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Pharmaceutico analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” - Dr. Anand. H, Department of rasashastra, Post graduate studies and research center, Shri D. G. Melmalagi Ayurvedic Medical ...

Pharmaceutico analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” - Dr. Anand. H, Department of rasashastra, Post graduate studies and research center, Shri D. G. Melmalagi Ayurvedic Medical College, Gadag

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    Swachandabhiravras rs006 gdg Swachandabhiravras rs006 gdg Document Transcript

    • “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” BY DR. ANAND. H. Dissertation Submitted to the Rajiv Gandhi University Of Health Sciences, Karnataka, Bangalore. In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of AYURVEDA VACHASPATI (DOCTOR OF MEDICINE) IN RASASHASTRA Under the guidance of DR.DILIP KUMAR.B. M.D. (RASASHSATRA) P.G.Dept. of Rasashastra and Co-guidance of DR. GIRISH. N. DANAPPAGOUDAR, M.D. (RASASHASTRA), P.G.Dept. of Rasashastra POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRAD.G MELMALAGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE AND RESEARCH CENTER GADAG – 582103 2006 Rajiv Gandhi University Of Health Sciences, Karnataka, Bangalore.
    • DECLARATION BY THE CANDIDATE I here by declare that this dissertation / thesis entitled “Pharmaceuticoanalytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” is a bonafideand genuine research work carried out by me under the guidance of Dr.Dilipkumar P,M.D.(Ayu), (Rasashastra), Assistant-Professor, Post graduate department of Rasashastraand under the Co-guidance of Dr. Girish. N. Danappagoudar,M.D. (Rasashastra).Lecturer, Post graduate department of Rasashastra.Date:Place: Gadag. Dr.Anand. H
    • SHRI D. G. MELMALAGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA. CERTIFICATE BY THE GUIDE This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “Pharmaceutico -Analytical Study on Swaccanddha Bhirava Rasa(Dwitiya) .” is a bonafideresearch work done by Dr. Anand. H. in partial fulfillment of the requirementfor the degree of Ayurveda Vachaspathi. M.D (Rasashastra).Date:Place: Gadag. Dr. Dilipkumar. B. M.D. (Ayu) Astt Professor Department of Rasashastra, D.G.M.A.M.C, Gadag.
    • SHRI D. G. MELMALAGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA. CERTIFICATE BY THE Co - GUIDE This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “Pharmaceuticoanalytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” is a bonafideresearch work done by Dr. ANAND.H. in partial fulfillment of the requirementfor the degree of Ayurveda Vachaspathi. M.D (Rasashastra).Date:Place: Gadag. Dr. Girish. N. Danappagoudar, M.D. (Rasashastra). Lecturer, Postgraduate department of Rasashastra.
    • ENDORSEMENT BY THE H.O.D AND PRINCIPAL OF THE INSTITUTIONThis is to certify that the dissertation entitled “Pharmaceutico analyticalstudy on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” is a bonafide researchwork done by Dr. ANAND.H. under the guidance of DR. Dilipkumar. B M.D.(Rasashastra), Asst. Professor, Postgraduate department of Rasashastra and co-guidance of Dr. Girish. N. Danappagoudar, M.D. (Rasashastra), lecturer, Postgraduatedepartment of Rasashastra.DR. M.C.Patil, M.D. (Rasashastra) Dr. G. B. Patil.Professor & H.O.D, Principal.Post graduate department of Rasashastra. D.G.M.A.M.C, GADAG.D.G.M.A.M.C, GADAG.Date:Place: Gadag
    • COPYRIGHT Declaration by the candidate I hereby declare that the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences,Karnataka shall have the rights to preserve, use and disseminate thisdissertation / thesis in print or electronic format for academic / researchpurpose.Date: Signature of ScholarPlace: Gadag Dr.Anand.H© Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka.
    • ABSTRACTBackground. Rasaoushadhis with different formulations are classified according to mode ofpreparation under khalvi rasayana, kupipakva rasayana, pottali rasayana and parpati rasayana.Rasaoushadhis with various elements along with kajjali is proved more effective than herbalformulations in lesser dosage Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya) is a khalvi rasayana, with a unique herbomineralcombination of drugs to treat Navajwara. Before its clinical application it is the need of hour tocritically undergo pharmaceutical and analytical evaluation as a part of safety measures. Hencestudy is under taken.Objectives : • Preparation of Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya). • Physico-chemical analysis of Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya).Methods:Pharmaceutical study.1.Hingula shodhana- Rasatarangini, 9th chapter, Sloka – 16 – 17.2.Hingulotha parada- Rasatarangini, 9th chapter, Sloka – 13 – 17.3.Parada shodhana- Rasatarangini, 5th chapter, Sloka – 40 – 42.4.Gandhaka shodhana- Rasatarangini, 8th chapter, Sloka – 7 – 11.5.Kajjali preparation- Rasatarangini, 6th chapter, Sloka – 110 – 111.6.Vatsanabha shodhana- Rasatarangini, 24th chapter, Sloka – 19 – 25.7.preparation of Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)- Bhaisajyarathnavali, 5th chapter, Sloka –492- 493. ABSTRACT - IV
    • Analytical study:Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya) is subjected to phyisico-chemical analysis likeorganoleptic characters,pH value, total ash value, fineness, estimation of mercury and sulphur.Interpretation and conclusion:1.Kajjali is a black sulphide of parada, which is a sagandha, niragni pota bandha of parada,khalvi rasayana.2.Trituration time and saturation of parada with gandhaka is directly propotional to thepharmacological effect of kajjali and its further complex compounds3. Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya) is one among Sagandha Niragni Murchita paradayoga.When purified Mercury and sulphur are intimately mixed in a definite proportion to get a blackpowder called as Kajjali.4.Siddhi laxanas of ayurveda and modern physico-chemical analysis are confirmative test toevaluate the perfectness of the pharmaceutics.Keywords: Hingula, hingulotha parada, parada, gandhaka,kajjali,vatsanabha, pippali, jatikosha,Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya). ABSTRACT - V
    • ACKNOWLEDGMENT First and foremost, I Salute almighty God, by his blessings and Grace, whichgives us success in life. My deep sense of gratification is due for my parents, my uncle, and familywho are the architects of my career. I am extremely happy to express my deepest sense of gratitude to my belovedand respected Guide, Dr. Dilip kumar B. M.D. (Rasashastra)) whose sympathetic, scholarlysuggestions and Guidance at every step have inspired me not only to accomplish thiswork but in all aspects. I express my deep gratitude to my respected Sir H.O.D. and Prof. Dr. M.C.Patil M.D. (Rasashastra) for his critical suggestions and expert guidance for the completionof thesis. I am extremely greatful to my Co-guide Dr. Girish. N. Danappagoudar,M.D.(Rasashastra). Lecturer, Postgraduate department of Rasashastra, under whoseguidance and valuable suggestions, I have been able to complete this research work. I offer my sincere thanks to Dr. R.K. Gaccchinmath, professor and HOD, UGDept of Rasashastra, DGMAMC, Gadag, for his constant support I express my deep sense of gratification to my beloved and Respected sirs, , DrJagadeesh Mitti, MD (Ayu) Lecturer, PG Dept of Rasashastra, DGMAMC, Gadag,.Whose guidance, inspiration, supervision and valuable suggestions, I have been ableto complete this Research work. I express my deep gratitude to beloved Principal Dr. G.B. Patil, PrincipalDGMAMC, Gadag, for his encouragement and providing all necessary facilities forthis research work. ACKNOWLEDGMENT - I
    • I express my deep gratitude to Dr.Guru.Rau, Director SSCU,IISc.,Dr.Shivukumar, Dept of XRD,IISc, Dr.Kannan,Dept of Emax,IISc.Bangalore. I take this opportunity to thank Shri Chandur, Lecturer K.L.E’s College ofPharmacy Gadag, who extended valuable support by conducting analyticalprocedures. I express my deep gratitude to Shri B.C. Hatapakki M.Pharm, PrincipalK.L.E.’s College of Pharmacy Gadag, for his encouragement and providing allnecessary facilities for this research work.. I express my sincere thanks to Dr. Varadacharylu M.D. (Ayu), Dr. Mulagund M.D. ,Dr. G. Purushothamacharylu M.D. (Ayu) for their constant support. I am grateful to Dr. K.S.R. Prasad M.D. (Ayu), Dr. Shivramudu M.D. (Ayu), Dr. S.H.Doddamani M.D. (Ayu), Dr. R.V. Shettar M.D. (Ayu), Dr. Kuber sankh M.D. (Ayu), Dr. SantoshBelvadi M.D. (Ayu), Dr. Sashikanth Nidagundi M.D. (Ayu), and other P.G. Staff for theirconstant encouragement. I extend my gratitude to Shri V.M. Mundinmani and Sureban for providing therequired books during the study. With great pleasure I offer my recognition to my friends Dr. Suvarna P.Nidagundi, Dr. Anitha H, Dr and Dr. Shambulinga Teggi for their friendly affectionand amiable attitude during my study period without which I would never becomplete. I offer my sincere thanks to my friends Dr. M.V. Sobagin, Dr. B.Y. Ghanti,Dr. Pradeep, Dr. Shankuntala and Dr. M.S. Hiremath for their kind co-operation andhelp. ACKNOWLEDGMENT - II
    • I offer my sincere thanks to my senior friends Dr. Santoji, Dr. Koteshwara, Dr,V.S. Hiremath, Dr. Jaggal, Dr Sharanabasappa. S. Dr. R.B. Pattanshetty, for theirimmense help and affection. I am also thankful to my junior friends Dr. Rudrakshi, Dr. Suma Jamakhandi,Dr. Jaya, Dr. Kattimani, Dr. Shivakumar, Dr. Ravindra, Dr. Anupama Bijjal, Dr.Sarvamangala, Dr. Kavitha for their support and affection. I am grateful to Shri Chaitrakumar (Sadguru computers) for his kind co-operation and immense help to complete the dissertation work. My sincere thanks to my batch mates Dr. Suresh, Dr. Manju, Dr. Ashwin, Dr.Gavi, Dr. Survey, Dr. Krishna, Dr. Chanveer, Dr. Vijay, Dr. Jagadeesh, Dr. Umesh,Dr. Reddy, and all my friends for their kind support. Lastly but not least my heartly thanks to Dr.Madhav.Diggavi for his kindsuggestions. Dr. ANAND.H. ACKNOWLEDGMENT - III
    • CONTENTSChapter Page No.Introduction 1-2Objectives 3Review of literature 4 - 52Methodology 53 - 83Discussion 84 - 91Conclusion 92 - 93Summary 94Bibliographic References 95 - 110 CONTENTS - VI
    • LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS⇒ A. P. – Ayurveda Prakasha.⇒ B.P. - Bhava prakasha.⇒ B. P.N. – Bhava Prakasha Nighantu.⇒ C.S. - Charaka Samhita.⇒ D.N. - Dhanvantari Nighantu.⇒ M.M. - Materia medica.⇒ M.P.N. - Madanapal Nighantu.⇒ R. N. – Raja Nighantu.⇒ R. M. – Rasamrita.⇒ R. S.S. – Rasendra sara sangraha.⇒ R.R.S. - Rasaratna Samuchchaya.⇒ R. T. – Rasatarangini.⇒ R. J.N. – Rasa Jala Nidhi.⇒ S.S. - Sushruta Samhita.⇒ Y. K. – Yoga Ratanakara. ABBREVIATIONS - VII
    • LIST OF TABLESSl. No. Contents Page No.1 Table showing the best variety and lakshanas of hingula 62 Table showing the synonyms of Parada 133 Table showing the varieties of Parada 144 Table showing the yougika doshas and their effects 155 Table showing the kanchuka doshas and their effects 166 Table showing the types of Gandhaka 227 Table showing the types of Gandhaka, qualities and uses 228 Table showing the synonyms of Vatsanabha 349 Table showing the Vatsanabha Bheda, Acc. to Yogaratnakara. 3610 Table showing the Vatsanabha shodhana, Acc. to different authors 3811 Table showing the synonyms of Pippali 4412 Table showing the synonyms of Jatikosha 4913 Table showing the Actions of Jatikosha 4914 Table showing the indications of Jatikosha 5015 Table showing the Results of Hingula shodhana 5416 Table showing the quantity of Hingula, before & after shodhana 5517 Table showing the observations during Hingulotta parada 5718 Table showing the observations during shodhana of parada 6019 Table showing the quantity of Gandhaka before & after shodhana 6120 Table showing the different phases of Kajjali during preparation 6321 Table showing the physical properties of Kajjali 6322 Table showing the quantity of Vatsanabha, before & after shodhana 6623 Table showing the quantity of Vatsanabha, before & after 67 churnikarana24 Table showing the quantity of Pippali, before & after churnikarana 6825 Table showing the quantity of Jatikosha, before & after churnikarana 6926 Table showing the ingredients of Swacchandda bhairava rasa 70 (Dwitiya), with their proportions LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS Sl. No. Contents 1. Ingredients of Swacchandda bhairava rasa (Dwitiya) 2. Ingredients of Swacchandda bhairava rasa (Dwitiya) LIST OF TABLES - VIII
    • IntroductionINTRODUCTION The concept of rasaushadhies is come in existence along with the evaluation ofdifferent pharmaceutical processes in the field of ayurveda. These processes makes thematerial into such a suitable form which acts on different non manageable diseases, inminute dosages, quick effectiveness, having long shelf life compaired to other drugs.Rasashastra a branch of Ayurveda deals with metals, minerals, etc. Rasaushadhies aremainly grouped into four varieties –1. Kharaliya rasayana2. Pottali rasayana3. Parpati rasayana4. Kupipakwa rasayanaMethod of preparation of Rasaushadhies are different from each other. Kharaliyarasayana occupies major proportion in the Rasa rasayanas. In that four rasayanasKupipakwa and pottali rasayanas are limited. But kharaliya rasayanas are numerous.Kharaliya rasayanas are prepared by mercurial compounds like Kajjali, Hingula, etc.Mardana is done in Khalva yantra with dhatu, bhasmas, vishas, upavishas, sadharanarasa. Bhavana is given with dugdha, jala, swarasa. It can be used as churna or vati. Hereno agni samskara is given and yogas which are prepared in khalva yantra are called askharaliya rasayana.Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya), which comes under kharaliya rasayana a uniqueherbomineral formulation to treat Navajwara.The potency of yoga is dependent on the proper classical pharmaceutical procedureadopted. Along with it the drugs also plays an important role. The pharmaceuticalprocedures like shodhana, mardhana make the drug into such a state that it is easilyabsorbed and assimilate in the body and produce its desired effects. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 1
    • IntroductionAnalytical procedures are safety measures to confirm the drug quality.Parada and gandhaka is considered as a supreme drugs in rasashastra, their combinationin kajjali form are base for almost all formulations.Further kajjali with any herbal powder when stratified with khalvi rasayana method willbecome a new complex chemically. The shelf life of the herbal active chemical moleculeswill be maintained for longer period due to the inert kajjali effect.Hence Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya) is taken for the present study to establish itspharmaceutical and analytical approach. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 2
    • ObjectivesOBJECTIVES1.Preparation of Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya).2.Physico-chemical analysis of Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya). “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 3
