“Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda                   Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)”                                 ...
DECLARATION BY THE CANDIDATE         I here by declare that this dissertation / thesis entitled “Pharmaceuticoanalytical s...
SHRI D. G. MELMALAGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE,      POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA.                      CERTIFI...
SHRI D. G. MELMALAGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE,         POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA.                CERTIFICAT...
ENDORSEMENT BY THE H.O.D AND PRINCIPAL OF                                  THE INSTITUTIONThis is to certify that the diss...
COPYRIGHT                         Declaration by the candidate        I hereby declare that the Rajiv Gandhi University of...
ABSTRACTBackground.       Rasaoushadhis with different formulations are classified according to mode ofpreparation under k...
Analytical study:Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya) is subjected to phyisico-chemical analysis likeorganoleptic character...
ACKNOWLEDGMENT          First and foremost, I Salute almighty God, by his blessings and Grace, whichgives us success in li...
I express my deep gratitude to Dr.Guru.Rau, Director SSCU,IISc.,Dr.Shivukumar, Dept of XRD,IISc, Dr.Kannan,Dept of Emax,II...
I offer my sincere thanks to my senior friends Dr. Santoji, Dr. Koteshwara, Dr,V.S. Hiremath, Dr. Jaggal, Dr Sharanabasapp...
CONTENTSChapter                               Page No.Introduction                          1-2Objectives                 ...
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS⇒ A. P.     – Ayurveda Prakasha.⇒ B.P.      - Bhava prakasha.⇒ B. P.N.   – Bhava Prakasha Nighantu.⇒ ...
LIST OF TABLESSl. No.                                Contents                                  Page No.1         Table sho...
IntroductionINTRODUCTION       The concept of rasaushadhies is come in existence along with the evaluation ofdifferent pha...
IntroductionAnalytical procedures are safety measures to confirm the drug quality.Parada and gandhaka is considered as a s...
ObjectivesOBJECTIVES1.Preparation of Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya).2.Physico-chemical analysis of Swacchandda Bhaira...
Review of Literature                                Review of Literature       The main aim of Rasa Shastra is not Lohavad...
Review of LiteratureDRUG REVIEWHINGULAHingula is the main source of Parada. Parada extracted from Hingula is said to beequ...
Review of LiteratureOn the basis of colour and properties:Charmara                :      Krishna, Rakta VarnaShukatunda   ...
Review of LiteratureShuddha Hingula is useful in the treatment of Prameha, Kushta, Jwara, Mandagni,Hrdroga, Aruchi, Amlapi...
Review of LiteratureGeneral Description of Cinnabar:Chemical formula              :       HgsColour                       ...
Review of LiteratureNadayantra etc.Yantras used for the extraction of parada are:Patana yantraVidhyadhara yantraDamaru yan...
Review of LiteratureTiryak Patana vidhi: By distillation apparatusUrdhwa Patana Vidhi:Nimbu Rasabhavita Hingula is made in...
Review of LiteratureEXTRACTION OF MERCURY FROM CINNABARConsists of 2 stepsOre concentration                   Roasting and...
Review of LiteraturePARADA         Parada has been recognized vastly in the field of Rasashastra. We come acrossmuch quota...
Review of LiteratureTable No.2, showing synonyms of Parada based on the following 26Swarupaat    Dharmika       Gatyatmak ...
Review of LiteratureVarieties27:         The Varieties of Parada described in various texts based on following factors:Dep...
Review of Literature                Naisargika dosha                     Effects.                 Visha                   ...
Review of LiteratureTable No. 5 Showing Kanchuka Doshas and their effects according to differentRasa classics.Sl.No.     T...
Review of Literatureover it. So it is essential to carry out some purifactory procedures before making useof parada.Differ...
Review of LiteraturePharmacological and therapeutic properties of Parada35:Rasa            :       ShadrasaGuna           ...
Review of LiteratureIonic Radius (+2)              :       1.10Relative Atomic Mass           :       200.50 gm/moleSpecif...
Review of Literaturemercury are not used in any of the pharmacopoeias of western countries as it isconsidered to be devoid...
Review of LiteratureGANDHAKA        Gandhaka is grouped under Uparasa varga by authors of different Rasaclassics.        I...
Review of Literature           Saugandhika            Gandhamadana           Putigandha             KeetaghnaTypes of Gand...
Review of Literature       For Rasayanartha and Loha vadartha, it should be translucent like the fruits ofAmalaki (Amlasar...
Review of Literaturemilk through a cloth tied over the mouth of vessel. After that it is taken out andwashed with hot wate...
Review of LiteratureGANDHAKA MODERN VIEWSULPHUR50 : The name sulphur is derived from the sanskrit word “Sulveret”through t...
Review of LiteratureOccurrence:        Sulphur is distributed in nature both in free and combined form. The sulphur isfoun...
Review of LiteratureIn larger doses it acts as purgative.Sulphur is useful in cough, Asthma, General debility, Enlargement...
Review of LiteratureUseful parts:Phala, twak and patraFruit juice of Nimbu contains citric acid 10%, phosphoric acid 47%, ...
Review of LiteratureDescription: 59A tall herb. Rootstoack large, ovoid, with sessile cylindric tubers orange colouredinsi...
Review of LiteratureQualities of Godugdha:        It is having the qualities of Swadu, Sheeta, Mrudu, Snigdha, Bahala,Slak...
Review of LiteratureContents of Ghrita:Unsaponifiable matter (Soluble in fat).TriglyceridesPhospholipidsVit D and KMineral...
Review of Literature        Among all Khalvi Rasayans Kajjali is having prime importance, as it formsbase to many mercuria...
Review of LiteratureTests of Kajjali66:Krishna Varnata        :      Blackish colourSlakshntva             :      Smooth t...
Review of Literature        The term aconite refers to the genus aconitum of which there are severalspecies. The name may ...
Review of LiteratureVernacular Names: 7101     Sanskrit              -    Visha, Vatsnabha02     Hindi                 -  ...
Review of LiteratureDifferent verities of Vatsnabha (BHEDA)Table No. 09. Showing the Vatsnabha bheda According to Yogaratn...
Review of LiteratureBotanical description: 76It is a perennial herb      Root – Paired, daughter, tuber ovoid oblong to el...
Review of LiteratureTwo new alkaloids 2 – (11+) quionolinome and 3,4dihydro – 6 – hydroxy – 2 –(11+) quoinolone (Nat. prod...
Review of Literature 4      Kept in cow’s urine for 3       -           -     +      +       -        days then Swedana in...
Review of LiteratureIt relieves timira, naktandhyata, netrabhishyanda, netrashotha, karna shoola, gudarogaand kati vedana....
Review of Literaturestomach followed by tingling and numbness in the mouth, tongue and pharynx. Thisis followed by salivat...
Review of Literature5. Swachanddha Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)Gomutra         Gomutra is used as a medicine since olden days. ...
Review of LiteratureIntroduction       In Atharvana veda Pippali is mentioned as rasayana.          Kshipta bheshaj,ativid...
Review of LiteratureTable No. 11, showing synonyms of Pippali 96 Synonyms                   B. P.    K. N.    N. A.    R. ...
Review of LiteratureBotanical Description 98An aromatic slender, Climber   01    Stem                  - Cripping, jointed...
Review of Literature       Dhanwantari nighantu, includes under shatapushpadi varga, pippali have theproperties of katu ra...
Review of Literaturecount. Bone marrow cellularity and alpha esterase positive cells were also increase bythe administrati...
Review of LiteratureBOTANICAL DESCRIPTION:101Evergreen aromatic tree, 9-12 mt highBark             :       Greyish – black...
Review of LiteratureSYNONYM: 103Table No.12, Showing synonyms of Jati koshaS.l.no   Synonyms                         K.N  ...
Review of LiteratureIndications-105Table No.14, Showing Indications of JatiKoshaS.l.no    Indications                     ...
Review of Literature   Enhances therapeutical properties   Suitable for further processingIn the present work, concept of ...
Review of Literature   •     The joint of the appartus should be sealed air tight with the help of         multanimitti-sm...
Methodology                                      METHODOLOGYMethodology was studied mainly under two headings.   •     Pha...
Methodology          Special request was made to the local herbo-mineral drug shop dealer to get the particulars quality d...
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Pharmaceutico analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” - Dr. Anand. H, Department of rasashastra, Post graduate studies and research center, Shri D. G. Melmalagi Ayurvedic Medical College, Gadag

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Swachandabhiravras rs006 gdg

  1. 1. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” BY DR. ANAND. H. Dissertation Submitted to the Rajiv Gandhi University Of Health Sciences, Karnataka, Bangalore. In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of AYURVEDA VACHASPATI (DOCTOR OF MEDICINE) IN RASASHASTRA Under the guidance of DR.DILIP KUMAR.B. M.D. (RASASHSATRA) P.G.Dept. of Rasashastra and Co-guidance of DR. GIRISH. N. DANAPPAGOUDAR, M.D. (RASASHASTRA), P.G.Dept. of Rasashastra POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRAD.G MELMALAGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE AND RESEARCH CENTER GADAG – 582103 2006 Rajiv Gandhi University Of Health Sciences, Karnataka, Bangalore.
  2. 2. DECLARATION BY THE CANDIDATE I here by declare that this dissertation / thesis entitled “Pharmaceuticoanalytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” is a bonafideand genuine research work carried out by me under the guidance of Dr.Dilipkumar P,M.D.(Ayu), (Rasashastra), Assistant-Professor, Post graduate department of Rasashastraand under the Co-guidance of Dr. Girish. N. Danappagoudar,M.D. (Rasashastra).Lecturer, Post graduate department of Rasashastra.Date:Place: Gadag. Dr.Anand. H
  3. 3. SHRI D. G. MELMALAGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA. CERTIFICATE BY THE GUIDE This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “Pharmaceutico -Analytical Study on Swaccanddha Bhirava Rasa(Dwitiya) .” is a bonafideresearch work done by Dr. Anand. H. in partial fulfillment of the requirementfor the degree of Ayurveda Vachaspathi. M.D (Rasashastra).Date:Place: Gadag. Dr. Dilipkumar. B. M.D. (Ayu) Astt Professor Department of Rasashastra, D.G.M.A.M.C, Gadag.
