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Rav kriya2010

  1. 1. RISIITR IYA AYU RUTIII UI IINPTTIHNATIONAT ACADEMY OF AYURVEDAAn autonomous organization under Deptt. of /yUSH,Ministry of Health & F.W., Govt. of lndiaDhanwantari Bhawan, Road No. 66, Punjabi Bagh (W), New Delhi-110026
  2. 2. INTERACTIVE WORKSHOP BETWEEI{ STUDENTS AND TEACHERS OFAYURVEDA (Kriya Shareer) (19-21 March, 2010) Bharati Vidyapeetho Pune Organizing Secretary & Editor Dr. V.V. PRASAD Director, R.A.V. Organised by: MSHTRIYA AYURVEDA VI DYAPEETH (NATTONAL ACADEMY OF AYURVEDA) (An autonomous organization under Deptt. of AYUSH, |linistry of Health & F,W., bovt. of lndia) Telefax: 011-25229753; Phone: 25228548 E-mait: ravidyapeethdethi@gmait.com avurevan@rediffmail. com, Website: www. ravdethi@nic. i nRAV subscribes no responsibility for the views expressed or the materiat submitted byvarious studentslresourceWrsons to this booklet.
  3. 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I express my sincere gratitude to the Members of the Governing Body of RashtriyaAyurveda vidyapeeth for their constant support to the activities of RAV. 1. PadmashriProf. P.N.V. Kurup,Ilelhi President ", Shri Naved Masood,Delhi Member 3. Shri B. Anand, Delhi Member 4. Dr. S.K. Sharma, Delhi Member t. Vice Chancelloro Gujarat Ayurued University, Jamnagar Member 6. Prof. B.L. Gaur, Jodhpur Member oPadmabhushanVaidya P.K. Warriero 7. Kottakkal Member sPadmabhushanVaidya Devendra Triguna, 8. Delhi Member 9. Vaidya Shiv Kumar Mishra, Delhi Member 10. Vaidya Tara Chand Sharma, Delhi Member 11. Dr. V.R. Seshadri, Chennai Member 12. Mumbai Vaidya Dinanath Upadhyay, Member 13. Vaidya B. Rama Rao, Hyderabad Member 14. Vaidya Achyut Kumar Tripathi, Noida Member Vaidye V.V. Prasad DIRECTOR
  4. 4. CONTENTSL. Preface I2. Llst of Contributing Exp0rts ll3. List of Participating Experts lrr-lv4. List of Questioners v-vl5. Color Atlas6. Embryology l-287. Dosha 20-1468. Dhatu 147-1639. Mala 164-16910. Upadhatu t70-t7s11 . Ojus 176-18012, Srotas l8t-20213. Prakriti 203-22314. Shat Kriyakala 224-22715. Miscellaneous 228-237
  5. 5. PREFACE Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth (RAV), New Delhi has been conducting thelnteractive Workshops for sfudents and young teachers in various subjects of Ayurveda inorder to facilitate one-to-one discussions and clarifications on various issues related toteaching, practice and research by senior scholars and vaidyas This exciting series of interactive workshop between post-graduate students andundergraduate college teachers, and experts from various Ayurvedic specialities has reached16tr rung. This unique series is aimed at unravelling the scientific intricacies of Ayurvedicconcepts, description of diseases, treatment principles etc. It is heartening to note that someof the explanations put forth in workshop books have been accepted by a majority ofAyurvedic fraternity. Many teachers are referring these books to decipher the hiddenintellectual wealth of Ayurvedic texts and the commentaries thereon. Also these workshopshave widened the horizon of knowledge of young researchers and PG scholars, who havesound fundamental scientific background. This 16th workshop is related to the subject of Kriya Sharir. The subject spans fromphysiology of invisible (even with electron microscope) tanmatra to visible functions of grosshuman body. Stupendous and incredible work done by our professional ancestors in this fieldhas become so much hazy with passing of time over thousands of years that in present timetanmatra, panchamahabhuta, dosha, dhatu, mala etc appear puzzling to many. However, for acurious scientific mind reading the ancient Ayurvedic texts with the help of knowledge ofmodern medicine and other sciences, a whole new fascinating and exhilarating world of lifesciences opens where every inch of space has a potential for exploration. The feeling isfantastic; it appears that one has gotjackpot when one dives through the ocean ofthe ancientbooks. The abyss has yet to be reached but this ocean is revealing mesmerizing scientificinhicacies. The book covers theories of atma, human genome, bija-bijabhaga-bijabhagavayava to niceties of transformation of various dhatus in the body. It is impossibleto cover all these subjects (related to kriyasharir or physiology) in two days. However, anattempt has been made by inviting several experts from different parts of India to give theiropinions in this regard. This way an opportunity is being provided to known and unknownexperts to voice their view, which will result in deciphering and proliferation of theknowledge to Ayurvedic as well as modern medical fraternity to help maintain the health andtreat ailments of human beings. I would like to express my sincere gratitude to the Department of AYUSH, Ministryof Health & Family Welfare, Govt. of India for encouraging to conduct such usefulworkshops. I also thank the President and other members of the Governing Body for theirconstant support in all the activities of RAV. I thank Dr.Mrs.Sandhya Patel for her help in the preparation of this book and I appreciate the officials of RAV for their sincere efforts to achieve the goals set. Prof. Vaidya V.V.Prasad DIRECTOR
  6. 6. 1. Dr. G. Purushothamacharyulur,HlG - 165, phase - I & rI, Road No.4, KPHB Colony, Kukatpally, Hyderabad - 500 072. 2. Dr. Y.G. Joshi, Aashirvacha, plot No.S, varshanand society, Anand Nagar, Sinhagadh Road, Pune - 411 051. 3. P.S":.)^ Dhargalkar, Professor & H.o.D.nKriya sharir, Tilak Ayurved Medical College, 583 12, Rasta Peth, PUNE, 41 101 1 4. Dr.Mrs.v.sandhya Patel, Lecturer, MLR Ayurvedic college, charkhi Dadri, Haryana.5. Dr.P.V.Ranganayakulu, Assistant professor, S.V.Ayurvedic College, Near SVIMS Tirupati-S17 507.6. Dr.Baikunth Nath Mishra, Professor, Kriya sharir, Govt. Ayurved college, Bolangir -767 001, Orissa.7. Dr. Bhaskar H. Shamkuwar, professor & H.o.D., Kriya sharir, Government Ayurvedic college, wazirabad, Nanded 431601 (Maharashtra)8. Dr.(Mrs.) Gehlot Sangeeta, H.O.D. & Reader, Kriya Sharir,Institute of Medical Sciences., B,H.U., Varanasi -221005. (U.p.)9. P-".-(Mry.) Kalpana Sathe, Professor, Knya Sharir, Sumatibhai Shah Ayurved Mahavidyalay, HADAPSAR 4l l028,June10. !y1 Gra.r.) Indapurkar KavitN v., prof. & H.o.D., Kriya sharir, Bharati vidyapeeth university college of Ayurved, Katraj-Dhana-kwadi, Distt. pune 411043 (MS)11. Dr.Yoginder Kumar Sharma, Department of Kayachikitsa, R.G.Govt Ayurveda College, Paprola, District Kangra, HP.12. Dr. suresh Babu, Retd. professor, Kayachikitsa, H. No. t-ztoll9l, Kartikeya Nagar, Street No.6, Nacharam, Hyderabad 500 026. -13. P". M. srinivasulu, Govt. Ayurveda college, Labour colony, warangal.
