Siddadarada amavata rs010_gdg


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Preparation and Analytical study of Sri Sidhadaradamrita Rasa and its clinical efficacy in Amavata - Dr. Pradeep Agnihotri, Department of rasashastra, Post graduate studies and research center, Shri D. G. Melmalagi Ayurvedic Medical College, Gadag

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Siddadarada amavata rs010_gdg

  1. 1. PREPARATION AND ANALYTICAL STUDY OFSRI SIDDHADARADAMRUTA RASA AND ITS CLINICAL EFFICACY IN AMAVATA By Pradeep Agnihotri Dissertation Submitted to the Rajeev Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, Bangalore. In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of AYURVEDA VACHASPATHI M. D. In RASASHASTRA Under the guidance of Dr. M. C. Patil M.D. (Ayu) Under the co-guidance of Dr. G. N. Danappagoudar M.D. (Ayu) DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA, POST GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH CENTER, SHRI D. G. MELMALAGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, GADAG – 582103. 2003-2006
  2. 2. Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka, Bangalore. DECLARATION BY THE CANDIDATE I here by declare that this dissertation / thesis entitled“Preparation and Analytical study of Sri Siddhadaradamruta Rasa and itsClinical Efficacy in Amavata” is a bonafide and genuine research workcarried out by me under the guidance of Dr. M. C. Patil, M.D. (Rasashastra),Professor and H.O.D, Post-graduate department of Rasashastra and underthe co-guidance of Dr. G. N. Danappagoudar M.D. (Rasashastra), Lecturer,Post-graduate department of Rasashastra.Date:Place: Pradeep Agnihotri.
  3. 3. SHRI D.G. MELMALGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, GADAG. POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA. CERTIFICATE BY THE GUIDE This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “Preparation andAnalytical study of Sri Siddhadaradamruta Rasa and its Clinical Efficacy inAmavata” is a bonafide research work done by Pradeep Agnihotri in partialfulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Ayurveda Vachaspathi. M.D.(Rasashastra). Dr. M. C. Patil, M.D. (Rasashastra) Professor & H. O. D.Date: Department of Rasashastra,Place: Gadag. Post Graduate Studies and Research Center, D.G.Melmalgi Ayurvedic Medical College, Gadag.
  4. 4. SHRI D.G. MELMALGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, GADAG. POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA. CERTIFICATE BY THE CO-GUIDE This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “Preparation andAnalytical study of Sri Siddhadaradamruta Rasa and its Clinical Efficacy inAmavata” is a bonafide research work done by Pradeep Agnihotri in partialfulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Ayurveda Vachaspathi. M.D.(Rasashastra). Dr. G. N. Danappagoudar M.D. (Rasashastra) LecturerDate: Department of Rasashastra,Place: Gadag. Post Graduate Studies and Research Center, D.G.Melmalgi Ayurvedic Medical College, Gadag.
  5. 5. ENDORSEMENT BY THE H.O.D. AND PRINCIPAL OF THE INSTITUTION This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “Preparation andAnalytical study of Sri Siddhadaradamruta Rasa and its Clinical Efficacy inAmavata” is a bonafide research work done by Pradeep Agnihotri under theguidance of Dr. M. C. Patil, M.D. (Rasashastra), Professor and H.O.D, Postgraduatedepartment of Rasashastra and under the co-guidance of Dr. G. N.Danappagoudar M. D. (Rasashatra) Lecturer, Postgraduate department ofRasashastra. Dr. M.C. Patil, M.D. (Rasashastra) Dr. G. B. Patil. Professor & H.O.D Principal Department of Rasashastra, D G M A M C, Gadag.P G S & R C, D.G.M A M C, Gadag.Date: Date:Place: Gadag. Place: Gadag.
  6. 6. COPYRIGHT Declaration by the candidate I here by declare that the Rajiv Gandhi University of HealthSciences, Karnataka shall have the rights to preserve, use and disseminate thisdissertation / thesis in print or electronic format for academic / research purpose.Date:Place: Gadag. Pradeep Agnihotri. © Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka
  7. 7. ABBREVIATION1) A. H. – Ashtanga Hridaya.2) A. P. – Ayurveda Prakash.3) A. S. S. – Ayurveda Sara Sangraha.4) A. T. – After treatment.5) B. P. – Bhavaprakasha.6) B. R. – Bhaishajya Ratnavali.7) B. R. R. Su. – Bruhat Rasaraja Sundar.8) B. T. – Before treatment.9) C. D. – Chakradatta.10) C.S. – Charaka Samhita.11) D. G. – Dravyaguna Vignana.12) D. N. – Dhanwantari Nighantu.13) FRLHT – Foundation for Revitalisation of Local Health Traditions14) K. N. – Kaiyadeva Nighantu.15) Ra. – Rasamruta.16) R. A. – Rheumatoid arthritis.17) R. C. – Rasendra Chudamani.18) R. J. N. – Rasajala nidhi.19) R. K. – Rasa Kamadhenu.20) R. N. – Raja Nighantu.21) R. Pr. Su. – Rasa Prakasha Sundar.22) R. R. S. – Rasa Ratna Samucchaya.23) R. S. S. – Rasendra Sara Sangraha.24) R. T. – Rasatarangini.25) S. S. – Sushruta samhita.26) SSDR – Sri Siddhadaradamruta Rasa27) Y. R. – Yoga Ratnakara. III
  8. 8. ABSTRACT The Rasa dravyas are basically classified on the basis of Agni samskaras theyhave undergone that’s how Kharaleeya, Parpati, Kupipakwa, and Pottali rasayanas camein to existence with varying grade of therapeutic efficacy.. There are certain otherpreparations which cannot be grouped under these categories the agni samskara given tothem also varies. These preparations are few and do have the equivalent therapeuticefficacy as above. Sri Siddhadaradamruta Rasa , a preparation involving ShodhitaHingula which when subjected to Dahana and Pachana samskara with specified drugslike Vata ksheera, Palandu swarasa, Bhallataka, Lavanga and Grutha is claimed toincrease the therapeutic efficacy which is advocated in Amavata as one of its indicationalong with Purana Guda as anupana. After thorough preparation as per classics the drugwas analytically studied to ascertain the effect of samskaras on it. There was presence ofmedia substrates in to the sample like Fat. Its Organoleptic character variations such aschange in colour from Red to Dark Brown was noticed along with changes in Hg% andS% before and after the preparation (Hg% from 86.6 to 62% and S% from 12.83 to 12.28respectively). The ESCA reported the presence of HgO and HgS in the ratio of 60:40. Itwas noted that there was a presence of selenium in lesser proportion which was not inelemental form. This was therapeutically tested over 15 cases of Amavata in a singleblind prospective clinical trial. The result in the trials statistically showed highlysignificant in the cardinal symptoms like sandhi shotha, Sandhishoola, Gouravata,Jadyata, jwara (Sthanika Ushmata) Nidraviparyaya ( p-value <0.001). Thus it wasinferred that the Samskaras has a definite role in increasing the therapeutic efficacy of thedrug. It was found promising in navottha Amavata.Key Words: Samskara; Dahana; Pachana; Sri Siddhadaradamruta Rasa; Amavata; Organoleptic Characters; ESCA; Clinical efficacy. IV
  9. 9. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I salute to Lord Venkateshwara and HisHoliness Shri Abhinav Shivanand swamijito have bestowed their blessings through out my carrier. I express my heartfelt obligations to my honorable guide Dr. M C Patil MD (Ayu)Professor and HOD, PG Dept of Rasashastra, DGMAMC, Gadag, for his criticalsuggestions, guidance, and encouragement at every stage in the accomplishment of thiswork. I am greatful and obliged to my co-guide Dr G N Danappagoudar MD (Ayu)Lecturer, PG Dept of Rasashastra, DGMAMC, Gadag, under whose guidance andinspiration I have been able to complete this work. I am happy to convey my deep sense of gratitude to Dr G B Patil Principal, PGS& RC, DGMAMC, Gadag, for his encouragement and providing facilities during thisresearch work worthwhile. I offer my sincere thanks to Dr RKGacchinmath, Professor and HOD, UG Dept ofRasashastra, DGMAMC, Gadag, for his constant support and valuable directions. Humble thanks to Dr DilipkumarB, Asst Professor, PG Dept of Rasashastra,DGMAMC, Gadag, for his valuable suggestions and critical views. My sincere gratitudes to Dr J G Mitti, Lecturer, PG Dept of Rasashastra,DGMAMC, Gadag, for his valuable information in bringing out this work. I express my earnest gratitude to Dr GS Hiremath, Dr Varadacharyulu, DrBSPatil,Dr Avvanni, Dr Prushottamacharyulu, Dr Mulugund, Dr KSR Prasad, Dr SH Doddamani,Dr Shettar, Dr Belawadi, Dr Paraddi, Dr Sankh, Dr Nidagundi, Dr Mulkipatil, DrShankargouda, Dr Samudri, and Dr Yasmin for their great co-operation. I ackwoledge my sincere thanks to Nandakumar for his statistical work,DrDVijaykumar, DrRevati, ShriChandur, ShriSuresh, ShriDNPatil, ShriPolicepatil fortheir kind co-operation and help in analytical study. I extend my gratitude to Shri VMMundinmani and Sureban and SSRAMCollgefor providing the required books during the study. I render my sincere thanks to Tungabhadra Grameena Bank for monitory support. I am greatful Dr KY Krishnaji, Dr BB Joshi, Dr Gudagnatti, Dr RS Hiremath, DrMAHullur, Dr SKBannigol, Dr AS Prashant, and Dr Jadar for their heartfelt co-operationand advise. With pleasure I extend my sincere gratitude to Dr SDYarageri RMO, Dr UVPurad,DrAMAdi,Principal,AMC,Ron, DrKotturshetti, DrBGSwamy, DrVMSajjan, I