  4. 4. SHRI D. G. MELMALAGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA. CERTIFICATE BY THE Co - GUIDE This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “Pharmaceuticoanalytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” is a bonafideresearch work done by Dr. ANAND.H. in partial fulfillment of the requirementfor the degree of Ayurveda Vachaspathi. M.D (Rasashastra).Date:Place: Gadag. Dr. Girish. N. Danappagoudar, M.D. (Rasashastra). Lecturer, Postgraduate department of Rasashastra.
  5. 5. ENDORSEMENT BY THE H.O.D AND PRINCIPAL OF THE INSTITUTIONThis is to certify that the dissertation entitled “Pharmaceutico analyticalstudy on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” is a bonafide researchwork done by Dr. ANAND.H. under the guidance of DR. Dilipkumar. B M.D.(Rasashastra), Asst. Professor, Postgraduate department of Rasashastra and co-guidance of Dr. Girish. N. Danappagoudar, M.D. (Rasashastra), lecturer, Postgraduatedepartment of Rasashastra.DR. M.C.Patil, M.D. (Rasashastra) Dr. G. B. Patil.Professor & H.O.D, Principal.Post graduate department of Rasashastra. D.G.M.A.M.C, GADAG.D.G.M.A.M.C, GADAG.Date:Place: Gadag
  6. 6. COPYRIGHT Declaration by the candidate I hereby declare that the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences,Karnataka shall have the rights to preserve, use and disseminate thisdissertation / thesis in print or electronic format for academic / researchpurpose.Date: Signature of ScholarPlace: Gadag Dr.Anand.H© Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka.
  7. 7. ABSTRACTBackground. Rasaoushadhis with different formulations are classified according to mode ofpreparation under khalvi rasayana, kupipakva rasayana, pottali rasayana and parpati rasayana.Rasaoushadhis with various elements along with kajjali is proved more effective than herbalformulations in lesser dosage Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya) is a khalvi rasayana, with a unique herbomineralcombination of drugs to treat Navajwara. Before its clinical application it is the need of hour tocritically undergo pharmaceutical and analytical evaluation as a part of safety measures. Hencestudy is under taken.Objectives : • Preparation of Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya). • Physico-chemical analysis of Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya).Methods:Pharmaceutical study.1.Hingula shodhana- Rasatarangini, 9th chapter, Sloka – 16 – 17.2.Hingulotha parada- Rasatarangini, 9th chapter, Sloka – 13 – 17.3.Parada shodhana- Rasatarangini, 5th chapter, Sloka – 40 – 42.4.Gandhaka shodhana- Rasatarangini, 8th chapter, Sloka – 7 – 11.5.Kajjali preparation- Rasatarangini, 6th chapter, Sloka – 110 – 111.6.Vatsanabha shodhana- Rasatarangini, 24th chapter, Sloka – 19 – 25.7.preparation of Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)- Bhaisajyarathnavali, 5th chapter, Sloka –492- 493. ABSTRACT - IV
  8. 8. Analytical study:Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya) is subjected to phyisico-chemical analysis likeorganoleptic characters,pH value, total ash value, fineness, estimation of mercury and sulphur.Interpretation and conclusion:1.Kajjali is a black sulphide of parada, which is a sagandha, niragni pota bandha of parada,khalvi rasayana.2.Trituration time and saturation of parada with gandhaka is directly propotional to thepharmacological effect of kajjali and its further complex compounds3. Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya) is one among Sagandha Niragni Murchita paradayoga.When purified Mercury and sulphur are intimately mixed in a definite proportion to get a blackpowder called as Kajjali.4.Siddhi laxanas of ayurveda and modern physico-chemical analysis are confirmative test toevaluate the perfectness of the pharmaceutics.Keywords: Hingula, hingulotha parada, parada, gandhaka,kajjali,vatsanabha, pippali, jatikosha,Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya). ABSTRACT - V
  9. 9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT First and foremost, I Salute almighty God, by his blessings and Grace, whichgives us success in life. My deep sense of gratification is due for my parents, my uncle, and familywho are the architects of my career. I am extremely happy to express my deepest sense of gratitude to my belovedand respected Guide, Dr. Dilip kumar B. M.D. (Rasashastra)) whose sympathetic, scholarlysuggestions and Guidance at every step have inspired me not only to accomplish thiswork but in all aspects. I express my deep gratitude to my respected Sir H.O.D. and Prof. Dr. M.C.Patil M.D. (Rasashastra) for his critical suggestions and expert guidance for the completionof thesis. I am extremely greatful to my Co-guide Dr. Girish. N. Danappagoudar,M.D.(Rasashastra). Lecturer, Postgraduate department of Rasashastra, under whoseguidance and valuable suggestions, I have been able to complete this research work. I offer my sincere thanks to Dr. R.K. Gaccchinmath, professor and HOD, UGDept of Rasashastra, DGMAMC, Gadag, for his constant support I express my deep sense of gratification to my beloved and Respected sirs, , DrJagadeesh Mitti, MD (Ayu) Lecturer, PG Dept of Rasashastra, DGMAMC, Gadag,.Whose guidance, inspiration, supervision and valuable suggestions, I have been ableto complete this Research work. I express my deep gratitude to beloved Principal Dr. G.B. Patil, PrincipalDGMAMC, Gadag, for his encouragement and providing all necessary facilities forthis research work. ACKNOWLEDGMENT - I
  10. 10. I express my deep gratitude to Dr.Guru.Rau, Director SSCU,IISc.,Dr.Shivukumar, Dept of XRD,IISc, Dr.Kannan,Dept of Emax,IISc.Bangalore. I take this opportunity to thank Shri Chandur, Lecturer K.L.E’s College ofPharmacy Gadag, who extended valuable support by conducting analyticalprocedures. I express my deep gratitude to Shri B.C. Hatapakki M.Pharm, PrincipalK.L.E.’s College of Pharmacy Gadag, for his encouragement and providing allnecessary facilities for this research work.. I express my sincere thanks to Dr. Varadacharylu M.D. (Ayu), Dr. Mulagund M.D. ,Dr. G. Purushothamacharylu M.D. (Ayu) for their constant support. I am grateful to Dr. K.S.R. Prasad M.D. (Ayu), Dr. Shivramudu M.D. (Ayu), Dr. S.H.Doddamani M.D. (Ayu), Dr. R.V. Shettar M.D. (Ayu), Dr. Kuber sankh M.D. (Ayu), Dr. SantoshBelvadi M.D. (Ayu), Dr. Sashikanth Nidagundi M.D. (Ayu), and other P.G. Staff for theirconstant encouragement. I extend my gratitude to Shri V.M. Mundinmani and Sureban for providing therequired books during the study. With great pleasure I offer my recognition to my friends Dr. Suvarna P.Nidagundi, Dr. Anitha H, Dr and Dr. Shambulinga Teggi for their friendly affectionand amiable attitude during my study period without which I would never becomplete. I offer my sincere thanks to my friends Dr. M.V. Sobagin, Dr. B.Y. Ghanti,Dr. Pradeep, Dr. Shankuntala and Dr. M.S. Hiremath for their kind co-operation andhelp. ACKNOWLEDGMENT - II
  11. 11. I offer my sincere thanks to my senior friends Dr. Santoji, Dr. Koteshwara, Dr,V.S. Hiremath, Dr. Jaggal, Dr Sharanabasappa. S. Dr. R.B. Pattanshetty, for theirimmense help and affection. I am also thankful to my junior friends Dr. Rudrakshi, Dr. Suma Jamakhandi,Dr. Jaya, Dr. Kattimani, Dr. Shivakumar, Dr. Ravindra, Dr. Anupama Bijjal, Dr.Sarvamangala, Dr. Kavitha for their support and affection. I am grateful to Shri Chaitrakumar (Sadguru computers) for his kind co-operation and immense help to complete the dissertation work. My sincere thanks to my batch mates Dr. Suresh, Dr. Manju, Dr. Ashwin, Dr.Gavi, Dr. Survey, Dr. Krishna, Dr. Chanveer, Dr. Vijay, Dr. Jagadeesh, Dr. Umesh,Dr. Reddy, and all my friends for their kind support. Lastly but not least my heartly thanks to Dr.Madhav.Diggavi for his kindsuggestions. Dr. ANAND.H. ACKNOWLEDGMENT - III
  12. 12. CONTENTSChapter Page No.Introduction 1-2Objectives 3Review of literature 4 - 52Methodology 53 - 83Discussion 84 - 91Conclusion 92 - 93Summary 94Bibliographic References 95 - 110 CONTENTS - VI
  13. 13. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS⇒ A. P. – Ayurveda Prakasha.⇒ B.P. - Bhava prakasha.⇒ B. P.N. – Bhava Prakasha Nighantu.⇒ C.S. - Charaka Samhita.⇒ D.N. - Dhanvantari Nighantu.⇒ M.M. - Materia medica.⇒ M.P.N. - Madanapal Nighantu.⇒ R. N. – Raja Nighantu.⇒ R. M. – Rasamrita.⇒ R. S.S. – Rasendra sara sangraha.⇒ R.R.S. - Rasaratna Samuchchaya.⇒ R. T. – Rasatarangini.⇒ R. J.N. – Rasa Jala Nidhi.⇒ S.S. - Sushruta Samhita.⇒ Y. K. – Yoga Ratanakara. ABBREVIATIONS - VII
  14. 14. LIST OF TABLESSl. No. Contents Page No.1 Table showing the best variety and lakshanas of hingula 62 Table showing the synonyms of Parada 133 Table showing the varieties of Parada 144 Table showing the yougika doshas and their effects 155 Table showing the kanchuka doshas and their effects 166 Table showing the types of Gandhaka 227 Table showing the types of Gandhaka, qualities and uses 228 Table showing the synonyms of Vatsanabha 349 Table showing the Vatsanabha Bheda, Acc. to Yogaratnakara. 3610 Table showing the Vatsanabha shodhana, Acc. to different authors 3811 Table showing the synonyms of Pippali 4412 Table showing the synonyms of Jatikosha 4913 Table showing the Actions of Jatikosha 4914 Table showing the indications of Jatikosha 5015 Table showing the Results of Hingula shodhana 5416 Table showing the quantity of Hingula, before & after shodhana 5517 Table showing the observations during Hingulotta parada 5718 Table showing the observations during shodhana of parada 6019 Table showing the quantity of Gandhaka before & after shodhana 6120 Table showing the different phases of Kajjali during preparation 6321 Table showing the physical properties of Kajjali 6322 Table showing the quantity of Vatsanabha, before & after shodhana 6623 Table showing the quantity of Vatsanabha, before & after 67 churnikarana24 Table showing the quantity of Pippali, before & after churnikarana 6825 Table showing the quantity of Jatikosha, before & after churnikarana 6926 Table showing the ingredients of Swacchandda bhairava rasa 70 (Dwitiya), with their proportions LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS Sl. No. Contents 1. Ingredients of Swacchandda bhairava rasa (Dwitiya) 2. Ingredients of Swacchandda bhairava rasa (Dwitiya) LIST OF TABLES - VIII