  7. 7. LIST OF PARTICIPATING EXPERTS: l. Vaidya S.K.Mishra, Former Adviser (ISNI), Govt. of India, 604n Tower Apartmentsn Swasthya Vihar, New Delhi 2. Vd. Dinanath Upadhyay,Smile Complex Town-A, Flat-E/l, Balaji Nagaro Opp. Bhayander Railway Station West, Distt. Thane, Mumbai 3. Vaidya Achyut Kumar Tripathi, Adwait Ayurveda Sadan, Hl 129, Sector, 41, NOIDA -201303, G.B.Nagar (U.P.) 4. Prof. D.G. Thatte, Gyan Deep, 13, Prakash Puramo Nayi basti, Bhadewan, Aish Bagh, Lucknow. 5. Dr.V.V.Doiphode, Flat No. 6, Rajashree Apartments, Nilgiri Lane, Baner Road, Pune - 4l 1007. 6. Dr. P.M. Varrier, Dy. Chief Superintendent, Arya Vaidya Sala, Kottakkal. 7. Dr. Mrs. Bhutada S.S., Readern Bharati Vidyapeeth College of Ayurued, Pune. 8. Dr. Pandkar P.D., Lecturer, Bharati Vidyapeeth Collegg of Ayurved, Pune. g. Dr. Ghate U.S., Lecturer, Bharati vidyapeeth college of Ayurved, Pune 10. Dr. Mrs. Bhalsing M.V., Lecturer, Bharati Vidyapeeth Cotlege of Ayurved, Pune 11. Dr.Chitnis Abhijit, Reader, Sumatibhai Shah College of Ayurved, Hadapsar, Pune. . 12, Dr. Veer Vaishali, Lecturer, Sumatibhai Shah Coltege of Ayuned, Hadapsar, Pune 13. Dr. Joshi Pranita, Lecturer, Sumatibhai Shah College of Ayurved, Hadapsar, Pune 14. Dr. Manasi Nimbalkar, Lecturer, Ashtang Ayurved college, Pune 15. Dr. Mrs. Mardikar, Professor, Ayurved college, wagholi, Pune 16. Dr. Mrs. Supriya Mane, Lecturer, Ayurved college, wagholi, Pune 17, Dr Lavgankar Laxman, Lecturer, Ayurved college, wagholi Pune 18. Dr. Minai<shi Randive, Reader), Tilak Ayurved College Pune ilt
  8. 8. 19. Dr. Tarranum Patel, Lecturero Tilak Ayurved Collegeo pune20. Dr. Ambavale S., Lecturer, Tilak Ayurved College, pune21. Dr. Purushe, Professor, Dr.D.Y. patil cofiege of Ayurved, pimpri, pune22. Dr. Smita Kadu, Lecturer, Dr.D.y. patil colrege of Ayurveo, nimpri, pune23. Dr. sheetal soman, Lecturer, Dr.D.y. patil coltege of Ayurved, pinpri, pune24. Dr. Deshpande R.R., Professor, College of Ayurved, Akurdi, pune25. Dr. Choubhe S., Reader, College of Ayurved, Akurdi, pune26. Dr. Vrushali Savai, Lecturer, College of Ayurved, Akurdi, pune27. Dr. Sameer Gore, Lecturer, College of Ayurved, Akurdi, pune28. Dr. Akalpita Dhanorkar, Lecturer, college of Ayurved, Akurdi, pune IV
  9. 9. LIST OF OUESTIONERS:l. Dr. Thakur Prasad Sahu 2. Dr. Rakesh Thqmman Medical Officer (Ayurveda) Reader & H/o Kriyasharir Directorate of Medical & Heatth Department Services, Govt. of India, Rajiv Gandhi Ayurvedic College .Moti Daman, UT of Daman & Diu. Paprola, Disfi Kanga, H.P.3. Dr. Naresh kumarJain 4. Dr. Mukesh Shukla Lecturer Dept. of Kayachikitsa & Panchakarma Dept. Of Kriyasharir Smt. KGMP Medical College (Ayu) & Govt. Akhandanand Ayu. College Hospital Ahmedabad. Mumbai- 400002. Dr. Lingaraddi M. Biradar Dr. M.V. Aiholli Lecturer Asst Professor P.G. Department of Panchakarma Department of Samhita &Siddhanta Dr. BNM Rural Ayurvedic College, D.G.M Ayurveda Medical College Bijapur. Gadag - 582103.7. Dr. Jairaj P. Basarigidad 8. Dr. Santosh.N Belavadi Lecturer Lecturer & In charge of Department of P.G studies in Department of P.G studies in Panchakarma Panchakarma D.G.M Ayurveda Medical College D.G.M Ayurveda Medical College Gadag - 582103. Gadag - 582103.9. Dr. Suchetha Kumari M 10. Dr. Suvarna P. Nidagundi Asst. Professor & HOD Lecturer I)epartment of Kriya Sharira Department of Rasashastra SDM College of Ayurveda DGM Ayurveda Medical College Udupi. Gadag - 582103.11. Dr. Devendrappa. Budi t2. Dr. Girdhar Thakre Department of Panchakarma S. V. P. Rural Ayurvedic College Dr.Sweta. Badami - 587201.13. Dr. Chitnis Abhijit Vilas 14. Vd. Vaishali Veer Reader, Sharir kriya Lecturer, Sharir-kriya Sumatibhai Shah Ayurved Sumatibhai Shah Ayurved Mahavidyalaya, Mahavidyalaya, Hadapsar, Pune - 411 028. Hadapsarn Pune-411 02815. Dr. Hema Waghulade 16. Dr. Sarita Ohol Reader Lecturer Dept. of Sharir Kriya Vidnyan Dept. of Sharir Kriya Vidnyan Dr. D. Y. Patil college of Ayurved Dr. D. Y. Patil college of Ayurved and and Research Institute Research Institute Sector-7, Nerul Sector-7, Nerul, Navi Mumbai,400706. Navi Mumbai,400706.
  10. 10. 17. Vd. Pranita P. Joshi 18. Dr. Vaibhav Dadu Lecturer, Department of Sharirkriya Lecturer Sumatibhai Shah Ayurved Deptt. of Kriya Sharir Mahavidyalaya Govt. Akhandanand Ayurved College Hadapsar, PUNE - 411 028. Ahmedabad. Guj. 19. Dr. Bipin Bihar Khuntia 20. Dr. Amit Kumar Tanwar Dept. of Kriyasharira, PG Scholar Govt. Ayurved Mahavidyalay A&UTibbiaCollege Puri-752002, Orissa New Delhi2t. Dr. Nidhi Khurana 22. Dr. Nidhi Garg P.G. Scholar P.G. Scholar Kriyasharir Dept. of Kriyasharir A & U Tibbia College & Hospitat A & U Tibbia College & Hospitat Karol Bagh, Delhi, Karol Bagh, Delhi23. Dr. Anupam Sharma 24. Vd. Aniket Gitaram Ghotankar PG Scholar PG Scholar Kriyasharir Dept. of Sharir-kriya A & TU Tibbia College & Hospitat Sumatibhai Shah Ayurved Karol Bagh, Delhi Mahavidyalaya Hadapsar, PUNE-2825. Vd. Anuya Bhagirath Kulkarni 26. Vd. Anuja Vinod Shah PG Scholar, Dept.of Sharir Kriya PG Scholar, Dept.of Sharir Kriya Sumatibhai shah Ayurved Sumatibhai Shah Ayurved Mahavidyalaya Mahavidyalaya Hadapsar, Pune-28 Hadapsar, Pune-4l I 028.27. Dr. Vivek B. Patit 28. Dr. R. C. Satish Kumar c/o Dr.Sudhakar M.Sathve PG Scholar Sathye Eye Hospital Dept of Rasa Shastra, 244, Narayan Peth Shri DGM Ayurveda Medical College Laxmi Road Gadag - 582103 Pune. Karnataka.29. Vaidya Sonali Viraj Shukla 30. Dr. Sanath Kumar D.G Gomantak Ayurved College PG Scholar Shiroda, GOA.403103 Dept of Panchakarma DGMAMC Gadag. VI
  11. 11. l-:-*- SFffiJS l*-,-.,* I**-,* a ^,. "--,* .., , .,.,.":,., ,-:., i:, .t:j -, Figure No. L: Fetal circulation Ayurvedic view: arafre araqi qft-Jid-€tr ar$ et-dfr iltqi arwi qft-d-€T Edtmrq-gr rrvi e6-*; arE€Eqr (sr.zi. eTT. 2/s1 rr{ El-€) 8ofta nultlll b rrdl]Endffro$Flrc|lrut m$r$r|nlr by dillu&.r. hrl efraf fitlftLl mutl !a ttnleorttd, Umullad lrtarll| .ltum Cho.lo.tlc vltl aolrLlfi Umbll}Cllttrd Umb{llcil vah ctnl|| Hall- orygrllllerl blood to th. ailb.yo, / I, rucantt I u*urc.r c6rd , I Yoll llc tr nrllrrul Ulod tYEEtfi0 9l.trlr Copynglrl g 200t F@rs Edrntts. rft.. I{5t!tr}g at BoqrBF C@BitRt Fig.26-19 Figure No.2 Placental circulation Ayurvedic view: arefTq arft argea 6A ar$ Foes* I qqr ?T gffift +qrz 5l-E €gq1 1 (eT.g. etr. t rso)#{rE Fq Ferq,-drgcr€rr wi qaen *Erre€r errsnfrldensf}r@li, -- I (s{.9. eTT. 1/s6 qs si-Forcr A-6r)
  12. 12. Diffurentiation of Sexual Organg Male/Female - 9 wks ./ l MArE l-17 wks FEMALE Sexual organs at birlh 5rfiPt? tc, Sitred 5€rsnlitr Figure No. 3 Sexual differentiation in human embryo d,itoris 6lr)0i. ir-,ci*ty fnr L:a(rFd te*ualitr www. s s s-now. org/forum/IMale_Female_Andro glv|!y-2.. .Figure No. 4 Comparison ofpaxamesonephric and mesonephric derivatives in human male and female embryos
  13. 13. Figure No. 5 & 6: Spleen with torsion of long pedicleS ourc e o f fi gure 6 ; r adr olo sy . caser eports.net/ .. J 229 I 5 5 6Figure 7:Jarcho-Levin syndrome Figure 8: Osteogenesis imperfectaAyurvedic view: Anasthi garbhaSource of figure 7:http ://i mg.bmi.com/content/vol40/issue l 2iimaeesllarge/me8623.fL jpeg
  14. 14. rigireNo. e,10 & liTol;;r""HHffi;ffi;Ayurvedic view: Anasthi garbhaExplanation of Figure 12 & 13: An autopsy revealed a head circumference of 168 mm, aflattened face with wide set eyes and low set ears. Cleft lip or palate was absent. Thechest was short with a protuberant abdomen. There was 25 cc of clear peritoneal fluid butno pericardial fluid seen. The lungs were hypoplastic but with normal developing bronchiconsistent with the fetal age. Cytogenetic studies revealed a normal, male 46,XYkaryotype. Histologic evaluation of a femoral biopsy was consistent withAchondrogenesis Type II. Radiologic evaluation was also performed, which wasconsistent with the diagnosis.Source of images No. 8-13:http://www.sonoworld.com/Client/Fetus/page.aspx?id:322Ayurvedic view: Anasthi garbha
  15. 15. Figure No. 14, 15 & 16 from left to right: Twins with thanatophoric dysplasia- right andleft images show X-rays of the twins in the middle imagehttp ://www. sonoworld.com/Client/Fetus/page. aspx?id:3 83Ayurvedic view: Anasthi garbha Figure No. l8 figure No. 19Figure No. 18: Stillborn showing evidence of micromeliaFigure No. L9: Radiograph of the fetus showing fractured ribs and long bones.Ayurvedic view: Anasthi garbha