    • Review of Literature Review of Literature The main aim of Rasa Shastra is not Lohavada, but to attain Jeevan Mukti bymeans of Deha vada, for which contribution of Rasoushadhis to make the bodydisease free and healthy is versatile. Mercury is considered as semen of Lord Shiva which can perform anythingeffectively with Rajas of Parvathi (Shakti) i.e. sulphur. Haragowri sristi samyoga isneeded to achieve jeevanmukti. This philosophical basis leads Rasasiddhas to performvarious experiments. As a result, various substances emerged with the combinationof Parada and Gandhaka as mainstream of medicine. Swaccanddha bhirava rasa (dwitiya)1 is a rasagandha kajjali yoga,whichcontains Parada Gandhaka Vatsanabha pippali and Jatikosha. The present review hascollectioin from classical and contemporary references. This chapter is divided underthree headings i.e., Drug Review, Pharmaceutical Review and Analytical Review. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 4
    • Review of LiteratureDRUG REVIEWHINGULAHingula is the main source of Parada. Parada extracted from Hingula is said to beequivalent to Ashtasamskarita Parada.Hingula is one of the Sadharana Rasa2.Varga authorsMaharasa Rasahrudaya Tantra and RasakamadhenuRasagarbha AnandkandaRasa gandhaka sambhava RasarnavaHistory:The reference of Hingula is found in Kautilya Arthashastra in testing of Gold andspoilage of Gold.Occurrence: Italy, France, Germany, Spain, China, Japan and Iran.Synonyms3:Darada, Shukatunda, Hingala, Hingula, Ingala, Mleccha, Rakta, Suranga, Chitranga,Churna Parada, Rasodbhava, Rasasthana, Rakta Kaya, Kapishirshaka.Vernacular Names4:Sanskrit: Hingula ; Hindi : Hingul, Singarph ;Assami: Janjaphar ; Gujrati : Hingula ; Marati : Hingula ;Kannada: Hingalika ; Telugu : Ingalikam ;English: CinnabarVarieties5, 6,7: On the basis of occurrence Khanija (Mineral) Krutrima (Artificial) “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 5
    • Review of LiteratureOn the basis of colour and properties:Charmara : Krishna, Rakta VarnaShukatunda : Pita VarnaHamsa Pada : Japa Kusuma VarnaIn the above varities, Hamsapada is considered as uttama and Charmara as adhama.Grahya Lakshana8, 9:Table No. 1, Showing the best variety and Lakshanas of Hingula.Japakusuma Varnabha Resembles colour of petals of red hibiscus flower.Peshane Sumanoharaha When grinded its colour becomes beautifulMahojwala Reflects in sunlightBharapurna Heavy in weightShweta Rekha Having white or silvery streaksPravalabha Resembles like that of Pravala.Hingula Shodhana10,11:Hingula gets purified by subjecting it to -Seven Bhavanas with Ardraka or Lakucha SwarasaSeven Bhavanas with Nimbu Swarasa.Bhavana with meshi KshiraGunas of Hingula 12:Rasa : Tikta, Katu, KashayaGuna : UshnaVeerya : Ushna “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 6
    • Review of LiteratureShuddha Hingula is useful in the treatment of Prameha, Kushta, Jwara, Mandagni,Hrdroga, Aruchi, Amlapitta, Hrullasa, Pliharoga, Amavata and also useful in treatingGara Visha.Hingula is used in the Marana of Gold, Iron etc, metals. Mercury extracted fromHingula is considered equal in properties to the mercury in which Gandhaka Jaranahas been made.Matra13, - ½ - 1 RattiAnupana - Maricha, Guda, Pippali, GuduchiSwarasa, Madhu.Important Yogas of HingulaSome of the important yogas are Ananda Bhairava Rasa, Kanaka Sundara Rasa, JwaraMurari Rasa, Vasantha malati Rasa, Ratna Garbha Pottali Rasa, Tribhuvana KirtiRasa, Kasturi Bhairava Rasa, Hinguleshwara Rasa.HINGULA MODERN VIEW14(CINNABAR)Cinnabar is the chief ore of Mercury contains 80-85% of Mercury. This is a redcoloured ore, divides itself into pointed needle like pieces. It is very soft and whenground it becomes deep red coloured.It occurs both in crystalline and massive forms. When used as pigment it is calledvermilion.Occurrence: Occurs naturally as a mineral and also prepared artificially. It occursnaturally in Spain, Italy, France, Germany, China, Japan, Russia and Iran. Artificialcinnabar is prepared in India in Surat and Kolkata but there is no natural sourceavailable in India. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 7
    • Review of LiteratureGeneral Description of Cinnabar:Chemical formula : HgsColour : Cochineal red(Red Sulphide of Mercury)Streak : ScarletHardness : 2.5Specific gravity : 8.1Cleavage : Prismatic perfectFracture : Subconchoidal to unevenCinnabar classification :Dana Class - Contains sulfides including sclenides and telluride’sStrunz class - Contains sulfides and sulpho saltsPreparation of Artificial cinnabar15:Parada and Gandhaka are taken in 6:1 ratio, triturated well, kept in Iron vessel andheated on tivragni. Then red coloured compound is formed on the upper part iscollected and is called cinnabar.HINGULOTTHA PARADA16Hingula is the main ore of Parada. The Parada, which is extracted from Hingula, ispure and devoid of Sapta-Kanchuka doshas and has the qualities of SamagunaGandhaka Jirna Parada. It is equal to Asta Samskarita Parada.Methods employed:Various methods have been employed for the extraction of parada from hingula:Urdhwapatana vidhi17.Adhahpatana vidhi18Tiryak patanavidhi “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 8
    • Review of LiteratureNadayantra etc.Yantras used for the extraction of parada are:Patana yantraVidhyadhara yantraDamaru yantra.Adhapatana yantraTiryakpataha yantraNada yantra etcBefore extracting parada from Hingula, Hingula must be triturated with juices ofeither Nimbu, paribhadra, Nimba patra at least for 3 hrs.juice of citrus fruit whichenables to reduce the Hingula to its fine state of division, by this maximum amount ofparada can be extracted.after trituration chakricas are made and dried kept in any ofthe above said yantra and sealed well. Then heated by keeping cold pads overthe top of urdhvapatana yantra, by which parada coalesces over theinner surface of the upper vessel of damaru yantra.Cooling the other pot where parada is condensed. Mercury is extracted and squeezedthrough the cloth.Adhahpatana Vidhi:Hingula is triturated with ardraka or Nimbu swarasa, paste is applied to the Innersurface of the upper pot.Lower pot filled with water is placed in the earth. And mouth of upper pot is placedover the mouth of the lower pot.Sandhi bandhana is done and driedVanopalas are placed over upper pot and fire is given.After swanga sheeta, Parada is collected from lower pot and washed. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 9
    • Review of LiteratureTiryak Patana vidhi: By distillation apparatusUrdhwa Patana Vidhi:Nimbu Rasabhavita Hingula is made into chakrikas and kept inside the lower pot.Then closed with another large sized pot over the lower pots mouth andSandhibanadhana is done. Lower pot is heated over stove and the upper pot is keptcool by keeping wet cloth over it.After complete extraction and swanga Sheeta, Parada along with soot is collectedfrom the upper pot and filtered to separate the parada.As the boiling point of Parada is 3570C, for the extraction of Parada from Hingula6500C – 7000C temperature is required, since dissociation of Hingula occurs at around6200CBrief description of modern methods: 1 9From ancient description it is very clear that the source of extraction ofmercury was only hingula (cinnabar). In Spain, Italy etc., parada isextracted from hingula by various methods.First it was heated with oxygen. Second method was heating of hingula with Loha (Fe) or Sudha (Ca). Bythese two methods most part of the parada separates from sulphur and remainedparada is taken out by distillation. For this purpose various types of furnaces areemployed. There is a vast change in the methodology and equipments employed forthis purpose now a day. The equation of heating hingula in air is as follows Hgs+O 2 -->H g + So 2 and heating with calcium and ferrum is as follows: -4 Hgs + 4Cao ----- 4Hg + 3 Cas + Ca So 4 .Hgs + Fe + O 2 ----- Hg + Fe + So 2 . “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 10
    • Review of LiteratureEXTRACTION OF MERCURY FROM CINNABARConsists of 2 stepsOre concentration Roasting and distillationIsolation of Mercury occurs as:2HgS + 3O2 → 2Hgo + 2So22 Hgo → 2Hg + o2After these methods the remnant-unseparated part of mercury isobtained by distillation. This process of distillation is called vacuumdistillation. In purification of mercury reduced pressure and vacuumdistillation is major invention. Now a days, readymade equipments areavailable for this purpose. This is the brief description of extraction ofparada from hingula.In present study the above method was employed for the extraction of Parada fromHingulaExpected out put: Good quality cinnabar contains about 85% of mercury. An ideally followedmethod should yield at least 75-80% of mercury. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 11
    • Review of LiteraturePARADA Parada has been recognized vastly in the field of Rasashastra. We come acrossmuch quotations providing the importance of Parada in all texts of Rasashastra.Parada with its various properties, it has important role to play in Rasashastrapharmacology.History: Rasa has been described to be a Devine origin and claimed to be related toLord Shiva or Hara. Initially it was used for Alchemical purposes (loha vada) toconvert lower metals like Lead, Tin, Copper, etc. into noble metals like Gold, silveretc. Later on its therapeutic use in curing the diseases has been recognized. In Koutilya Arthashastra (325 cent B.C), it is mentioned that swarna can beprepared by parada20. In Charaka Samhita there is usage of Parada with Makshika and Gandhaka inKushta Roga and it is used externally21. In Sushruta Samhita its external use has been mentioned22.Vernacular names23: Sanskrit - Parada, Assami - Jivaka, English - Mercury, Quick silver, Kannada– Paraja, Hindi – Para, Marati – Paara, Bangla – Paara, Latin – Hydrargirum (Hg).Etymological significance of Synonyms24, 25:Rasa – As it digests all drugs, Nourishes all Dhatu’s of the body. Beingingested by human for RasayanarthaRasendra - King of all medicines or Rasa’sSuta - Since used for Deha and Loha SiddhiParada - Gives an end to sufferings.Mishraka - Properties of all metals are found in it. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 12
    • Review of LiteratureTable No.2, showing synonyms of Parada based on the following 26Swarupaat Dharmika Gatyatmak Dehavada Dhatuvadat Vishista Darshanikama Devatmaka a tmaka maka guna AdyatmikaGaladroupa Trinetra Kechara Amrita Maharasa Ananta Jeevanibham Trilochana Chapala Dehada Rasa Kalikant JaivaMahavanhi Deva Chala Paramamrit Rasendra aka DivyaMahateja Dehaja Dhurtaka a Rasesha Sukshm AchintyaSuvarna Prabhu Parata Rasottama a Rudraja Parada Rasadhatu Soubhag Rajasmala Mrityunasha Rasaraja ya. Shanta na Rasaleha Shiva Rasayana Siddadhatu Shiva Rasayana Soota veerya sreshta. Sootaka Skandha Sootarath Harateja Mishraka Harabeeja Harareta Shivabeeja Divyarasa “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 13
    • Review of LiteratureVarieties27: The Varieties of Parada described in various texts based on following factors:Depending on the colour.Depending on the impurities and uses of Parada.Table No. 3, showing varieties of Parada. Variety Colour Impurities Uses Rasa Rakta Which is free from all types Rasayana of impurities Rasendra Peeta Free from impurities Rasayana Suta Ishat Peeta With impurities Deharogahara Parada Shweta With impurities Sarvarogahara Mishraka Mayura With impurities Sarvasiddhidayaka. Chandrika varnaDoshas of Mercury28: According to different rasa classics Doshas of Parada are explained as follows:Naisargika doshas (Natural impurities).Yougika doshas (Physical impurities)Oupadika doshas (Chemical impurities in the form of coating).1. Naisargika Doshas29: Mercury, which is occurring in native compound form generally, attributessome impurities due to its natural power of amalgamation. As these impurities occurdue to nature, these doshas are known as “Naisargika doshas”. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 14
    • Review of Literature Naisargika dosha Effects. Visha - Mrutyukara Vahni - Santapakara Mala - Murchakara2. Yougika doshas30 The impurities mixed by the traders from the commercial point of view toincrease the weight of Parada by adding some Ariloha’s. Ex: Naga, Vanga etc.,Table No. 4, showing Yougikadoshas and their effects according to differentauthors. Textual Sl. No. Doshas Effects Reference 1. RRS Naga, Vanga Jadatva Adhmana 2. AK Naga, Vanga, Jadhya Pootigandhatva Visha Mrutyu. 3. AP Naga, Vanga Jadhya, Adhmana Kushta.Kanchuka Doshas31 Literally Kanchuka means thin layer. Kanchuka doshas are the impurities ofmercury, which are seen as thin layer covering it. This is due to tarnishing of mercury. There is some difference of opinion amongst ancient scholars regarding theirname and source but all of them considered as seven in number. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 15
    • Review of LiteratureTable No. 5 Showing Kanchuka Doshas and their effects according to differentRasa classics.Sl.No. Text Doshas Effects1. Parpati Mrunmaya (Prithvi) Kushta,2. Patini Pashanaja (Girija) Jadhya, Admana3. Bhedi Jalaja (Varija) Vali, Palita, khalitya, Vaksangatha, Mala Bhedana.4. Dravi Nagaja (Shyama) Mahakusta, Sweta Kusta, Udara, Kamala, Pandu, Prameha.5. Malakari Nagaja (Kapalika) Dadru, Gaja Karna, Doshavardhaka.6. Dhwankshi Vangaja (Kapali) Swara Parushyakara.7. Andhakari Vangaj (Kalika) Marmacheda, Vastishoola, Andhatva.Grahya Lakshanas of Parada32: Parada is liquid in form, shines as bright as mid – day sun, white glazeexteriorly and bluish tinge interiorly mercury with these qualities is known as Grahyavariety.Agrahya Lakshanas of Parada33: Mercury looking smoky, grayish and slightly yellowish or having variousshades of colours is agrahya variety, incorporated with various metallic and elementalimpurities bonded physico – chemically.Parada ShodhanaSamanya shodhana of parada:Shodhana is intended to get rid of impurities of Parada. As the Parada is obtainedfrom the earths crust naturally it adsorbs some unwanted soil particles & chemical “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 16
    • Review of Literatureover it. So it is essential to carry out some purifactory procedures before making useof parada.Different Methods Adopted for Samanya Shodhana of parada:Some texts advised urdvapathana Samskara i.e distillation followed by sublimation ofparad.Some authors mentioned just filtration through two to four folded fine, dust free, silkcloth for 7-21 times.Parada should be triturated with Nagavalli swarasa, Ardraka swarasa, ksharatraya for3 days and washed with water. This parada will be shining like mukta and devoid ofsapta dosha.Parada should be triturated with lasuna and saindhava lavana on a tapta khalva yantrafor 7 days.Method employed in the present study for samanya shodhana34 - The parada, which is extracted by urdhwa patana vidhi by hingula, is devoidof Sapta kanchuka dosha is subjected to shodhana. Parada’s 1/16th part of Haridrachurha and Nimbu swarasa-Q.S is taken in a porcelain dish and triturated for 2 days.After drying, it is filtered through four-folded cloth and parada is procured.Drugs mentioned for Samanya Shodhana of Parada : Parada shodhana has to be carried out for 3 to 7 days, in any of the followingdrugs to get rid of parada doshas.Kumari, Chitraka, Raktasarshapa, Haridra, Ishtika choorna, Triphala, Nagavalliswarasa, Gruha Dhooma, Kanji, Ardraka swarasa etc.,Vishesha Shodhana This procedure was intended for strengthening and potentiation of Parada andis achieved by Astadasha Samskaras. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 17