  15. 15. IntroductionINTRODUCTION The concept of rasaushadhies is come in existence along with the evaluation ofdifferent pharmaceutical processes in the field of ayurveda. These processes makes thematerial into such a suitable form which acts on different non manageable diseases, inminute dosages, quick effectiveness, having long shelf life compaired to other drugs.Rasashastra a branch of Ayurveda deals with metals, minerals, etc. Rasaushadhies aremainly grouped into four varieties –1. Kharaliya rasayana2. Pottali rasayana3. Parpati rasayana4. Kupipakwa rasayanaMethod of preparation of Rasaushadhies are different from each other. Kharaliyarasayana occupies major proportion in the Rasa rasayanas. In that four rasayanasKupipakwa and pottali rasayanas are limited. But kharaliya rasayanas are numerous.Kharaliya rasayanas are prepared by mercurial compounds like Kajjali, Hingula, etc.Mardana is done in Khalva yantra with dhatu, bhasmas, vishas, upavishas, sadharanarasa. Bhavana is given with dugdha, jala, swarasa. It can be used as churna or vati. Hereno agni samskara is given and yogas which are prepared in khalva yantra are called askharaliya rasayana.Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya), which comes under kharaliya rasayana a uniqueherbomineral formulation to treat Navajwara.The potency of yoga is dependent on the proper classical pharmaceutical procedureadopted. Along with it the drugs also plays an important role. The pharmaceuticalprocedures like shodhana, mardhana make the drug into such a state that it is easilyabsorbed and assimilate in the body and produce its desired effects. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 1
  16. 16. IntroductionAnalytical procedures are safety measures to confirm the drug quality.Parada and gandhaka is considered as a supreme drugs in rasashastra, their combinationin kajjali form are base for almost all formulations.Further kajjali with any herbal powder when stratified with khalvi rasayana method willbecome a new complex chemically. The shelf life of the herbal active chemical moleculeswill be maintained for longer period due to the inert kajjali effect.Hence Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya) is taken for the present study to establish itspharmaceutical and analytical approach. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 2
  17. 17. ObjectivesOBJECTIVES1.Preparation of Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya).2.Physico-chemical analysis of Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya). “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 3
  18. 18. Review of Literature Review of Literature The main aim of Rasa Shastra is not Lohavada, but to attain Jeevan Mukti bymeans of Deha vada, for which contribution of Rasoushadhis to make the bodydisease free and healthy is versatile. Mercury is considered as semen of Lord Shiva which can perform anythingeffectively with Rajas of Parvathi (Shakti) i.e. sulphur. Haragowri sristi samyoga isneeded to achieve jeevanmukti. This philosophical basis leads Rasasiddhas to performvarious experiments. As a result, various substances emerged with the combinationof Parada and Gandhaka as mainstream of medicine. Swaccanddha bhirava rasa (dwitiya)1 is a rasagandha kajjali yoga,whichcontains Parada Gandhaka Vatsanabha pippali and Jatikosha. The present review hascollectioin from classical and contemporary references. This chapter is divided underthree headings i.e., Drug Review, Pharmaceutical Review and Analytical Review. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 4
  19. 19. Review of LiteratureDRUG REVIEWHINGULAHingula is the main source of Parada. Parada extracted from Hingula is said to beequivalent to Ashtasamskarita Parada.Hingula is one of the Sadharana Rasa2.Varga authorsMaharasa Rasahrudaya Tantra and RasakamadhenuRasagarbha AnandkandaRasa gandhaka sambhava RasarnavaHistory:The reference of Hingula is found in Kautilya Arthashastra in testing of Gold andspoilage of Gold.Occurrence: Italy, France, Germany, Spain, China, Japan and Iran.Synonyms3:Darada, Shukatunda, Hingala, Hingula, Ingala, Mleccha, Rakta, Suranga, Chitranga,Churna Parada, Rasodbhava, Rasasthana, Rakta Kaya, Kapishirshaka.Vernacular Names4:Sanskrit: Hingula ; Hindi : Hingul, Singarph ;Assami: Janjaphar ; Gujrati : Hingula ; Marati : Hingula ;Kannada: Hingalika ; Telugu : Ingalikam ;English: CinnabarVarieties5, 6,7: On the basis of occurrence Khanija (Mineral) Krutrima (Artificial) “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 5
  20. 20. Review of LiteratureOn the basis of colour and properties:Charmara : Krishna, Rakta VarnaShukatunda : Pita VarnaHamsa Pada : Japa Kusuma VarnaIn the above varities, Hamsapada is considered as uttama and Charmara as adhama.Grahya Lakshana8, 9:Table No. 1, Showing the best variety and Lakshanas of Hingula.Japakusuma Varnabha Resembles colour of petals of red hibiscus flower.Peshane Sumanoharaha When grinded its colour becomes beautifulMahojwala Reflects in sunlightBharapurna Heavy in weightShweta Rekha Having white or silvery streaksPravalabha Resembles like that of Pravala.Hingula Shodhana10,11:Hingula gets purified by subjecting it to -Seven Bhavanas with Ardraka or Lakucha SwarasaSeven Bhavanas with Nimbu Swarasa.Bhavana with meshi KshiraGunas of Hingula 12:Rasa : Tikta, Katu, KashayaGuna : UshnaVeerya : Ushna “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 6
  21. 21. Review of LiteratureShuddha Hingula is useful in the treatment of Prameha, Kushta, Jwara, Mandagni,Hrdroga, Aruchi, Amlapitta, Hrullasa, Pliharoga, Amavata and also useful in treatingGara Visha.Hingula is used in the Marana of Gold, Iron etc, metals. Mercury extracted fromHingula is considered equal in properties to the mercury in which Gandhaka Jaranahas been made.Matra13, - ½ - 1 RattiAnupana - Maricha, Guda, Pippali, GuduchiSwarasa, Madhu.Important Yogas of HingulaSome of the important yogas are Ananda Bhairava Rasa, Kanaka Sundara Rasa, JwaraMurari Rasa, Vasantha malati Rasa, Ratna Garbha Pottali Rasa, Tribhuvana KirtiRasa, Kasturi Bhairava Rasa, Hinguleshwara Rasa.HINGULA MODERN VIEW14(CINNABAR)Cinnabar is the chief ore of Mercury contains 80-85% of Mercury. This is a redcoloured ore, divides itself into pointed needle like pieces. It is very soft and whenground it becomes deep red coloured.It occurs both in crystalline and massive forms. When used as pigment it is calledvermilion.Occurrence: Occurs naturally as a mineral and also prepared artificially. It occursnaturally in Spain, Italy, France, Germany, China, Japan, Russia and Iran. Artificialcinnabar is prepared in India in Surat and Kolkata but there is no natural sourceavailable in India. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 7
  22. 22. Review of LiteratureGeneral Description of Cinnabar:Chemical formula : HgsColour : Cochineal red(Red Sulphide of Mercury)Streak : ScarletHardness : 2.5Specific gravity : 8.1Cleavage : Prismatic perfectFracture : Subconchoidal to unevenCinnabar classification :Dana Class - Contains sulfides including sclenides and telluride’sStrunz class - Contains sulfides and sulpho saltsPreparation of Artificial cinnabar15:Parada and Gandhaka are taken in 6:1 ratio, triturated well, kept in Iron vessel andheated on tivragni. Then red coloured compound is formed on the upper part iscollected and is called cinnabar.HINGULOTTHA PARADA16Hingula is the main ore of Parada. The Parada, which is extracted from Hingula, ispure and devoid of Sapta-Kanchuka doshas and has the qualities of SamagunaGandhaka Jirna Parada. It is equal to Asta Samskarita Parada.Methods employed:Various methods have been employed for the extraction of parada from hingula:Urdhwapatana vidhi17.Adhahpatana vidhi18Tiryak patanavidhi “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 8
  23. 23. Review of LiteratureNadayantra etc.Yantras used for the extraction of parada are:Patana yantraVidhyadhara yantraDamaru yantra.Adhapatana yantraTiryakpataha yantraNada yantra etcBefore extracting parada from Hingula, Hingula must be triturated with juices ofeither Nimbu, paribhadra, Nimba patra at least for 3 hrs.juice of citrus fruit whichenables to reduce the Hingula to its fine state of division, by this maximum amount ofparada can be extracted.after trituration chakricas are made and dried kept in any ofthe above said yantra and sealed well. Then heated by keeping cold pads overthe top of urdhvapatana yantra, by which parada coalesces over theinner surface of the upper vessel of damaru yantra.Cooling the other pot where parada is condensed. Mercury is extracted and squeezedthrough the cloth.Adhahpatana Vidhi:Hingula is triturated with ardraka or Nimbu swarasa, paste is applied to the Innersurface of the upper pot.Lower pot filled with water is placed in the earth. And mouth of upper pot is placedover the mouth of the lower pot.Sandhi bandhana is done and driedVanopalas are placed over upper pot and fire is given.After swanga sheeta, Parada is collected from lower pot and washed. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 9
  24. 24. Review of LiteratureTiryak Patana vidhi: By distillation apparatusUrdhwa Patana Vidhi:Nimbu Rasabhavita Hingula is made into chakrikas and kept inside the lower pot.Then closed with another large sized pot over the lower pots mouth andSandhibanadhana is done. Lower pot is heated over stove and the upper pot is keptcool by keeping wet cloth over it.After complete extraction and swanga Sheeta, Parada along with soot is collectedfrom the upper pot and filtered to separate the parada.As the boiling point of Parada is 3570C, for the extraction of Parada from Hingula6500C – 7000C temperature is required, since dissociation of Hingula occurs at around6200CBrief description of modern methods: 1 9From ancient description it is very clear that the source of extraction ofmercury was only hingula (cinnabar). In Spain, Italy etc., parada isextracted from hingula by various methods.First it was heated with oxygen. Second method was heating of hingula with Loha (Fe) or Sudha (Ca). Bythese two methods most part of the parada separates from sulphur and remainedparada is taken out by distillation. For this purpose various types of furnaces areemployed. There is a vast change in the methodology and equipments employed forthis purpose now a day. The equation of heating hingula in air is as follows Hgs+O 2 -->H g + So 2 and heating with calcium and ferrum is as follows: -4 Hgs + 4Cao ----- 4Hg + 3 Cas + Ca So 4 .Hgs + Fe + O 2 ----- Hg + Fe + So 2 . “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 10