  16. 16. Figure No. 20: Axial scan of fetal head, demonstrating poor ossification ofthe skull and easy compression ofthe calvarium.Source of images No. l8 to20;http ://www. sonoworld.corn/Client/Fetus/page.aspx?id: 3 65Ayurvedic view: Anasthi garbha
  17. 17. i...l :: ..,r-:: i:
  18. 18. CHAPTER. 1 EMBRYOLOGY 1.1. Can we consider jivatma described in Cha. Sha. and Su. Sha. as genetic material? (R4V) Keeping the view of Ayurvedic compendia lhere is no altemative but to accept it as genetic material. Six factors mentioned in Ch. Sha 4.4 and Su. Sha 3.33 are collectively and inevitably required for the product of conceptus. Their role in phenotypic expression of offspring as per fetal genetic configuration is explained in details in Cha. Sha 3.12, 11, 16, 17 1g, 19; Su. Sha. 3.33. These references invite Ayurvedic learner to accept it as genetic factor. (Dr. Nandini Dhargalkar) ?toeiffio-ada+fere-fi?i ffis-aorafr zra-siqqbrm-<r arailsfb+Grffi, ---l (a.eTT. sze) ffoer*a *a-+ren-g"rdr I ---- zl-a-+is-ffi ffief, r crdvefrtfr-"gqd{q-Htra_ot}Er.qrsfr ara gft erqRara gft 3{ffi:1 (q. €TT. z/3 qz qo-qrFr) Achieving chaitanyaby fertilized ovum denotes atma has descended. Now, the question arises as to what is meant by chaitanya? Is it mere starting of cleavage i.e. duplication of the fertilized cell or completion of third gestational month (when chaitanya appears)? If the latter is considered then jivatma does not mean genetic material, which is very much essential for the restoration of diploid number in fertilized ovum and then multiplication and proliferation of the cells to reachthis much stage of development. If the former is true then nongenetic material can also beconsidered since an activating factor on the sperm is thought to activate the oocyte metabolism(Langmans Medical Embryologlt, l0th Edi.; Thus the question is very tricky and difficult to reply. According to Ayurvedic philosophy it looks difficult to call atma as genetic materialbecause genetic material is already packed in male and female gametes i.e. sperm and ovum.Ayurvedic principle states that even the union of shukra and shonit alone would not result inconception until atma descends in it along with mana. The mystery of why some ova do not divide further or do not implant after in vitrofertilization despite no apparent genetic mutation could be explained by ?ailure of atma todescend in that union. But then the question arises with regard to cloned organism. Technicallyspeaking cloned animal has genetic material from two females and one male lone female whoslovum is used for cloning after removal of nucleus and the animals diploid genetic materialwhose clone is to be prepared). Such organisms are called chimera. (Chimeras happen naturallyas well as they are man-made since ancient time. Ref: Vanaspati Ayurveda). Does this mean thatatma has descended in union of three animals i.e. two females and one male animal? We do nothave reply because the fact states that clone can be prepared from this kind of union. So it isbetter we do not mix up these two different subjects (metaphysics and genetics). (Dr. Sandhya Patel) No, we cannot consider jivatma described in Cha. Sha. and Su. Sha. as genetic material.Charak has described genetic material as bijabhagavayav. (Dr. B.N. Mishra)
  19. 19. Sushrut Samhita quotes that the jivatma (self-conscious individuality) is ensconced in thematerial frame of mahabhutas and other derivatives. It does not sleep but appears to be sleeping. Genetic material means the sequence of adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine arrangedin a helical pattern to the binding molecules of nitrogen bases and sugars. This material codes forthe characteristics of the cells and thus is a deciding factor for structure, function and lifespan ofan organism. This modern concept is not more than a century old. This mechanism of canyingtraits in codes proved that the health and disease are digital in nature, i.e. the sequence ofmolecules is the deciding factor for all characteristics of living beings. The theory of jivatma(self-conscious individuality) suggests that the life is analog in nature. So these two concepts arenot comparable. The facility in the theory of genetic material is that we can manipulate themutations and cause desirable sets of characters in an organism. This knowledge is being used todiagnose and treat diseases. But the concept of jivatma, is mere explanatory in nature and it is aphilosophical idiosyncrasy. The idea of Jivatma tries to explain the unchangeable structure of thenature. Belief is the major criterion to know jivatma. These two theories do not fit to each other. Jivatma is subjective while the other isobjective. The idea of jivatma tries to understand the purpose of the nature; the science ofgenetics does not question the purpose of the nature but the very functioning mechanism of thenature. The knowledge of genetics gives opportunity to indulge in designing the nature. Theknowledge ofjivatma does not help cure diseases. (Dr. P.V. Ranganayakulu) aa frorur o] #Fo a?ft-s-d aff ara e-drt r sngHo eTTEttFrt arar udfudr + e* ffiEo atfuo-a 6-ir} E I slr{ g€t d araf 6t s-d-de-dr$ Br srrg*< errtd fr - "ieilrrgmefrFra ffi$ g €-g €M arffirarEfr r (q. elr. 318)gmelFra 3{Tffir + z*rr * araf o1 s-€fu 6-S B r 3q€ffi e*o * F+r g-FGrileo) s*{ eilFora (arq-d-q) E* #ftm ar}$-erm 6-6 a-s-A B a of srrar d t3{rGRT or gln$ 3rEnrrr sr.rrr s+fiaa B * goe}Fra d tra-er ssr$ q}Rrd*ar Br "iqtrrH qensfreffai eqft#a frrrtgraq ra-+i €rslrA arq zrd ara+ferai aerr r (er.€. erT. r rz) fuE+ qzrrg zsftm-aFr * g.era zff sfu wre g$ s{F-d E"i T[d A trro-aftffi frlgr€ a-S ffi I .srfi qzFrg ararferq dt srrar or -rrler fts€ aS t-arr2) d qrarssard wauft r (a. err. au a)arar ftran * ttEo atft-e-n * ge fr +efu ar}$e-n sa6 frft B r dfu-a 3{Taroaft eft gzl-S 3{T€IT ai sroa eA o-{ T{6-& r 3rrrz rren srrdr * ga$ srrarr d un * s{rffir or srarfte aw=-*-61 araar.rqti 6flqq q€flsq qr.u=I: I d Tt I 1/1 o) irncqn Is) Grt-ai (q.s#rt 3rrdr Efr #RF atlFqa ard ftrqr ?il Ftre-d fr qnn-fuar * gsq B rs*{ ardr-ftdr n #fu q?:Fqa t oq fr g* # miFft r qfr 3rdqE d o.qd 3{TFrr qiT q}er trara fr arar atr€[ d srrdr * "iqrE at-.relEr oT o-S errw fr zleflsid-s a& Frcftrl Ia) hatu- 3rr.irTT a-T frftq dar str-or arerul 3 erSE o efrr$ * z+rer uigffi d-.F-{ gsa srBe u-a1 $ m-a} 6} a+}arar B r3{TdT erftE i F-6-d qr} q-r *arurg t o..q fr e-ff qnn B r fu-E * gu ga+ffi + fuu sral qrg{ d trer o-cirr B r 3rftqT o} #ftm a?:Fe-d arrqr arqr *=:errFr ksd qe d qr+arr @fft=*-a qrH qiqa+ftrdF a-zqo-Y$ aft drafrft-o a-qHe dS d zl-6-ft t) s) araforeo ano- arE6, fuE-q, 3{ret.t, ?Tr@Gf, T+rGr s*T arrs B r der fr qola ffi -ttrr "Tdq a?:Fqa E #-d gd fr Aar$ q6 rH + ,aorar B @t * ol Frao-c #ftffi 2
  20. 20. 4l-{q-fu€q srrd +eFd atFe-a * stqa arrd E r -srrgH6 erre+ + srgz+ru crd* qrt a+rq trdrl+dd zrzrssar B, a d #tr6 dfftTd r ffia srrgf<- errtry *ga-+d fr ar+ar E g€ftu str@q eno ga-tar + 6-d or m-a B ro) snano +rrd di ftrg,ft-T{-+t-q qnqur$ffir, }qi a+n+rarro}gpai Ia-sffrffi E-gEe+ urar fuqzrgerorn arEkrr (q. eTT. zr.tz)srrdqr*fr 3lrzsl sft-oqo-da-rF r arrora+rE?gffift €fuqe{r} Effi ?Isr{,ea+r1n+ qrgei ed tgFeef r ---- ?r<r #sq-*ft €;rat; (a-FrrrFr)3{rcr.[ aflq 3{Tdlr + 6-S * groa ffi E r 3{rdrcr e+ro gtrr$ or *ar a dar }-s+ arftd B r srd) fudr .nr g,{ 3l_drr ils *dr B r s-"rs t-{{r *Hr &ft --l8 .*oro-ard-q qrq *1}ar Br z) srraw a+ro-gkqrft arzt Aara-arg: gEtg:E-rEF ar.wwrftr (g. eTr. szss)srrearqrF €fr srrdE+fuerr+qrarF, d dr# qrdrH 3Trtr* ftForE-rqfr-ol-tu-a-oanetrdr{ s-g;ft e{rdrgqq-Aqq I (s-€,T)s{rdrar ell"r 3il?tTT zft znfteqar * sara At E dfu 3TTctrTT * frfrnrc B r srnqr* 6]-€ a{rd- 3idt?q a-s ddr B r ez+frs 3lr<urr #b aAFs-d a-ff d *--ft tiae- r e) er$s E rra dEfrq I tiaaf,aroelsrerq da..i ard-€q+ I r (q. €TT. r tz +)3{rGIr or erS{ * ft-o.