  10. 10. SmtPKBelwadi, Smt Sarangmath, Tippanagoudar, Kallangoudar, Biradar, SmtEkbote,MMJoshi, Shri Shankar Belwadi for their co-operation and help during the study. I am always at rememberance of Mr and Mrs Lalitprasad and Mr and Mrs DrBabuVijayanathan whose encouragement is the result of my present work. This work remains incomplete without mentioning my brother Mr Bhaskar andsister in law Mrs Geeta Bhat whose love and affection has brought me up to this altitude,I am greatful to them. I am ever thankful to my intimate friends Dr BYGanti, DrShaila, DrMouli,DrUday, DrRatna who stood with me all the way at my turmoil. I thank my kiths and kins especially Mrs and Mr Malteash, Mrs and Mr Gururaj,Shashi for their in time support valuable help during my work. I extend my regard to mysisters Anju, Roopa, Deepa for their affection. I owe my immense thanks to Mrs and Mr Dr BDBhat, CDPatil, RDPatil,ASeenam Bhat for their love and affection shown through out my life. I have no words to explain my feelings towards my all time friends Mrs and MrCBRaj, Mrs and Mr Jagdish, Mr Chandru, Dr Basavaraj, Mr Ghouse and Dr SatishPaiwho are spirit behind my enthusiasm. I am ever thankful to them. My in depth regards to Dr Koteshwar, DrChetan, DrDPJoshi, DrSantoji,DrVSHiremath, DrPattanshetti, DrVeenaK, DrSReddy, DrYadalli, Dr PDDeshpande,Dr GSKulkarni, DrVMKullolli, DrAIAkki, DrTeggi, DrSubin, DrFebin, DrSatish,DrMaheshAbhang, Dr SAPatil, DrAnita, DrSantosh Kulkarni, DrBani and DrVarsha fortheir friendly affection. I am also thankful to my junior friends DrAnandH, DrAnita, DrSuvarna,DrSharanu, DrJayashri, DrSuma, DrRudraxi, DrKattimani, DrJagdishH, DrVijaySH,DrHakkandi, DrAshwin, DrGavi, DrAnandHD, DrAshwini, DrJiglur, DrSarvi, DrAshok,DrSulochana, DrManjunath, DrAmnish, DrShibaprasad, DrGavimath, DrPrasanna,DrBudi, DrMadhushri, DrPayappagouda, DrShivaleela, DrKumbar and DrArunkumarBiradar for their support and affection. I acknowledge my patients for their kind co-operation and whole-hearted consentto participate in this clinical trial. I express my thanks all those who have helped medirectly and indirectly with apologies for my inability to identify them individually. Finally I dedicate my whole effort to my beloved parents Mr A.Shankar Bhat andMrs Uma.S Bhat who are the driving force behind all my fruitful endeavors. Date: Place: Dr Pradeep Agnihotri. II
  11. 11. CONTENTS Page No.’s01. Introduction 1-302. Objectives 403. Review of Literature 5-5304. Methodology 54-7705. Results 78-10106. Discussion 102-11407. Conclusion 115-11708. Summary 118-11909. Bibliography 120-13010. Annexure i. Shlokas of Sri Siddhadaradamruta Rasa ii. Case sheet Proforma IV
  12. 12. Graph Contents Page No No 01. Showing Distribution by age Group 78 02 Showing the distribution of patients by Sex. 79 03 Showing Patients distribution by Religion 80 04 Showing the distribution of patients by Socio-economic status. 81 05 Showing the distribution of patients by Occupation 82 06 Showing the distribution of patients by Prakriti. 85 07 Showing the distribution of patients by desha 88 08 Showing the distribution of patients by chief complaint 89 09 Showing the distribution of patients by associated complaints 90 10 Showing the distribution of patients by Nidana. 91 11 Showing the response of the therapy in Sandhishoola. 92 12 Showing the response of the therapy in Sandhishotha. 93 13 Showing the response of the therapy in Jwara 94 14 Showing the response of the therapy in Gouravata. 95 15 Showing the response of the therapy in Nidraviparyaya 96 16 Showing the response of the therapy in Jadyata. 97 17 Showing the overall result assessed on the basis of subjective & 98 objective parameters V
  13. 13. Sl.No Content Page No01 Shows list of synonyms of Hingula according to different 07 authors.02 Shows inclusion of Hingula under different classes. (As per 09 different texts)03 Showing the bhedas of Hingula. 1004 Sowing the rasa of Hingula according to various texts 1305 Showing the doshaghnata of Hingula according to various 14 texts06 Synonyms according to different authors 1707 List of Synonyms of vata 2308 Synonyms of Palandu according to different authors 2609 Synonyms of Lavanga according to different author 2910 Showing synonyms of Guda. 3211 Synonyms of Grutam. 3412 Showing the samanya laxanas of Amavata 4013 Showing the different treatment modalities adopted in 44 Amavata according to various authors.14 Showing the pattern of onset of Rheumatoid arthritis. 4915 Results of Hingula Shodhana 5716 Showing the quantity of Hingula before shodhana and after 57 shodhana17 Showing weight of Bhallataka before and after shodhana. 5918 Showing weight of Hingula before and after threading. 6019 Showing details of Pachana Samskara. 6120 Showing details of Ghruta Pachana. 6321 Showing the gradation which is adopted in statistical 75 evaluation of clinical symptoms.22 Showing the gradation which is adopted in statistical 76 evaluation of walking time.23 Showing Distribution by age Group 7824 Showing the distribution of patients by Sex 7925 Showing Patients distribution by religion 8026 Showing the distribution of patients by Socio-economic 81 status27 Showing the distribution of patients by Occupation. 8228 Showing the distribution of patients by marital status 83 VI
  14. 14. Sl.No Content Page No29 Showing the distribution of patients by food habits 8330 Showing the distribution of patients by addiction. 8431 Showing the Distribution of patients by predominant Rasa in 84 diet.32 Showing the distribution of patients by Prakriti. 8533 Showing the distribution of patients by Sara. 8634 Showing the distribution of patients by Samhanana 8635 Showing the distribution of patients by Satwa. 8736 Showing the distribution of patients by Vyayama shakti. 8737 Showing the distribution of patients by desha. 8838 Showing the distribution of patients by chief complaint. 8939 Showing the distribution of patients by associated complaints 9040 Showing the distribution of patients by Nidana. 9141 Showing the response of the therapy in sandhishoola. 9242 Showing the response of the therapy in sandhishotha. 9343 Showing the response of the therapy in Jwara (Sthanika 94 Ushmata)44 Showing the response of the therapy in gouravata. 9545 Showing the response of the therapy Nidraviparyaya 9646 Showing the response of the therapy in Jadyata 9947 Showing the overall result assessed on the basis of subjective 98 & objective parameters.48 Showing statistical analysis before and after treatment. 99 VII
  15. 15. 1 Ayurveda, the upaveda of Atharvaveda is the first systematically dealt medicalsystem ever known to the man kind with a vital panorama to preserve health, alleviatediseases and even prevent them .The distinctive principles of approach to an ailmentand its thorough management has been a boon to the existing medical world. Ayurveda defines swastha as one whose physical, spiritual, social andenvironmental aspects are in harmony. With the advent of Rasashastra, this has a parallel thought as that of Ayurvedawas clubbed to fortify the results in a short duration. It pledged the dehasiddhi usingdifferent minerals, metals, pearls etc after subjecting them to various samskaras. Thesamskaras help in Gunaantardhana of a dravya which is being subjected. This couldbe understood as the one by which it enhance the property of the dravya used. SriSiddhadaradamruta Rasa, a unique mode of preparation which does not fall underchaturvidha rasayanas, involves chiefly the pachana samskara of Shodhita Hingulawith Vatakseera, Palanduswarasa, and Dahana with Shuddha Bhallataka, and lastlypachana with Gogrutha. Such pachita Hingula for long hours develops properties tocure Amavata. Different Acharyas have explained the management of Amavatainvolving the Hingula, Bhallataka separately. The Rasataranginikara came up withunique preparation for the management of Amavata which involves these drugstogether and also with a simpler procedure of preparing the drug. The efficacy ofHingula has been highlighted by Brahatrasaraja sundara, Rasataranginikara inAmavata, Pliha and Garavisha. Similarly the Bhallataka is made use for managementof Amavata by Yogaratnakara in Amavata chikitsa. Amavata being a crippling disease claiming maximum loss of human workingpower ranging from simple Artharalgia to severe complication like deformities,systemic disturbances and may cause temporary or permanent disabilities. Introduction