  25. 25. Review of LiteratureEXTRACTION OF MERCURY FROM CINNABARConsists of 2 stepsOre concentration Roasting and distillationIsolation of Mercury occurs as:2HgS + 3O2 → 2Hgo + 2So22 Hgo → 2Hg + o2After these methods the remnant-unseparated part of mercury isobtained by distillation. This process of distillation is called vacuumdistillation. In purification of mercury reduced pressure and vacuumdistillation is major invention. Now a days, readymade equipments areavailable for this purpose. This is the brief description of extraction ofparada from hingula.In present study the above method was employed for the extraction of Parada fromHingulaExpected out put: Good quality cinnabar contains about 85% of mercury. An ideally followedmethod should yield at least 75-80% of mercury. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 11
  26. 26. Review of LiteraturePARADA Parada has been recognized vastly in the field of Rasashastra. We come acrossmuch quotations providing the importance of Parada in all texts of Rasashastra.Parada with its various properties, it has important role to play in Rasashastrapharmacology.History: Rasa has been described to be a Devine origin and claimed to be related toLord Shiva or Hara. Initially it was used for Alchemical purposes (loha vada) toconvert lower metals like Lead, Tin, Copper, etc. into noble metals like Gold, silveretc. Later on its therapeutic use in curing the diseases has been recognized. In Koutilya Arthashastra (325 cent B.C), it is mentioned that swarna can beprepared by parada20. In Charaka Samhita there is usage of Parada with Makshika and Gandhaka inKushta Roga and it is used externally21. In Sushruta Samhita its external use has been mentioned22.Vernacular names23: Sanskrit - Parada, Assami - Jivaka, English - Mercury, Quick silver, Kannada– Paraja, Hindi – Para, Marati – Paara, Bangla – Paara, Latin – Hydrargirum (Hg).Etymological significance of Synonyms24, 25:Rasa – As it digests all drugs, Nourishes all Dhatu’s of the body. Beingingested by human for RasayanarthaRasendra - King of all medicines or Rasa’sSuta - Since used for Deha and Loha SiddhiParada - Gives an end to sufferings.Mishraka - Properties of all metals are found in it. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 12
  27. 27. Review of LiteratureTable No.2, showing synonyms of Parada based on the following 26Swarupaat Dharmika Gatyatmak Dehavada Dhatuvadat Vishista Darshanikama Devatmaka a tmaka maka guna AdyatmikaGaladroupa Trinetra Kechara Amrita Maharasa Ananta Jeevanibham Trilochana Chapala Dehada Rasa Kalikant JaivaMahavanhi Deva Chala Paramamrit Rasendra aka DivyaMahateja Dehaja Dhurtaka a Rasesha Sukshm AchintyaSuvarna Prabhu Parata Rasottama a Rudraja Parada Rasadhatu Soubhag Rajasmala Mrityunasha Rasaraja ya. Shanta na Rasaleha Shiva Rasayana Siddadhatu Shiva Rasayana Soota veerya sreshta. Sootaka Skandha Sootarath Harateja Mishraka Harabeeja Harareta Shivabeeja Divyarasa “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 13
  28. 28. Review of LiteratureVarieties27: The Varieties of Parada described in various texts based on following factors:Depending on the colour.Depending on the impurities and uses of Parada.Table No. 3, showing varieties of Parada. Variety Colour Impurities Uses Rasa Rakta Which is free from all types Rasayana of impurities Rasendra Peeta Free from impurities Rasayana Suta Ishat Peeta With impurities Deharogahara Parada Shweta With impurities Sarvarogahara Mishraka Mayura With impurities Sarvasiddhidayaka. Chandrika varnaDoshas of Mercury28: According to different rasa classics Doshas of Parada are explained as follows:Naisargika doshas (Natural impurities).Yougika doshas (Physical impurities)Oupadika doshas (Chemical impurities in the form of coating).1. Naisargika Doshas29: Mercury, which is occurring in native compound form generally, attributessome impurities due to its natural power of amalgamation. As these impurities occurdue to nature, these doshas are known as “Naisargika doshas”. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 14
  29. 29. Review of Literature Naisargika dosha Effects. Visha - Mrutyukara Vahni - Santapakara Mala - Murchakara2. Yougika doshas30 The impurities mixed by the traders from the commercial point of view toincrease the weight of Parada by adding some Ariloha’s. Ex: Naga, Vanga etc.,Table No. 4, showing Yougikadoshas and their effects according to differentauthors. Textual Sl. No. Doshas Effects Reference 1. RRS Naga, Vanga Jadatva Adhmana 2. AK Naga, Vanga, Jadhya Pootigandhatva Visha Mrutyu. 3. AP Naga, Vanga Jadhya, Adhmana Kushta.Kanchuka Doshas31 Literally Kanchuka means thin layer. Kanchuka doshas are the impurities ofmercury, which are seen as thin layer covering it. This is due to tarnishing of mercury. There is some difference of opinion amongst ancient scholars regarding theirname and source but all of them considered as seven in number. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 15
  30. 30. Review of LiteratureTable No. 5 Showing Kanchuka Doshas and their effects according to differentRasa classics.Sl.No. Text Doshas Effects1. Parpati Mrunmaya (Prithvi) Kushta,2. Patini Pashanaja (Girija) Jadhya, Admana3. Bhedi Jalaja (Varija) Vali, Palita, khalitya, Vaksangatha, Mala Bhedana.4. Dravi Nagaja (Shyama) Mahakusta, Sweta Kusta, Udara, Kamala, Pandu, Prameha.5. Malakari Nagaja (Kapalika) Dadru, Gaja Karna, Doshavardhaka.6. Dhwankshi Vangaja (Kapali) Swara Parushyakara.7. Andhakari Vangaj (Kalika) Marmacheda, Vastishoola, Andhatva.Grahya Lakshanas of Parada32: Parada is liquid in form, shines as bright as mid – day sun, white glazeexteriorly and bluish tinge interiorly mercury with these qualities is known as Grahyavariety.Agrahya Lakshanas of Parada33: Mercury looking smoky, grayish and slightly yellowish or having variousshades of colours is agrahya variety, incorporated with various metallic and elementalimpurities bonded physico – chemically.Parada ShodhanaSamanya shodhana of parada:Shodhana is intended to get rid of impurities of Parada. As the Parada is obtainedfrom the earths crust naturally it adsorbs some unwanted soil particles & chemical “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 16
  31. 31. Review of Literatureover it. So it is essential to carry out some purifactory procedures before making useof parada.Different Methods Adopted for Samanya Shodhana of parada:Some texts advised urdvapathana Samskara i.e distillation followed by sublimation ofparad.Some authors mentioned just filtration through two to four folded fine, dust free, silkcloth for 7-21 times.Parada should be triturated with Nagavalli swarasa, Ardraka swarasa, ksharatraya for3 days and washed with water. This parada will be shining like mukta and devoid ofsapta dosha.Parada should be triturated with lasuna and saindhava lavana on a tapta khalva yantrafor 7 days.Method employed in the present study for samanya shodhana34 - The parada, which is extracted by urdhwa patana vidhi by hingula, is devoidof Sapta kanchuka dosha is subjected to shodhana. Parada’s 1/16th part of Haridrachurha and Nimbu swarasa-Q.S is taken in a porcelain dish and triturated for 2 days.After drying, it is filtered through four-folded cloth and parada is procured.Drugs mentioned for Samanya Shodhana of Parada : Parada shodhana has to be carried out for 3 to 7 days, in any of the followingdrugs to get rid of parada doshas.Kumari, Chitraka, Raktasarshapa, Haridra, Ishtika choorna, Triphala, Nagavalliswarasa, Gruha Dhooma, Kanji, Ardraka swarasa etc.,Vishesha Shodhana This procedure was intended for strengthening and potentiation of Parada andis achieved by Astadasha Samskaras. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 17
  32. 32. Review of LiteraturePharmacological and therapeutic properties of Parada35:Rasa : ShadrasaGuna : Snigdha, Sara and GuruVeerya : UshnaVipaka : MadhuraKarma : Yoga vahi, Rsayana, Vrishya, Balya, Vayastambhana, Pustikarak, Deepana, Agnivardhaka, Deha sidhikara, Loha sidhikara, Shodhana, Ropana, Krimighna.Dosha Prabhava: TridoshagnaVyadhi Prabhava: Vata roga, Valipalitha, Jara roga, Sarva Akshi roga, Krimi, Kusta, Sarva roga.MERCURY Mercury is a silvery white metal, liquid at room temperature with high (13.6)density. It is divisible into spherical globules, mobile, without having any odour /taste, cold to touch, slowly volatizing at ordinary temperature. Low melting andboiling point is due to large atomic size. It is a soft metal, three times heavier than water. It forms amalgamation withsilver, platinum etc. Hg slowly oxidizes.2Hg + O2 Heat 2 HgO.General Description36:Atomic Number : 80Atomic Weight : 200.61Atomic Volume : 14.8CCAtomic Radius : 1.57 eg “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 18