-d rrrar tiqa 6-dA E I 31rdrr ffi er$c d ft-s-d *1rff B ;.A*}fu a?:Fs-d ffi afr r t * qiqeift-o ffi B I (Prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar) According to C. Sha. 414 for the formation of embryo jivatma is one of the main factors.Mata, pita, satmya, rasa and sattva are remaining factors. According to modern science, thebranch of biology that deals with inheritance is called as genetics and the material which istransferred from one generation to other is the genetic material. Embryology is the study ofdevelopment of an individual before birth. According to Ayurveda garbhavakranti .utr b.compared with the same and for the formation of embryo (C. Sha. 4/4) not only jivatma but alsomata, pita, satmya, rasa and sattva are the main factors and all these should be considered asresponsible material for formation of embryo. /r- t.^_ Indapurkar) (Dr. KavitaThe synonyms of atma from various texts are very much suggestive about the genetic material(kind of its functions). Like jiva (vital, live), pugdala (many petals,like chromosomes), bhutatma(centre of living body), prabhava (origin of living body), rashipurusha, hetu (components ofliving body), dhata (constituent), gyan and vedita (knowledgeablej. Its svarup is param sukshma(tiny), anumangrahy a, av y akta (not perceptible).dfrnin-en z+fucrftg s+f}reqaft I(Present in ova and sperm and appears after zygote formation in genome). Vishvarup,vishvakarma (world developer), parmatma is nitya but rashipurusha jivatma is anitya (C. Sha.1).It is bijadharma, dehantargami (fivo-avakramati), produces another atma, ajata atmarjata atma(C. Sha. 3/8) i.e replication of the generation - I and generation -2.It is said that atma is pratisharir bhinna that can be stated as it is present in each and every cell of the body. Each celi is adifferent entity which can be called as anu rup sukshma sharir. Component of sharir are sattva,atma and panchamahabhutas. It is identical in shadanga sharir as the generation of sameoffspring is seen in mankind.grteffi +6-€tfr *erqr (a eTT. zrzt)
  21. 21. €qeq agqqard:: aa€ft-ild-6-4f-trfl r (ao-eea)drg drg SftE 3dftcr:............srr4wr8r (a. €TT. 3/16)This replication is swifter than the windd-d-rq sTfrrdrE-o erftq *ar: r (9. err.)The modes of replication are1 ) Shaddhatvatmak (semiconservative)2) Only chetana dhatu (intact)3) Chaturvimshatik (dispersive)4) Rashipurusha (fragmentation) etc. Atma is called as kshetragya, viveki, bhokta and sakshi. The information of itsenvironment is stored in it. The structure, function and quality of the cell changes as per theimprint means store genetic information.qftfrtfuar, gawrr (9. ?Ir. trra)o-dma arct uftfuaqs-arftm* a-6{r* qfrftifuar, guw r (9. eTT. t r t o)Sukhino (healthy), dukhino (genetically prone to disorders), mudhascha (moron).q"aqirffre+trdkia eTTed?TT: (gsw,; tfrFafn-sfr zrffiS srfbrq-q* r (tr. eTT.t rt +)Abhivyajyante means to be manifested; that means atma can manifest the color, shape, sizeetc.of the cell.3{TdJGt: q{-tr{eflr tiqaxrrao-eil rgoeiFnrS z+Gaqplg ri*ng sfffi rTiny atma in combination with panchamahabhuta in shukra (sperm) and shonit (ova) transformits stored information genegically as matruj, pitrij, sattvaj, satmyaj, atmaj and rasaj bhavas.Therefore atma can be considered as genetic material according to Ayurveda.1.1 According to Sushrut, yakrit and pliha are matrij avayavas (Su. Sha. 3133).Is there anyrelation between maternal chromosome and hepatological disorders ? A study was conducted in 2004 by Suskind et al on Maternal microchimerism in thelivers of patients with biliary atresia. Biliary atresia (BA) is a neonatal cholestatic disease ofunlinown etiology. It is the leading cause of liver transplantation in children. The result of thisstudy was as follows- Maternal michrochinerism is present in the livers of patients with BA and may contributeto the pathogenesis of BA. (http://creritivecommons.org/licenses/b)/2.0) This study alone can prove that there is the definite relation between maternalchromosomes and hepatological disorders. qr€qr eft arg eftFrcrqr, I (9. {& 24/5 s-"aw) Shonit is ova of female reproductive system, which consists of matemal chromosomes. (Prof. Kalpana Sathe)1.2. According to Sushrut, yakrit and pliha are matrija avayavas (Su Sha. 3/33). Is thereany relation between maternal chromosome and hepatological disorders? (Dr. Devendrappa Budi) Maternal and patemal chromosomes both have the sites of all organs. One has to considerthe genetic configuration and environmental effect in context to disorders. Modern genetics till
  22. 22. today does not propose or observe such relation between maternal chromosome andhepatological disorder (Dr. Nandini Dhargalkar) A study was conducted in 2004 by Suskind et al on Maternal microchimerism in thelivers of patients with biliary atresia. Biliary atresia (BA) is a neonatal cholestatic disease ofunknown etiology. It is the leading cause of liver transplantation in children. The result of thisstudy was as follows- Maternal michrochinerism is present in the livers of patients with BA and may contributeto the patho genesis of BA. (http I I cr eati vec ommons. orglli cen s es lby I 2.0) : This study alone can prove that there is the definite relation between maternalchromosomes and hepatological disorders. ar€ur 5fr arg eftFraqr, I (9. Ttr 24/5 =er) Shonit is ova of female reproductive system, which consists of maternal chromosomes. (Prof. Kalpana Sathe) As per present knowledge, there is no relation between matemal chromosomes andhepatological disorders. Further research is required to ascertain this. (Dr. Sangeeta Gehlot)1.3. Sushrut has mentioned are{s eedqff eiFraft I (9. ?n. +rzs)In garbhavstha yakrit and pliha are produced by raktadhatu. Please explain this throughmodern embryology. (Dr. Jairaj P. Basarigidad) According to Sushrut Sharira, yakrit and pliha of the fetus are formed out of blood.According to the modern embryology, liver (yakrit) develops from an endodermal bud that arisesfrom the ventral aspect of the gut, at the point of junction between foregut and midgut. Thespleen devoleps as a collection of mesenchymal cells in the dorsal mesogastrium. Mesenchymal cells are the meshwork of embryonic connective tissue in the mesodermfrom which the connective tissues of the blood and lymphatic vessels are formed. So it may beappropriate to say that a pliha (spleen) is formed out of blood as both have the same mesodermalorigin. (Dr. B.N. Mishra) There is no exact reference about liver and spleendevelop from blood in embryonic stage.Liver develops from endodermal cells of bud that arises from the ventral aspect of the gut, atpoint of junction of foregut and midgut. Then, at about 6 weeks the liver begins to form the6lood cells and in the 3d month spleen and other lymphoid tissues of the body also beginforming blood cells. About ll3 of iron in a fully developed fetus is normally stored in liver.(Guyton-1049). During early phase of development the liver is more highly vascularised than rest of thegut. (Grays anatomy 1407) (Prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar)
  23. 23. Embryolo gical development of liver: 1. The liver, gall bladder and biliary duct system arise as a ventral outgrowth from the caudal part of the foregut early in the fourth week. At sufficient levels of fibroblast growth factors, secreted by the developing heart interact with the bipotential cells and induce formation of the hepatic diverticulum. 2. The hepatic diverticulum extends into the septum transversum, a mass of splanchic mesoderm between the developing heart and midgut. 3. Liver primordial appears in middle of 3d week i.e. hepatic diverticulum which is the outgrowth of endodermal epithelium (also called as liver bud) 4. Further developing liver cords differentiate into parenchyma and form the lining of bile ducts, while hemopoetic cells and kupffer cells are derived from mesoderm of septum transversum. 