    • Review of LiteraturePharmacological and therapeutic properties of Parada35:Rasa : ShadrasaGuna : Snigdha, Sara and GuruVeerya : UshnaVipaka : MadhuraKarma : Yoga vahi, Rsayana, Vrishya, Balya, Vayastambhana, Pustikarak, Deepana, Agnivardhaka, Deha sidhikara, Loha sidhikara, Shodhana, Ropana, Krimighna.Dosha Prabhava: TridoshagnaVyadhi Prabhava: Vata roga, Valipalitha, Jara roga, Sarva Akshi roga, Krimi, Kusta, Sarva roga.MERCURY Mercury is a silvery white metal, liquid at room temperature with high (13.6)density. It is divisible into spherical globules, mobile, without having any odour /taste, cold to touch, slowly volatizing at ordinary temperature. Low melting andboiling point is due to large atomic size. It is a soft metal, three times heavier than water. It forms amalgamation withsilver, platinum etc. Hg slowly oxidizes.2Hg + O2 Heat 2 HgO.General Description36:Atomic Number : 80Atomic Weight : 200.61Atomic Volume : 14.8CCAtomic Radius : 1.57 eg “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 18
    • Review of LiteratureIonic Radius (+2) : 1.10Relative Atomic Mass : 200.50 gm/moleSpecific Gravity : 13.55Melting point : 39.80CBoiling point : 3570COccurrence and distribution: Small quantities of mercury occur in native form but chiefly it occurs assulphide (cinnabar). It is found chiefly in Spain and Italy. It is also found as calomel(Hg2cl2), Metacinnabar (HgS), Tiemannite (HgS), Montroydite (HgO) and also asamalgums of Gold and Tellurium in small quantities.Absorption, distribution and excretion37: As the chemical form of the metal varies, its absorption, distribution andExcretion of mercury also varies. In presence of O2 and Cl2 in the gastric contents, itmay dissolve to cause mild catharsis. Exertion of mercury immediately afterabsorption is mainly through the kidney and colon and to a lesser extent via bile andsaliva. Small amounts are also excreted in volatile elemental form through both lungsand skin. Most of Hg is excreted within 6 days after administration but traces may bedetected for months, even year’s urinary excretion is slow at first but accelerates later.Fecal excretion is 8%, which is due to mucosal sloughing mainly as methyl mercury,but bacterial flora converts about 50% to inorganic mercury.Mode of Action38: Most salts of mercury are absorbed slowly from the intact mucous membraneof the elementary tract and produce their systemic effect. The sulphide ion is veryinert and it is clear that unless and until the salts are dissociated into its constituent’sions, mercury will not be able to exert its influence on the body tissues. Sulphides of “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 19
    • Review of Literaturemercury are not used in any of the pharmacopoeias of western countries as it isconsidered to be devoid of therapeutic activity. The other mercurial salts afterabsorption are excreted into caecum and colon as sulphides and in this form mercuryis found in the feaces. When taken into the system it continues with acids and fluids of the body. It isthen easily absorbed by the skin, the mucous membrane, lungs and stomach andpasses into blood as oxy albuminate in the stomach it is converted into doublechloride of sodium of mercury. It unites with the albuminous juices and is easilyabsorbed.Toleration37: Age, sex and idiosyncrasy greatly modify the action of mercurials, children asa rule bear mercury better than adults and males better than females.Therapeutic uses37:Used as antiseptics, preservatives, parasiticides, fungicides, diuretics inorganic salts.Externally as antiseptics, mercury salts are used.Its solution is used for disinfecting surgical and obstetric practice.Blue ointment and calomel ointment are used to reduce itching in prurigo, pruritis,psoriasis, lichen pityriasis of scalp and eczema.As a stimulant and promoter of absorption liniment and various ointments such asoleate, red precipitate, scoltts and red iodide are used for promoting the absorption ofinflammatory products as in chronic joint disease and periostitis.Mercury is used in certain eye diseases like conjunctivitis, blepharitis and keratitis. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 20
    • Review of LiteratureGANDHAKA Gandhaka is grouped under Uparasa varga by authors of different Rasaclassics. It is next to parada and has been explained in Dhatu Karma and in thepreparation of various Rasaushadhis. It is an essential agent for the various processesof Parada samskaras such as Murchana, Jarana, Bandhana etc. Mercurial preparationswithout Gandhaka are considered to be more toxic.History: Before 1000 B.C. description about Gandhaka was mentioned in CharakaSamhita for the relief of various disorders along with other drugs. With the evolutionof Rasa Shastra importance of Gandhaka was also increased.Mythological origin39:Mythologically Gandhaka is said to be the result of churning of Ksheerasagara and itis originated along with Amruta.Gandhaka is considered to be the Raja of Parvathi.Vernacular names40: Assami – Kiburit; Bengali – Gandhaka; English – Sulphur; Gujarati –Gandhaka; Hindi – Gandhaka ; Marati – Gandhaka; Parsi – Gogid ; Kannada –Gandhaka; Telugu – Gandhakamu.Synonyms41: Gandhapashana Pamari Kauragandha Gandhi Bali Rasa Gandhaka Atigandha Sugandhika Kushtari Gandha Daityendra “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 21
    • Review of Literature Saugandhika Gandhamadana Putigandha KeetaghnaTypes of Gandhaka42: Rasarnava explained three types of Gandhaka and remaining others explainedfour types.Table No.6, showing the Types of Gandhaka according to Rasa Classics. Sl.No. Types RRS RA AP YR RPS R.Chu 1. Shukapichchanibha (Pita) + + + + + + 2. Sukla (Shweta) + + + + + + 3. Shuka Chunchanibha + + + + + + Shukatunda (Rakta) 4. Krishna (Black) + - + + + +Table No. 7 Types of Gandhaka, their qualities and uses42: Sl. No. Types Quality Uses 1. Shukachunchanibham Sreshta Dhatuvada 2. Shukapichchanibham Madhyama Rasayana Karma 3. Shukla Adhama Loha Marana 4. Krishna Jara Mrutyu NashanaGrahya Lakshanas of Gandhaka43The colour of genuine Gandhaka should resemble that of the tail of parrot (yellow).Smooth, Hard, Unctuous. Such Gandhaka should be used for medicinal purpose Shresta Gandhakashould be having the lusture of Kapikacchu beeja and Navaneeta (soft to touch). “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 22
    • Review of Literature For Rasayanartha and Loha vadartha, it should be translucent like the fruits ofAmalaki (Amlasara Gandhaka). For the present study Amlasara Gandhaka is used.Pharmacological and therapeutic properties44 : Rasa : Katu, Tikta, Kashaya Guna : Ushna, Sara Snigadha Virya : Ushna Vipaka : Madhura (R.C.), Katu (R.R.S; A.P) Karma : Deepana, Pachana, Vishahara, Jantughna,Rasayana, Bala Veerya Vardhaka, Jantu, Kandu, Visarpahara. Dosha Prabhava : Kaphavatahara, pittavardhaka. Vyadhi Prabhava: Garavishahara, Kshudra Kushta hara, Kasa,Shwasa, Agnivardhaka, Rasayana, Dadruhara.Doshas of Gandhaka45,: According to Rasa classics, Gandhaka consists two types of Doshas: Shila Churna Visha(Physical impurities like clay, sand etc.) (Chemical impurities like arsenical, lead etc.) Gandhaka should be purified before administering internally other wise it willproduce the disease like Kushta, Bhrama, Klama, Paithika Roga, Balakshaya,Shukrakshaya, Veeryahani and Kandu.Methods of Gandhaka Shodhana46:Gandhaka is taken in darvi with equal amount of cow’s ghee and melted on Mruduagni. This liquefied Gandhaka is poured into another vessel, which contains cow’s “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 23
    • Review of Literaturemilk through a cloth tied over the mouth of vessel. After that it is taken out andwashed with hot water.Gandhaka is melted and poured into a vessel containing Bhringaraja Swarasa andboiled for some time and this process is repeated for seven times.Through urdhwa patana vidhi by using Damaru yantra Gandhaka can be purified.In the present study, the following procedure has been adopted for GandhakaShodhana46 a. Gandhaka is taken in darvi with equal amount of cow’s ghee and melted onMrudu agni. This liquefied Gandhaka is poured into another vessel, which containscow’s milk through a cloth tied over the mouth of vessel. After that it is taken out andwashed with hot waterEffect of Shodhana on Gandhaka47:By filtering through the cloth small pieces of stone and sand will be removed.Some toxins may adhere to the ghee and hence will be removed.Some of the toxins may mix with milk and thus the Gandhaka may be relieved fromimpurities.Dose of Gandhaka48 One to Eight Ratti.Patya – Apthya49Mamsa Bhakshana of wild animals and birds, cow’s milk, Ghee and Rice are advised.Kshara, Amla, Atilavana, Katu, Vidahi and Stree Sevana Should be avoided.Gandhaka YogasKajjali Gandhaka RasayanaRasa Parpati MakaradhwajaRasa Sindhura Samirapannaga Rasa “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 24
    • Review of LiteratureGANDHAKA MODERN VIEWSULPHUR50 : The name sulphur is derived from the sanskrit word “Sulveret”through the latin sulphurium.History :The ancients probably, due to its frequent occurrence in free state know sulphur.Aryans, Greeks, Romans and Indians used it for fumigation and as medicine. TheBible refers to be as “Brimstone” meaning “Burvaing Stone” Antony lavoiser placedit among the elements in 1777, which was regarded as “principle” of fire”. It isestimated as the Ninth most abundant element in the universe.Basic information of sulphur Name : Sulphur Symbol : S Atomic Number : 16 Atomic Mass : 32.06 Am Melting point : 112.80C Boiling point : 444.60C Number of protons / Electrons: 16 Number of neutrons : 16 Classification : Non Metal Crystal structure : Orthorhombic Colour : Yellow British Name : Sulphur IUPAC Name : Sulfur “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 25
    • Review of LiteratureOccurrence: Sulphur is distributed in nature both in free and combined form. The sulphur isfound in volcanic regions in sicily. Approximately 0.06% of earth ‘s crust containssulphur. Pure sulphur contains traces of selenium, Tellurium and Arsenic some timesmixed with bitumen and clay.Three are important minerals and compounds containing sulphur such as:Sulphides: Zinc Blend (ZnS) Galena (Pbs) S Copper pyrites (CuFes2) Cinnabar (HgS) Iron Pyrites (FeS) SSulphate: Gypsum (CaSo4 2H2o) Barites (BaSo4) Epsom Salt (Mg So4 7H2o) Ferrous Sulphate (FeSo4 7H2o)Traces of sulphur occur as H2S in volcanic gases, organic substance as eggs, proteins,garlic, mustard, onion, hair and wool. It is an essential non-metal and is a minorconstituent of fats, body fluids and skeletal muscles.Appearance of sulphur in solid and liquid fromSolid : Rhombic and MonoclinicLiquid : Aλ and Sμ (Amorphous Sulphur)Therapeutic use51:Sulphur has bitter astringent taste with a Characteristic strong smell.It increases bile secretion, acts as laxative, alternative and diuretic.It stimulates secreting organs like skin, bronchial mucus membrane. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 26
    • Review of LiteratureIn larger doses it acts as purgative.Sulphur is useful in cough, Asthma, General debility, Enlargement of spleen, chronicfevers etc.,Biological importance of sulphur52:Sulphur makes up 0.25% of our body weight, meaning that an average adult humanbody contains around 170 gms of sulphur, of which most occurs in the amino acids,cysteine, cystine, and methionine.Sulphur is involved in the formation of bile acids, which are essential for fat digestionand absorption. It also helps to keep skin, hair and nails healthy.Deficiency of sulphur is linked to the skin disorder eczema and also imperfectdevelopment of hairs and nails.Sulphur containing foods are vegetables (Radishes, Carrots, Cabbage, Milk Products(Cheese), seafood and meat protein.NIMBU53.It is important dravya of Amla varga. In Rasa classics, it is explained for Shodhanaand marana of various metals and minerals.Latin Name: Citrus accida Family: RutaceaeSynonyms54: Amlajambira Jantumari Amlasara Nimbuka Dantaghna Rochana Jambeera ShodhanaDescription:55 Leaflets elliptic, oblong, racemes, short, flower small, petals usually four.Fruits usually small, globose or ovoid, thick or thin. Pulp pale, very acidic. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 27
    • Review of LiteratureUseful parts:Phala, twak and patraFruit juice of Nimbu contains citric acid 10%, phosphoric acid 47%, sugar 10.9%,cellulose, vitamin A, vitamin C, citrine 76%, citrol 7.8% and Sulphric acid.Distribution:It is available throughout India.Pharmacological and therapeutic properties:56Rasa : AmlaGuna : Guru, TikshnaVirya : UshnaVipaka : MadhuraKarma : Deepana,Rochaka,Anulomana, Pachaka, KrimighnaDosha : Kaphavata Shamaka, PittavardhakaVyadhi Prabhava : AgniMandya,Trishna,Udarashoola,Chardi,Aruchi, Vibandha, Kasa Shwasa and Krimiroga.For the present study Nimbu Swarasa was used for the Shodhana of Hingula.HARIDRA57It is a auspicious drug mentioned in all the Brihatrayee as a aghroushadhi forprameha.it is classified under haritakyadiyarga.BOTANICAL NAME: Curcuma longa.Family: scitaminaceae.Synonym:58 Haridra Vishaghni Varavarnini Haridrangani Mangalya Bhadra Swarnavarna Laxmi Shama vishaghni shobhana jayanthika nisha kanchani peeta “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 28
    • Review of LiteratureDescription: 59A tall herb. Rootstoack large, ovoid, with sessile cylindric tubers orange colouredinside.Leaves very large, in tufts up to 1.2 meters or more long, oblong-lanceolate, taperingto the base. Flowering in autumnal spikes, 10-15 cm long.Useful parts: rhizome.Distribution:It is cultivated through the tropical and other regions in India.Chemical constituents:Rhizome contains a volatile oil 1%, an active principle curcumin, yellow colouringmatter and turmeric oil of specific odour and taste.Pharmacological and therapeutic properties 60: Rasa : Katu, Tikta, Guna : ruksha, laghu. Virya : Ushna Vipaka : Katu Doshakarma : kaphavatashamaka, pittarechaka-shamaka.GODUGDHA61Acharya charaka explained Godugdha under Gorasa varga. It is much appreciated forthe therapeutic purpose.Synonyms:It includes Ksheera, Gavya, Gavyadugdha, Dugdha, Payasa, Dhenudbhava “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 29
    • Review of LiteratureQualities of Godugdha: It is having the qualities of Swadu, Sheeta, Mrudu, Snigdha, Bahala,Slakshana, Pichchila, Guru, Manda and PrasannaContents of freshly drawn milk:Water : 87% Phosphorus : 0.1%Total Solids : 13% Sodium : 0.15%Fat : 3.68% Iron : 1-2PP.MTotal proteins : 3.39 Citric acid : 0.2%Sugar : 4.94 Calcium : 0.72%Indications of Godugdha: Godugdha is indicated in Kasa, Shwasa, Raktapitta, Trishna, Pandu,Amlapitta, Shosha etc. In the present work, godugdha was used for gandhaka shodhana,GHRITA62 Ghee is one among the sneha Dravya. Ghrita, taila, vasa and majja areconsidered as the best among all the snehana Dravyas. Out of these four sneha Dravyas, Ghrita is considered as far superior owing toits special attribute “samskarasya Anuvartanat”.Synonyms: Ghrita, Sarpi, Havisha, Gohavi.Pharmacological Properties: Rasa – Madhura. Guna – Guru. Veerya – Sheeta. Vipaka – Madhura. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 30
