil nadu, chapter 1, 1952, ppno. 724, pg no.534.41) Shri Sadananda Sharma , Rasa Tarangini, 11th edition, New Delhi, Motilal Banarasidas,2000, chapter 21, pp no772, pg no.524. 122 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Bibliography42) Shri Sadananda Sharma , Rasa Tarangini, 11th edition, New Delhi, Motilal banarasidas,2000, pp no772, pg no.523.43) Rasatantra sara va Siddha prayoga samgraha, 13th edition, Vol II, Ajmer, Krishna Gopal Ayurveda Bhavan,1991, pp no. 882, pg no. 139.44) Bhudeb Mukherjee, Rasa Jala Nidhi, Vol II, 3rd edition, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Publishers, 1998,chapter 1, pp no. 296, pg no.63.45) Shri Vagbhatacharya, Rasa Ratna Samucchaya, commentary by Ambikadatta Shastry, 9th edition, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Amarabharati Prakashana,1995, chapter 2, ppno. 646, pg no.46) Acharya Shalinatha, Rasa Manjari, 1st edition, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Orientalia, 1995, pp no. 182, pg no.40, 41.47) Sri Sadananda Sharma Rasatarangini, Edited by, Kashinath Shastry, Motilal Banarasi Das, Varanasi, Ed 11th 1979, Reprint 1994, 21st chapter, Sloka no.26,27,28 Pg no. 524.48) Ibid Sloka 29, Pg no. 525.49) J.L.N. Shastry, Dravyaguna vignana, Vol I, Choukhambha publications, Varanasi, 2005, Pno 105-106.50) K.M. Nadakarni Indian Medica Vol-I, Bombay Popular Prakashana, 1976, Pg no 341-342.51) Sushruta Acharya Sushruta samhita edited by Ambikadatta shastri Reprint edition 2005, Chawkahmbha samskrita samsthana, Poorvardha, sutrasthana Chap 45 Shloka 48-49, Page172.52) Ibid Sloka 96,97 Page 177.53) Ibid Sloka 65-67 Page 174.54) Ibid Sloka 132 Page 180.55) Ibid Sloka 162-164 Page 182.56) Chakrapanidutta, Charaka Samhita Chikitsasthana Chapter 16 Shloka 2. Yadavaji Trikamji acharya, reprinted. Varanasi : Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan; 2004.p.526.57) Radhakant Deva Bahaddur, Shabdakalpadruma, 3rd ed. Varanasi : Chaukhamba Orientalia; 1967.p.104.58) Arundutta, Ashtanga Hridaya Nidanasthana Chapter 13 Shloka 3. Reprinted. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 2000.p.517. 123 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Bibliography Agnivesha, Charaka Samhita Chikitsasthana Chapter 16 Shloka 11. 22nd ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 1996.p.488.59) Sushruta, Sushruta Samhita Uttaratantra, Chapter 44 Shloka 4. 13th ed. Varanasi : Chaukhamba Orientalia; 2002.p.285. Madhavakara, Madhava Nidana Part-I Chapter 8 Shloka 2. 28st ed. Varanasi : Chaukhamba Orientalia; 1998. p.221.60) Sushruta, Sushruta Samhita Sutrasthana Chapter 14 Shloka 44. 13th ed. Varanasi : Chaukhamba Orientalia; 2002.p.56.61) Agnivesha, Charaka Samhita Sutrasthana Chapter 24 Shloka 4. 22nd ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 1996.p.443.62) Sushruta, Sushruta Samhita Sutrasthana Chapter 14 Shloka 4. 13th ed. Varanasi : Chaukhamba Orientalia; 2002.p.48.63) Arundutta, Ashtanga Hridaya Sutrasthana Chapter 12 Shloka 13. Reprinted. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 2000.p.194.64) Agnivesha, Charaka Samhita Chikitsasthana Chapter 16 Shloka 4. 22nd ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 1996.p.487.65) Agnivesha, Charaka Samhita Sutrasthana Chapter 12 Shloka 11. 22nd ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 1996.p.251.66) Agnivesha, Charaka Samhita Chikitsasthana Chapter 16 Shloka 7-11. 22nd ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 1996.p.488.67) Sushruta, Sushruta Samhita Uttaratantra, Chapter 44 Shloka 3. 13th ed. Varanasi : Chaukhamba Orientalia; 2002.p.284.68) Arundutta, Ashtanga Hridaya Nidanasthana Chapter 12 Shloka 1. Reprinted. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 2000.p.517.69) Agnivesha, Charaka Samhita Sutrasthana Chapter 23 Shloka 5. 22nd ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 1996.p.436.70) Madhavakara, Madhava Nidana Part-I Chapter 8 Shloka 2. 