5. Weight of the liver is approximately l}oh of total body weight during the 10th week of development because of its major hemopoetic system. The haemopoesis begins during the 6tn week, giving the liver a bright reddish appearance.Embryological development of spleen: 1. Spleen premordium appears in dorsal mesogastrium as a mesodermal proliferation between its two layers.Formation of the blood cells: 1. Blood cells develop from the endothelial cells of the .vessels (hemangioblast) as they develop on the yolk sac and allantois at the end of the 3d week. 2. Blood formation (hematogenesis) does not begin in the embryo until the 5th week. It occurs first in various parts of the embryonic mesenchyme, chiefly the liver and later in spleen, bone marrow and lymph nodes. From the above description, we can draw an inference that the utpatti of yakrut and plihafrom raktadhatu cannot be easily proved but on the contrary, blood formation occurs in the liveras per modern embryology Thus there is a difference in the organogenesis of both the sciences. (Prof. Kalpana Sathe) Spleen develops from mesenchymal cells between layers of the dorsal mesentery of thestomach. Blood formation begins within the embryo at about fifth week in the liver and 12thwebk in the spleen. Spleen consists of two different kinds of tissue called white pulp and redpulp. White pulp contains lymphocytes and macrophages. Red pulp contains RBC, lymphocytes,macrophages, plasma cells, granulocytes. Liver primordium appears in the middle of the thirdweek as an outgrowth (liver bud) of the endodermal epithelium at the distal end of the foregut.This liver bud consists of rapidly proliferating cells that penetrate the septum transversum.Hepatic cells penetrate the septum forming the bile duct. Epithelial liver cords intermingle withthe vitelline and umbilical veins to form sinusoids. Hematopoietic cells, Kupffer cells andconnective tissue cells are derived from the mesoderm of the septum transversum. Large nests ofproliferating cells produce red and white blood cells and walls of the vessels. Hematopoieticfunction gradually subsides during last two months of intrauterine life; only small hematopoieticislands remain at birth (Langman embryology tenth edition). Hematopoietic function duringintrauterine life and presence of islands and hemopoietic cells in liver and spleen may prove this. (Dr. Sangeeta Gehlot)1.4. Please explain the following on the basis of modern embryology. erilEraowrsreai 6q+ar (g. eTT. +tet) (Dr. Jairaj P. Basarigidad)
  24. 24. In early embryonic period the angioblastic tissue are differentiated from the mesenchymeover the yolksac, in the connecting stalk and in the body of the embryo. This angioblastic tissuegives rise to endothelium and also to blood cells. The internal surface of the heart and bloodvessels are lined by endothelium. The pericardial fluid may be considered as avalambak kapha.So it seems justified even today as the heart (hriday) is a derivative of shonit rrnd kapha. (Dr. B.N. Mishra) The mesenchymal cells give rise to solid strands of angioblasts. These aggregate to forman epithelium i.e. endoeardium. This may be considered as shonit as described in Ayurveda.Myocardium including conducting tissue of the heart and the specific matrix protein associatedwith developing heart may be considered as kapha. The extra cellular matrix of the heart,historically termgd as cardiac jelly, promotes occlusion of tubular lumen during contraction andthus providing mechanical asscistance fior generation of blood flow. This may be considered asavalamban karya of kapha (prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar)efrfra-ouqc{rcci 6e+ar (g. €rr. +rzt)This could be considered as -Theory 1: In the modem science of embryology it is explained that, mesodermal cells whenconverted into mesenchymal cells during growth of embryo there is resemblance in formation ofheart cells and blood cells. In the embryo when cells of heart get formed it develops from bloodcells. These blood cells formed frorn mesenchymal origin, first organize themselves in circularformat. This is called as blood island. Hence it could be stated that cardiac cells develop from primitive blood cells which aremesodermal in origin. And binding material in between these cells could be considered as kaphadosha.Theory 2: Hriday is a sira marma as per Ayurveda. And sira is said to be upadhatu of rakta dhatu,which is formed from rakta pak. Also mamsa dhatu is formed from rakta pak. Hriday is mamsalorgan anatomically. Hence it could be considered that rakta and hriday are interrelated.Theory 3: Kapha dosha in prakrutavastha is said to be similar to that of oja. And oja is said to behridaystha (i.e. site is heart). Hence relation of kapha dosha could be considered with that ofhriday. (Prof. Kalpana Sathe) Prasad means essence or purest form. In the process of dhatuparinam the mamsa developsfrom prasad bhaga of rakta. The heart is also made up of mamsa dhatu. The ojas is prasad bhagaof kapha. Heart is place of para ojas. The heart is made up predominantly of mamsa andpredominance of kapha (prithvi and jala mahabhuta) due to which it has been explained so. Heartis developed from angioblastic mesenchyme, which forms cardiogenic field in lateral platemesoderm. First blood islands develop in mesoderm which surrounds the wall of yolk sac. Earlyin third week of embryonic life mesenchyme grows in the chorionic villi, by the end of thirdweek blood capillaries develop in the villi. The blood vessels of chorionic villi connect the heartof embryo by umbilical arteries and then circulation of blood starts. In 3d week paired heart tubeis formed and by 22 days these tubes fuse to form single heart tube. Heart tubes connect to blood
  25. 25. vessels. In 5th week septation takes place. In 6-12 weeks AV valve develops; semilunar valvesformation takes piace before 12 week. (Tortora, Langman Embryologlt, Tenth Eedition) (Dr. Sangeeta Gehlot)1.5. Please explain this through modern embryology. elFra#q qerd Eroerr (9. en- +rzs) (Dr. Devendrappa Budi) The lining epithelium of respiratory system is endodermal while muscles, connectivetissue, and cartilage are derived from splancho-pleuric mesoderm. (Dr. B.N. Mishra) The spleen and liver of the fetus are formed out of blood; the lungs are made of the frothof the blood; and the unduka or fecal receptacle is made up of the refuge matter (mala) of theblood. This question pleads to validate the idea proposed in Sushrut Samhita according tomodern embryology. I do not see any utility in such validation. It is like trying to explaintanmatra with the help of knowledge about subatomic particles. However, the followingexplanation may satisfy Ayurveda philosopher, who thinks there ls an Indian way of science.The endoderm gives mass and shape to lungs. The mesoderm is birthplace of bones, cartilageand circulatory system. This proximity may justify the above concept. The lower respiratorysystem begins its development during the 4th week as an outgrowth of the ventral wall of theforegut (respiratory diverticulum). The endodermal lining of the respiratory diverticulum givesrise to the epithelial lining of the larynx, trachea, bronchi and alveoli. The cartilaginous andmuscular components of the trachea and lungs are derived from the surrounding splanchnicmesoderm. As a matter of fact, all the tissues burgeon from limited number of cells. So theconcept proposed can be validated. (Dr. P.V. Ranganayakulu)eftFra-eior gdq - ?-c-qof, cnar (.trft-gffi)*a- g{gqr, (ar+rz 3/s r e)ft gagel-sr rrg-6 r q.r fr arg of qrS slE t srr+zor * gqg< *qrt 6}dr B r tdsr*o- gegc rr-drd-{€n d Crdfr ffi t6Fd B * 3-} #a o-o} E r td ro+ *d $ ggz+ 6t B-€-d ercd-cnl-i i "6} qareft ts r According to modern embryology the mesenchyme surrounding the lung buds formsendodermal epithelium and endothelial network which will surround the future air sac. At 23week increase in the capillary network around the distal air space this may be looking likeshonitfen. (Prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar) The development of blood in embryo starts in 3-5 weeks and takes place frommesenchymal cells which are converted mesodermal cells.Development of lungs t o The respiratory systern develcips from a median diverticulum of the foregut, which is endodermal in origin.The free caudal end of the diverticulum becomes bifid and each subdivision is called as lung bud. The part of the lung bud cranial to bifurcation forms larynx and trachea while the lung buds form bronchi and lung parenchyma.