    • Review of LiteratureContents of Ghrita:Unsaponifiable matter (Soluble in fat).TriglyceridesPhospholipidsVit D and KMinerals like calcium, Magnesium, Copper, iron in traces.Qualities of Ghrita:Promoter of memory, intelligenceImproves digestion and metabolismBest AphrodisiacIt is refrigerant and emollientClarifies voice and complexionIn present study ghrita is used for the Shodana of Gandhaka.KHALVI RASAYANA63Khalvi Rasayanas comes under murcchna variety intended to render the chapalatvaand durgrahatva of Parada and potentiating it. It is one such category of Kajjali, wherein phytomedicines are triturated and pharmacologically has various advantages. The specialty of Khalvi Rasayana lies in binding different varieties of drugsinto a single molecular form and there by minimizing the dose. Khalvee rasayanaimpose proper particle size to drug, proper mixing occurs and gives the proper form tothe final product.KAJJALI Kajjali is a Sagandha, Niragni parada yoga. The bandha involved in thispreparation is Kajjali Bandha, where purified mercury and sulphur are intimatelymixed in definite proportion, to get a black powder called Kajjali. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 31
    • Review of Literature Among all Khalvi Rasayans Kajjali is having prime importance, as it formsbase to many mercurial preparations.Definition:64“ Dhatubirgandhakadyascha Nirdravaihi Mardita rasaha||Sushlakshna Kajjalabhaso Kajjali Ityabhidheeyate||”Shuddha Parada and Shuddha Gandhaka alone or in combination, with other uparasaand different dhatus is mixed and triturated without adding any liquid to any powder.This is called Kajjali. It should be free from any shining particles.Any powdered pre-product that which is filled into Kupi should be smooth i.e., whichis having Slakshantva and sukshmatva like Kajjala is considered as Kajjali.Proportion of Dravyas in Kajjali65Parada, Gandhaka, Kajjali is used in many of the Yogas.It forms the base for many of Kupi Pakwa rasayana, Parpati Kalpana and pottaliKalpana. Accordingly the proportion of Parada, Gandhaka or any other dhatu variesfrom one Yoga to another.It is mentioned that Gandhaka can be taken in the preparation of ¼ th, ½, equal,double, triple etc., to that of Parada.In the present study Kajjali is prepared by adding equal amount of Parada and ShuddaGandhaka. Trituration was done till all the Kajjali tests are positive.Different forms of adding Dhatus to ParadaIn the following pattern, other dhatus are added to Parada in the preparation of Kajjali.If Swarna, Rajata etc., this should be in the form of fine leaves.If Naga, Vanga etc., dhatus are to be added, these dhatus should be melted and thenadded for trituration.In case of Loha, tamra etc., its bhasmas should be mixed “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 32
    • Review of LiteratureTests of Kajjali66:Krishna Varnata : Blackish colourSlakshntva : Smooth to touchSukshmtva : Subtleness like anjanaRekha purnatva : Settles in between fine lines of fingerNischandratva : Lusterless a pinch of Kajjali is taken and rubbed with water.This mixture when exposed to sun, should show absence of any shining particlesUses of Kajjali67:It is Tridosha hara and aphrodisiac.It is used as sahapana and Anupana to eradicate many disorders.Vatsanabha:Botanical name – Aconitum ferox wall.Family – ranunculanceae.Introduction: 68,69Vatsnabha is well known to the Ayurvedic pharmacopeia since long ago. We getreference in Charaka samhita and Sushruta samhita Charaka samihita classified understhavara visha and Sushruta classified under Kandavisha and also explain its effects.Sharangdhara and Bhavamishra mentioned Vatsnabha in their texts, along with almostall Nighantus. Though Dhanwantari nighantu posses description of Vatsnabha,synonyms and properties, most of the texts/Nighantus made little mentioning. Theutility of Vatsnabha has considerably increased after the development of Rasashastra.Rasataranginikara classified it under visha. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 33
    • Review of Literature The term aconite refers to the genus aconitum of which there are severalspecies. The name may be originated form the Greek aconoits (meaning withoutstruggle or without dust) or from the Greek city acona where naturalist in the thirdcentury once identified plant. Other sources suggest that the name comes from thebill of aconites.Aconites is Greek word meaning arrows coated with the poison and used for huntingthe animals. Aconitum if of two varieties viz poisonous & non poisonous.Among the poisonous varities both aconitum ferox and aconitum chasmanthum areused as vatsanabha in India.Synonyms:70Table No. 08. Showing the synonyms of VatsnabhaSl D.N R.N R.T. B.P Names01 Vatsnabha + + + -02 Amruta + + + -03 Visha + + + +04 Ugra + + - -05 Maha oushadha + + - -06 Garalam + + - +07 Marana + + - -08 Naga + + - -09 Stokakam + + - -10 Pranaharaka + + - -11 Sthavaradyam + + - -12 Kshweda - - + + “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 34
    • Review of LiteratureVernacular Names: 7101 Sanskrit - Visha, Vatsnabha02 Hindi - Bisha,Mithazahar03 English - Indian aconite04 Bengali - Katbish or Mitha visha05 Telugu - Vasanubhi06 Kannada - Vatsanabi07 Gujarathi - Vachanag08 Marathi - Vacha nag09 Assam - Visha10 Malyalama - Vatsanabi11 Malyalama - Vatsanabi12 Punjabi - Mohari13 Arab - Bish14 Parse - BishmagClassical Categorization: Charaka Samihita - Stavara Visha Sushruta Samhita - Kanda visha Dhanawanatari nighantu - Misraka varga Raja nighantu - Misraka varga Bhavaprakasha nighantu - Dhatvadi varga Rasatargini - VishaModern Toxicological Categorization:Cardiac poison. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 35
    • Review of LiteratureDifferent verities of Vatsnabha (BHEDA)Table No. 09. Showing the Vatsnabha bheda According to Yogaratnakara 72 Sl. No. Bheda Varna Guna 01. Brhmana Pandu Rasayana 02. Kshatriya Rakta Deha pustikara 03 Vaishya Peeta Kustaghna 04. Shudra Krishna DhatukarmaAccording to Rasatarangani 73 01. Krishna 02. Kapisha 03 PanduKapisha is better than Krishna; Pandu is better than Kapisha Pandu is considered bestfor therapeutic uses.According to Ayurveda Prakasha 74 01. Shukla 02. KrishnaIdentification 75Rasavagbhata mentioned certain characteristics for identification 1. Vatsanabha Panduravarana 2. Roots resembles, navel of calf 3. They are Stoola snigdha, Guru, Nava,According to Bhavaprakash:Leaves resembles sindhuvara and roots resemble navel of calf. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 36
    • Review of LiteratureBotanical description: 76It is a perennial herb Root – Paired, daughter, tuber ovoid oblong to ellipsoid, 2.5.4 cm long, about 1-1-5 cm thick, with fill form root fibers, dark, brown externally, yellowish on fracture, another tuber much shrunk and wrinkled with more numerous root fibers. Stem – Erect, with or without a slender, hypogynous base, simple, 40-90 cm high covered with short spreading yellow hairs in the upper part and glabrous below. Leaves – Scattered, distant, glabrous, petioles, slender up to 25 cm, blade or bicedar-cordate to remiform in out line with rather wide sinus. Planately 5- lobeal. Inflorescence: - Peduncle straight, bearing flowers on both sides, flowers pale, blue, brown in a dense, terminal raceme, 10-25 cm long, helmet, volatile with short shared beak, resembling a pea flower. Fruit – Carpels 5, tomentose, follicles oblong, 15-20mm long and 4-5 mm broad, seeds obovoid to obpyramidal, 2,6-3 mm long, winged along with the raphe. Distribution – Grows solid in the alpine Himalayas, Kashmir at an attitude of 3,600 m, alpine Himalayas of Nepal. Chemical Constituents – Roots contains toxic alkaloids, pseudo aconitine along with bikha aconitine, chasmacontine, chahnaconitine, indacontine (Loydia 1972,35, 55) Veratroy1)pseudoacontine are diacety1 psedioacontine(manske and Rodrgo) 1979). “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 37
    • Review of LiteratureTwo new alkaloids 2 – (11+) quionolinome and 3,4dihydro – 6 – hydroxy – 2 –(11+) quoinolone (Nat. prod. Lett.) 1993, 227,chem, abortr. 1994, 121, 175,172b).A new diterpenoid alkaloid – 14- 0 – acetyl senbasimet, vakagnavime, chasmacontine, crassican line A. flconericine, senbusine B. isoltaltizocline and aconineare reported (phyto chem, 1994, 36, 1527).Four lipoalkalaoids Viz veraatrophylpseudaconine, auisolyona- contine,benzoylida aconine and veratroy bikkaconine are also report (J. Nat prod 1994,57, 105)Need of Vatsnabha Shodhana- 77Ashodhita Vatsnabha causes daha,moha, hirtagata rodha, to avoid these doshas orvikaras it should undergo shodhana processVatsnabha shodhana -78Table No. 10, showing the Vatsanabha shodhana according to different authors. Sl. Shodhana process R. T. R. A. D.G.V Y. R. R. J. N No. 1 Kept in cow’s urine in + + - - + strong sunlight for 3 days 2 Swedana in Ajadugdha + + - - - for 1 yama 3 Swedana in Surabhi + + - + - payas (cows milk) for 1 or 2 yama “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 38
    • Review of Literature 4 Kept in cow’s urine for 3 - - + + - days then Swedana in a cow’s milk or goat’s milk for 3 hrs 5 Swedana in dolayantra - - - - + containing Triphala kashaya and Aja ksheera 6 Swedana in dolayantra - - - - + containing cow’s urine.Gunakarma 79 – Rasa - Madhura Guna - Ushna Veerya - Ushna Vipaka - Madhura Dosha Karmarma - Vata-kapha Shamaka Dhanwantari nighantu classified under Mishrakadivarga. Madhura rasa,ushnaguna, vatakaphahara, it subsides kanthashoola, sannipatagna, pitta samshodhini80 Rajanighantu81 classified under pippalyadi varga. Atimadhura, ushna,vatakaphahara. It subsides Kantaruja, sannipataghna, pitta santappa Karaka. According to Rastarangin82 , vatsanabha is katu, tikta,kashaya rass,ushna gunaand yogavahi. It is rasayana, tridoshahara particularly vata-kaphahara. It increasesagni. It subsides sheeta and brumhana and bala vardhaka. It subsides agnimandyarogas, pleeha roga,vatarakta, shwasa, kasa, grahani, gulma, pandu, jwara and amavata. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 39
    • Review of LiteratureIt relieves timira, naktandhyata, netrabhishyanda, netrashotha, karna shoola, gudarogaand kati vedana. Application of bhahya lepa subsides the aku, vrushika, sarpavisha83 Diaphoretic, diuretic, antiperiodic, anodyne and antidiabetic, antiphlogistic,antipyretic in small does. In large does it is virulent poison, narcotic and powerfulsedative. It reduces the frequently and tension of the pulse and paralysis therespiratory center. Part used - Dried tuberous root. Dose84 - 1/10th ratti to 1/8th ratti Visha prayoga Nishedha 85 Balaka, atyantavridhha, garbhavati, rugna, atikshinashareera, rajayakshmalaxanayaukta avasta, krodhi, atibhranti, durbalavastha in less quantity and shortduration with precautionsToxic effects and antidotes;86 Sushruta clearly documented the toxic efforts of Vatsnabha viz Grivastambhaand peeeta vit, mutra, netra.Antidotes – Accidental poisoning or over dosage with aconite may produce thetoxicsymptoms. Different antidotes have been mentioned for the management.Gogrutha is considered as one of the best antidotes for visha. Tankana (Borax) is considered to be the main antidote87. It may beadministrated along with Ghee. Arjuna bark is mixed with Honey and Ghee may beanother alternative antidote88.Aconite poisoning and its management in toxicology89. The symptoms of poisoning occur immediately or within a few mines afterconsumption or root. First burning sensation is experienced from the mouth to “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 40
    • Review of Literaturestomach followed by tingling and numbness in the mouth, tongue and pharynx. Thisis followed by salivation, Nausea, Vomiting and diarrhea. Later dryness of mouth andpolydypsia is developed and the patient will be unable to swallow Other symptoms include headache, giddiness, pallor, profuse, sweating,subnormal temperature weakness of limbs and inability to stand or walk. Twitchingof muscles, pain, and cramps and convulsions may occur. The pupils contract and dilate alternately but remain dilated at the later stage.Dimness of vision and diplopia may be caused. The pulse becomes slow, feeble andirregular. Blood pressure will be low and the patient complains of breathlessness.The mental conduction remains normal but there may be hallucination. Death finallyoccurs either due to paralysis of heart or respiratory centers or even both.Fatal Dose - 1-2 grams of root OR 4-6 mg of acontineFatal period - 3 –6 hours.Treatment – Gastric levage with warm water and weak solution of potassiumpermanganate or with a solution of iodine in potassium iodide or with tannic acid orstrong coffee or strong tea to precipitate the alkaloids.1. Powdered charcoal to diminish solubility.2. Atropine –0.5 – 1 mg is useful.3. Strychnine, artificial respiration, application of heat etc,may also be useful.4. Symptomatic treatmentVishishta yogas –1. Ramabanarasa2. Hinguleshwara rasa3. Tribhuvankirti rasa4. Kaphaketu rasa “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 41
    • Review of Literature5. Swachanddha Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)Gomutra Gomutra is used as a medicine since olden days. We get the reference about itin brihatrayees –Charaka considered, it as one of the ashta mutra varga dravya.Synonyms90 – Gomutra, Gojala, Goambu, Gomashanda, Godrava.Vernacular names- Sanskrit - Gomutra Hindi - Gomutra English - Cow’s urine Kannada - Gomutra Properties:91 Rasa - Katu Guna - Teekshna, Ushna,Kshara Dosha - Kapha –vata shamaka, pitta janaka Karma - Agni deepaka, medhya, shoolahara, gulma, anaha, it is used in viechanna karma and asthapana basti Charakacharya92 quotes that Gomutra has madhura rasa, dosha nashaka andkrimi and Kanduhara. By abhyantarapana it subsides doshajanya udara roga . Nadakarni93 in his material medica explains Gomutra contains ammonia in aconcentrated form and is much used in both internal and external purpose. Gomutrais a laxative, duretic and used in preparation of various medicines. Eg. Poonaranavamandura. It is also recommended by Chakradatta as a anupana for eranda taila givenas virechana. It is used as externally in the purification and roasting of various metals andpreparation of oils, decoctions etc In the present study gomutra is used for vatsanabha shodhana.Pippali:Botanical name - Piper longum linn.Family - Piperacae “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 42
    • Review of LiteratureIntroduction In Atharvana veda Pippali is mentioned as rasayana. Kshipta bheshaj,atividdha abheshaji and vati krita bheshaji. Pippali is drug which is widely used inAyurvedic formulations Charaka and Sushruta have extensively quoted pippali amongdashemaniya ganaGana: 94Charaka : Deepaniya, Kanthya, Asthapanopaga, Shirovirechanopaga, sheetaprashamana, Shula-prashamana, Kasahara, Hikkanigrahana, Triptighna.Sushruta : Pippalyadi, Amalakyadi.Astanga sangrahakara : Pippalyadi gana and Nyagrodhadi gana.Vernacular names:95 01 Sanskrit - Pippali 02. Hindi - Pipala 03 English - Piper. 04 Telagu - Pippali 05 Tamil - Tippali 06 Bengali - Pipali 07 Marathi - Hippali 08 Malyalam - Tippali 09 Punjabi - Moghaum 10 Gujarati - Pipali 11 Kannada - Hippali 12 Parse - Pipli 13 Burma - Peikchin 14 Arb - Darfifil 15 Barma - Pekchin “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 43