  16. 16. 2 Amavata is a condition in which improperly metabolized intermediate byproduct known as Ama, becomes the core cause of the disease and get deposited byprakupita vata at different Shleshmasthanas. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune musculoskeletal disorderexplained in modern medicine closely resembles with the clinical entity of Amavata.It occurs in all races and ethnic groups. Females are more affected (3:1) as comparedto males. There are several preparations listed in Ayurvedic classics for Amavata likeguggulu preparation and gold preparation. They are costly and even give varyingdegree of relief. Ayurveda believes that every individual differs form each other andrequire a specific yoga in a disease. Sri Siddhadaradamruta Rasa is considered as an ideal preparation byRasataranginikara and found promising for Amavata.The whole study has been arranged in to following chapters –01. Introduction This part introduces the subjects by laying emphasis on its importance in thepresent time. Plan of study is also dealt.02. Review of Literature It is based on the description of Ayurveda texts and also modern,pharmacotherapeutic properties of the Hingula, Bhallataka, Vata, Palandu, Lavanga,and Grutha. Description of Amavata and Rheumatoid arthritis is dealt. Introduction
  17. 17. 303. Methodology a. Pharmaceutical study This chapter includes the selection of raw materials, shodhana of Hingula, andcollection of Vata dugdha, Shodhana of Bhallataka and executing the preparation ofSri Siddhadaradamruta Rasa. b. Analytical study This chapter includes the Organoleptic and chemical analysis of ShuddhaHingula and Sri Siddhadaradamruta Rasa which assess the changes in it. c. Clinical study This includes single group prospective clinical study and explains aboutefficacy of Sri Siddhadaradamruta Rasa in Amavata.01. Results In this part the results obtained are systematically presented, which includedemographic data, data related to disease and data related to response to treatment.02. Discussion In this chapter observation, findings and results of various studies have beenfound out with possible explanation for its effects.03. Conclusion The essence of the whole study is mentioned in this chapter.04. Summary It contains the information of the overall work in a nut shell. Introduction
  18. 18. 4 Aims and Objectives:1. Preparation of Sri Siddhadaradamruta Rasa.2. Analytical study of Sri Siddhadaradamruta Rasa.3. To study the clinical efficacy of Sri Siddhadaradamruta Rasa in the selected cases of Amavata. Objectives
  19. 19. 5 Sri Siddhadaradamruta Rasa All the Rasa classics have mentioned the use of Hingula along with combinationof one or the other herbal drugs. Sole use of Hingula is not advised, but Hingula aftersubjecting to different Samskara is made suitable for its sole administration along withsuitable anupana. Such preparations are few and Sri Siddhadaradamruta Rasa is oneamong them. The other preparations involve more or less same drugs for samskara aswell as procedure involved.Different methods of samskara to Hingula to enrich its Rasayana properties: 1 Rasaratnakara–va-Sidda Prayoga sangraha under the heading of HingulaRasayana has enumerated different procedures that are adopted for Hingula to make it fitfor internal administration and to enrich its Rasayana properties. 1. 5 Tola cake of Hingula is embedded in Indrayana Phala and is encrusted with mud. When dried it is burnt. When it is red hot it is brought out this is repeated for 21 times. This is called Hingula Rasayana. 2. 40 Tola of Lavanga is grounded to paste with Palandu swarasa and is converted in to a glass shape. This glass is placed in an Iron pan and kept over the fire. Place 20 Tola Hingula cake in to the glass and exactly above the pan place the vessel filled with 5 lit (approx) of onion juice. The juice is made to drop over the Hingula drop by drop. The agni is maintained in such a way that the juice should evaporate as soon as it falls on the Hingula. Later it is powdered and stored. 3. Asuddha Hingula 20 Tola, Bhallataka 80 Tola, Gogrutha, Erenda Taila and Madhu 60 Tola each. Hingula is made into cakes and Bhallatka are broken in to yava kuta choorna. Half of the Bhallataka choorna is spread in a pan over which Hingula is placed and is covered with rest of the Bhallataka. Upon this Grutha Drug review
  20. 20. 6Taila, and Madhu is put and is placed over fire for 4hrs over samanya agni. When halfis burnt in this way, then the rest is burnt by burning the content directly in the pan.After Swanga sheeta the cake of Hingula is removed and used.4. Rasatarangini kara in 9th taranga has explained similar formulation: 2 Shodhita Hingula is prepared in to cake and tied with cotton thread. This issubjected to pachana in Vatadugda and Palandu swarasa till whole of the liquidevaporates. Then Pachita Hingula is placed over lavanga choorna in a pan and overwhich Shuddha Bhallataka is placed in a conical manner and gaps are filled withLavanga choorna and subjected to Dahana till all Bhallataka is turned in to ashes.That Hingula is collected and again subjected to Pachana with grutha which is tentimes more than Hingula in quantity. Later threads are removed, Hingula is powderedand administered. Thus prepared, is best indicated in Amavata, Pleeha vrudhi, Pakshaghata andKlaibya. This method is taken for the study.5. The reference of Sri Siddhadaradamruta Rasa is also quoted by Sri harisharananda vidya in Bhasma vignana3 where he calls it as Hingula bhasma. Even he has taken the reference from Rasatarangini.6. In Ayurvedasara Sangraha same method of preparation and indication is explained. 4 Drug review
  21. 21. 7HingulaIntroduction – Hingula is compound of Parada and Gandhaka, which occurs as a mineral in themines, associated with other minerals and also made artificially. This is a chief source ofmercury since ancient times to this date. In ancient times mercury was obtained from itthrough patana process. Many varieties of this mineral have been described in ancienttexts. Out of these Hamsapada variety is considered best as it consists less impurities.Synonyms –Table No. 01. Shows list of synonyms of Hingula according to different authors. Sl. Synonym RT R. Sa. Sn. AP RA DN RA KN 01. Hingulam - - - - + - - 02. Hingul + - - - - - - 03. Hingula + + + + - + - 04. Ingula + - - - - - - 05. Hingulaka - - - - - - + 06. Mleccha + - + + + + + 07. Rakta + - + - - - + 08. Gairika + - - - - - + 09. Suranga + - + - - - - 10. Chitranga + - - - - - + 11. Churna parada + - - - + - - 12. Rasodbhava + - - - + - - 13. Rasasthana + - - - + - - 14. Ranjana + - - - - - - 15. Kapishirshaka + - - - - - - 16. Raktakaya + - - + - - - 17. Hamsapada + - - - - + + 18. Darada + + + - - - - 19. Barbara - - - - - - - 20. Shuka tunda - - - - - - - 21. Jati - - - - - - + 22. Rasagandha sambhuta - - - - - - - 23. Daitya raktaka - - - - - - - 24. Maraka - - - - + - - 25. Maniraga - - - - - - + 26. Rasagarbha - + + - + - - 27. Charmanu ranjana - - - - - - - 28. Ati rakta - - - - - - + 29. Parvata - - - - - - + 30. Saikta - - - - - - + Drug review
  22. 22. 8Vernacular name –English name – Cinnabar.Scientific name – Red sulphide of mercury.Sanskrit – Hingula, darada.Hindi – Hingula, Singraph. Assam – Janjapher.Bengal – Hingula. Pārsi – Sangarph.Marathi – Hingula. Telagu – Ingulakam.Gujarathi – Higualo. Kannada – Ingulika.Historical BackgroundVedic period: No references about Hingula are available in any of the Vedas.Samhita kala: No reference about Hingula is available in Brahatrayees and Samgrahas. The author of Kautilya Arthashastra, Chanakya has mentioned Hingula in his textfor the first time. He mentioned it for testing various metals. He was using this for testingthe suvarna. The uses of Hingula as a medicine was not described by him.5 In Samhita kala, there were no references of Hingula. But, we get references ofparada. It is assumed that in olden days, it was imported from other countries. Drug review