  33. 33. Review of LiteratureIonic Radius (+2) : 1.10Relative Atomic Mass : 200.50 gm/moleSpecific Gravity : 13.55Melting point : 39.80CBoiling point : 3570COccurrence and distribution: Small quantities of mercury occur in native form but chiefly it occurs assulphide (cinnabar). It is found chiefly in Spain and Italy. It is also found as calomel(Hg2cl2), Metacinnabar (HgS), Tiemannite (HgS), Montroydite (HgO) and also asamalgums of Gold and Tellurium in small quantities.Absorption, distribution and excretion37: As the chemical form of the metal varies, its absorption, distribution andExcretion of mercury also varies. In presence of O2 and Cl2 in the gastric contents, itmay dissolve to cause mild catharsis. Exertion of mercury immediately afterabsorption is mainly through the kidney and colon and to a lesser extent via bile andsaliva. Small amounts are also excreted in volatile elemental form through both lungsand skin. Most of Hg is excreted within 6 days after administration but traces may bedetected for months, even year’s urinary excretion is slow at first but accelerates later.Fecal excretion is 8%, which is due to mucosal sloughing mainly as methyl mercury,but bacterial flora converts about 50% to inorganic mercury.Mode of Action38: Most salts of mercury are absorbed slowly from the intact mucous membraneof the elementary tract and produce their systemic effect. The sulphide ion is veryinert and it is clear that unless and until the salts are dissociated into its constituent’sions, mercury will not be able to exert its influence on the body tissues. Sulphides of “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 19
  34. 34. Review of Literaturemercury are not used in any of the pharmacopoeias of western countries as it isconsidered to be devoid of therapeutic activity. The other mercurial salts afterabsorption are excreted into caecum and colon as sulphides and in this form mercuryis found in the feaces. When taken into the system it continues with acids and fluids of the body. It isthen easily absorbed by the skin, the mucous membrane, lungs and stomach andpasses into blood as oxy albuminate in the stomach it is converted into doublechloride of sodium of mercury. It unites with the albuminous juices and is easilyabsorbed.Toleration37: Age, sex and idiosyncrasy greatly modify the action of mercurials, children asa rule bear mercury better than adults and males better than females.Therapeutic uses37:Used as antiseptics, preservatives, parasiticides, fungicides, diuretics inorganic salts.Externally as antiseptics, mercury salts are used.Its solution is used for disinfecting surgical and obstetric practice.Blue ointment and calomel ointment are used to reduce itching in prurigo, pruritis,psoriasis, lichen pityriasis of scalp and eczema.As a stimulant and promoter of absorption liniment and various ointments such asoleate, red precipitate, scoltts and red iodide are used for promoting the absorption ofinflammatory products as in chronic joint disease and periostitis.Mercury is used in certain eye diseases like conjunctivitis, blepharitis and keratitis. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 20
  35. 35. Review of LiteratureGANDHAKA Gandhaka is grouped under Uparasa varga by authors of different Rasaclassics. It is next to parada and has been explained in Dhatu Karma and in thepreparation of various Rasaushadhis. It is an essential agent for the various processesof Parada samskaras such as Murchana, Jarana, Bandhana etc. Mercurial preparationswithout Gandhaka are considered to be more toxic.History: Before 1000 B.C. description about Gandhaka was mentioned in CharakaSamhita for the relief of various disorders along with other drugs. With the evolutionof Rasa Shastra importance of Gandhaka was also increased.Mythological origin39:Mythologically Gandhaka is said to be the result of churning of Ksheerasagara and itis originated along with Amruta.Gandhaka is considered to be the Raja of Parvathi.Vernacular names40: Assami – Kiburit; Bengali – Gandhaka; English – Sulphur; Gujarati –Gandhaka; Hindi – Gandhaka ; Marati – Gandhaka; Parsi – Gogid ; Kannada –Gandhaka; Telugu – Gandhakamu.Synonyms41: Gandhapashana Pamari Kauragandha Gandhi Bali Rasa Gandhaka Atigandha Sugandhika Kushtari Gandha Daityendra “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 21
  36. 36. Review of Literature Saugandhika Gandhamadana Putigandha KeetaghnaTypes of Gandhaka42: Rasarnava explained three types of Gandhaka and remaining others explainedfour types.Table No.6, showing the Types of Gandhaka according to Rasa Classics. Sl.No. Types RRS RA AP YR RPS R.Chu 1. Shukapichchanibha (Pita) + + + + + + 2. Sukla (Shweta) + + + + + + 3. Shuka Chunchanibha + + + + + + Shukatunda (Rakta) 4. Krishna (Black) + - + + + +Table No. 7 Types of Gandhaka, their qualities and uses42: Sl. No. Types Quality Uses 1. Shukachunchanibham Sreshta Dhatuvada 2. Shukapichchanibham Madhyama Rasayana Karma 3. Shukla Adhama Loha Marana 4. Krishna Jara Mrutyu NashanaGrahya Lakshanas of Gandhaka43The colour of genuine Gandhaka should resemble that of the tail of parrot (yellow).Smooth, Hard, Unctuous. Such Gandhaka should be used for medicinal purpose Shresta Gandhakashould be having the lusture of Kapikacchu beeja and Navaneeta (soft to touch). “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 22
  37. 37. Review of Literature For Rasayanartha and Loha vadartha, it should be translucent like the fruits ofAmalaki (Amlasara Gandhaka). For the present study Amlasara Gandhaka is used.Pharmacological and therapeutic properties44 : Rasa : Katu, Tikta, Kashaya Guna : Ushna, Sara Snigadha Virya : Ushna Vipaka : Madhura (R.C.), Katu (R.R.S; A.P) Karma : Deepana, Pachana, Vishahara, Jantughna,Rasayana, Bala Veerya Vardhaka, Jantu, Kandu, Visarpahara. Dosha Prabhava : Kaphavatahara, pittavardhaka. Vyadhi Prabhava: Garavishahara, Kshudra Kushta hara, Kasa,Shwasa, Agnivardhaka, Rasayana, Dadruhara.Doshas of Gandhaka45,: According to Rasa classics, Gandhaka consists two types of Doshas: Shila Churna Visha(Physical impurities like clay, sand etc.) (Chemical impurities like arsenical, lead etc.) Gandhaka should be purified before administering internally other wise it willproduce the disease like Kushta, Bhrama, Klama, Paithika Roga, Balakshaya,Shukrakshaya, Veeryahani and Kandu.Methods of Gandhaka Shodhana46:Gandhaka is taken in darvi with equal amount of cow’s ghee and melted on Mruduagni. This liquefied Gandhaka is poured into another vessel, which contains cow’s “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 23
  38. 38. Review of Literaturemilk through a cloth tied over the mouth of vessel. After that it is taken out andwashed with hot water.Gandhaka is melted and poured into a vessel containing Bhringaraja Swarasa andboiled for some time and this process is repeated for seven times.Through urdhwa patana vidhi by using Damaru yantra Gandhaka can be purified.In the present study, the following procedure has been adopted for GandhakaShodhana46 a. Gandhaka is taken in darvi with equal amount of cow’s ghee and melted onMrudu agni. This liquefied Gandhaka is poured into another vessel, which containscow’s milk through a cloth tied over the mouth of vessel. After that it is taken out andwashed with hot waterEffect of Shodhana on Gandhaka47:By filtering through the cloth small pieces of stone and sand will be removed.Some toxins may adhere to the ghee and hence will be removed.Some of the toxins may mix with milk and thus the Gandhaka may be relieved fromimpurities.Dose of Gandhaka48 One to Eight Ratti.Patya – Apthya49Mamsa Bhakshana of wild animals and birds, cow’s milk, Ghee and Rice are advised.Kshara, Amla, Atilavana, Katu, Vidahi and Stree Sevana Should be avoided.Gandhaka YogasKajjali Gandhaka RasayanaRasa Parpati MakaradhwajaRasa Sindhura Samirapannaga Rasa “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 24
  39. 39. Review of LiteratureGANDHAKA MODERN VIEWSULPHUR50 : The name sulphur is derived from the sanskrit word “Sulveret”through the latin sulphurium.History :The ancients probably, due to its frequent occurrence in free state know sulphur.Aryans, Greeks, Romans and Indians used it for fumigation and as medicine. TheBible refers to be as “Brimstone” meaning “Burvaing Stone” Antony lavoiser placedit among the elements in 1777, which was regarded as “principle” of fire”. It isestimated as the Ninth most abundant element in the universe.Basic information of sulphur Name : Sulphur Symbol : S Atomic Number : 16 Atomic Mass : 32.06 Am Melting point : 112.80C Boiling point : 444.60C Number of protons / Electrons: 16 Number of neutrons : 16 Classification : Non Metal Crystal structure : Orthorhombic Colour : Yellow British Name : Sulphur IUPAC Name : Sulfur “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 25
  40. 40. Review of LiteratureOccurrence: Sulphur is distributed in nature both in free and combined form. The sulphur isfound in volcanic regions in sicily. Approximately 0.06% of earth ‘s crust containssulphur. Pure sulphur contains traces of selenium, Tellurium and Arsenic some timesmixed with bitumen and clay.Three are important minerals and compounds containing sulphur such as:Sulphides: Zinc Blend (ZnS) Galena (Pbs) S Copper pyrites (CuFes2) Cinnabar (HgS) Iron Pyrites (FeS) SSulphate: Gypsum (CaSo4 2H2o) Barites (BaSo4) Epsom Salt (Mg So4 7H2o) Ferrous Sulphate (FeSo4 7H2o)Traces of sulphur occur as H2S in volcanic gases, organic substance as eggs, proteins,garlic, mustard, onion, hair and wool. It is an essential non-metal and is a minorconstituent of fats, body fluids and skeletal muscles.Appearance of sulphur in solid and liquid fromSolid : Rhombic and MonoclinicLiquid : Aλ and Sμ (Amorphous Sulphur)Therapeutic use51:Sulphur has bitter astringent taste with a Characteristic strong smell.It increases bile secretion, acts as laxative, alternative and diuretic.It stimulates secreting organs like skin, bronchial mucus membrane. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 26
  41. 41. Review of LiteratureIn larger doses it acts as purgative.Sulphur is useful in cough, Asthma, General debility, Enlargement of spleen, chronicfevers etc.,Biological importance of sulphur52:Sulphur makes up 0.25% of our body weight, meaning that an average adult humanbody contains around 170 gms of sulphur, of which most occurs in the amino acids,cysteine, cystine, and methionine.Sulphur is involved in the formation of bile acids, which are essential for fat digestionand absorption. It also helps to keep skin, hair and nails healthy.Deficiency of sulphur is linked to the skin disorder eczema and also imperfectdevelopment of hairs and nails.Sulphur containing foods are vegetables (Radishes, Carrots, Cabbage, Milk Products(Cheese), seafood and meat protein.NIMBU53.It is important dravya of Amla varga. In Rasa classics, it is explained for Shodhanaand marana of various metals and minerals.Latin Name: Citrus accida Family: RutaceaeSynonyms54: Amlajambira Jantumari Amlasara Nimbuka Dantaghna Rochana Jambeera ShodhanaDescription:55 Leaflets elliptic, oblong, racemes, short, flower small, petals usually four.Fruits usually small, globose or ovoid, thick or thin. Pulp pale, very acidic. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 27