    • Review of LiteratureTable No. 11, showing synonyms of Pippali 96 Synonyms B. P. K. N. N. A. R. N. D. N. Ma. Ni. Magadhi + + + + + + Shoundi + + - + + + Vaidehi + + + + - + Chapala + + + + + + Kana + + + + + - Krishna + + + + + - Upakulya + + - + + + Teekshna tandula + + + + + Magadha - - - - - + Vishwa - - - - - + Kola + - - + + - Kukara - - - + - - Katu beeja - - - + - - Korangi - - - + - - Tikta tandula - - - + - - Magadodbhava - - - + - - Ushana - - - + + -Bheda97It is of 4 types – Pippali Gajapippali Simhali Vana pippali “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 44
    • Review of LiteratureBotanical Description 98An aromatic slender, Climber 01 Stem - Cripping, jointed, attached to other plants while climbing, 02 - 5.9 cm x 3.5 cm , subacute, entire, glabrous, cordate at the Leaves case 03 Flower - In pendular spikes, straight A. Male - Larger and slender B. Female - 1.3 – 2.5 cm x 4.5 cm in diameter 04 Fruit - Yellowish orange ovoid, sunk in flesh spikes fruits in rainy season and fruit in autumn 05 Distribution - Found in the hotter parts of India, form central Himalaya to Assam and Mikir hills. Also found in forests of western ghats form Konkan to Kerala. 06. Chemical : Essential oil, mono and sesquitrpenes, Caryophylience, Construction piprine, piper longumine, piper longuminne, piper nonaline, piper,undecalindine, pipercide, seasmin, B- sitosterol, four aristolactan, five 4,5 – dioxporphions. Properties:99 Rasa - Katu Guna - Laghu, Snigdha, teekshna, (Ardha guru) Veerya - Anushna sheeta veerya Vipaka - Madhura Karma - Vata –shleshmahara Useful parts - Fruit, root “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 45
    • Review of Literature Dhanwantari nighantu, includes under shatapushpadi varga, pippali have theproperties of katu rasa, madhura vipaka, sheeta veerya, snigdha guna, tridoshahara. Itis rasayana and subsides jwara, trishna, udara roga, krimi, amadosha . Raja nighantukara includes under pippalyadi varga, Pippali have the propertiesof snidhaushna guna, katu tikta rasa. It is vrishya, deepana and subsides jwara, kasa,shwasa, kaphahara. Bhavaprakasha nighantukara includes pippali under haritakyadi varg. Pippalihave the deepana, vrishya, madhura vipaka and rasayani. Anushana sheeta veerya,katu rasa, snigdha laghu, vata shleshmahara. It subsides shwasa, kasa, udara, jwara,kushta, meha, gulma, arsha, pleeha shoola, amavata. Ardra pippali is kaphaprada,snigdha sheetala, madhura and and guru. Madanapala nighantukara has included pippali under shunthyadi varga.Pippali has properties of deepana, vrushya, madhura paka, rasayani, atyushna, katurasa, snighdha laghu, kaphahara, pitta rechani. It subsides swasa, udara, jwara. Kaiyadeva nighantukara includes pippali under oushadhi varga. Ardra pippalihave the property of sheeta, guru, madhura, snighdha, ushna, kaphaprada. Shushkapippali is laghu madhura paka, snigdha ushna, katu rasa, kapha vatahara ruchya, sara,vrishya, rasayani, deepani, pachani. It subsides kapha, gulma, arsha, meha, pleeha,jwara, udara. Infusion is stimulant, carminative and alternative tonic more powerful thanblack piper, also aphrodisiac, diuretic, vermifuge and emmengogue. Externallyrubefacient. Piper longumin or piperine shows immuno-modulatory and antitumouractivity piperine also shows cytotoxic towards DLA and EAC cells at concentration of250 micro gm/ml. Administration of piper longum or piperine increase the total WBC “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 46
    • Review of Literaturecount. Bone marrow cellularity and alpha esterase positive cells were also increase bythe administration of piper longum extract piperine. Pipper longum or piperine shows to posses bioavilability enchancing activitywith various structurally and therapeutically diverse drugs. It may be hypothesizedthat, piperine bioavailability enchancing property may be attributed to increasedabsorption, which may be due to alteration in membrane lipid dynamics and change inconformation of enzymes in the intestine. Piper longum acts as antioxidant and is predominant in catalytic activity. Itcontains vitamin E and A. The antioxidant component of piper species constitutes avery efficient system in scavenging a wide variety of reactive oxygen species.Dosage- Choorna- 0.5-1 gm.Vishishta Yoga- Pippali ghrita Pippalyasava Vyoshadi vati Pippalyadi leha Yakritapippali yoga Vardhamana pippaliJATIKOSHA: Jatikosha is mentioned in all the Brahatrayees for therapeutics purpose.Family : MyristicaceaeBotanical name : Myristica fragrans Houtt.VERNACULAR NAMES:100Hindi : JavithriEnglish : Mace treeTelugu : JathipatriTamil : AdipalamBengali : JaitriKannada : Jati patri “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 47
    • Review of LiteratureBOTANICAL DESCRIPTION:101Evergreen aromatic tree, 9-12 mt highBark : Greyish – black.Leaves : Coriaceous, elliptic, deep green above and grayish beneath. Redish-grey when ripe.Flowers : Creamy – yellow, brangrant.Fruits : Globose or broadly pyri form 6-9 cm long, pear shaped, glabrous, often drooping , yellow; pericap fleshy, 1.25 cm thick, splitting into two halves when mature.Mace : It is epicarp of fruit, fleshy reddish colour & lacinate.Seeds : Arillate, albuminous, broadly avoid, with a shell- like purplish brownDistribution : Native of Moluccas. Grown in kerala, Karnataka, Nilgiris and W. Bengal.Chemical Constituents: Mace yields volatile oil, 8-17% fixed oil, resin, fat, sugar and mucilaginousmatter. Mace also yields an yellowish aromatic oil which contains a chemicalsubstance macene.Properties-102Rasa : Tikta, katu, madhuraGuna : LaghuVirya : Usna.Vipaka : Katu. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 48
    • Review of LiteratureSYNONYM: 103Table No.12, Showing synonyms of Jati koshaS.l.no Synonyms K.N D.N M.P.N R.N B.P.N1 Jatikosha - + + - +2 Jatipatri + + + + +3 Javitri + - - - -4 Patrika - - - - +5 Sumana - + + - +6 Malatipatrika - + + + +7 Jatiparna - - - + -8 Soumanasayani - + - - -9 Malanashini - - + - -Table No.13, Showing actions of Jatikosha104S.l.no Actions KN DN RN B.P.N1 Ruchi + + + -2 Varnya + + + -3 Vaktravyaishyadya - - + + janani4 Jadyadoshanirkuth - - - + “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 49
    • Review of LiteratureIndications-105Table No.14, Showing Indications of JatiKoshaS.l.no Indications KN DN RN B.P.N MPN1 Kapha + + + - +2 Kasa + - + - -3 Vami + - + - -4 Swasa + - + - -5 Trushna + - + - -6 Krimi + + + - -7 Visha + + + + -8 Kaya shanty - - - + -Review on various Pharmaceutical Process Adopted in the present study.Definition 106: The process, which eliminates the blemishes, is called Shodhana. Shodhana is a process intended for the removal of impurities in a substance by implementing prescribed method like trituration etc with prescribed drugs. Shodhana is the process meant for the lohas, Dhatus, Rasas etc., by subjectingthem to Swedana, Mardhana, Dhalana etc., which results in the detraction ofblemishes.Advantages of Shodhana : Eradicates visible and invisible impurities. Reduces toxic effects. Removes adulterants present in drug. Makes hard matter brittle which helps in easy incineration. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 50
    • Review of Literature Enhances therapeutical properties Suitable for further processingIn the present work, concept of Shodhana is adopted in following procedures: Shodhana of Raw Hingula by means of mardana with Nimbu swarasa in Khalva Yantra. Shodana of Hingulota parada by triturating with haridra and Nimbu swarasa. Shodhana of raw Gandhaka in dugdha and gritha. Shodana of vatsanaba keeping it in Gomutra.Yantras used in the present studyKhalva Yantra: 107 Khalva Yantra denotes mortar with pestle, made of varieties of stones of goodquality in different shapes and sizes.Uses: It is used for Grinding, Rubbing, Triturating or mixing of drugs.In the present study it was used for: • To powder crude Hingula and Gandhaka • Mardana of Hingula with Nimbu Swarasa. • In the preparation of Kajjali.Urdhwa Ptana Yantra: 108 • The Yantra is made with two earthen pots, where the upper pot is bigger than the lower pot. • The upper pot’s pristatala should be broad enough (i.e. 16 angulas) to construct toyadhara. • The mouth of the upper pot should be inserted into the mouth of lower pot in such a way, that the same should reach upto the neck of the lower pot. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 51
    • Review of Literature • The joint of the appartus should be sealed air tight with the help of multanimitti-smeared cloth or other sealing material. • The lower pot contains the drug, which is subjected to sublimation, and the outer part of the upper part has toyadhara, which felicitates the sublimation.In the present work, urdwa Patana Yantra was used to extract parada fromHingula. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 52
    • Methodology METHODOLOGYMethodology was studied mainly under two headings. • Pharmaceutical study. • Analytical study.Pharmaceutical study: This section deals with identification, selection and, processing of raw drugsand preparation of Swacchanddha Bhairava Rasa (Dwitiya). The very purpose of this branch of medicine is to provide safe and effectivemedicine Ayurevda believes that, “Samskara” given to the drug will change thequality of drug and also drug acts in different manner when mixed with other drugs.Study design: This section includes three steps: Step –01 : Identification and collection of raw drugs Step-02 : Purification and processing of raw drugs Step-03 : Preparation of Swacchanddha Bhairava Rasa (Dwitiya).Step 01 - Identification and collection of raw drugsDate of commencement: 05 – 01 - 06Date of completion : 07 – 01 - 06 Proper identification, selection and collection of raw drugs are necessary forAyurvedic formulation, because without these things we cannot assure the quality ofour medicaments. So this section of the study deals with the same SwacchanddhaBhairava Rasa (Dwitiya) contains the following ingredients: • Shoditha Hingulotha • Shoditha Vatsanabha parada • Pippali • Shoditha Ghandhak • Jathikosha “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 53
    • Methodology Special request was made to the local herbo-mineral drug shop dealer to get the particulars quality drugs and those were screened for classical grahya lakshanas and those were certified by the concerned departments. Step:02: Purification and processing of raw drugs: Ayurveda has enlisted certain drugs, which will cause adverse effects or no theapeutic effects if used in the impure state or may lead to complication. So proper purification is necessary to counteract the probable adverse effects. This section deals with the purification and processing of raw drugs. Practical No. 01: Title: Hingula shodhana. Date of Commencement : 10 – 01 – 06. Date of completion : 21 – 01 – 06 Reference: Rasatarangini, 9th chapter 16-17sloka Materials required: Khalwa yantra Drugs used: a) Hingula - 200 gms b) Nimbuswarasa - Q.S. Table No. 15, showing the Results of Hingula Shobhana.Ingredients Bhavana dravya in quantity Mardana in Results RemarksIn quantity hoursHingula Nimbu swarasa 100ml 6hours 205 gms Gain – 5 gms.Gms Nimbu swarasa 100ml 6 hours 212 gms Gain – 7 gms.200 Nimbu swarasa 100ml 6 ½ hours 218 gms Gain – 6 gms.218 gms Nimbu swarasa 100ml 5 ½ hours 224 gms Gain – 6 gms.224 gms Nimbu swarasa 100ml 6 ½ hours 229 gms Gain – 5 gms. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 54
    • Methodology229 gms Nimbu swarasa 100ml 6 hours 235 gms Gain – 6 gms.235 gms Nimbu swarasa 100ml 7 hours 242 gms Gain – 7 gms Table No. 16, showing the quantity of Hingula before shodhana and after shodhana.Draya Quantity of Hingula before Quantity of Hingula after shodhana (in gms) shodhana (in gms)Hingula 200 242 Method : Hingula was taken in a Khalva yantra and powdered nicely, 100 ml of Nimbu swarsa was added and mardana was done for 6 hours. This process repeated for seven times. Observation: While powdering Hingula, white shiny lines were seen. After half an hour of mardana, shiny particles disappeared After 25-35 minutes the colour turned to red Precautions: Intially mardana was done slowly to avoid the spillage of material. When it attained semisolid consistency the mardana was carried out continuously. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 55
    • MethodologyPractical No. 2: Hingulotha paradaHingulotha Parada Nirmana (Extraction of Parada from Hingula)Date of Commencement - 06 – 01 – 06Date of completion - 20 – 01 – 06Reference : Rasatarangini, 9th chapter 13 – 17 sloka.Drugs used - Hingula -200gms, Nimbu Swarasa 60 ml.Apparatus – Khalva Yantra, juice extractor, knife, Spatula, Urdwa patana yantra(two equal sized mud pots), cloth, Multani Mitti, Agni Chulika, Cold Water, cottonpad etc.,Procedure: 200 gms shodita Hingula was taken in Khalva Yantra, then powdered, 60 ml of nimbu swarasa was added and triturated uniformly at a rate of 30 strokes / min for 3 hours. Then chakrikas were made. This was then allowed to dry in shade. Weight of dried Hingula after Bhavana was 215 gm., prepared chakrikas were placed in Urdwa patana yantra and another large sized earthen pot was inverted over it. Sandhibandhana was done with a cloth smeared with multani mitti and dried. Such seven layers were applied after drying of the earlier one. Urdhwa patana yantra was kept over the chullika, madhyamagni was given for 6 hrs and then Tivragni was given for 2 hrs. After Swangasheeta, the next day sandhibandhana was carefully removed. 2 pots were separated; soot with mercury globules was collected from the inner surface of the upper pot by scraping carefully with a plastic spoon. Parada was filtered through double fold cloth to get clear mercury. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 56
    • MethodologyObservations :Table No. 17 Showing observations during Hingulotha Parada Unburnt Initial weight Parada Agni given inDate Hingula left in of Hingula extracted hrs lower pot 215 gms 115 gms 8 hrs 15 gms• The dark red colour powder of Hingula became brick red after adding the nimbu Swarasa, and during the addition of nimbu swarasa to Hingula small bubbles and white streaks appeared.• The chakrikas were shade dried at room temperature 27o C with relative humidity 70%.• The complete drying of chakrikas took nearly 48 hours.• After drying chakrikas of Hingula appeared Sindura coloured (dark reddish) with smooth surface and it was observed that weight of Hingula was increased after drying of the chakrikas from 200 to 215 gms.• The dried chakrikas were taken for the Hingulakrusta parada in urdhwapatana yantra.• After 2 hours of heating the bottom of the lower pot appeared red hot and at 2-½ hrs sulfurous smell was observed.• After Swanga Sheeta when the Sandhi Bandhana was opened, the mercury globules along with the soot were found in the central portion of upper pot and in the lower pot about 15 gm of talasta dravya was obtained in the procedure.• Some globules of mercury were also seen in the lower pot along with burnt material.• Mercury collected was Shining like a madhyana surya. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 57