  26. 26. e The mesenchymal cells i.e. converted mesoderm; form the connective tissue or living tissue of the lungs i.e. serous pleural membrane forming pleural cavity. o The parts of the lung parenchyma developing from lobar bronchi are separated by mesoderm. o The pulmonary circulation is established early in fetal life. The amount of blood circulating through the lungs gradually increases by seventh month of intrauterine life. o So if we consider shonit as primitive blood due to its commom origin from mesenchymal cells then we can correlate development of lungs from primitive blood.(Ayurvedic part)When garbha is formed in garbhashaya from shukra and shonit then rasa dhatu is obtained frommother and shonit is produced in garbha. All organs in fetus (garbha) are produced from shonitor blood. When vayu acts on blood there is a cavity formation. The lungs are differentiated inlung parenchyma; this action can be correlated with Sushruts definition of garbha (vayu enamvibhajati). Sharangdhara has told phupphusa (lungs) are the sthans of udan vayu and isresponsible for respiration.If we consider all these references then role of shonit and phen (vayu) in formation of lungs canbe considered. (Prof. Kalpana Sathe) During the separation from the foregut lung buds forms the trachea and two bronchialbuds. At 5tlweek these bronchial buds enlarges to form right and left main bronchi. Right formthree secondary bronchi and left two. Lung buds expand in to body. The spaces for the lung, thepericardioperitoneal canals are nalrow. They lie on each side of foregut and filled up withexpanding lung buds. Pleuroperitoneal and pleuropericardial folds separate these canals from theperitoneal and pericardial cavities remaining space from pleural cavities. Mesoderm coveringoutside the lung develops in to visceral pleura and somatic mesodermal layer covering body wallfrom inside forms parietal pleura. On further development, secondary bronchi divide to form 10segmental bronchi in right lung and 8 in left lung creating bronchopulmonary segments. Up to 7thmonth bronchioles divide, vascular supply increases steadily and form primitive alveoli. Type 1alveolar epithelial cells lining the alveoli become thinner and sumounding capillaries protrude into alveolar sac. This intimate contact between epithelial and endothelial cells makes up the bloodair barrier. At the end of 6tl month type- 2 alveolar epithelial cells produce surfactant loweringsurface tension at air alveolar interface. Before birth lungs are full of fluid that contains highchloride concentration, little protein, mucus from bronchial glands and surfactant. At thebeginning of respiration at birth most of the fluid is resorbed by the blood and lymph capillaries(Langman embryology, 1OtlEdition). Presence of mucus, blood air barrier, and surfactant maybe the cause for formation of lung from shonitaphena. (Dr. Sangeeta Gehlot)1.6. While giving the description of formation of organs during embryonic life, Sushrut hasmentioned the term phupphusa in singular and locating it on the left side of the heart, hehas said that pliha and phupphusa are situated below and left to hriday while yakrit andkloma are to its right. Please explain. ---- asrei Ttr+{:grrr€r{Eeil; Errirf?r: 66rwq3-E+ea, Ef4rurd e-€{ dai4; ---- il (9. e*. +tzr) Dalhana commenting on Su. Sha. 4/31 has furnished tilak as another name forkloma. In (Su. Ni. 9/18) he has stated that kloma is situated below kalakhanda (liver) onthe right side and is popularly known as tilak. Please explain.
  27. 27. - - _q 6rcrso-s <Rrurqrefeeq I ---- wld o-rdso-s;rqEmrE frqd*ruuted=ei fttrqi 9fr6i{l dqraaqasrunbed, rr (g. eTT- s/Ia q{ g,€ur) (Dr. Hema Waghulade & Dr. Sarita Ohol) In Sushrut Samhita phuphphusa is used in singular. The term tilak may be used forgallbladder (pittashay) as commentary of Dr. Ghanekar (Dr. B.N. Mishra) e-eq EFrcl-*rlt-s <ftrtrqre*sq{ | --- w}dr EbrFrsrs-sr€E?frtd frq-i qfeTurqrsf,"€r -n,.tkdd lQ-aqr *siaaq-azpnFreef r €.F. e s-eur)61 H orq t gqu+ E "-daftrcrT d errsrsfr a gd-e-ffid E, Htr-6 dqff 6B urr z{6-A B r crerT da gg{ 3fderq * 3ru-E 6+r rtrd dg{ zFT"-6asida{fu o-c} B d ggo a d-drS 3{Ertlq z€rrcr ?rrwr: T{-trg r{-6-A B s}s dd fiarra dsE ard-+ t fru d-d eft sqEr€r Are * 6t€ rrffrg 3ri{r@r a-S *ar r lffit gTrr(: Trrz: lgd gffir aitffi I ?n!q €<-qs r rda ft-d6q aBeNor r +d-drT€nci *a-ertvd zrra;*q g a1z5Er er$r+d r (sew &o-rg.qn.4/31)Er6trg{ E.6 qcrd): - :rr-gt< d EEu{ or auf4 LreF .Icr6r d *dr B r qr*as d igro={{ A B,q6 <r€ silE s*s tt6 qr€ alE r q:-€ + # M o-eaftror d errsrEil-* srrq-€fr gire Grlr+d *a B, fu ad cm o* qr ero-* B r (qrd-sz A-.F-r)g+ qftc-€* araqi €S Eierqdl€elr Ig-ffi+*g:ft dtr €E-$ qtfrfta GrT -rerrrA* fta-g:anB cr-frqrq qr€rfrrEFraer+, r r (g. B. e r.r a)g-d aiz+fu"s-s-<-ei, tt+} araqpqdfr€rd,, ffi <Rruqre{ftq6.e-g-_d6"rdisttii ERrorqre*s€r{ | d6r sezaei oraqredRera, r Fd r e.+ff 6rd-eu-sr€€r"drq Rq"i cRrurtnedzei ffiFryg€d _rdrt-dei-€e{ qrgnrsFrdeT+: qfrgq r*si ftrsanF crfrqTq 3Trcr-rrrrunfrsef: | (s-6oy) gznffi aiTfiiegffi 31aqd ts d qraqred fr ftera tr.F rrerr <Rwrcned # gwer rEFrcr*rus {r-gq E5r q-qftr ? s*{ d-6 GFl-q + ERrq-qred fr ft<ra ts r ffidr s-d-s *(6e-+ t) qrsqred fr ftera BL 6n-q sreilga qrcIT Eb-.ryc.r €qgdr€-flrd *dr B r rn*alEFT?rsr"-s (e-g;-{) t cRpr qred fr fr€r-d *dr ts s*{ ftffitr -dr-d * qft+ea B rasqei Elrirlif: E€[rR- gfi tt{ fr 6F-q-{rffi sffi crr ser-+ ?TTer zenHo qj<ier Gferc.rr{rr arqr B rSs-fr Eqe+ +d-d trfi rrxr ft-sr B r gl+ qaTr< o1 qr o-t-i + fus arorqrer*as-rsrererr${ zft qe=n-r+ar # fE ura gfua 6-{A E, "q-€ €Eq-{qre} raftgr Ere-E{?q,<Rrq* +gd dff q gfr zlga, sr6&T5I srdTrd gd €e+* r 6a+uqpft qraa, d6r,-f"T eeq 3a{EIiI: ffitff gre"+ q gfr g wrei-erra uro:, 3r6Ererr a ffi oerqft?l-@ Tr#TTqrga I 6rF-tffig:t1-r-dTq zvr< 6+ei z€lr4duil{T. I trrq <Rrura, da-+g;a E!ryEIrarR€raqn (sr.€. eTT. z/1o 3r€q<crT) e*o d 3rgr{rc ERrsr qred * aft EroT{ A-dr qrBs sfu qR E:€-A3rgr{rl qr*d rrro Ea grnr{ * qffi ft;qr qrs -arqreil driFr?r: d-d-Ereereq, <Rrq* e-€F-d dfl gqz+ear (g.en. 4/31 qr,+6-{A-6-r)dr qr*d 3TT€rR d srgzrre rrrd A-6-{ tr6 rr€rer ffieft aft d-S dar I l0