28st ed. Varanasi : Chaukhamba Orientalia; 1998. p.245. Indradev Tripathi Dr, Daya Shankar Tripathi Yogaratnakar Pandurogaadhikar, Shloka 2, 1st ed. Varanasi : Chaukhamba Orientalia; 1998. p.336. Bhavamishra, Bhavaprakasha Madhyamakhanda Chapter 8 Shloka 2. 5st ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 1969. p.100. 124 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Bibliography71) Sushruta, Sushruta Samhita Nidanasthana Chapter 11 Shloka 17. 13th ed. Varanasi : Chaukhamba Orientalia; 2002.p.273.72) Sushruta, Sushruta Samhita Shareerasthana Chapter 2 Shloka 21. 13th ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 2002.p.12.73) Agnivesha, Charaka Samhita Chikitsasthana Chapter 4 Shloka 27. 22nd ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 1996.p.285.74) Sushruta, Sushruta Samhita Shareerasthana Chapter 9 Shloka 12. 13th ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 2002.p.71.75) Sushruta, Sushruta Samhita Nidanasthana Chapter 2 Shloka 14. 13th ed. Varanasi : Chaukhamba Orientalia; 2002.p.238.76) Sushruta, Sushruta Samhita Nidanasthana Chapter 8 Shloka 15. 13th ed. Varanasi : Chaukhamba Orientalia; 2002.p.258.77) Ibid 16.78) Sushruta, Sushruta Samhita Nidanasthana Chapter 6 Shloka 15. 13th ed. Varanasi : Chaukhamba Orientalia; 2002.p.254.79) Agnivesha, Charaka Samhita Chikitsasthana Chapter 16 Shloka 12. 22nd ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 1996.p.488.80) Sushruta, Sushruta Samhita Uttaratantra Chapter 44 Shloka 5. 13th ed. Varanasi : Chaukhamba Orientalia; 2002.p.286.81) Arundutta, Ashtanga Hridaya Nidanasthana Chapter 13 Shloka 8-9. Reprinted. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 2000.p.518.82) Madhavakara, Madhava Nidana Part-I Chapter 8 Shloka 3. 28st ed. Varanasi : Chaukhamba Orientalia; 1998. p.225. Bhavamishra, Bhavaprakasha Madhyamakhanda Chapter 8 Shloka 3, 5st ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 1969. p.100. Indradev Tripathi Dr, Daya Shankar Tripathi Yogaratnakar Pandurogaadhikar, Shloka 3, 1st ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 1998. p.337.83) Agnivesha, Charaka Samhita Chikitsasthana Chapter 16 Shloka 13-16. 22nd ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 1996.p.488-489.84) Arundutta, Ashtanga Hridaya Nidanasthana Chapter 13 Shloka 4-7. Reprinted. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 2000.p.518.85) Gangadhara, Chakrapani, Charaka Samhita Chikitsasthana Chapter 16 Shloka 4-6, Reprint. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 1991.p.2974. 125 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Bibliography86) Agnivesha, Charaka Samhita Chikitsasthana Chapter 16 Shloka 3. 22nd ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 1996.p.486.87) Sushruta, Sushruta Samhita Uttaratantra Chapter 14 Shloka 4. 13th ed. Varanasi : Chaukhamba Orientalia; 2002.p.285.88) Arundutta, Ashtanga Hridaya Nidanasthana Chapter 13 Shloka 7. Reprinted. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 2000.p.518.89) Bhavamishra, Bhavaprakasha Madhyamakhanda Chapter 8 Shloka 1, 5st ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 1969. p.98. Indradev Tripathi Dr, Daya Shankar Tripathi Yogaratnakar Pandurogaadhikar, Shloka 1, 1st ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 1998. p.336. Madhavakara, Madhava Nidana Part-I Chapter 8 Shloka 1. 28st ed. Varanasi : Chaukhamba Orientalia; 1998. p.220.90) Agnivesha, Charaka Samhita Chikitsasthana Chapter 16 Shloka 17-18. 22nd ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 1996.p.489. Sushruta, Sushruta Samhita Uttaratantra Chapter 44 Shloka 7. 13th ed. Varanasi : Chaukhamba Orientalia; 2002.p.286. Arundutta, Ashtanga Hridaya Nidanasthana Chapter 13 Shloka 9-10. Reprinted. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 2000.p.518.91) Agnivesha, Charaka Samhita Chikitsasthana Chapter 16 Shloka 19-22. 22nd ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 1996.p.489. Sushruta, Sushruta Samhita Uttaratantra Chapter 44 Shloka 8. 