    • MethodologyPrecautions:• Mardana procedure was done carefully to avoid spillage of material.• Fresh nimbu swarasa was added.• After it attains semi-solid consistency, mardana was done firmly and continuously• Completely dried Hingula was kept in urdhvapatana yantra.• Sandhi bandhana was done carefully to avoid over lapping of chakrikas in urdhva patana Yantra. After each sandhibhandana, it was properly dried.• While heating, upper pot was kept cool by frequently changing the wet pad over the pot.• Uniform and calculated heating was carried out.• Water was not allowed to fall on Sandhi bandhana.Results:Weight of Chakrikas - 215 gmsWeight of Parada extracted - 115 gmsLoss of weight - 100 gms “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 58
    • MethodologyPractical No : 3Name of the practical : Shodhana of Hingulotha ParadaDate of Commencement : 27 – 02 – 06Date of Completion : 28 – 02 – 06Reference : Rasatarangini, 5th chapter 40 – 41 sloka.Time taken : 2 DaysApparatus : Khalva YantraDrugs used : Hingulatha Parada 115gms Haridra Churna–7gms, Nimbu Swarasa– 10ml Kanji – Q.S.Procedure : 115gms of Hingulakrusta parada was taken into a porcelain mortar and 7gms of Harida churna was added & triturated with nimbu swarasa for 2 days andallowed for drying. After complete drying powder was collected and filtered throughthe double folded cloth for 4 times and washed with Kanji.Observations :• Yellow haridra churna turned to brilliant green on trituration.• Slowly parada turned into small droplets and mixed with haridra powder completely.• Paste was glittering in sunlight.• On second day trituration was done by adding required quantity of nimbu swarsa & triturated until the parada turns into fine particles and get homogenous with the paste.• Little quantity of parada along with haridra choorna got adhered to the mortar and pestle. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 59
    • Methodology• Finally the collected mercury was silvery white.Precautions:• Throughout the procedure spillage of the material from khalva yantra is avoided.• Filtration should be carried out after drying of the mixture.• Small quantity of mixture (20-30 gms) each time should be filtered through double fold cotton cloth.Table No. 18, Showing observations during Samanya Shodhana of Parada LossParada Hingulaha Haridra Nimbu Shuddha Kanji duringShodhana Parada Choorna Swarasa Parada Shodhana1 115gms 7gms 10 ml Q.S. 100 gms 15gmsPractical No. 4: Gandaka Shodhana Title : Gandhaka Shodhana Date of commencement : 09 – 03 – 06 Date of completion : 10 – 03 – 06 Reference : Rasatarangini, 8th chapter shloka7-11 Drugs used : Gandhaka100gms, godugdha300ml, gogritha 300gmMethod: gandhaka was made into powder.gritha was taken in a vessel and heated,tothis gandhak powder was added when gandhaka completely melted it was poured intoa vessel containing godugdha with mouth covered with cloth. solidified gandhaka wastaken out and washed with hot water. This procedure repeated for three times. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 60
    • MethodologyObservation All mud particles and dusts, which were present in Gandhaka, were separated outover the cloth during procedure. Shodhita Gandhaka was of pale yellow coloured & shiny. Shodhita Gandhaka was in pindakruthiPrecautions:Agni should be mrudu.After melting of grita powdered gandhaka should be added slowly.Melted gandhaka should be poured immediately to the vessel containing milk coveredwith cloth.After each procedure gandhaka was washed with hot water.Table No. 19, Showing the Quantity of Gandaka before & after sodhana Draya Quantity of Gandaka Quantity of Gandaka after shodhana (in before sodhana (in gms) gms) Gandaka 100 82Practical No.5: Kajjali Preparation:Name of the practical : Preparation of KajjaliDate of commencement : 13 – 03 – 06Date of completion : 16 – 03 – 06Reference : Rasatarangini, 6th chapter 110 – 111 sloka.Drugs used : Shodhita Hingulotha Parada –60gms Shodhita Gandhaka –60gmsApparatus : Khalwa Yantra, Spatula. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 61
    • MethodologyProcedure:• 60gms of Shoditha parada was put in Khalva, to this finely powdered Shodhita Gandhaka was added and triturated.• Trituration was done slowly with uniform speed till all the Kajjali lakshanas were observed i.e. the whole mixture converts into a fine, black, smooth, lusterless powder.Observations:• After 5 minutes of trituration bigger mercury globules were broken into smaller globules.• After 15 minutes of trituration mixture appeared blackish yellow coloured and tailing of mercury was seen.• After 25 minutes mixture appeared dull grey coloured with small shiny globules.• After 40 minutes mixture appeared Portland cement coloured between which yellow streaks were seen while triturating.• No mercury globules were seen 1 hour of mardana. Shining was present, mixture was Cairo dust colour.• After 2 hours mixture appeared blackish Grey coloured.• After 6 hours of trituration, mixture appeared blackish coloured. Shiny particles were observed.• After 18 hours mixture appeared black coloured. Tests of Kajjali i.e., Rekhapurnatva, varitaratva and Slakshnatva were absent.• Mixture turned completely into soft, smooth black compound after 32 hours.• After 42 hours Rekhapurnatva and Slakshnatva were observed in the compound.• Varitaratwa and Unama were observed in mixture after 55 hours of Mardana “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 62
    • Methodology• Little quantiity of Kajjali as put on fire and observed, it burns with fumes.• After 65 hours, Kajjali was taken between thumb and index finger made wet then rubbed and was exposed to sunlight, no mercury particles were observed.• Shiny Kajjali flakes were seen adhered at the bottom of Khalwa Yantra.• For better fineness and smoothness of Kajjali, Mardana was continued upto 72 hours.• Average to & fro movements of peshani were 14-15 times/ minutes.Table No. 20, Showing different phases of Kajjali during preparation. Hours Observations After 0 hours Parada + Gandhaka After 15 minutes Tailing of Parada observed After 25 minutes Grey colour with shiny globules After 40 minutes Portland cement colour with yellow streaks After 1 Hour Absence of Parada globules After 2 Hours It turned to blackish Grey After 6 Hours Blackish colour with shiny particles After 18 Hours Test for Kajjali was absent After 32 Hours It turned to black fine powder After 42 Hours Attained Rakhapurnatva and Shlakshnatva After 55 Hours Varitara and unama tests were positive After 65 Hours Nishchandratva was observed After 72 Hours Showed completion of Kajjali lakshanas.Table No. 21, Showing Physical properties of Kajjali Colour - Black Odour - Sulphurous Form - Fine Powder Touch - Soft and Smooth Taste - Tasteless Appearance - Anjana Sadrisha “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 63
    • MethodologyPrecautions :• Khalva Yantra should be clean and dry before starting the process.• Shodhita Gandhaka was finely powdered, before adding to Shodita Parada.• Mardana was done carefully and in uniform speed to avoid spillage.• The pestle was moved entire length of Khalva Yantra in clockwise /Anti Clockwise direction.• Kajjali was collected after the completion of Lakshanas.Results : Quantity of Shuddha Parada - 60gms Quantity of Shuddha Gandhaka - 60gms Weight of Kajjali - 110gms Loss of weight - 10gmsPractical No.6 VATSANABHA SHODHANADate of commencement : 27 – 03 – 06Date of completion : 08 – 04 – 06Reference : Rasa tarangini 24 / 77-78.Equipments : Ulakalayantra, Vessel, Cloth etc.,Ingredients and quantity: Dravya Mana Vatsanabha 250 gms Gomootra Yathavashyaka “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 64
    • MethodologyMethod of purification: • 250 gms of roots of Vatsanabha were taken and made into small pieces and washed well to remove the impurities (external). • The pieces of Vatsanabha were tied in cloth and Pottali was prepared. • This pottali was kept in a clean wide mouthed vessel. Gomutra was added, till the Vatsanabha gets completely immersed in it. This vessel is kept under sunlight whole day. • Next day the previous Gomutra was removed and fresh Gomutra was added and kept under sunlight. This process was repeated for three days. • Then Vatsanabha pieces were washed with hot water and the outer layer was removed. • The pieces of Vatsanabha were dried under sunlight.Observations: • After soaking in Gomutra Vatsanabha became soft and colour of Gomutra changed to dark brown. • After drying Vatsanabha became black in colour. • The Vatsanabha pieces become mrudu and tingling sensation was not felt after Shodhana. After peeling of outer layer it had pandura varna inside.Precautions: • Daily Gomutra should be replaced and fresh Gomutra must be used. • A clean wide mouthed vessel was used to avoid over flow of Gomutra.. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 65
    • Methodology Test for Vatsanabha Shodhana : It becomes so soft as it can be pierced by a pin. It does not produce tingling or numbness when kept over the tongue. Results : Table No. 22, Showing Qty of Vatsanabha Before and After Shodhana Before Shodhana After ShodhanaDravya Loss Observations (in gms) (in gms)Vatsanabha 250 180 70 Colour-Gray Smell -Gomutra gandha. Touch-Fine Taste-Tikta PRACTICAL NO. 7 VATSANABHA CHURNIKARANA Date of commencement : 12 – 04 – 06 Date of completion : 13 – 04 – 06 Materials : Dravya Mana Vatsanabha 250 gms Method of preparation: The Grahya 250 gms of Vatsanabha churnikarana was done in Ulukalayantra and sieved through cloth and stored in clean airtight bottle. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 66
    • MethodologyObservations: Vatsanabha converts into Gray coloured fine powder.Precautions: Vatsanabha should be dried properly before churnikarana.Result:Table No. 23, Showing Quantity of Vatsanabha Before and After Churnikarana Before Churnikarana After Churnikarana Dravya Loss (in gms) (in gms) Vatsanabha 180 160 20PRACTICAL NO. 8 PIPPALI CHURNIKARANADate of commencement : 27 – 04 – 06Date of completion : 28 – 04 – 06Materials : Dravya Mana Pippali 250 gmsMethod of preparation: The Grahya 250 gms of pippali churnikarana was done in Ulukalayantra andsieved through cloth and stored in clean airtight bottle. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 67
    • MethodologyObservations: Pippali converts into brown coloured fine powder.Result:Table No. 24, Showing Quantity of Pippali Before and After Churnikarana Before AfterDravya Loss Observations Churnikarana ChurnikaranaPippali 250 gms 190 gms 60 Colour-Dark green gms Smell -Aromatic. Touch-Fine Taste-PungentPractical No. 9 Title : Preparation of Jatikosha churna Date of commencement : 08 – 05 – 06 Date of completion : 09 – 05 – 06 Materials required : Ulukhala yantra,Cloth etc. Drugs used : Jatikosha-250gmsMethod:Jatikosha was taken in ulukhala Yantra and pounding it into churna and sievedthrough cloth, the procedure was repeated until complete fine powder was obtainedand stored in clean air tight container: “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 68
    • MethodologyObservation:Jathi Kosha converts into brown coloured fine powder:Precautions; Jathikosha churna should be dried completely. Jathikosha churna should be preserved in airtight container.Table No. 25, . Showing the quantity of Jathikosha before and after churnikarana.Draya Before After Loss ObservationJathikosha 250 Gms 160Gms 90Gms Colour –Browns Smell – Teekshna gandi Touch – Fine Taste – kashayaStep NO. 03 Preparation of Swacchanddha Bhairava Rasa (Dwitiya).Practical No.10 Title : Swacchanddha Bhairava Rasa (Dwitiya). Date of commencement : 15 – 05 – 06 Date of completion : 20 – 05 – 06 Reference : BhaishajyaRatnavali, 5th chapter sloka 492 – 493. Materials required : Khalwa yantra. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 69
    • MethodologyTable No. 26, showing the Ingredients of Swacchanddha Bhairava Rasa (Dwitiya)with their proportions and quantity. Sl. Ingredients Quantity 01 Shodita Parada 50 gms 02 Shodita Gandhak 50 gms 03 Shodita Vatsnabha 50 gms 04 Pippali 50 gms 05 Jathikosha 50 gmsMethod: Kajjali was prepared. The Homogenous mixture of Kajjali, Shodhita Vatsanabhachurna, Pippali churna, Jatikhosha churna was prepared . Required quantity of water is added and mardana was done until vati consistency was achived. The vati of 62.5 mg or ½ Ratti was prepared The vati were kept for drying in shade.Observations: The whole mixture turned to black colour. At final stage the mixture becomes a single bolus and non sticky. At this stage small amount of mixture was taken in between hands and rolled in to vatis. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 70
    • MethodologyPrecautions: Purified ingredients were used. Care was taken that mixture is not spilled out of khalva. Mardna was done well. Vati was prepared immediately after mardhana. Uniformity of weight was maintained while preparing vati. and gross verified by the test for uniformity.Results: 240gms of Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya) was obtained. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 71
    • MethodologyAnalytical StudyDefinition: 193“Analytical chemistry may be defined as the science and art of determining thecomposition of materials in terms of the elements or compounds control”. “Analytical chemistry is a tool to gain information about the qualitative andquantitative composition of substances and chemical species, i.e. to find out what asubstance is composed of and exactly how much”. Analytical chemistry mainly deals with the qualitative and quantitativeassessment of chemical substance:Qualitative Analysis: Information regarding the presence or absence of one or morecomponents of the sample.Quantitative Analysis: Information, which is finally obtained by measuring samephysical property that is characteristically related to the component.Another type of classification are194:• Chemical methods of analysis, mainly involves gravimetric (Mass) and volumetric (Volume) method.• Instrumental methods, includes rest of the methods.Ex: Diffraction of radiation: Refraction of radiation, emission and absorption ofradiation.• The sampling, dissolution, change in oxidation state removal of excess reagent, pH adjustment addition of complex reagents, precipitation, concentration and the removal of interference’s are the various chemical steps which are part of an instrumental method. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 72
    • Methodology So chemical steps are often on integral part of an instrumental method, butboth the methods have their own limitations.Steps involved in analysis:Following are the various important steps required to reach satisfactory results:• Obtaining the sample in pure form.• Preparation of the sample• Analytical procedure• Evaluation of the satisfactory resultsImportance of analytical chemistry195:• Analytical chemistry has its impact on pharmaceutical research, quality control and in clinical analysis.• Sensitive chemical and instrumental tests were employed to detect abnormal and normal components of body fluids, chemical changes occurring in the metabolic fluids.• In pharmaceutical industry helps in the detection of quality of the manufactured drug in tablet, solution and emulsion form.• In pharmaceutical studies, it is important to establish the properties and therapeutic value of a drug before the drug is available to public. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 73