  23. 23. 9 According to history of oldest text of rasashastra, Rasendra Mangala, we get thereferences of Hingula. Here, he used the word Darada for Hingula6. Rasa Hridayatantrakara mentions, it is one of the rasadravya.7 Author of rasarnava considered, as it isone of the maharasa dravya.8 while describing synonyms, Rasendra sara samgraha,mentioned it as Rasa Gandhaka Sambhoota.9 The usage of Hingula as a medicine startedbetween sixth and eighth century.Inclusion of Hingula Different authors of various Rasa Granths have included Hingula under thevarious titles. The classification of all Rasa dravyas done generally, according to their usage andimportance in the procedure related with parada. The important Rasa texts have includedHingula under following classes –Table No. 02. Shows inclusion of Hingula under different classes. (As per different texts)Dravya Rasa Maharasa Uparasa Sadharana rasaHingula Rasahridaya Rasarnava11 Anandkanda,12 R.S.S,13 R.J.N. 16 tantra10 B.R.R.Su.14, A.P15 R.C. 17 R.Pra. Su 18 R.R.S.19 Drug review
  24. 24. 10Hingula Bheda No description about varieties of Hingula is available in Resendra Mangala andRasa Hridayatantra. But we get reference of Hingula bheda in other texts.Table No. 03. Showing the bhedas of Hingula.Sl. Name of the text Charmara Shukatunda Hamsapada Anya01. Anand kanda20 + + + -02. Rasendrachudamani21 - + + -03. Ayurevda prakasha22 + + + -04. Rasaratnasamuchhaya23 - + + -05. Rasaprakasha + + + - sudhakara2406. Rasatarangini25 - - - Kritrima khanija07. Rasamrita26 - - + Mlechha Drug review
  25. 25. 11Charmara Hingula Shuka varna i.e. Greenish colour.Shukatunda Hingula Sapeeta varna i.e. Yellowish colour.Hamsapada Hingula (Grahya Hingula) 27 It has Pravala samana and having sweta rekhas on the surface of Hingula. It isconsidered to be best for therapeutic purpose. Among these three are having the quality of uttarottara gunavan.Asuddha Hingula dosha28 If ashuddha Hingula is consumed, causes – Moha, Prameha, Chittavibhrama,Andhyata, Klama, Kshainya and this directs to use always Shodhita Hingula.Tasya chikitsa29: It is treated similar to the ashuddha parada bhakshanajanya doaha. Theperson should be administered Shuddha Gandhaka for 2 months.Shodhana of Hingula: Various shodhana methods are explained in different classics, according toavailability, cost efficacy and medicinal formulations. 01. Do mardana with amla rasa dravyas and give 7 bhavanas of mahisha dugdha30. Drug review
  26. 26. 12 02. Keep Hingula in kushmanda khanda, do pottali, and give swedana in Lakucha swarasa poorita Dola yantra. 31 03. Give 7 bhavanas of adraka swarasa or lakucha swarasa. 32 04. Give 7 bhavanas of adraka swarasa. 33 05. Give 7 bhavanas of nimbu swarasa. 34Satwapatana35 Shodhita Hingula is smeared in the upper part of adhapatana yantra, water is filledin lower vessel. This apparatus is placed in the earth. Give heat to the upper vessel. Weget parada samana satwa in lower vessel.Marana36 Generally marana is not advised for Hingula. Shodhita Hingula can be used forthe preparation of yogas. However elaborate process of marana has been described in Ayurveda prakasha. Hingula is wrapped in the cloth and kept inside nila kanda, which is then coveredwith the mud paste around. When dried, it is subjected to puta, and baked in 10 vanopalasuch 100 putas are given similarly it is kept inside vanavarataka and given 100 putas thenin mandara phala and given hundred putas then in indravaruni phala and subjected to 100putas and lastly in amlavetasa phala and given 100 putas. At the end Hingula attainsintense red colour. Drug review
  27. 27. 13Hingula PropertiesRasa – Various opinions are available regarding the Rasa of Hingula.Table No. 04. Sowing the Rasa of Hingula according to various texts Sl. Author Madhura Tikta Kashaya Katu 01. Rasarnava + + - - 02. Dhanwantari + + - - nighantu 03. Raja nighantu + + - - 04. Bhava prakasha - + + + 05. Ayurveda prakasha - + + + 06. Rasendra purana - + + +Guna – Most of the texts considered Hingula as ushna gunayukta dravya.Veerya and Viapaka – No rasa shashtriya text has mentioned veerya and vipaka of Hingula, though theDhanwantari nighantu being the text of dravya guna vignana has mentioned Hingula ishaving the ushna veerya and katu vipaka.Doshakarma – Even though almost all the authors enormously agree the tridoshaghna karma ofthe Hingula, still some of the texts mention either kaphaghna or kapha pittaghna action ofHingula as well. Drug review
  28. 28. 14Table No. 05. Showing the doshaghnata of Hingula according to various texts – Sl. Author Kaphaghna Kapha-pittaghna Tridoshaghna 01. Rasatarangini + - - 02. Bhava prakasha - + - 03. Ayurveda prakasha - + - 04. Rasendra chudamani - - + Rasendrasara 05. - - + sangraha 06. Rasendra purana - - + 07. Rasamrita - - + Rasaratnasamuchhyakara has quoted Hingula as sarva doshahara, deepana,atirasayana, sarvarogahara, vrishya. It is useful in dhatujarana, Parada extracted formHingula is equal to the property of Gandhaka jarita parada. 37 Rasaprakashasudhakara quoted that the Hingula has the property of deepana,sarvadoshaghna, atirasayana, sarvarogahara. It is helpful in dravana karma. Paradaextracted form Hingula is said to be equal to the property of shadguna Gadhaka jaritaparada. 38 Ayurveda prakashakara has quoted the property of Hingula as tikta, kashaya rasa,kapha-pittahara. It subsides netra roga, hrillasa, kushta, kamala, pleeha, amavata andkrutrima visha. It also cures navajwara and santapajwara. 39 Rasendrachudamanikara quoted the property of Hingula as sarvadoshaghna,deepana, atirasayana, sarva rogahara, vrishya. It is helpful in jarana samskrara. 40 Drug review
  29. 29. 15 Rasamrita quoted the properties of Hingula that it pacifies all the tridoshas. It hasdeepana and powerful rasayana effect. It can destroy all diseases and may be used for themarana of gold and iron, metals. 41 Mercury extracted form the Hingula is considered to be equal in properties to themercury in which gandhaka jarana has been carried out. Rasataranginikara quoted that, it has a property of netrarogahara, kaphanashaka,pittajaroga nashaka. It subsides pleeha, kushta, gara visha, kamala. It is pachaka agnivardhaka and ama pachaka. It is pramehgna. It enhances shareera kaanti, and bala. Itcures prakupita amavata and jwara. 42 Dhanwantari nighantukara quoted that, it has katu vipaka, ushna veerya. It subsidevisha, kushta, visarpa and twak vikara. It is madhura tikta in rasa, and is kapha vatashamaka. It cures tridoshaja and dwandwaja jwara. 43 Rajanighantukara quoted that it is having madhura tikta rasa and ushna veerya. Itsubside vata and kapha roga, dwandwaja and tridoshaja jwara. 44 Kaiyadeva nighantukara 45 quotes that, Hingula is laghu, tikta and katu rasa, katuvipaka and ushna veerya. It subsides netra peeda, kushta, visarpa, visha, pitta and kapha .Vishishta Yoga Hinguleshwara rasa, Mrityunjaya rasa, Ananda bhairava rasa, Siddha daradamritarasa, Darada vati. Drug review
  30. 30. 16Cinnabar 46 Chemical composition – Sulphide of mercury (HgS). It contains 13.8% of Sulpher and 86.2% of Mercury Form – Trigonal or rhombohydral usually. Massive, granules. Intense red in colour, sometimes brownish red in colour. Streak – Red. Transparency – Opaque or translucent. Hardness – 2-2.5. Specific gravity – 8.09. Luster – Admentine. Variety – Hepatic with liver brown colour. Occurrence – Generally occurs due to the volcano activity. Also available near hot springs. Important places of occurrence are Spain, Italia, Western states of USA, Mexico.Cinnabar classification-• Dana class - Contains sulfides including Selenides and Telluride.• Strunz class - Contains sulfides and Sulpho salts. Drug review
  31. 31. 17 BHALLATAKA- Semicarpus Anacardium Family: Anacardiaceae.Introduction: Earliest references about Bhallataka are found in the Panini sutras. LaterCharaka emphasized the Rasayana property of Bhallataka and described ten types ofpreparations with it. He considered Bhallataka as the best drug to cure the diseaserelated to kapha 47. Susruta mentioned it as the drug of choice in the management ofarshas along with kutaja. Vagbhata has quoted Bhallataka as the best drug of choicein the management of suska arsas. Bhallataka asthi shall be considered for dipaniyapurpose 48Yogaratnakara has explained yogas of Bhallataka in Amavata chikitsa. 49Vernacular Names:Hindi -Bhilava Telugu - Nall jidi chettu.English - Marking Nut. Kannada - KeruBengali -Bhela. Gujarati & Marathi - Bilama. Table No. 06: Synonyms according to different authors: Sl.No DRUG D.Ni K.Ni B.Ni R.T. R.Ni 01 Bhallataka + + + + + 02 Agnika + - - + + 03 Dahana + - - - + 04 Tapana + - - + + 05 Aruskara + + - + + 06 Virataru + + - - - 07 Agnimukha + + - - - 08 Dhanu + + - - - 09 Balli - + - - - 10 Anala - + - - + 11 Vrunakrut - + - - - 12 Spotahetu - + - - - 13 Krumighna - - - + + 14 Vatari - - - + + 15 Tailabeeja + 16 Prutak Beeja + 17 Dhanur Beeja + Drug review