  42. 42. Review of LiteratureUseful parts:Phala, twak and patraFruit juice of Nimbu contains citric acid 10%, phosphoric acid 47%, sugar 10.9%,cellulose, vitamin A, vitamin C, citrine 76%, citrol 7.8% and Sulphric acid.Distribution:It is available throughout India.Pharmacological and therapeutic properties:56Rasa : AmlaGuna : Guru, TikshnaVirya : UshnaVipaka : MadhuraKarma : Deepana,Rochaka,Anulomana, Pachaka, KrimighnaDosha : Kaphavata Shamaka, PittavardhakaVyadhi Prabhava : AgniMandya,Trishna,Udarashoola,Chardi,Aruchi, Vibandha, Kasa Shwasa and Krimiroga.For the present study Nimbu Swarasa was used for the Shodhana of Hingula.HARIDRA57It is a auspicious drug mentioned in all the Brihatrayee as a aghroushadhi forprameha.it is classified under haritakyadiyarga.BOTANICAL NAME: Curcuma longa.Family: scitaminaceae.Synonym:58 Haridra Vishaghni Varavarnini Haridrangani Mangalya Bhadra Swarnavarna Laxmi Shama vishaghni shobhana jayanthika nisha kanchani peeta “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 28
  43. 43. Review of LiteratureDescription: 59A tall herb. Rootstoack large, ovoid, with sessile cylindric tubers orange colouredinside.Leaves very large, in tufts up to 1.2 meters or more long, oblong-lanceolate, taperingto the base. Flowering in autumnal spikes, 10-15 cm long.Useful parts: rhizome.Distribution:It is cultivated through the tropical and other regions in India.Chemical constituents:Rhizome contains a volatile oil 1%, an active principle curcumin, yellow colouringmatter and turmeric oil of specific odour and taste.Pharmacological and therapeutic properties 60: Rasa : Katu, Tikta, Guna : ruksha, laghu. Virya : Ushna Vipaka : Katu Doshakarma : kaphavatashamaka, pittarechaka-shamaka.GODUGDHA61Acharya charaka explained Godugdha under Gorasa varga. It is much appreciated forthe therapeutic purpose.Synonyms:It includes Ksheera, Gavya, Gavyadugdha, Dugdha, Payasa, Dhenudbhava “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 29
  44. 44. Review of LiteratureQualities of Godugdha: It is having the qualities of Swadu, Sheeta, Mrudu, Snigdha, Bahala,Slakshana, Pichchila, Guru, Manda and PrasannaContents of freshly drawn milk:Water : 87% Phosphorus : 0.1%Total Solids : 13% Sodium : 0.15%Fat : 3.68% Iron : 1-2PP.MTotal proteins : 3.39 Citric acid : 0.2%Sugar : 4.94 Calcium : 0.72%Indications of Godugdha: Godugdha is indicated in Kasa, Shwasa, Raktapitta, Trishna, Pandu,Amlapitta, Shosha etc. In the present work, godugdha was used for gandhaka shodhana,GHRITA62 Ghee is one among the sneha Dravya. Ghrita, taila, vasa and majja areconsidered as the best among all the snehana Dravyas. Out of these four sneha Dravyas, Ghrita is considered as far superior owing toits special attribute “samskarasya Anuvartanat”.Synonyms: Ghrita, Sarpi, Havisha, Gohavi.Pharmacological Properties: Rasa – Madhura. Guna – Guru. Veerya – Sheeta. Vipaka – Madhura. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 30
  45. 45. Review of LiteratureContents of Ghrita:Unsaponifiable matter (Soluble in fat).TriglyceridesPhospholipidsVit D and KMinerals like calcium, Magnesium, Copper, iron in traces.Qualities of Ghrita:Promoter of memory, intelligenceImproves digestion and metabolismBest AphrodisiacIt is refrigerant and emollientClarifies voice and complexionIn present study ghrita is used for the Shodana of Gandhaka.KHALVI RASAYANA63Khalvi Rasayanas comes under murcchna variety intended to render the chapalatvaand durgrahatva of Parada and potentiating it. It is one such category of Kajjali, wherein phytomedicines are triturated and pharmacologically has various advantages. The specialty of Khalvi Rasayana lies in binding different varieties of drugsinto a single molecular form and there by minimizing the dose. Khalvee rasayanaimpose proper particle size to drug, proper mixing occurs and gives the proper form tothe final product.KAJJALI Kajjali is a Sagandha, Niragni parada yoga. The bandha involved in thispreparation is Kajjali Bandha, where purified mercury and sulphur are intimatelymixed in definite proportion, to get a black powder called Kajjali. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 31
  46. 46. Review of Literature Among all Khalvi Rasayans Kajjali is having prime importance, as it formsbase to many mercurial preparations.Definition:64“ Dhatubirgandhakadyascha Nirdravaihi Mardita rasaha||Sushlakshna Kajjalabhaso Kajjali Ityabhidheeyate||”Shuddha Parada and Shuddha Gandhaka alone or in combination, with other uparasaand different dhatus is mixed and triturated without adding any liquid to any powder.This is called Kajjali. It should be free from any shining particles.Any powdered pre-product that which is filled into Kupi should be smooth i.e., whichis having Slakshantva and sukshmatva like Kajjala is considered as Kajjali.Proportion of Dravyas in Kajjali65Parada, Gandhaka, Kajjali is used in many of the Yogas.It forms the base for many of Kupi Pakwa rasayana, Parpati Kalpana and pottaliKalpana. Accordingly the proportion of Parada, Gandhaka or any other dhatu variesfrom one Yoga to another.It is mentioned that Gandhaka can be taken in the preparation of ¼ th, ½, equal,double, triple etc., to that of Parada.In the present study Kajjali is prepared by adding equal amount of Parada and ShuddaGandhaka. Trituration was done till all the Kajjali tests are positive.Different forms of adding Dhatus to ParadaIn the following pattern, other dhatus are added to Parada in the preparation of Kajjali.If Swarna, Rajata etc., this should be in the form of fine leaves.If Naga, Vanga etc., dhatus are to be added, these dhatus should be melted and thenadded for trituration.In case of Loha, tamra etc., its bhasmas should be mixed “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 32
  47. 47. Review of LiteratureTests of Kajjali66:Krishna Varnata : Blackish colourSlakshntva : Smooth to touchSukshmtva : Subtleness like anjanaRekha purnatva : Settles in between fine lines of fingerNischandratva : Lusterless a pinch of Kajjali is taken and rubbed with water.This mixture when exposed to sun, should show absence of any shining particlesUses of Kajjali67:It is Tridosha hara and aphrodisiac.It is used as sahapana and Anupana to eradicate many disorders.Vatsanabha:Botanical name – Aconitum ferox wall.Family – ranunculanceae.Introduction: 68,69Vatsnabha is well known to the Ayurvedic pharmacopeia since long ago. We getreference in Charaka samhita and Sushruta samhita Charaka samihita classified understhavara visha and Sushruta classified under Kandavisha and also explain its effects.Sharangdhara and Bhavamishra mentioned Vatsnabha in their texts, along with almostall Nighantus. Though Dhanwantari nighantu posses description of Vatsnabha,synonyms and properties, most of the texts/Nighantus made little mentioning. Theutility of Vatsnabha has considerably increased after the development of Rasashastra.Rasataranginikara classified it under visha. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 33
  48. 48. Review of Literature The term aconite refers to the genus aconitum of which there are severalspecies. The name may be originated form the Greek aconoits (meaning withoutstruggle or without dust) or from the Greek city acona where naturalist in the thirdcentury once identified plant. Other sources suggest that the name comes from thebill of aconites.Aconites is Greek word meaning arrows coated with the poison and used for huntingthe animals. Aconitum if of two varieties viz poisonous & non poisonous.Among the poisonous varities both aconitum ferox and aconitum chasmanthum areused as vatsanabha in India.Synonyms:70Table No. 08. Showing the synonyms of VatsnabhaSl D.N R.N R.T. B.P Names01 Vatsnabha + + + -02 Amruta + + + -03 Visha + + + +04 Ugra + + - -05 Maha oushadha + + - -06 Garalam + + - +07 Marana + + - -08 Naga + + - -09 Stokakam + + - -10 Pranaharaka + + - -11 Sthavaradyam + + - -12 Kshweda - - + + “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 34
  49. 49. Review of LiteratureVernacular Names: 7101 Sanskrit - Visha, Vatsnabha02 Hindi - Bisha,Mithazahar03 English - Indian aconite04 Bengali - Katbish or Mitha visha05 Telugu - Vasanubhi06 Kannada - Vatsanabi07 Gujarathi - Vachanag08 Marathi - Vacha nag09 Assam - Visha10 Malyalama - Vatsanabi11 Malyalama - Vatsanabi12 Punjabi - Mohari13 Arab - Bish14 Parse - BishmagClassical Categorization: Charaka Samihita - Stavara Visha Sushruta Samhita - Kanda visha Dhanawanatari nighantu - Misraka varga Raja nighantu - Misraka varga Bhavaprakasha nighantu - Dhatvadi varga Rasatargini - VishaModern Toxicological Categorization:Cardiac poison. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 35
  50. 50. Review of LiteratureDifferent verities of Vatsnabha (BHEDA)Table No. 09. Showing the Vatsnabha bheda According to Yogaratnakara 72 Sl. No. Bheda Varna Guna 01. Brhmana Pandu Rasayana 02. Kshatriya Rakta Deha pustikara 03 Vaishya Peeta Kustaghna 04. Shudra Krishna DhatukarmaAccording to Rasatarangani 73 01. Krishna 02. Kapisha 03 PanduKapisha is better than Krishna; Pandu is better than Kapisha Pandu is considered bestfor therapeutic uses.According to Ayurveda Prakasha 74 01. Shukla 02. KrishnaIdentification 75Rasavagbhata mentioned certain characteristics for identification 1. Vatsanabha Panduravarana 2. Roots resembles, navel of calf 3. They are Stoola snigdha, Guru, Nava,According to Bhavaprakash:Leaves resembles sindhuvara and roots resemble navel of calf. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 36