    • Methodology Advantages of 196Chemical Methods Instrumental Methods• Procedure is accurate and simple. • High sensitivity is obtained.• The equipment needed is cheap. • The determination is very fast.• Specialized training is usually not • Even complex samples can be handled required. easily. Limitations of Chemical Methods Instrumental Methods• Accuracy decreases with decreasing • The cost of equipment is large. amounts. • Specialized training is needed.• Procedure is time consuming • The sensitivity and accuracy depends• There is lack of specificity on the instrument. Ayurveda is having its unique analytical approach towards drugs, but inpresent era there is necessity of analysis of drug based on modern methodology. So,it is a need to evaluate drugs by various parameters which includes – 1. Physical analysis 2. Chemical analysis “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 74
    • MethodologyPhysical evaluation (Organoleptic characteristics) – 1. Colour - Black 2. Smell - Characteristic – cow’s urine 3. Touch - Smooth01.Hardness test – The finished vati has to be hard, as it may not disintegrate in the requiredperiod of time and if the vati is too soft, it may not withstand during packing andtransporting Therefore, it is necessary to check hardness of tablets.Method – (Monsanto Hardness test) It is a soft portable hardness tester, which was manufactured and introducedby Monsanto chemical company. It consists of a spring, which can be compressed bymoving the screw knob forward. The tablet which to be tested is held between a fixed and a moving jaw andreading of the indicator is adjusted to zero. The force is applied to the edge of the vatiand gradually increased by moving the screw knob forward until the vati breaks.Reading is noted from the scale, which indicates the pressure required in Kg or inpounds to break the tablet.Hardness = 1.45 Kg/cm201. Uniform weight of tablets – The average weight is determined by weighing 20 tablets. The tablets are alsoweighed singly. The deviation from the average weight in each case is calculated andexpressed as a percentage. Not more than two of the tablets deviate form the averageweight by a greater percentage. No tablet deviate more than that percentage. If 20 tablets are not available 10 may be used for the determination, not morethan one deviate from the average weight by a greater percentage. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 75
    • Methodology Weight variation = + 6.3% to 5.7%03. Friability – Friability test is performed to evaluate the ability of the tablet to withstandabrasion in packing, handling and transporting. The instrument used for the same isknown as “Friability test apparatus”Method – It consists of a plastic chamber, which is divided into two parts and revolves ata speed of 25 rpm. A number of tablets are weighed and placed in the tumblingchamber, which is rotated for four minutes of 100 revolutions. During eachrevolution the tablets fall from a distance of 6 inches to undergo shock. After 100revolutions the tablets are again weighed and loss in weight indicates the friability.The acceptable limit of weight loss should be not more than 0.8% Friability – Nil04. Determination of disintegration time:Procedure: One pill was introduced into each tube of the disintegration apparatus. Discwas added to each tube. The assembly was suspended in a beaker containing 0.1 NHcl at 370C and the apparatus was operated. The time was noted down with the helpof stopwatch. The time taken for all the tablets to disintegrate completely isdisintegration time. Disintegration time : 25 Minutes05. Determination of pH – The pH value of the sample was determined by a digital pH meter. Onepercent solution was prepared, as the sample was dry and solid in the form of pills. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 76
    • MethodologyThe pills were powdered. One gram of the sample was weighed accurately anddissolved in 100ml of water pH was noted in the digital pH meter.PH value: 5.89 (acidic)06. Loss on drying – Digest pure quartz sand that passed through No.40 but 60 sieves withhydrochloric acid wash acid free, dry and ignite preserve in a stopped bottle. Place 25-30gms prepared sand and short glass rod in a nickel or stainless steeldish about 55 ml diameter and 40mm deep fitted with cover. Dry thoroughly coverdish cool in desiccators. Pipette out of quantity of drug to yield about 1gm of dry matter mix with a fewml of water and transfer quantitatively to the dish containing prepared sand with aidof water. Mix the sample thoroughly with the sand. Dry at a temperature not more than 1100C under pressure not more than 50mm of Hg. Making trail washing at 2 hours interval. Towards end of drying perioduntil successive weighing do not differ by more than 2 mg. Calculate the total solidfrom the loss of weight on drying. Loss on drying: 17.08%07. Determination of total ash.Procedure – Take about 2gms accurate weighed, ground drug in a previously traced silicadish, previously ignited and weighed. Scatter the ground dry in a fine even layer onthe bottom of the dish. Incinerate by gradually increasing the heat not exceeding dullred heat (4500C) until free from carbon. Cool and weigh Calculate the percentage ofash with reference to the air-dried drug.Total ash: 6.55% “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 77
    • Methodology8. Identification of alkaloids Silica get 60 F254 Merck pre-coated plates. Mobile phase – Chloroform: Methanol (90.10) Location reagent – Dragendroff’s reagent.Procedure –Weigh about 2gms of the sample into a separating flash. Add about 20ml waterAlkalize with dilute ammonia and extract with two quantities 25ml of chloroformFilter through anhydrous sodium sulphate. Evaporate the chloroform layer to theresidue obtained. Add about 1 ml of methanol. Shake well to dissolve and spotabout 10-ul solutions on the TLC plate. Elute the plate with mobile phase to3/4” ofthe plate. Dry the plate at 1050C and spray the plate with dragendroff’s regent. Ifalkaloids are present brownish red sports were obtained in the sample solution.Result : Alkaloids present. 10. Determination of Sulphur: Eschka Mixture: Mix two parts by weight calcined magnesia with one part of anhydroussodium carbonate.Procedure: Cover the bottom of a 50ml crucible with 0.5gm of Eschka’s mixture Weightaccurately the appropriate quantity of the sample material and mix it immediatelywith 2gms of Eschka’s mixture and put evenly on the previously weighed Eschka’smixture Level the contents by tapping gently on a bench. Cover this uniformly with0.5gm of Eschka mixture. Place crucible in the muffle furnace. Raise thetemperature from room temperature to 8000C +250C in about one hour and then heatfor further 90 minutes. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 78
    • Methodology Transfer the ignited mixture as completely as possible from the crucible to abeaker containing 25 to30 ml of water. Wash out the crucible thoroughly with about50 ml of hot distilled water and add the washings to the contents of the breaker. Add carefully sufficient quantity of concentrated hydrochloric acid to dissolvethe solid matter, warming the content of the breaker to effect solution. Boil for 5Minutes to expel carbon dioxide. Add drop wise from a pipette, warm 5% Bariumchlorine solution. Stir the solution constantly during the addition. Allow theprecipitate to settle for a minute or two. Then test the supernatant liquid for complete precipitation by adding a fewdrops of Barium chloride solution. If a precipitate is formed, add slowly a further 3ml of the reagent allow the precipitate to settle as before and test again, repeat thisoperation until an excess of Barium Chloride is present. When an excess of theprecipitating agent has been added, keep the covered solution hot, but not boiling foran hour (steam bath) in order to allow time for complete precipitation. Theprecipitation should settle and a clear supernatant liquid should be obtained. Test thelatter with a few drops of barium chloride solution for complete precipitation. If noprecipitate obtained, the Barium sulphate is ready for filtration. Filter the solution through an ash less filter paper (Whatman No. 42) Wash theprecipitate with small portion of hot water. Dry the paper and place it in a silica orporcelain crucible, previously ignited to redness and cooled in a desiccators andweighed. Gradually increase the heat until the paper chars and volatile matter isexpelled. Do not allow the paper to burst into flame as mechanical loss may thusensure. When charring is complete, raise the temperature of the crucible to dullredness and burn off carbon with free excess of air. When the precipitate is whiteignite the crucible at red heat for 10-15 minutes. Allow the crucible to cool in air, “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 79
    • Methodologytransfer it to a desiccators and when cold, weigh the crucible and contents. Repeatuntil constant weight is attained. A blank is necessary. Calculate the percentage of sulphur converting Bariumsulphate X 0.1374. Sulphur: 9.9%11. Determination of mercuryProcedure – Dissolve about 0.3gms of the sample in 5ml of aquaregia and add 100ml ofwater. Add 40ml of 0.05N EDTA, 5ML OF Ammonia buffer solution and 0.5ml ofsolochrome black indicator. Titrate the solution with 0.05 M Zinc sulphate until theblue colour changes to purple (do not overshoot the end point), add 3 gms ofpotassium iodide, swirl to dissolve. Allow to stand for two minutes. Then, continuethe titration with zinc sulphate solution to the same end point as before. Each ml Zincsulphate solution required after addition of potassium iodide = 0.0103 Hg. Mercury : 80.3%12. Solubility. About one gram of the sample was weighed and dissolved in 10ml of thesolvents. When the sample did not dissolve, an excess of solvent by 10ml quantityup to 100ml was added and noted the sample was sparingly soluble in water andslightly soluble in chloroform and alcohol (1 gram of sample in 600 ml to 1000 ml ofchloroform and alcohol. SOLUBILITY TESTS: RESULTS: Water Very slightly soluble Chloroform Sparingly soluble Alcohol Sparingly soluble “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 80
    • Methodology XRD REPORT:x-ray diffraction method204Definition : X-ray diffraction is a technique through which the special arrangement ofstructural units of a substance in the crystalline state i.e., investigating the interior or acrystal.Principle : Bragg’s law of diffraction of x-ray by crystals is applicable according to himwhen an x-ray beam strikes a crystal surface at an angle portion of the beampenetrates to the second layers of atoms and so on. The cumulative effect of thisscattering from the regularly spaced centers of the crystal is nothing but diffraction ofthe beam.The important requirement of diffraction are:a) The Spacing between layers of atoms must be roughly the same as the wavelength of the radiation.b) The scattering centers must be specially distributed in a highly regular way.Various methods of x-ray diffraction :• Lane photographic method.• Bragg x-ray spectrometer method.• Ratting crystal method• Powder method.Sample preparation : The samples are ground to a fine, homogenous powder and held in the beamof thin walled glass or the specimen maybe mixed with a suitable non-crystallinebinder and moulded into a suitable shape. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 81
    • Methodology As a result large number of small crystallites are oriented in all possibledirections and when x-ray beam traverses the material a significant number ofparticles are expected to be oriented in such a manner that Bragg’s a equation forreflection from every possible inter planar spacing becomes satisfied. When the x-ray beam is diffracted by a fine powder, made of smallcrystallites, diffraction will take place for all crystallites whose planes spacing ofatom d make an angle or reflection (θ) to that incident beam, and the diffracted beamwill lie on a cone of semi apex angle 2θ. The minimum interplanar spacing giving adiffraction is at : d = λ / 2, θ = 900 A complete study of the sample assumes all possible angular positions in thepath of the x-rays, should give a unique result for each substance.Applications :• X-ray diffraction provides a convenient and, practical means for qualitative identification of crystalline compounds where the x-ray diffraction pattern is unique for each crystalline substance.• Quantitative analysis of x-ray diffraction is done by comparing the intensity of a chosen diffraction line in a standard mixture.• X-ray diffraction is employed in investigating the interior of a crystal. (size and shapes of individual crystal vary but interfacial angle remain constant).• Used in detecting the structures of complex natural products such as steriods, vitamins and antibiotics. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 82
    • MethodologyAdvantages:• X-ray methods are non-destructive.• X-ray analysis done to crystalline samples in any physical state of sub-division.Disadvantages:• The accuracy of the analysis depends on the surface preparation, reliability of standards, stability of x-ray tube output and the number of x-ray photos counted.• Instrumental and sample variable affect the analysis. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 83
    • DiscussionDiscussion 1 In the present work swacchandha Bhairava Rasa (Dwitiya) is taken forpharmaceutical and analytical study, for its Jwaraghna property as it is indicated innavajwara. The ingredients of Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya) are Shodhitahingulota parada, Shodhita gandhaka, Shodhita vatsanabha, pippali and jatikosha.Jwara is a common entity found in day-to-day practice, as a disease and also as a lakshnain other diseases, where agnimandhya is a root cause, which forms ama, by virtue of itsrotoavarodha and swedavarodha, leading to the raise in body temperature.As Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya) acts as jwaraghna by their properties i.e.Deepana pachana properties causes Agnivardhana and their by Amapachana.Swedapravartaka properties relieving sweedavarodha there by reducing bodytemperature.Due to rasayana property, its rasayana karma helps in normalizing Dhatvagnipaka.Yogavahi guna enhances the properties of other ingredients there by cumulating thejwaraghna effect.Hence it is a need of hour to critically analyze the Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)by attempting through proper pharmaceutical and necessary analytical approach.We shall discuss each of these ingredients individually & their shodana, specializedcombinations, final combination, pharmaceutical studies & analytical reports in astepwise fashion.Hingula: • In samhita kala there were no reference of Hingula, but we get the reference of parada. • It is chief ore of Mercury and combination of mercury and Sulphur. • In olden days it was assumed to be imported from other countries. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 84