  32. 32. 18Botanical Description: 50,51,52 A moderate sized, deciduous tree, exudating a dark juice .young branches,inflorescence, petioles and under side of leaves pubescent.a) Leaves- Oblong, obovate, rounded at apex, cartilaginous at margin, verycoriaceous.b) Flowers- Fasciculate, arranged in erect, compound, terminal panicles, greenishyellow colored.c) Fruits- Drupes, obliquely oval or oblong, smooth, shining, purplish-black whenripe, cup orange red flowering round the year, mostly during May-June, fruits ripenfrom November to February.d) Habitat- This tree is found growing on the sub Himalayan and tropical part ofIndia as for east as Assam.e) Chemical constituents: The fruits of Bhallataka yielded Bhilawanol which was shown to be a mixture of cis and trans isomers of ursuhenol Bhilawanol was found to be a mixture of 1,2- dihydroxy-3-(pentadecenyl-8)-benzene and 1,2- dihydroxy-3-(pentadecadienyl- 8,11)-benzene studies on methylated Bhilawanol showed that it contained more than seven components; two major components were identified as dimethyl ethers of 1-pentadeca-8-enyl-2,3-dihydroxybenzene (I) and 1-pentadeca-7,10-dienyl-1,3- dihydroxybenzene (II); defatted nuts yielded three biflavones A, B and C; latter two compounds were characterised as 3,8-binaringenin and 3,8-biliquiritigenin, re-examination of bhilawanol showed it to be comprised of two components, Drug review
  33. 33. 191,2-dihydroxy-3-pentadecenylbenzene (32-32%) and its corresponding diene analogue (68-70%); a new biflavan, tetrahydrorobustaflavone and tetrahydroamentoflavone were isolated from nuts; leaves yielded only amentoflavone• Confirmation of structure of Semecarpus biflavanone B by chemical studies was carried out; a new biflavonoid, jeediflavanone was isolated from nut shells and characterised; galluflavanone was isolated from nut shells and its structure determined; isolation and structure elucidation of semecarpuflavanone from nut shells was reported.• Isolation of a biflavonoid, jeediflavanone from nutshells, a biflavonoid, galluflavanone from nutshells, a third biflavanoid, semecarpuflavanone from nutshells and a new dimeric flavonoid nallaflavanone were reported and the structure of nallaflavanone was determined and confirmed; isolation of another new biflavonoid semecarpetin from nutshells and its characterisation were reported.• A new biflavanone, anacarduflavanone was isolated from nut shells and its structure established• The acetate of a novel phenolic glycoside,1-O- β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)- β-D- glucopyranosyloxy-3-hydroxy-5-methylbenzene, anacardoside was isolated from the fruits of Semecarpus anacardium, and its diastereomers were first synthesized using Koenigs-Knorr method from D-glucose through six steps with total yields 33% and 16% respectively. Drug review
  34. 34. 20• Chemical constituents of the shell liquid have not been exhaustively investigated. The major constituent (~ 46% of the weight of extract) is bhilawanol, C21H32O2, which distils over at 225-26°/3 mm. when the shell liquid is subjected to vacuum distillation; it is an o-dihydroxy compound with a catechol nucleus and an unsaturated C15-side chain; it has since been shown to be a mixture of cis and trans- isomers of urushenol [3-(pentadecenyl-8)-catechol]. A small quantity (c. 0.1 %) of a monohydroxy phenol, semicarpol, C17H28O (distilling at 185°- 90°/2.5 mm.) is also present. The dark tarry residue left after distillation contains high boiling phenols and hydrocarbons. Thermal degradation of the shell liquid at 400° gives catechol and a mixture of phenols and hydrocarbons.Grahya Bhallataka53: The pakwa Bhallataka which sinks in the water has to be collected for shodhana procedures.Bhallataka Shodhana:1. Bhallatakas are to be tied into a pottali along with Ishtika choorna and subjected toslight gharshana. This is done till the external skin is peeled off and oil is properly setfree in to the isthika choorna. Later it is washed with hot water and brought to use. 542. Bhallataka is cut in to pieces and is subjected to swedana with narikela jala fortwo hours. This purifies Bhallataka. 553. Bhallataka is tied in a pottali and is subjected to swedana for 12 hrs in the mixtureof buffalo dung and water in the ratio 1:4. Later swedana in godugdha and gomutra Drug review
  35. 35. 21for 4hrs each is done. Then it is washed in hot water and again swedana is done innarikela jala for 12 hrs, and brought to use.564. Bhallataka to be subjected to swedana in gomutra for 4 praharas and washed withhot water and brought to use. 57Antidote: Application of coconut oil externally Internally Coconut oil with tila and haritaki.Part used: • Fruit, Seed, Seed kernel, Gum and oil.Dosage: Choorna - 1 to 3 Gunja. Taila - 1 to 2 Drops. Avaleha - ¼ to ½ Tola . Ksheera paka - 1 to 2Tola. Guna karma: Rasa – Katu, Tikta, Kashaya. Guna – Tikshna, Laghu, Snigdha. Veerya – Ushna. Vipaka – Madhura. Dosha karma: Kaphavatahara, Rasayana, Shukrala, Medhya, Bhedana. Drug review
  36. 36. 22 Bhava prakashakara has included the drug under the Hariyakyadi varga.Bhallataka is best indicated in Kusta, Arsha, Grahini, Gulma, Jwara, Agnimandya, Krimiand Vruna. 58 Dhanwantari Nighantu includes Bhallataka under Chandanadi varga. It isgood in Krumi vikaras, Gulma, Arsha, Grahani, and Kusta59. Kaiyadeva nighantukara explains that the pakwa phala of Bhallataka isVistambi, Bhrumana, Shukrala, Raktapitta nashaka. Its Asti is Pachaka, Chedi ,Bhedi,Medhya, Agnikara. Bhallataka is indicated in Kustha, Arsha, Gulma, Shopha, and Jwara.The majja of Bhallataka is vrushya.60 Rasataranginikara has similar views as of other Acharyas. He mentionedBhallataka is Rasayana and Balakara.61 Rajanighantukara explained that the majja is exceptionally Daha shamakaand does agni vardhana and pitta shamaka.62 The fruits are acrid, hot and anti-helminthic; it is considered beneficial inascites, tumours, warts, acute rheumatism, asthma, neuralgia, epilepsy and psoriasis.They are thermogenic, emollient, digestive, anti-arthritic, depurative, anti-inflammatory,uterine stimulant, alterant, expectorant, liver tonic, febrifuge and rejuvenating. They areused in sciatica, neuritis, dyspepsia, flatulence, constipation, colic, hemorrhoids,splenopathy and hepatopathy. They are also useful in cough, asthma, beriberi, leprosy,leukoderma, diabetes, dismenorrhoea, amenorrhoea, ulcers and general debility.63 Plant -Showed anti-inflammatory activity in rats. Nut - Milk extract was active inrats Vs Carragenin, It suppressed primary inflammation of adjuvant arthritis in rats andhad no effect on secondary lesion. Significant effect was seen as anti-arthritic. The milkextract of S. anacardium produces regression of hepatocarcinoma by stimulating hostimmune system and normalizing tumor markers including alpha-fetoprotein levels. Drug review
  37. 37. 23 Vata – Ficus Bengalensis Family: MoraceaeIntroduction: It is one among panchavalkalas. It is a big tree with adventious roots to support itsbranches. It spreads up to miles. It is commonly found all over India.Vernacular Name: Hindi: Vada Kannada: Ala Gujarati: Vadalo Punjabi: Bera, Baragad Tamil: Alum Table No. 07: List of Synonyms Sl.No Drug R.Ni D.Ni K.Ni B.Ni 01 Vata + + + + 02 Jatala + - - - 03 Vyagroda + - - - 04 Rohini + - - - 05 Rohini + - - - 06 Vitapi + - - - 07 Raktaphala + - - - 08 Skandaruha + - - - 09 Mandali + - - - 10 Mahachaya + - - - 11 Shrungi + + + + 12 Yakshavasa + - + - 13 Yakshataru + - - - 14 Neela + - - - 15 Ksheeri + - - - 16 Shiparocha + - - - 17 Bahupada + + + + 18 Vanaspati + + + - 19 Padarohini + - + - 20 Nyagroda - + + + 21 Skandaja - + + + 22 Vishravanaja - + - + 23 Danto - - + - 24 Dhruvaha - - - + Drug review
  38. 38. 24Botanical Description: 64 Banyan trees are huge and out spreading. Trunk is whitish grey in color.Leaves – are big, oval in shape, 12 to 14 cms long, thick, turgid and dark green having 3 to 5 veins. Fruits- These are Red and round in shape. Flowers bloom in spring and Fruiting occurs in Monsoon. Tree survives many years. Habitat – Found all over India.Chemical Constituents65, 66: Bark and young buds contain about 10% of Tannin, waxand caoutchoue. Fruits contain oil, albuminoids, carbohydrates, fiber and ash 5% to 6 %.The bark contains Leucoanthocyanin, Tiglic acid, β-sitsterol-a-D-glucoside.Part Used: Panchanga.Dose: Decoction ─ 50 to 100 ml. Powder ─ 3 to 5 gms. Latex ─ 5 to 10 drops.Guna Karma:Rasa – Kashaya Virya : Sita Guna : Guru, Ruksha Vipaka : KatuKarma- Kapha- pittahara, Mutra sangrahaniya, Varnya. Stambana. Charaka has classified Vata under Mutrasangrahaniya while Sushruta andVagbhata have classified under Nyagrodadi gana. Drug review