  51. 51. Review of LiteratureBotanical description: 76It is a perennial herb Root – Paired, daughter, tuber ovoid oblong to ellipsoid, 2.5.4 cm long, about 1-1-5 cm thick, with fill form root fibers, dark, brown externally, yellowish on fracture, another tuber much shrunk and wrinkled with more numerous root fibers. Stem – Erect, with or without a slender, hypogynous base, simple, 40-90 cm high covered with short spreading yellow hairs in the upper part and glabrous below. Leaves – Scattered, distant, glabrous, petioles, slender up to 25 cm, blade or bicedar-cordate to remiform in out line with rather wide sinus. Planately 5- lobeal. Inflorescence: - Peduncle straight, bearing flowers on both sides, flowers pale, blue, brown in a dense, terminal raceme, 10-25 cm long, helmet, volatile with short shared beak, resembling a pea flower. Fruit – Carpels 5, tomentose, follicles oblong, 15-20mm long and 4-5 mm broad, seeds obovoid to obpyramidal, 2,6-3 mm long, winged along with the raphe. Distribution – Grows solid in the alpine Himalayas, Kashmir at an attitude of 3,600 m, alpine Himalayas of Nepal. Chemical Constituents – Roots contains toxic alkaloids, pseudo aconitine along with bikha aconitine, chasmacontine, chahnaconitine, indacontine (Loydia 1972,35, 55) Veratroy1)pseudoacontine are diacety1 psedioacontine(manske and Rodrgo) 1979). “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 37
  52. 52. Review of LiteratureTwo new alkaloids 2 – (11+) quionolinome and 3,4dihydro – 6 – hydroxy – 2 –(11+) quoinolone (Nat. prod. Lett.) 1993, 227,chem, abortr. 1994, 121, 175,172b).A new diterpenoid alkaloid – 14- 0 – acetyl senbasimet, vakagnavime, chasmacontine, crassican line A. flconericine, senbusine B. isoltaltizocline and aconineare reported (phyto chem, 1994, 36, 1527).Four lipoalkalaoids Viz veraatrophylpseudaconine, auisolyona- contine,benzoylida aconine and veratroy bikkaconine are also report (J. Nat prod 1994,57, 105)Need of Vatsnabha Shodhana- 77Ashodhita Vatsnabha causes daha,moha, hirtagata rodha, to avoid these doshas orvikaras it should undergo shodhana processVatsnabha shodhana -78Table No. 10, showing the Vatsanabha shodhana according to different authors. Sl. Shodhana process R. T. R. A. D.G.V Y. R. R. J. N No. 1 Kept in cow’s urine in + + - - + strong sunlight for 3 days 2 Swedana in Ajadugdha + + - - - for 1 yama 3 Swedana in Surabhi + + - + - payas (cows milk) for 1 or 2 yama “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 38
  53. 53. Review of Literature 4 Kept in cow’s urine for 3 - - + + - days then Swedana in a cow’s milk or goat’s milk for 3 hrs 5 Swedana in dolayantra - - - - + containing Triphala kashaya and Aja ksheera 6 Swedana in dolayantra - - - - + containing cow’s urine.Gunakarma 79 – Rasa - Madhura Guna - Ushna Veerya - Ushna Vipaka - Madhura Dosha Karmarma - Vata-kapha Shamaka Dhanwantari nighantu classified under Mishrakadivarga. Madhura rasa,ushnaguna, vatakaphahara, it subsides kanthashoola, sannipatagna, pitta samshodhini80 Rajanighantu81 classified under pippalyadi varga. Atimadhura, ushna,vatakaphahara. It subsides Kantaruja, sannipataghna, pitta santappa Karaka. According to Rastarangin82 , vatsanabha is katu, tikta,kashaya rass,ushna gunaand yogavahi. It is rasayana, tridoshahara particularly vata-kaphahara. It increasesagni. It subsides sheeta and brumhana and bala vardhaka. It subsides agnimandyarogas, pleeha roga,vatarakta, shwasa, kasa, grahani, gulma, pandu, jwara and amavata. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 39
  54. 54. Review of LiteratureIt relieves timira, naktandhyata, netrabhishyanda, netrashotha, karna shoola, gudarogaand kati vedana. Application of bhahya lepa subsides the aku, vrushika, sarpavisha83 Diaphoretic, diuretic, antiperiodic, anodyne and antidiabetic, antiphlogistic,antipyretic in small does. In large does it is virulent poison, narcotic and powerfulsedative. It reduces the frequently and tension of the pulse and paralysis therespiratory center. Part used - Dried tuberous root. Dose84 - 1/10th ratti to 1/8th ratti Visha prayoga Nishedha 85 Balaka, atyantavridhha, garbhavati, rugna, atikshinashareera, rajayakshmalaxanayaukta avasta, krodhi, atibhranti, durbalavastha in less quantity and shortduration with precautionsToxic effects and antidotes;86 Sushruta clearly documented the toxic efforts of Vatsnabha viz Grivastambhaand peeeta vit, mutra, netra.Antidotes – Accidental poisoning or over dosage with aconite may produce thetoxicsymptoms. Different antidotes have been mentioned for the management.Gogrutha is considered as one of the best antidotes for visha. Tankana (Borax) is considered to be the main antidote87. It may beadministrated along with Ghee. Arjuna bark is mixed with Honey and Ghee may beanother alternative antidote88.Aconite poisoning and its management in toxicology89. The symptoms of poisoning occur immediately or within a few mines afterconsumption or root. First burning sensation is experienced from the mouth to “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 40
  55. 55. Review of Literaturestomach followed by tingling and numbness in the mouth, tongue and pharynx. Thisis followed by salivation, Nausea, Vomiting and diarrhea. Later dryness of mouth andpolydypsia is developed and the patient will be unable to swallow Other symptoms include headache, giddiness, pallor, profuse, sweating,subnormal temperature weakness of limbs and inability to stand or walk. Twitchingof muscles, pain, and cramps and convulsions may occur. The pupils contract and dilate alternately but remain dilated at the later stage.Dimness of vision and diplopia may be caused. The pulse becomes slow, feeble andirregular. Blood pressure will be low and the patient complains of breathlessness.The mental conduction remains normal but there may be hallucination. Death finallyoccurs either due to paralysis of heart or respiratory centers or even both.Fatal Dose - 1-2 grams of root OR 4-6 mg of acontineFatal period - 3 –6 hours.Treatment – Gastric levage with warm water and weak solution of potassiumpermanganate or with a solution of iodine in potassium iodide or with tannic acid orstrong coffee or strong tea to precipitate the alkaloids.1. Powdered charcoal to diminish solubility.2. Atropine –0.5 – 1 mg is useful.3. Strychnine, artificial respiration, application of heat etc,may also be useful.4. Symptomatic treatmentVishishta yogas –1. Ramabanarasa2. Hinguleshwara rasa3. Tribhuvankirti rasa4. Kaphaketu rasa “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 41
  56. 56. Review of Literature5. Swachanddha Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)Gomutra Gomutra is used as a medicine since olden days. We get the reference about itin brihatrayees –Charaka considered, it as one of the ashta mutra varga dravya.Synonyms90 – Gomutra, Gojala, Goambu, Gomashanda, Godrava.Vernacular names- Sanskrit - Gomutra Hindi - Gomutra English - Cow’s urine Kannada - Gomutra Properties:91 Rasa - Katu Guna - Teekshna, Ushna,Kshara Dosha - Kapha –vata shamaka, pitta janaka Karma - Agni deepaka, medhya, shoolahara, gulma, anaha, it is used in viechanna karma and asthapana basti Charakacharya92 quotes that Gomutra has madhura rasa, dosha nashaka andkrimi and Kanduhara. By abhyantarapana it subsides doshajanya udara roga . Nadakarni93 in his material medica explains Gomutra contains ammonia in aconcentrated form and is much used in both internal and external purpose. Gomutrais a laxative, duretic and used in preparation of various medicines. Eg. Poonaranavamandura. It is also recommended by Chakradatta as a anupana for eranda taila givenas virechana. It is used as externally in the purification and roasting of various metals andpreparation of oils, decoctions etc In the present study gomutra is used for vatsanabha shodhana.Pippali:Botanical name - Piper longum linn.Family - Piperacae “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 42
  57. 57. Review of LiteratureIntroduction In Atharvana veda Pippali is mentioned as rasayana. Kshipta bheshaj,atividdha abheshaji and vati krita bheshaji. Pippali is drug which is widely used inAyurvedic formulations Charaka and Sushruta have extensively quoted pippali amongdashemaniya ganaGana: 94Charaka : Deepaniya, Kanthya, Asthapanopaga, Shirovirechanopaga, sheetaprashamana, Shula-prashamana, Kasahara, Hikkanigrahana, Triptighna.Sushruta : Pippalyadi, Amalakyadi.Astanga sangrahakara : Pippalyadi gana and Nyagrodhadi gana.Vernacular names:95 01 Sanskrit - Pippali 02. Hindi - Pipala 03 English - Piper. 04 Telagu - Pippali 05 Tamil - Tippali 06 Bengali - Pipali 07 Marathi - Hippali 08 Malyalam - Tippali 09 Punjabi - Moghaum 10 Gujarati - Pipali 11 Kannada - Hippali 12 Parse - Pipli 13 Burma - Peikchin 14 Arb - Darfifil 15 Barma - Pekchin “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 43
  58. 58. Review of LiteratureTable No. 11, showing synonyms of Pippali 96 Synonyms B. P. K. N. N. A. R. N. D. N. Ma. Ni. Magadhi + + + + + + Shoundi + + - + + + Vaidehi + + + + - + Chapala + + + + + + Kana + + + + + - Krishna + + + + + - Upakulya + + - + + + Teekshna tandula + + + + + Magadha - - - - - + Vishwa - - - - - + Kola + - - + + - Kukara - - - + - - Katu beeja - - - + - - Korangi - - - + - - Tikta tandula - - - + - - Magadodbhava - - - + - - Ushana - - - + + -Bheda97It is of 4 types – Pippali Gajapippali Simhali Vana pippali “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 44
  59. 59. Review of LiteratureBotanical Description 98An aromatic slender, Climber 01 Stem - Cripping, jointed, attached to other plants while climbing, 02 - 5.9 cm x 3.5 cm , subacute, entire, glabrous, cordate at the Leaves case 03 Flower - In pendular spikes, straight A. Male - Larger and slender B. Female - 1.3 – 2.5 cm x 4.5 cm in diameter 04 Fruit - Yellowish orange ovoid, sunk in flesh spikes fruits in rainy season and fruit in autumn 05 Distribution - Found in the hotter parts of India, form central Himalaya to Assam and Mikir hills. Also found in forests of western ghats form Konkan to Kerala. 06. Chemical : Essential oil, mono and sesquitrpenes, Caryophylience, Construction piprine, piper longumine, piper longuminne, piper nonaline, piper,undecalindine, pipercide, seasmin, B- sitosterol, four aristolactan, five 4,5 – dioxporphions. Properties:99 Rasa - Katu Guna - Laghu, Snigdha, teekshna, (Ardha guru) Veerya - Anushna sheeta veerya Vipaka - Madhura Karma - Vata –shleshmahara Useful parts - Fruit, root “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 45