  28. 28. ffi)fl - ft-d-6 - arrd dfu{ - €E fre}q-d e-g;q + cRpr rrred d ft€r-.r w}fi z*3qqrerq (fimbqrq), €s o-o-arS (qm-+r) s*z- gg; ftarerq (arra 67sr) zrryg* Be-+n sref t ftils €"€r n gu zrreia e-qr"T a*a B r a,6 ;-- a *1:€ ;.f ft# rafr *dr u-t-g hffi or{"il + zdff zn-r .:ref fuarerq Er?crr srEro BFd-d s-#d +6Br r) gtl-+t =-efu rm # 6t-de * ar* a€ B rz) e-eE sls da o-r =-*tq Errer eTTer +dr B r ftrqfu d d€ruil d aft d otTftrTtEr?rT qdr* o€ B r eqrzi e-g;ft {un q fuq|-gTr 4tTtar,}sfero-r (g. B. s) e) errt-ureru t eo-ror-s 3TT6r...r d srgz+re aft ge-or iraa-+ g, g elFra d-rdd qarti efh.un&.t e-g;-ctr-S* udrr eisc; aroftedfl d F ara * aft qrar qrar B d6 qgr{- t e-rftq <Rrorqred d ftera tsr r ft"{+) da s$en dRrur qred d qarqr B I sr€rrg cRr+ arr& 6eerq dfl ftcaft r 6u-da€t qeq fr ffi B, s*z sraanerer a€q fr. A-6? ffi qred fr Bd-drtsrs) da + ftil+ fr-d-e; qrq aft d-dr B r qR q-€;q + ff} gE error*sr qru d fuarerq +t srrg;ft "{* ftrd"g*t -ue ^a # zrqra e-g{ o. qH fr.n B,fr- *Eldrq-d, Aarorz, slz orarqa Ed qrd mr der +ar B: -Reference Greys anatomy: The gall bladder is a conical or a pear-shaped (tilakriti) musculomembranous sac,lodged in fossa on the under surface of right lobe of liver.el-our<Er * srqft A-6r fr ouid fu-qr B - sffil fuRa-gryei+rg qrq* zE+dT zi€rzF:r"l-ffrd-qr€*u=o tEn sirr qdrqr arqr B fu- +e ) ffiilq qE €qq, ErFq, t fl-6r, =-<-i*ara # ga d eTTer 3{TErcTT T€rra €6 d-{d ero-an BEroq r*^s-a-fr ^uratr ery! offia, re-<r r *argarqr drqf"E €f@ €erq r sFcerolrdgors-unF qrrefttrea f}€a r en*a .6ft6r e-q-*d Ero"r 6r.i- a.rir+d-(€d rr+-raft furrr r (ger #or, anzar-rcrcrel "rr+* ft67i (Prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar)Dalhana commenting on Su. Sha.4131 has furnished tilak as another name for kloma. In (Su. Ni.9/18) he has stated that kloma is situated below kalakhanda (liver) on the right side and ispopulirly known as tilak. Please explain.e_€E 6rtrs€ <Rrq-qred?€rq r da zFrc,t*ru-srqSnarq fr€t"i ERprqre*sei ftd-t6vfrle{ r *qraaqazpnfutqef. r r (g. eTT. s /t I ou -e*)In this shloka Sushrut has said that pliha an{ phupphusa are situated below and left to hridaywhile yakrit and kloma are to its right. This means that left lung is situated below (inferior) andleft to hriday and spleen is situated below (inferior) and left to hriday. In anatomical positionheart is situated obliquely and its right i/3rd part toward right side of sternum and its 6nZtZnportion to left side of sternum. Its opening is situated between cardiac notch of left lung. So thatsome part of left lung is lying below heart. It means that some part of left lung is on left andbelow the heart. Here the left lung is singular so it is described as (singular). If it is described as aparshvataha means laterally then we can say that on both lateral side there are two lungs but inthis shloka there is no parshva word and also other organs described i.e. liver, kloma (pincreas),spleen, these all organs (structures) are below or inferior to the heart (hriday) and not to iisparshva (lateral) side (prof. Karpana Sathe) Acharya Shri Kanthadutt has considered kloma as above the vrikka and the site of thirstwhile Dalhana has explained kloma as situated below kalkhanda (liver) on the right side and is t1
  29. 29. known as tilak. Yakrit and kloma both have been considered together among koshthangas. Itshould be in the right side of the heart. We have to consider kloma as an organ which has closerelation with liver and situated below the liver and above the kidney and right side of the heart.This organ may be pancreas because the shape of pancreas is like tilaka. Head of pancreas is nearkidney. Injury to pancreas leads to thirst because main cause of thirst is agni. Agni throughpancreatic duct reaches small intestine and digests the food causing bhaktaja trishna. In otherway insulin, by utilizing glucose, regulates the water balance of the body. When insulin isdeficient the individual develops diabetes mellitus, which causes polydipsia. (Dr. Sangeeta Gehlot)1.7. ln garbhavastha vrikka are produced by prasad bhaga of rakta and meda. Pleaseexplain this through modern embryology. gd r (g etr 4/3o) "-trF{q-s{T<ra (Dr. Devendrappa Budi) The vrikka (kidneys) are formed from the essence of rakta and meda. According tomodern embryology kidney develops from mesoderm. The blood cells are also mesodermal inorigin. There are two layers of fat surrounding the kidney, vhich are derived from meda. So it isjustified to say that vrikka (kidney) develops from rakta and meda. (Dr. B.N. Mishra) In Ayurveda organogenesis is described in Su. Sha. Ch. 4, A.S. Sha. Ch.5 and Sha.Pu.Kha. Ch.5. In Ashtang Samgrah Acharya has firstly explained about the shadbhavas where they havedetailed the development of organs from matnj and pitrij bhavas. In this they have mentioned thedevelopment of rakta and meda. Rakta and meda dhatu are matrij bhavas. After that tvacha,kala,ashay it" huu. been described. On a restrospective view we can say that firstly dosha, dhatu,mala develop and after that -d-{ # dwrn q€rdTrzruq e}ftl-d-srzd rl-rq} r (sr.zi. QTT. srza) This means in the fetus, the ahar rasa which comes from the mother is acted upon by itsown agni at the site where saman vayu is situated and after digesting it firstly the shonit isformed and later on other organs develop from it. Phuppusa develop from its phenabhuta bhaga(effervescence), yakrit and pliha from its prasad bhaga and unduka from the kitta bhaga (wastematerial). Similarly vrikka develop with the aid of rakta and meda. Here we can see the development on the basis of mahabhutadhikya in the urdhva, adhoand tiryak directions. Phupphusa develop from the dominance of vayu and akash in the urdhvaregion, dominance of prithvi leads to development of unduk in the adho region and thedoininance ofjala and prithvi lead to the development of vrikka in the middle region. Secondly it can be said that during shava vicchedana (dissection), the organs which werefound in proximity of particular dhatu in abundance were thought to develop from the same.Even today we can see medo dhatu (adipose tissue/omentum) in abundance around the vrikka (kidney). Not many references are available about the functions of vrikka but in Sharangdhar Samhita Purvakhan da 5I 44Td srrdrrqadfBRnr{d I@ gffi ffi) Grd€q{€r fras{, I w" ro*. to know the relation between vrikka and meda from this. 12
  30. 30. Cha. Vi.5 and Su. Sha. 9/12 mention vrikka as mulasthan of medovaha srotas.Sharangdhar in Purvakhanda has mentioned tilavrikka. According to Pandit Damodar ShastriGaud. we can state it as adrenal gland because on removal of this gland conditions like daurbalya(weakness), karshya (debility),vaman-hrillas (nausea), agnimandya (deranged digestive fire),trishna (thirst), akshepa (convulsion), etc upadravas are seen to arise. Such conditions arementioned under meda dhatu vikruti in the samhita. So we come to know the development ofvrikka from rakta and meda. According to modern embryology blood and connective tissue are formed frommesoderm. Adipose tissue which is a type of connective tissue is also formed from mesoderm. Inorgan development, the kidneys are derived from intermediate mesoderm. Hence we can say thatthere exists a common link between the two. (Prof. Kalpana Sathe) Metanephros or permanent kidney appears in the fifth week and excretory unit developsfrom metanephric mesoderm. Collecting ducts of kidney develop from ureteric bud, anoutgrowth of mesonephric duct. The bud penetrates the metanephric tissue, which is molded overits distal end as a cap and bud dilates to form primitive renal pelvis, splits into future majorcalyces. Each calyx form two new buds, which subdivide to form 12 generations of tubules, andultimately form minor calyces. During further development collecting tubules elongate andconverge on minor calyx and form renal pyramid. The ureteric bud gives rise to the ureter, renalpelvis, major and minor calyces and collecting tubules. Each collecting tubules at distal endcovered is with metanephric tissue cap, which form renal vesicles giving rise to S-shapedtubules. Capillaries