13th ed. Varanasi : Chaukhamba Orientalia; 2002.p.286. Arundutta, Ashtanga Hridaya Nidanasthana Chapter 13 Shloka 10-11. Reprinted. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 2000.p.518.92) Agnivesha, Charaka Samhita Chikitsasthana Chapter 16 Shloka 23-25. 22nd ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 1996.p.489. Sushruta, Sushruta Samhita Uttaratantra Chapter 44 Shloka 9. 13th ed. Varanasi : Chaukhamba Orientalia; 2002.p.287. Arundutta, Ashtanga Hridaya Nidanasthana Chapter 13 Shloka 11-12. Reprinted. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 2000.p.518.93) Madatraya Maharshi, Hareetamuni, Samvadarupa Vaidya Granth, Harita Samhita Chapter 8 Shloka 10 Edited by Khemraj Shrikrishnadas; Bombay: Swakiya Venkateshwar Mudranlaya; 1984.p.148. 126 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Bibliography94) Agnivesha, Charaka Samhita Chikitsasthana Chapter 16 Shloka 26. 22nd ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 1996.p.489-490. Sushruta, Sushruta Samhita Uttaratantra Chapter 44 Shloka 10. 13th ed. Varanasi : Chaukhamba Orientalia; 2002.p.287. Arundutta, Ashtanga Hridaya Nidanasthana Chapter 13 Shloka 12. Reprinted. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 2000.p.518.95) Chakrapanidutta, Charaka Samhita Chikitsasthana Chapter 16 Shloka 27-30. Yadavaji Trikamji acharya, reprinted. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan; 2004.p.528.96) Arundutta, Ashtanga Hridaya Nidanasthana Chapter 13 Shloka 13-15. Reprinted. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 2000.p.518.97) Madhavakara, Madhava Nidana Part-I Chapter 8 Shloka 9-11. 28st ed. Varanasi : Chaukhamba Orientalia; 1998. p.229. Bhavamishra, Bhavaprakasha Madhyamakhanda Chapter 8 Shloka 8-10, 5st ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 1969. p.101. Indradev Tripathi Dr. Daya Shankar Tripathi Yogaratnakar Pandurogaadhikar, Shloka 1-3, 1st ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 1998. p.337.98) Agnivesha, Charaka Samhita Chikitsasthana Chapter 16 Shloka 4-6,9-11. 22nd ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 1996.p.487-488.99) Arundutta, Ashtanga Hridaya Nidanasthana Chapter 13 Shloka 1-3. Reprinted. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 2000.p.517.100) Sushruta, Sushruta Samhita Uttaratantra Chapter 44 Shloka 3. 13th ed. Varanasi : Chaukhamba Orientalia; 2002.p.284.101) Human Physiology, By C.C. Chatterjee B.Sc, M.D. Vol – I, Published by Kalyani Mukherjee, Reprint 2004, Chapter- 4th Page No. 147-151.102) Satoskar, Kale, Bhandarkar’s Pharmocology and th Pharmocotherapeutics by R.S. Satoskar, S.D. Bhandarkar, Vol-I, 12 ed, Bombay Popular prakashan, Section VIII, Page No. 411.103) Harsh Mohan, Text Book of Pathology; Chapter 12. 4th ed. New Delhi : Japee Brother’s Medical Publishers; 2000.p.334-342.104) Davidson, Principals and Practice of Medicine. Chapter 19. 19th ed. Christopher Haslett, Edwin R. Chilvers, Boon, Colledge London; Churchill Livingstone;2002.p.903. 127 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”
    • Bibliography105) Satuskar R.S., Bhandarkar S.D. Ainapuri S.S. Pharmacology and Pharmaco-therapeutics Chapter 30. 16th ed. Mumbai; Popular Prakashana Publications; 1999. p.453.106) Harsh Mohan, Text Book of Pathology; Chapter 12. 4th ed. New Delhi : Japee Brother’s Medical Publishers; 2000.p.344.107) Dr. R.K. Goyal & Dr. N.M. Patel, “Practical Anatomy and Physiology”, 11th edition, B.S. Shah Prakashan, Ahmedabad.108) Jain S.K. and Subrabmanyam D, 1978, on the mechanism of Phenylhydrazine Induced hemolytic anemia” Biochem. Biophysic Res. Comm. 82 (4): 1320-1324).109) Patil S, kanase A, and Kulkarni P.H, 2000, “Anti aneaemic properties of Ayurvedic drugs, Raktavardhaka Punarnavasava and navayasa loha in albino rats during phenylhydrazine induced haemolytic Anaemia. Indian journal of Experimental biology, 38 (3): 253-257. 128 “Preparation, Physico chemical analysis of Swarnamakshika bhasma and Evaluation of its Haematinic Activity, An Experimental Study”