  60. 60. Review of Literature Dhanwantari nighantu, includes under shatapushpadi varga, pippali have theproperties of katu rasa, madhura vipaka, sheeta veerya, snigdha guna, tridoshahara. Itis rasayana and subsides jwara, trishna, udara roga, krimi, amadosha . Raja nighantukara includes under pippalyadi varga, Pippali have the propertiesof snidhaushna guna, katu tikta rasa. It is vrishya, deepana and subsides jwara, kasa,shwasa, kaphahara. Bhavaprakasha nighantukara includes pippali under haritakyadi varg. Pippalihave the deepana, vrishya, madhura vipaka and rasayani. Anushana sheeta veerya,katu rasa, snigdha laghu, vata shleshmahara. It subsides shwasa, kasa, udara, jwara,kushta, meha, gulma, arsha, pleeha shoola, amavata. Ardra pippali is kaphaprada,snigdha sheetala, madhura and and guru. Madanapala nighantukara has included pippali under shunthyadi varga.Pippali has properties of deepana, vrushya, madhura paka, rasayani, atyushna, katurasa, snighdha laghu, kaphahara, pitta rechani. It subsides swasa, udara, jwara. Kaiyadeva nighantukara includes pippali under oushadhi varga. Ardra pippalihave the property of sheeta, guru, madhura, snighdha, ushna, kaphaprada. Shushkapippali is laghu madhura paka, snigdha ushna, katu rasa, kapha vatahara ruchya, sara,vrishya, rasayani, deepani, pachani. It subsides kapha, gulma, arsha, meha, pleeha,jwara, udara. Infusion is stimulant, carminative and alternative tonic more powerful thanblack piper, also aphrodisiac, diuretic, vermifuge and emmengogue. Externallyrubefacient. Piper longumin or piperine shows immuno-modulatory and antitumouractivity piperine also shows cytotoxic towards DLA and EAC cells at concentration of250 micro gm/ml. Administration of piper longum or piperine increase the total WBC “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 46
  61. 61. Review of Literaturecount. Bone marrow cellularity and alpha esterase positive cells were also increase bythe administration of piper longum extract piperine. Pipper longum or piperine shows to posses bioavilability enchancing activitywith various structurally and therapeutically diverse drugs. It may be hypothesizedthat, piperine bioavailability enchancing property may be attributed to increasedabsorption, which may be due to alteration in membrane lipid dynamics and change inconformation of enzymes in the intestine. Piper longum acts as antioxidant and is predominant in catalytic activity. Itcontains vitamin E and A. The antioxidant component of piper species constitutes avery efficient system in scavenging a wide variety of reactive oxygen species.Dosage- Choorna- 0.5-1 gm.Vishishta Yoga- Pippali ghrita Pippalyasava Vyoshadi vati Pippalyadi leha Yakritapippali yoga Vardhamana pippaliJATIKOSHA: Jatikosha is mentioned in all the Brahatrayees for therapeutics purpose.Family : MyristicaceaeBotanical name : Myristica fragrans Houtt.VERNACULAR NAMES:100Hindi : JavithriEnglish : Mace treeTelugu : JathipatriTamil : AdipalamBengali : JaitriKannada : Jati patri “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 47
  62. 62. Review of LiteratureBOTANICAL DESCRIPTION:101Evergreen aromatic tree, 9-12 mt highBark : Greyish – black.Leaves : Coriaceous, elliptic, deep green above and grayish beneath. Redish-grey when ripe.Flowers : Creamy – yellow, brangrant.Fruits : Globose or broadly pyri form 6-9 cm long, pear shaped, glabrous, often drooping , yellow; pericap fleshy, 1.25 cm thick, splitting into two halves when mature.Mace : It is epicarp of fruit, fleshy reddish colour & lacinate.Seeds : Arillate, albuminous, broadly avoid, with a shell- like purplish brownDistribution : Native of Moluccas. Grown in kerala, Karnataka, Nilgiris and W. Bengal.Chemical Constituents: Mace yields volatile oil, 8-17% fixed oil, resin, fat, sugar and mucilaginousmatter. Mace also yields an yellowish aromatic oil which contains a chemicalsubstance macene.Properties-102Rasa : Tikta, katu, madhuraGuna : LaghuVirya : Usna.Vipaka : Katu. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 48
  63. 63. Review of LiteratureSYNONYM: 103Table No.12, Showing synonyms of Jati koshaS.l.no Synonyms K.N D.N M.P.N R.N B.P.N1 Jatikosha - + + - +2 Jatipatri + + + + +3 Javitri + - - - -4 Patrika - - - - +5 Sumana - + + - +6 Malatipatrika - + + + +7 Jatiparna - - - + -8 Soumanasayani - + - - -9 Malanashini - - + - -Table No.13, Showing actions of Jatikosha104S.l.no Actions KN DN RN B.P.N1 Ruchi + + + -2 Varnya + + + -3 Vaktravyaishyadya - - + + janani4 Jadyadoshanirkuth - - - + “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 49
  64. 64. Review of LiteratureIndications-105Table No.14, Showing Indications of JatiKoshaS.l.no Indications KN DN RN B.P.N MPN1 Kapha + + + - +2 Kasa + - + - -3 Vami + - + - -4 Swasa + - + - -5 Trushna + - + - -6 Krimi + + + - -7 Visha + + + + -8 Kaya shanty - - - + -Review on various Pharmaceutical Process Adopted in the present study.Definition 106: The process, which eliminates the blemishes, is called Shodhana. Shodhana is a process intended for the removal of impurities in a substance by implementing prescribed method like trituration etc with prescribed drugs. Shodhana is the process meant for the lohas, Dhatus, Rasas etc., by subjectingthem to Swedana, Mardhana, Dhalana etc., which results in the detraction ofblemishes.Advantages of Shodhana : Eradicates visible and invisible impurities. Reduces toxic effects. Removes adulterants present in drug. Makes hard matter brittle which helps in easy incineration. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 50
  65. 65. Review of Literature Enhances therapeutical properties Suitable for further processingIn the present work, concept of Shodhana is adopted in following procedures: Shodhana of Raw Hingula by means of mardana with Nimbu swarasa in Khalva Yantra. Shodana of Hingulota parada by triturating with haridra and Nimbu swarasa. Shodhana of raw Gandhaka in dugdha and gritha. Shodana of vatsanaba keeping it in Gomutra.Yantras used in the present studyKhalva Yantra: 107 Khalva Yantra denotes mortar with pestle, made of varieties of stones of goodquality in different shapes and sizes.Uses: It is used for Grinding, Rubbing, Triturating or mixing of drugs.In the present study it was used for: • To powder crude Hingula and Gandhaka • Mardana of Hingula with Nimbu Swarasa. • In the preparation of Kajjali.Urdhwa Ptana Yantra: 108 • The Yantra is made with two earthen pots, where the upper pot is bigger than the lower pot. • The upper pot’s pristatala should be broad enough (i.e. 16 angulas) to construct toyadhara. • The mouth of the upper pot should be inserted into the mouth of lower pot in such a way, that the same should reach upto the neck of the lower pot. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 51
  66. 66. Review of Literature • The joint of the appartus should be sealed air tight with the help of multanimitti-smeared cloth or other sealing material. • The lower pot contains the drug, which is subjected to sublimation, and the outer part of the upper part has toyadhara, which felicitates the sublimation.In the present work, urdwa Patana Yantra was used to extract parada fromHingula. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 52
  67. 67. Methodology METHODOLOGYMethodology was studied mainly under two headings. • Pharmaceutical study. • Analytical study.Pharmaceutical study: This section deals with identification, selection and, processing of raw drugsand preparation of Swacchanddha Bhairava Rasa (Dwitiya). The very purpose of this branch of medicine is to provide safe and effectivemedicine Ayurevda believes that, “Samskara” given to the drug will change thequality of drug and also drug acts in different manner when mixed with other drugs.Study design: This section includes three steps: Step –01 : Identification and collection of raw drugs Step-02 : Purification and processing of raw drugs Step-03 : Preparation of Swacchanddha Bhairava Rasa (Dwitiya).Step 01 - Identification and collection of raw drugsDate of commencement: 05 – 01 - 06Date of completion : 07 – 01 - 06 Proper identification, selection and collection of raw drugs are necessary forAyurvedic formulation, because without these things we cannot assure the quality ofour medicaments. So this section of the study deals with the same SwacchanddhaBhairava Rasa (Dwitiya) contains the following ingredients: • Shoditha Hingulotha • Shoditha Vatsanabha parada • Pippali • Shoditha Ghandhak • Jathikosha “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 53
  68. 68. Methodology Special request was made to the local herbo-mineral drug shop dealer to get the particulars quality drugs and those were screened for classical grahya lakshanas and those were certified by the concerned departments. Step:02: Purification and processing of raw drugs: Ayurveda has enlisted certain drugs, which will cause adverse effects or no theapeutic effects if used in the impure state or may lead to complication. So proper purification is necessary to counteract the probable adverse effects. This section deals with the purification and processing of raw drugs. Practical No. 01: Title: Hingula shodhana. Date of Commencement : 10 – 01 – 06. Date of completion : 21 – 01 – 06 Reference: Rasatarangini, 9th chapter 16-17sloka Materials required: Khalwa yantra Drugs used: a) Hingula - 200 gms b) Nimbuswarasa - Q.S. Table No. 15, showing the Results of Hingula Shobhana.Ingredients Bhavana dravya in quantity Mardana in Results RemarksIn quantity hoursHingula Nimbu swarasa 100ml 6hours 205 gms Gain – 5 gms.Gms Nimbu swarasa 100ml 6 hours 212 gms Gain – 7 gms.200 Nimbu swarasa 100ml 6 ½ hours 218 gms Gain – 6 gms.218 gms Nimbu swarasa 100ml 5 ½ hours 224 gms Gain – 6 gms.224 gms Nimbu swarasa 100ml 6 ½ hours 229 gms Gain – 5 gms. “Pharmaceutico-Analytical study on Swacchandda Bhairava rasa (Dwitiya)” 54

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