  39. 39. 25 Kaiyadeva Nighantukara has dealt it in oushadi varga. He claims that drug curesVisarpa and improves the shareera varna67. Dhanwantari nighatukara explains the same and includes Raktapitta nashanaproperty.68 Bhavaprakashakara and RajNighantu explain similar properties along withYonidoshahara property.69 The latex of Vata is applied on Wounds, Cracked soles, Synovitis, Arthritis,Lymphadenitis. Internally it is used to treat Diarrhea, Amoebic dysentery and bacillarydysentery.70 Palandu - Allium Cepa Family: LiliacaeIntroduction: It is an annual herb with bulb and white flowers. It is cultivated all overIndia palandu is quoted in the Bruhattrayee texts. Chakrapani considered Grunjanaka asLohita Palandu.Vernacular Names: Hindi: Pyaz Telugu: Ullipaya English: Onion Marathi: Kanda Drug review
  40. 40. 26Table No. 08: Synonyms according to different authors: Sl.No Drug Bp.Ni K.Ni R,Ni D,Ni 01 Palandu + + + + 02 Mukhadushika + + - + 03 Sukanda - + - + 04 Yavanesta + - + + 05 Durgandha + - - - 06 Raj palandu - - + - 07 Nrupahwaya - - + - 08 Raj priya - - + - 09 Mahakanda - - + - 10 Dheerga patra - - + - 11 Rochaka - - + - 12 Nrupesta - - + - 13 Nrupakanda - - + - 14 Nrupapriya - - + - 15 Raktakanda - - + - 16 Rajesta - - + -Botanical Description: 71 The shrub grows to a height of 60 to 90 cms. Leaves- Thick, round, and green with Green Coloured flower stalk at the top. It bears white flowers in clusters. These produce triangular seeds. Flowering and fruiting occurs after winter. Drug review
  41. 41. 27Verities: 1. Red ─ Rakta palandu- Small in size. 2. White ─ Swetaksheeri palandu- Large in Size. Habitat: All over India. Onions growing in Maharastra are large.Chemical Constituents: 72, 73 Onions have a unique combination of three families of compounds that arebelieved to have salutary effects on human health — fructans, flavonoids andorganosulfur compounds. A great deal of research has focused on one flavonoid,quercetin, which is found at particularly high levels in onions. Onion contain many sulfurcontaining active principles mainly in the form of cysteine derivatives, viz. S-alkylcysteine sulfoxides which decompose into a variety of thiosulfinates and polysulfides bythe action of an enzyme allinase on extractionPart used: Bulb and seedsDose: Juice ─ 10 to 30 ml. Seed Powder ─ 1 to 3 gms.Guna and Karma: Rasa: Madhura, Katu. Veerya:Ushna Vipaka: Madhura Guna: Guru, Snigda, Tikshna. Dosha karma- Vatahara, Vrushya, Rasayana Drug review
  42. 42. 28 Bhavaprakakara has included this under Haritakyadi varga. Palandu is excellentremedy for Agnimandya as it is Agnivardhaka. It is also Vrushya, Uttejaka and bestVatahara next to lashuna.74 Kaiyadeva Nighantukara has also considered this as next to lashuna but a littlemilder to it.75 In Rajanighantu, apart from the above mentioned properties he adds that Redpalandu is Kshareeya, teekshna and is best deepaka.76 In Dhanwantari Nighantu it has been included in Karaveeradi varga. He explainsproperties same as other Acharyas.77 Research studies have shown organosulfur compounds to:78 – Reduce symptoms associated with diabetes mellitus. – Inhibit platelet aggregation (involved in thrombosis). – Prevent inflammatory processes associated with asthma. Many of these studies used non-human subjects. The organosulfur compounds arebelieved to possess anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-microbial, and anti-thromboticactivity by inhibition of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase enzymes. Most likely thecompounds work through sulfur-sulfur or sulfur-oxygen linkages. Quercetin’s anti-inflammatory effect on prostaglandins, eukotrienes, histamine release and subsequentantiasthmatic activity has been investigated. Drug review
  43. 43. 29 Lavanga: Syzygium aromaticum Family: Myrtaceae.Introduction: It is a less utilized herb during the Brahattrayee period. At later timesespecially in yoga granthas we come across the utility of Lavanga in therapeutics.Traditionally cloves have been used to treat flatulence, nausea, vomiting.Vernacular Names: Hindi: Laung Telugu: Lavangaumu. English:clove Tamil: Kirambu Kannada: Lavanga Table No. 09: Synonyms according to different author Sl.No Drug K.NI D.NI R.Ni B.p.Ni 01 Lavanga + + + - 02 Devakusuma + + + - 03 Shrungaram + - - - 04 Shikaram + + + - 05 Lavam + + + - 06 Sripuspam + + + - 07 Varijam + - - - 08 Sravyam + - - - 09 Devyam + + + - 10 Chandanapuspakam + + - - 11 Brungaram - + + - 12 Varisambhavam - + + - 13 Lavanga kalika - - + - 14 Ruchiram - - + - 15 Teekshnapushpam - - + - 16 Greevana kusumam - - + - Drug review
  44. 44. 30 79Botanical Description: Tree full of green leaves, 10-13 mts height. Bark of trunkyellowish white and tender. Branches appear from the bottom and are tender and directeddownwards. Flowers brown externally, four triangular petals. Fruits are fleshy, 3 cmslong, seeds-single in each fruit. Flowering season is summer and fruiting in pre-monsoonflowering starts after nine years of plantation.Habitat: Originally from Malaya-Saillbius island. At present cultivated in southern India.Chemical Costituents:80 A heavy volatile oil 16% to 20%., A Camphor Resin 6%, Caryophyllin occurs insilky stellate needles. Oil distilled from cloves contains:-1) Eugenol 85% to 92% chemically resembling phenol.2) Acetyleugenol3) Caryophyllene, a sesquiterpene, furfural and Methyl-amyl-ketone.Parts used : Floral bud, Clove oil. Dose: Powder ─ 1to 2 gms. Oil ─ 1 to 2 drops.Gunakarma: Rasa: Tikta, katu, Guna: Laghu, Snigdha Virya: Sita Veepaka: Katu. Karma: Kaphapitta hara, Ruchya, Deepaneeya, Pachana, Netryam. Drug review
  45. 45. 31 Rajnighantukara explained Lavanga to possess vata, pitta and kaphaharaproperties. Hence, best in shiro rogas.81 Kaiyadeva nigantu kara has included it in the Ousadivarga and attributes itto posses the Hridya, Netrya and Pachaka. This cures Shoola, Anaha, Tridosha, Kasa,Swasa, Visha, and Peenasa.82 Dhanwantari nighantu kara highlights its Vajikarana properties with allother properties as explained by other acharyas.83 Eugenol, the primary component of clove’s volatile oils, functions as an anti-inflammatory substance. Clove also contains a variety of flavonoids, includingkaempferol and rhamnetin, which also contribute to clove’s anti-inflammatory (andantioxidant) properties.84 Nutrient Amount Manganese 1.32 mg Omega 3 fatty acids 0.20 g Dietary fiber 1.52 g Vitamin C 3.56 mg Magnesium 11.60 mg Calcium 28.40 mg Drug review
  46. 46. 32Guda Vernacular Names: Hindi: Guda English: Tracle, Jaggery Kannada: Bella Synonyms; Table No.10.showing synonyms. Sl.No Drug R.Ni 01 Guda + 02 Ikshurasa + 03 Madhura + 04 Rasapakaja + 05 Sishupriya + 06 Sitadi +Utpatti: Well-cooked sugarcane juice when solidifies and become hard like stone is known as guda. Drug review
  47. 47. 33Guna Karma: Rasa: Madhura Guna- Laghu Doshagnata- Tridoshashamaka. Purana guda is said to be best because of its action over all dhatu vahasamsthana. It is Agni vardhaka, Ruchya, there by it gets digested easily and nourishesbody and kindles the Jatharagni. It is Vrishya and also claimed as Sadhya Sukrala, Hencein association with Sukravardhaka dravya Ikshu vikaras esp Purana guda is prescribed.Itsrole on Rakta and Raktavaha srotas, Nidravaha srotas is remarkable. It enriches theproduction and shows the qualitative and quantitative increase of Rasa and Rakta dhatu.It is also hridya as its action conferred on Rasa and rakta reflects as such RasaRaktacomplex is flown in the Hrudaya and Dasha dhamani. It is said as Mala, Mootra vikarashodhaka and acts on Prameha as it is Mootrala. Very especially it cures a condition ofRakta kshaya and Anidra. It is Shramaharam also.85 Sushruta quotes that Guda is Kshara yukta and Madhura and not Atiseeta. And isSnigdha and it is Mutra and Rakta shodaka, and it does not mitigate excessive aggravatedPitta, but it is best Vata shamaka and Medovrruddikaraka and Krimi and Kapha karakaand increases the Bala of the body and Vrushya.86 Guda is said to posses Pittanashaka, Madhura, Vatanashaka, Raktaprasadakaqualities and a year old guda (Purana guda) posses more qualities and it is Pathy karaka. Drug review