    • DiscussionHingula shodhana: Shodhana was done with nimbuswarasa, due to bhavana, hingula was reduced tofiner particles, which helps to extract maximum amount of mercury. The increase ofweight after shodhana is by addition of solid contents of nimbuswarasa.Hingulottha parada: • As the name indicates the parada is extracted from Hingula • Hingula taken was of kritrima variety. • Method used for Hingulakarshana was urdhwa paatana vidhi as per Rasatarangini • Urdhwa patana yantra was used for the Hingulaakarshana • Yield of parada by this process was 52% • Loss is due to insufficient heating pattern, unburnt chakrikas and some portion by dhoomagati, malagati and jalagati in process.Parada Shodhana • Parada Shodhana was done as per rasatarangini, with haridrachoorna and nimbuswarasa. • Properties of haridra embides the jwaragna property in parada by shodhana. • Loss of parada is due to malagati and jalagati in the shodhana process. • The parada was looking brighter & more glistening after the shodhana.Gandhaka Shodhana • Gandhaka taken for the study was checked for the lakshanas of grahya gandhaka • Amlasara gandhaka was considered for the study & subjected for shodhana as per rasatangini • Gandhakashodhana was done with equal quantity of godugda & ghritha • Shuddha gandhaka was brighter, spotless & softer than ashuddha gandhaka “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 85
    • Discussion • Shuddha Gandhaka had lesser gandha than Ashuddha gandhaka • Shuddha gandhaka was pindakriti. • Teekshna ushna gunas of gandhaka reduces by demulcent properties of dugdh and gritha • Fat soluble impurities get removed by shodhana • Loss is due to removal of impurities, some portions due to washing and some due to adhesion to the vessel and cloth.KAJJALI: • Kajjali was observed for siddhi laskshanas like nishchandratva, rekhapurnatva,no free mercury particles seen after rubbing it with water on hand. • Loss is due to spilling out from khalva during process . • Regarding Khalvee RasayanaKajjali should be very fine like collyrium, absence of dazzling particles. In differentmedicines, purified mercury and purified sulphur are mixed in different proportions.Addition of Kajjali along with herbal ingredients helps to increase their durability addsshelf life and reduces their dosage. Kajjali as such is used in combination with otherdrugs in a recipe.Vatsanabha Shodhana: • Vatsanabha is known to Ayurvedic pharmacopeia since long ago. Charaka classifies it under sthavara visha. • Sushruta classified it under kanda visha; Sthavara vishas are used mainly in therapeutics. • Among sthavara visha kanda and moola vishas are very commonly as they are claimed to be as more potent and effective. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 86
    • Discussion • Amrita synonym of vatsanabha, quoted by Rasatarangini and Dhanwantari Nighantu, if it is administered after purification with proper dose and precautions, it acts quick in the body, proves highly beneficial to body. • Some acharyas termed marana, pranahara, for vatsanabha. Because it is visha dravya. • In samihita kala the use of Vatsanabha for therapeutic purpose was limited because of less development of shodhana procedures. • Shodhana is necessary for Vatsanabha before using therapeutically. Ashodhita visha when used may lead to several complications. Purification’s is done to reduce its toxicity. • While explaining grahya vatsanabha it is sthoola, snigdha, guru, naveena. • Timing of collection: After fruiting • Condition: free from kita etc, • Best variety: pandu variety.It may be that it is less toxic to other varieties and gives more therapeutic effects. Vatsanabha indicated in• Vatarakta, Shwasa, kasa, does the prashamana of Jwara and Amavata.• It may be due to the property of diaphoretic, antipyretic, anti inflammatory in small doses. It is narcotic when administered in large doses.• Loss is due to drying, peeling of outer layer and while pounding.Pippali- • Pippali is used as a drug in Charaka, Sushruta and Vagbhata samhitas, usually used dravya in many Ayurvedic formulations. • Magadhi synonym quoted by Dhanwantari nighantu and Bhavaprakash nighantu, it shows the place of avaliability. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 87
    • Discussion • Pippali has the property of Rasayana, Jwarahara, Kasashwasahara, Shoola Amavata. • It is stimulant, carminative, and also immuno-modulator. • Loss is due to spilling out while pounding and sieving.JatiKosha : JatiKosha is explained in Charaka, Sushruta and Vagbhata samhitas, usually useddravya in many Ayurvedic formulations.Loss is due to spilling out while pounding and sieving.Preparation of Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)After mixing the ingredients homogeneously mardhana with jala was done till it attainsvati consistency and rolled into vatis.240gms of Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya) was obtained.Gain of weight is due to jala bhavana.Discussion on analytical study-Uniformity of weightFor the present study vatis were prepared manualy. 20 vatis taken randomly and weighed.The average weight was calculated. The weight variations fall with in normal limits.Hardness testSwacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya) was subjected to hardness test, values wereobserved as 1.45 kg./Cm2Disintegration test :Vati disintegrated within 25 minutes in 0.1N Hcl this is within normal limits.Friability testThe weight of the tablets weighed before and after 100 revolutions showed weight loss ofNil which shows that it can withstand abrasion in packing, handling and transporting. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 88
    • DiscussionpH test:the pH of the vati is 5.89. It is acidic in natureLoss on dryingIt shows the end product contain 17.8 % if moisture.AlkaloidsThe formulation contain Parada,Gandaka, Vatsanabha, Pippali & Jathikosha, Alkaloidsof all the dravyas were restored even in the end product, which was confirmed by TLCprocedure.Total ashThe herbal drugs were converted in to ash form resulting in to weight loss. Here value ofweight loss noted is 6.55%.Solubility test: SOLUBILITY TESTS: RESULTS: Water Very slightly soluble Chloroform Sparingly soluble Alcohol Sparingly solubleAssay for Mercury and SulphurThe percentage of Mercury and Sulphur was assayed in the vati which revealed thatMercury was present in 80.3% and Sulphur was present in 9.9%.XRD: The report suggest that the graph is specific to Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya).The highest peak level is of parada, rest of the peak is of other ingredients in theircomplex state present in Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya) “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 89
    • Discussion PROBABLE MODE OF ACTION: Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya) Ingredients Guna karmas Parada Yogavahi, Sarvamayahara, rasayana.35 Gandaka Kaphavatahara, rasayana.44 Vatsanabha Yogavahi, Pranadayi, Tridoshaghna.79 Pippili Deepana, rasayana, Vatasleshmahara, Jwaraghna.99 Jatikosha Ruchi varna kruth,vishapaha104 Deepana and pachana action from parada, gandhaka, vathsanabha, pippali and jatikosha causes amapachana action, this helps chikithsa sutra of navajwara. Once the amapachana is done the niramalakshanas would appear. Shrothoavarodha in the form of swedaavarodha in navajwara which needs ushna, theekshana gunas to contaract. Pippali, Vathsanabha and jatikosha have ushana theekshana gunas which has lekhana action, this reduces the swedaavarodha. Vathsnabha with its swedapravartaka action would ease the flowing out of sweda, which in turn carries the pitta out of the srotases. This helps to reduce santapa in jwara.• Yogavahi Guna enhances activities of other ingredients that are combined with it in this case parada, Vatsanabha enhances activities of Jathikosha pippli and Gandaka without loosing their own karmas.• In Navajwara as dosha is pitta and Dhathu being rasa, a rasayana is the need of the hour as it corrects the Agni which has becomes dushya in Jwara.• Jwaragna activities of pippli and vatsanabha is enhanced by Yogavahithva of Kajjali.• Vishapaha guna of Jathi kosha rectifies the vitiated aama which is cause of Navajwara “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 90
    • DiscussionThere by the yoga Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya) can effectively combact thedisease navajwara. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 91
    • ConclusionConclusion:“Pharmaceutico – Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 1. The formation of Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya) has a balance of drugs acting on the samprapthi of Navajwara to bring about samprapthi vighatana. 2. Hingula is a chief ore of parada. 3. Hingula available in the modern days is kritrima Hingula. 4. Urdhwapatana yantra is the Yantra useful in Hingulakarshana. 5. 52% is the yield in this process. 6. The loss of parada in this process happens due to dhooma, mala and jalagati of parada. 7. Sodhana Hingulakarshitha parada should be done with Haridra churna and nimbu swarasa. 8. Haridra turns greenish, latter brownish colour when triturated with parada and nimbu swarasa. 9. Parada becomes brighter after shodhana by the above method. 10. The loss of parada through this process is roughly 13%, which may be due to jala and mala gati. 11. Shodhana of Gandaka with gritha and dugdha makes it brighter, softer, spotless, less odour, less teekshna than ashudda gandaka. 12. Loss of gandaka in the above process is 18 % 13. He takes 72 hours to reach Kajjali Siddi lakshana at the rate of 14 to 15 strokes per minute while mardhana. 14. Loss of Kajjali while mardhana is roughly 8 % due to spillage. 15. Shodhana of vatsanabha with Gomutra abolishes the tingling effect on tongue when applied. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 92
    • Conclusion 16. The loss due to shodhana of vatsanabha is around 28% w/w 17. Suddha vastsanabha is darker, softer. 18. The ingredients of Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya) were added in the same chronological order as in the classical. 19. After adding the ingredients of Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya) mardhana was done with jala for 3 hours. 20. The bolus of Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya) after attaining vati consistency, can be rolled into pills easily and bolus is almost non sticky. 21. There was about 4% loss of the material in the final product during the process of yoga. 22. Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya) analysis reveals the hardness – 1.45 kg /cm2 , disintegration time – 25 minutes in 0.1 N Hcl solution, friability passes the test loss on drying – 17.8%, test for alkaloides – present, total ash- 6.55% , solubility test-inwater very sparingly soluble, in cloroform and alcohol sparingly soluble, assay for mercury – 80.3% and for sulphur – 9.9%SCOPE FOR FURTHER STUDY: • The yoga can be further taken for toxicity study. • Experimental model for antipyretic effect can be undertaken. • Its efficacy can be ruled out Clinically. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 93
    • SummarySUMMARY: The present study is entitled “Pharmaceutico analytical study on SwacchanddaBhairava rasa (Dwitiya).”In this study, here an attempt is made to prepare SwacchanddaBhairava rasa (Dwitiya) as per classical procedure and its necessary physical andchemical analisis was carried out. This study includes the following chapters viz.Introduction, Objectives, Reviewof literatureand methodology which contains pharmaceutical and analytical study. Thenext chapter discussion and conclusion.1.In the introduction part importance of rasa shastra, Khalvi rasayana & Kajjali kalpas isexplained.2.Aims and objectives of present study are mentioned in objective chapter.3.Revive of literature deals with drug revive i.e. the ingredients of SwacchanddaBhairava rasa (Dwitiya), their vernacular name synonyms varities shodhana propertiesand modern view is described.4.Methodology it deals about pharmaceutical and analytical study.a.in pharmaceutical study explains about hinguja shodhana, hingulotha parada, paradashodhana, gandhaka shodhana,kajjali preparation, vatsanabha shodhana and choornikarna,pippali choornikarna ,jathikosha choornikarna andPreparation of Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya).b. The analytical study deals about physico chemical analysis of Swacchandda Bhairavarasa (Dwitiya), i.e.pH, total ash, friability, estimation of mercury and sulphur etcc. Discussion chapter deals with discussions regarding ingredients of SwacchanddaBhairava rasa (Dwitiya), process of pharmaceutical and analytical study.Finally essence of dissertation is explained in conclusion. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 94
    • Bibilography BIBILOGRAFIC REFERENCES.1. Sri Govindadas Bhaisajya Ratnavali, 5th Chapter, sloka 492-493, Edited by Ambikadatta Shastri, 7th Edition Varnasi, Chaukamba Sanskrit Prakashan P.83.2. Sri Rasavagbhata, Rasaratna Samuchaya, 3rdChapter sloka126-127, edited by Indra Dev Tripati, 2nd Edition Varnasi Chaukamba Sanskrit Prakashan 2003. P.37.3. Sri Sadanandarsharma, Rasa Tarangini, 9thTaranga, sloka1-2, edited by Kashinathan shastri, 11th Edition, New Delhi, Motilal Banarasidas publications, 2000. P.198.4. Yadavji Trikrmji Acharya, Rasamrutham, 1st Chapter, edited by Sri Damodar Joshi, Ist Edition, Varanasi, Chaukamba Sanskrit Prakashan, 1998 .P.26-27.5. Sri Sadanandarsharma, Rasa Tarangini, 9thTaranga, sloka 4, edited by Kashinathan shastri, 11th Edition, New Delhi, Motilal Banarasidas publications, 2000. P.199.6. Sri Rasavagbhata, Rasaratna Samuchaya, 3rdChapter sloka 147-148, edited by Indra Dev Tripati, 2nd Edition Varnasi Chaukamba Sanskrit Prakashan 2003. P.41.7. Acharaya Sri Madhava, Ayurveda Prakasha, 2nd Chapter, Sloka 70-71, edited by Gulraj Sharma Mishra, 2nd Edition, Varanasi, Chaukamba Bharath Academy, 1999 . P.272-273.8. Sri Sadanandarsharma, Rasa Tarangini, 9thTaranga, sloka 3, edited by Kashinathan shastri, 11th Edition, New Delhi, Motilal Banarasidas publications, 2000. P.199. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 95
    • Bibilography9. Bhava mishra Bhava prakash Nighantu, Datwadivarga, sloka 104, edited by G.S. Pandye, 7th ed., Varnasi Chaukamba Bharatiya Academy, 1984.P.615.10. Sri Sadanandarsharma, Rasa Tarangini, 9thTaranga, sloka 13-17, edited by Kashinathan shastri, 11th Edition, New Delhi, Motilal Banarasidas publications, 2000. P.201.11. Sri Rasavagbhata, Rasaratna Samuchaya, 3rdChapter, sloka 152-153, edited by Indra Dev Tripati, 2nd Edition Varnasi Chaukamba Sanskrit Prakashan 2003. P.41.12. Acharaya Sri Madhava, Ayurveda Prakasha, 2nd Chapter, Sloka72, edited by Gulraj Sharma Mishra, 2nd Edition, Varanasi, Chaukamba Bharath Academy, 1999 P.274.13. Sri Sadanandarsharma, Rasa Tarangini, 9thTaranga, sloka 49, edited by Kashinathan shastri, 11th Edition, New Delhi, Motilal Banarasidas publications, 2000. P.207.14. P.L Sony, Sultan Chand and Son’s, Text book Inorganic Chemistry, 20th Edn, New Delhi, 1991.P. 3.324-3.336.15. Acharaya Sri Madhava, Ayurveda Prakasha, 2nd Chapter. Sloka 78-82, edited by Gulraj Sharma Mishra, 2nd Edition, Varanasi, Chaukamba Bharath Academy, 1999, P.276.16. Gopal krishna, Rasendrasarasangraha, 1st Chapter, Sloka 51-53, edited by Brahmashankar Mishra, 6th Edition varanasi, Chaukamba Amarabharati Pralashan, 1981. P-14.17. Sri Sadanandarsharma, Rasa Tarangini, 5thTaranga, sloka 38-39, edited by Kashinathan shastri, 11th Edition, New Delhi, Motilal Banarasidas publications, 2000. P.82. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 96
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