  48. 48. 34GruthaEnglish: Clarified Butter. Hindi-Ghee Telagu- Nayee Kannada- TuppaSynonym: Table no 11. Synonyms of Grutam. Sl.No Synonyms K.N R.N 01 Ghrutam + + 02 Aajyam + + 03 Havi + + 04 Sarpi + + 05 Pavitra + + 06 Navaneetaja + + 07 Amrutam + + 08 Abhigara + + 09 Jeevaneeya + - 10 Homya - + 11 Ayu - + 12 Taijasa - + Ghruta is Agnideepaka, Balya, and Ayushya dayaka. It makes shareera Sthira. Itis Madhura in Vipaka Sheeta in Veerya and Vatapitta shamaka, Vishahara.87 Cow’s ghee has sufficient oxygen and is considered the best for the diseasesrelating to the area of the head. Kerotine is ten times more in cow’s ghee than in that ofbuffalo’s. When instilled in the nostrils the oxygen of cow’s ghee cures the diseasescreated as a result of imbalance of Vata, Pitta, Kapha. In the problems of obesity which isrampant these days, amount of ghee consumed in one month will directly &proportionately reduce obesity while in the undernourished people it will proportionatelyincrease the weight. In short cow’s milk & ghee are the best nourishment and thefundamental regulators of a healthy body.88 Drug review
  49. 49. 35ArdrakaLatin name – Zingeber officinale.Synonyms – Adraka, gulma, moola, mulaja, kandala, vara, shringavera, mahija,saikateshta, anupaja, apekshika, adravya, rahu chhatra shishuka, shagra, aardra shakha,sachaka.Vernacular names – Sanskrit – Ardraka. English – Green ginger. Hindi – Adraka. Malyali – Alia. Telagu – Allam. Tamila – Inji. Bengali – Duk. Marathi – Shunti. Kannada –ShuntiCharacters – The plant with the dingy yellow flowers on a leafless flowers stalk andlong lanceolate leaves on a separate stem.Rhizomes – 2 to 4 inch long.Tubers – Branched, knotty and some what compressed on one side lobed and clavatelybranched without a wrinkled corcky epidermis. Buff coloured and striate on sectionfracture meanly and fibrous showing many scattered resin cells and fibro-vascularbundles.Odour – Agreeable, aromatic, penetrating.Taste – Acrid and pungent. Drug review
  50. 50. 36Chemical Constituents – A volatile oil 2%, fat acquired liquid oleo resin, gingerol, orgingerin insulase, resin, starch 20%, ash 4%. The volatile oil contains camphene andphelladrene. Gingerol, an active principle extracted form ginger is a viscid, inodourouspungent liquid.Habit – Through out India, West-Indies, Africa, cultivated in Jamica, Sierraleone.Part used – Rhizomes.Adraka – Rasa – Katu. Guna – Laghu. Veerya – Sheeta. Vipaka – Madhura. Dosha – Kaphahara. Karmaghnata – Hridya, deepana, ruchikaraka. It subsides kaphajnya vikara and kantha roga.Gomutra Gomutra is used as a medicine since olden days. We get the reference about it inbrihatrayees. Charaka considered, it as one of the ashta mutra varga dravya.Synonyms – Gomutra, Gojala, Goambu, Gomashanda, Godrava. Drug review
  51. 51. 37Vernacular names – ⇒ Sanskrit – Gomutra. ⇒ Hindi – Gomutra. ⇒ English – Cow’s urine. ⇒ Kannada – Gomutra.Properties – Rasa – Katu. Guna – Teekshna, Ushna, Kshara. Dosha – Kapha-vata shamaka, pitta janaka. Karmaghnata – Agni deepaka, medhya, shoolahara, gulma, anaha. It is used in virechana karma and asthapana basti. Charakacharya quotes that Gomutra has madhura rasa, dosha nashaka and krimiand kanduhara. By abhyantarapana it subside doshajanya udara roga.Nadakarni in his material medica explains Gomutra contains ammonia in a concentratedform and is much used in both internal and external purpose. Gomutra is a laxative,diuretic, and used in preparation of various medicines. Eg. Poonarnava mandura. It is alsorecommended by Chakradatta as an anupana for eranda taila given as virechana. It is used as externally in the purification and roasting of various metals andpreparation of oils, decoctions. Drug review
  52. 52. 38Disease reviewHistorical review: The Vedas are the earliest documented sources of knowledge. Of these Vedas asan offshoot Ayurveda developed. The disease Amavata does not find its references in anyof the Vedas. In the samhita period though brahatrayees did not explain about the diseaseseparately but there are few passing remarks about Amavata in charaka. He has dealt indetail about the production of Ama and its treatment. Amavata finds a mention in the listof therapeutic indication of Kamsaharetaki in Shwayathu chikitsa and Vishaladi phanta inPandu chikitsa. It was Madhavacharya who in Madhavanidhana, included Amavata as anindependent disease entity and dealt in detail about its nidana vinishchya. Laterchakradatta an outstanding work pertaining to the treatment of disease contributes the lineof management and many remedies for the disease. Works of Bhavaprakasha,Yogaratnakara, and Bhaishajyaratnavali have only corroborated the descriptions withadditional principles of treatment.ETYMOLOGY OF AMAVATA:Amam cha vatam cha Amavatam: The word Amavata comprises of two meaningful terms‘Ama’ and ‘Vata’ which forms the pathogenic basis of the disease.Ama: In the context of Udararoga89 it has been highlighted that Hypofunction of agni isthe cause of all diseases. Therefore it is not alone tridoshas which takes part but thedeficient function of Agni which plays important role in efficient nourishment of bodycan cause disease. Ama is of dual origin – 01. Formed by apakwa anna rasa90. 02. Dhatwagni durbalata91. Disease review
  53. 53. 39Apakwa anna rasa – Due to the impaired agni in the amashaya there is malformation ofahara rasa and this incomplete ahara rasa is defined as ama.Dhatwagnimandyajanya ama – At the level of dhatus due to hampering of dhatwagni.Concept of Ama Biologically Ama corresponds to the undigested protein, carbohydrate, fat,bacterial content. When they gain accesses in to the general circulation they act asantigens. Antigen92 Are usually proteins, with in the body they stimulates antibody production. They are of two types 1) Exogenous antigen – Infectious agent’s drugs and chemical. 2) Endogenous antigen – Involves blood components. Production of Ama can also be expressed in two ways- Ama which is a resultant of hypo function of agni(exogenous sources). Vagbhata explains that vitiated doshas may combine together to form Ama within the body (endogenous sources). Thus the ama from either of the above source become unwholesome to the bodyand part of it gets access into the circulation and ends up in causing disease Amavatawhich resembles RA.Nidanapanchaka 93, 94 Various classical texts have explained the same nidana for the Amavata. 01. Viruddha ahara 02. Viruddha cheshta 03. Mandagni 04. Nischeshta (Sedentary habits). 05. Who does the exercise after snigdha ahara bhojana. Disease review
  54. 54. 40 o Viruddha ahara – Those substances, which are accumulated in the body and increase the dosha with in the body, are known as viruddha ahara. They remain antagonistic to the dhatus. o Viruddha cheshta – It comprises of wide variety of causative factors like Divaswapna, sedentary habits, exercise after bhojana, excessive indulgence in sex, suppression of natural urges. EtcPoorva Roopa There is no description regarding poorva roopa in any of the Ayurvedic classics.LaxanasSamanya laxanas95.96 – Table No. 12. Showing the samanya laxanas of Amavata. Sl. Laxana Madhavakara Yogartnakara 01. Angamardha + + 02. Aruchi + + 03. Trishna + + 04. Hrullasa + + 05. Gourava + + 06. Jwara + + 07. Apaka + + 08. Shunata anga + + 09. Aalasya + + 10. Kati,Prusta,Janu Sandi akuncana and + +` sashabadata 11 Nidraviparyaya + + Disease review
  55. 55. 41Sampraptia) Primarily ama (undigested or improperly digested Ahararasa) is produced in the digestive tract.b) Secondly this ama circulates in the body through Dhamani ie along with the blood.c) While circulating the materials do not completely undergo further metabolic changes.d) This improperly metabolized ‘Ama’ mixes with the doshas ie, vata, pitta & Kapha which further vitiates Ama.e) This vitiated ‘Ama’ by its selective discrimination produces blocking (Abhishyanda) of the shrotasas.f) Blocked channels get inflamed and further transformation of the nutrient materials do not take place resulting into inflammation and permanent or chronic damage of shleshmasthana. Viruddha ahara + Vihara Agni dushti in Amashaya Formation of Amarasa Sanchara all over the body by prakupita vata dosha. Samadosha accumulates in the shleshmasthana like Amashaya, shandhi. Amarasa gets vidagdata and circulates in to shrotasas. Formation of kleda in different srotas of the body due to the picchila guna. Leads to durbalata and Gouravata Disease review
  56. 56. 42 Vata and ama vitiates at a time Enters into trika, koshta, sandhis. Where ever vikruta doshas travels produces angamarda, aruchi, apaka, gourava, jwara, shotha, ruja. AMAVATAPravriddha Amavata Laskhana 97. Ruja, Shotha in hasta-pada-shira-gulpha-trik-janu-and uru sandhi. Wherever dosha travel it causes pain which resembles the string of scorpion. On keen observation we can categories the laxanas as below 1. Lakshana specific to involvement of sandhi. 2. Lakshana specific to involvement of Ama 3. Lakshanas produced as a consequence of the disease process.1. Lakshana specific to involvement of sandhi: ∗ Shoola and Shotha in hasta-pada-shira-gulpha-trik-janu-and uru sandhi. ∗ Shunata Anganam (Swelling in Sandhi) ∗ Gatrastabdhata. ∗ Jadyata. ∗ Sandhi Vikunchana ∗ Sankocha Disease review
  57. 57. 432. Lakshanas specific to the involvement of Ama: ∗ Chardi Shrotodusti lakshana of Annavaha shrotas. ∗ Arochaka ∗ Aruchi ∗ Anaha Rasavahasroto dusti lakshana. ∗ Angamardha ∗ Alasya3. Lakshanas produced as a consequence of the disease – process: The others like ∗ Bhrama ∗ Moorcha ∗ NidraviparyayaUpadrava98 Agnimandya, praseka, aruchi, gaurava, utsahaheena, vairasya, daha, bahumutra, kukshi shoola, nidra viparyaya, trishna, chardi, moorcha, hrit graha, vit vibandhatwa, jadya, antra kujana.Doshanubandha Amavata Laskahana99 Pittanubandha -daha and raga, Vatanubandha -shoola, Kaphanubandha - stimita, granthila and kandu.Sadyaasadyata100 o Eka doshaja Amavata sadhya, o Dwidoshaja Amavata yapya, o Sarva shareera shothayukta sannipata Amavata is kricchra sadhya. Disease review
  58. 58. 44Amavata Chikitsa101,102,103Table No. 13. Showing the different treatment modalities adopted in Amavata according to various authors. Sl. Chiktsopakrama YR CD BR 01. Langhana + + + 02. Ruksha swedana + + + 03. Deepana by tikta and katu dravyas + + + 04. Snehapana + + + 05. Virechana - + + 06. Basti - + + 07 Shamanoushadi + + +Pathya104 – Patola,Ardraka, Punarnava, Karavellaka, Yava, Raktashali, Kulattha, Kodrava, Shigru, Ushnajala, Lasuna sanskruta takra, Jangalamamsarasa.Apathya – Dadhi, Matsya, Dugdha, Mashapisti, Virrudhabhojana, Asatmyapadartha, Vegaavarodha, Ratrijagarana, Vishamabojana, Gurupadartha, Abishyandi padhartha. Disease review
  59. 59. 45 RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS105Definition: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disorder that mayaffect many tissues and organs – skin, blood vessels, heart, lungs and muscles butprincipally attacks the joints, producing a nonsuppurative proliferative synovitis thatoften progresses to destruction of the articular cartilage and ankylosis of the joints.1 Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic multi system disease of unknown cause.Although there are a variety of systemic manifestations the characteristic feature of RA ispersistent inflammatory synovitis, usually involving pheripheral joints in a systemicdistribution. The potential of the synovial inflammation to cause cartilage destruction,bone erosion and subsequent changes in joint integrity is Hallmark of the disease106. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an immmuno-inflammatory disease that affectsjoints and entire articular tissues107.PATHOLOGY108 The earliest change in swelling and congestion of the synovial membrane and theunderlying connective tissues, which becomes infiltrate with lymphocyte, plasma cellsand micro phases. Diffusion of synovial fluid into the joint space takes place duringactive phase of disease. Hypertrophy of the synovial membrane occurs with the formationof lymphoid follicles resembling an immunologically active lymph node. Inflammatorygranulation tissues (pannus) is formed spreading over and under the articular cartilage,which is progressively eroded and destroyed later fibrosis adhesions may be formedbetween the layers of pannus across the joint space and fibrosis or bony ankylosis mayoccur. Muscles adjacent to inflamed joints atrophy and there may be focal infiltrationwith lymphocytes. Disease review
  60. 60. 46ETIOLOGY109. The case of RA remain unknown it has been suggested that RA may be themanifestation to the response to an infectious agent in genetically susceptible host. Anumber of possible causative agent have been suggested, micoplasma Epstein – Bar virus(EBV), cytomegalo virus, parvo-virus, and rubella virus, but convincing evidence thatthese are other infectious agents cause RA has not emerged. Alternatively themicroorganisms or response to the microorganisms might induce an immune response tocomponents of the joints by altering its integrity and revealing antigenic peptide. Recentwork has focused on the possible role on the super antigens produced by the number ofmicroorganisms including staphylococci, streptococci and M–arthritis. Super antigens areproteins with the capacity to bind to HLA-DR molecule and particular VB segment of theheterodinimic T cell receptor and stimulate particular T cell expressing the VB geneproducts of all the potential environmental triggers. The only clearly associated with thedevelopment of RA is cigarette smoking.Gastro-intestinal Aetiology of RA: The co-existence of arthritis and diseases of gastro-intestinal tract has aroused increasing interest in recent years.The hypothesis of malabsorption of aminoacids in the aetiology of rheumatoid arthritis iscapable to explain the deficiency of protein, histine, arginine, glutamine and thyrosineetc. Disease review
  61. 61. 47ENTEROPATHY AS PRIMARY CAUSE OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS:Genetics Environment Enteropathy Malabsorption Impeded Biosynthesis of proteins in system. Fibrinoid changes Excessive dissolution of collagen tissue Collagen diseases e.g.: Rheumatoid arthritis.PATHOGENESIS110. Localization of antigens in joints Antigen by microphages Activation of helper T cells Release of intraleukin – 2 Cytokenes like IL-4, IL-6, IFN are released by Cd4 cells Disease review
  62. 62. 48 Cytokenes increases the expression molecules like ICMA-1, LFA –1, MAC-1 It helps in localization of inflammatory cells Cytokines stimulates, activates and proliferation of B cells produce antibody producing plasma cells. These cells produce antibodies against Fc fragment of IgG (RA) RA factor forms immuno complex with IgG Production of Ca3, C5a, C3b and C5,6,7,8,9Ca3 and C5a as anapphylotoxins Release of histamines C5,6,7,8,9 is capable of damage cells by drilling pores in their membrane. Inflitration of neutrophillsRelease of oxygen free radicals, inflammatory metabolites, arachidnic acid pathway like prostaglandins leutrines metalo-proteins like collagenase. Damage of articular cartilage demineralization of underlying bone erosion of the joint margins laxicity of the joint capsule leading to deformity. Disease review
  63. 63. 49 111Articular Features The onset is usually insidious but may be acute or systemic, symmetrical jointinvolvement is common in middle aged women. Asymmetrical presentation is commonas a disease progresses. Acute onset with asymmetrical polyarthritis is more often seen inelderly patients. In the pelidromic onset type abrupt self limiting exaggeration of joint swellingerethrima and warmth over the joint occur and resolve completely within hours to fewdays. Only reoccur after period of time. The characteristic pattern of joint involvement in descending order is frequentlyin metacarpals (MCP), wrists, proximal, intraphalangeal (PIP), metatorso-phalangeal(MTP) joints, knee, ankles, hips and elbows. The affected joints are painful to start withthen become swollen, warm, and tender with restriction of movement.Pattern of Onset Table No. 14. Showing the pattern of onset of Rheumatoid arthritis. Sl. A B 01. Insidious, > 70%, Oligoarticualr 45 to 50 , Acute 10-15%) Polyarticualr 30-35% Sytemic - <10%, Monoarticular 20-25 %. palidromic least <5 Common. >5patient. Disease review
  64. 64. 50Extra Articular Manifestation of RA Systemic Cardiac Respiratory Low grade fever Pericarditis Plural effusion Fatigue Myocarditis Fiborsing alveolitis Loss of weight Aortitis Nodules Loss of appetite Conduction disturbances Bronchitis Musculo-skeletal Hematological Neurological Muscle wasting Anemia Entropment syndrome Bursitis Thrombocytosis Cervical compression Tenosynovitis Esinophilia Mononeuritis multiplex Skin Felty’s syndrome Others Subcuatneous nodules Spleenomegaly Systemic vasculitis Vasculitis Eye Amylodosis Ulcers Sicca syndrome Gangrene Episcleritis Pyoderme gangrenosum Scleritis Nail fold infarcts ScleromalaciaDeformities112Hand – Hands include button hole associated with flexion at the PIP joints and hyperextension of the distal intraphalangeal joints. Swan neck deformity associated with flexion of the digital interphalangeal andhyperextension of PIP joint. Z deformity of thumb and ulnar deviation of the finger. Disease review