grow and differentiate in to glomeruli. Tubules together with glomeruli formnephrons; proximal end of which forms Bowmans capsule and distal end forms proximalconvoluted tubule, loop of Henle and distal convoluted tubule. Metanephric mesoderm, which provides excretory units; and ureteric bud gives rise tocollecting system. Differentiation of kidney involves epithelial mesenchymal interactions. Themesenchyme expresses lYTl, atranscription factor that makes this tissue competent to respondto induction by the ureteric bud, and also regulates production of glial-derived neurotrophicfactor (GDNF) and hepatocyte growth factor by the mesenchyme. These proteins stimulatebranching and growth of the ureteric buds. The tyrosin kinase receptor (RET) for GDNF, andMET for HGF are synthesized by thb epithelium of ureteric buds, establish the signalingpathway between two tissues and the buds induce the mesenchyme via fibroblast growth factorand bone morphogenic protein 7. Adipose tissues are modified fibroblasts that store almost pure triglycerides in 80-95%.FGF has been isolated from the tissues having inadequate blood supply. Involvement of bloodand adipose tissue (modified fibroblast) may be the possible cause for development of kidneyfrom raka meda prasad. (Dr. Sangeeta Gehlot) indriya utpatti (A.S. Sha. 5172).1.8. Please explain aen oqimqrFai std-E{i a-erapi q q{IrqTq gErqFr r (Vd. Pranita P. Joshi) aen znqr-mqrE-aiffi rarapi a u"lrqr{ gErqrFr r (s+.2i. eTT. s.z z)owlft,q-arF ilB *dift{ *i a-eruprai q errffiaai q@qftunaTq s€rflqaga-fffr Effir erdtrtr t gg61-ot) 13
  31. 31. Entire body is basically panchabhautik. Every sharirabhava is originated in its specificsrotas. How does indriya originate? Is indriyavaha srotas mentioned? So to solve these problemsAshtang Samgrahakara has offered the mode of utpatti of indriya in intrauterine life. Sinceindriya is a special avayava predominant in one specific mahabhuta for perception of vishaya ofthat mahabhhuta it is originated and nourished by that particular mahabhautic part of ahar. Hehas used word kapharaktavahi. The interpretation offered by Indu is kaphadivahani meansdoshavahi, dhatuvahi etc srotamsi. In those srotamsi when agni of mahabhuta (atmiya agni ofmahabhuta) acts on nourishment; during intrauterine life indriyotpatti takes place and duringextra-uterine life indriyapo shana takes place. (Dr. Nandini Dhargalkar) sr{qEEe}q Ekqqr e;ffi qrh ffi{ *qi a-aralarat qraffia-arqT6qftunarq qc{r6raq"Tfiffir a1-dfu l r (sr.zi. en.s/4a q-{ E€) ?reIT mcnzmqrfrrqi fu a-aranrrai q qzrrerRftrqrFr r r Ag srfr q Heequl: s"rr-dr€@-ffu-sEi dq ftr€cq r 3rq-cil: €wrd"-sci aarEqq I ae+ €fu"sEicrgsT€rrctftFiff I I (sr.zi. QrT. s t + a- + s)In the present context, indriya means indriyadhishthan i.e. organs involved in perception ofsenses. Eyes and other sense organs are formed from prasad bhag resulting due to action ofpanchabhutagnis located in raktavaha srotas and then resulting prasadbhag interact with kapha inraktavaha srotas and forms eyes. Obviously these have to happen where the future eyes should beformed, not in any other area of raktavaha srotas. So there are many more processes involved.Not much is mentioned in Ayurvedic texts about these. Also the process is not as easy as said orwritten in the texts. Take the example of eyes, where shukla mandal is pitrij, krishna mandal ismatd and drishti mandal is ubhayatmak in origin. In other words according to principles ofAyurvedic genetics shevta mandal is exclusively paternally inherited, krishna mandal isexclusively matemally inherited while drishti mandal is not exclusively inherited. Thus muchcomplexity is involved in embryological development of any tissue, organ, system or any bodypart (Dr. Sandhya Patel) . o.6rR (snR er< d ffuq zdaq ol siaarfu) ;ffi + sia-ufa d-{d-6raldqc sfid qfrorrq A-iF-r rr+Tr< a+ror i Ekq gg-d d srgzrru ffio =-rok ffi B r(e+rfuo), +q-e+ (rlwe+), srao.rs + €E-q s-flfu *ft B r araf fr srnu-qa+ro t Fou* €Fq =-ilfu oFFa B raq owzmorFai zqta-Eri a-araprai q q"rr<rE gksnFrr (sr.d. eTT. sr+e) 3rrqq frelq €CEeq r owrfrrc-arB qrB zffi+ }wi a.aqrrai qreffiarqroqfrsrrdrq s;Brerq qgzr&ffir a+_dfu r r (sr.zi. elr.s/4a g€) tF.FlR EFT El-€lor zffi d} sidrtd a-ara1d q{ 3{Fd d rrro qb-qrds-E, s{T lrelr< a+r;r * agzrR €trd zft sgk ffi tsreilt-{qefrilag"-tr-aqronB €ft tffiffir eMF€ClvrFrffi r Efrz{i@ d-dGfl r qsft srrgf<, eriw-Eefui !nzr: srge-Sa aensft €trffi ftrq-+s+rgd-<ev zli@rq f}l@aq srfta r srrgd* effifr, frftrorF s+fu r trci qiq&tfu s{ft s}=i srr6renfb-e6, weld qrdrfird, qg MfErEi, T€iuqfBt6, sr"i q gfarqrFrdi, Eti e{rdrenfEl@rq sn;i srorQftei, wefd. qrqdtzi, ?€a-s{i Tgrzi 31-tzi, qr"i qrfafrd gsrff qqReqA dfrqaf,a-{q af,qEdrE I@vergaaftara -Rr.ai.a-tcn) l4
  32. 32. slT, wef, T{I, T+rGr, EITuI qiq Friaffi E r a1fuq dehrgrrp sffi €G;gffd T€k znfto_o 31soru t ffi E r fu-q srrg*crgu+ru €tr-q 3-€Frr r{i@ + fbrdB, sfu €rF uia a-aragil d eF16 gau*erq af,q{n qrq * e+aft €ftd qfq&}ft-6 ffi g€ aft, sil* - 3{T-Frer a-aranrrflrre qqX - #aaranrrfCrro, T{rEr - ea aargarFre tqtr - org a-araprfirw drr{r - geff a-draf,cnf-€rcrq eq €F{i fue}uq er<rerzF, aq+nrrt-ci aRkei a-<re-sr+Esreffrqei 3rg:tJu-atft srgurofr I qq *w, send. -rAcr:q€rrcffrer frs{i {"-drfr €-erel: Iad qftforftlefr Eraq r ax tsgara ?rc rerrET-r frgara d€{arrqr}d Ereef: r frgerfrfr-eT.FTcllqr ffi aq agzrftai ero-tqrft-sd:t(*vurgadfuflra -d-d-6) €Fq # fue+ a-ara1a or 3nflrw 6)-dn B, s-S a-erala-$ sE+ EBq of s-€fuffi E r g{cbr eg B, 1. dq Ee{rotq - ftr€ ftq-q tnT q6ur fu-qr qrar B s-€-o.r Eru{lcrz. ftganq - etzftTart.r - sifiIar qrfiq gwu-d t q-flefr 6r q-€rq z+raed rg5d d €=trrq] d =-€Rr 6r lrfi.rt - afta-eot Eq aliatsatt a adcreTftrersr E-drc;-el-trlt =:tr€ra,T{ BE€} ffia1alftftft,65aqrsnd+6rqe)ffir s-d-a-A r (g.en. r ) sz+ sral-ffi * s{q€ftT aeruil qrcrr (zr-to, Ts, da au) aq aa groa *.n6r3r€rcftr - a eq) ?+r 3Tzr.rr a e-qt ol$ eftaq rsrafq d qm ERre d€rut-gffi d-S +dr qr ffi ord e-m afr zsar, q-el Trqr1fr .br orsor B q-{-g g€-o.r .*€ zrruur a-S B r g+r a-d?I dc<r * €rrr, G, ainaer"il * gzm 3rd6re 3roa 6J-dr E r q-6 srao,s ffin (zrrfuo), +q-E{ (zrww),aldlE (ara-e+) als A d-a sorc or alar B r gd-S ffiF 31sorz * *q-€ 3166r*s1 ergrqdT Ertr €;fr aeruil qr"ft z+rfta-o uei zFrgr aenr6 (trq aratretr, rfu6trffi, €ffi 3ro4 +e E | ffi, dtcT ?rer 6-d H €trE-d * zrrarqqd +dr "rret-a6r) B, 3T.r: g{Td se{Elrdtr o_d} ? I @-a)s{Tdcr aild - €F{T siqFd araf fr 3{r?inr e{rer B"€iafl B - furl-A ar€-fu{ B s-{ft *F # @, FrE,aa, qku, 9TT, 3TEII6I, fu.tT, qrswerd gtwrE r (Prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar)aen ocn=mqr&ai *d-€i a-sraprai q q"rr<rq €ClqrFr r (sr.zi. eTT. s/4a)3tcr€ttt frelq Ekqq r owrftn-ArB qrB *aitr{ tqi a-Aranrrai qraffiaarqroqfrrrrrdrq q$rflq agzrR Etrqpr al-dfu r etrrqfffi €frlqrFr Efr s-€-t | (s€ A-6r)e-df rrs ekm qcrrcft B r orn-zm-er& daq 3*{ ardTw €-d-B qc{r< A€Fq =-d-d ffi B I qdf €Fq er< A 3rcr{r.r s-ecr +dr B r omrfraa daq kdEra a-ara1d A q+ B sa sa aarald * srrffia Ergt qrtr A-.Fu agzrE EE rFrfffr gg E r ow*mErFai S-Tzri + +-d-d q-e ddq zr"rflfrr sP{d afr B r tqrfrBRro ard Ru rrs E r dEF srrqd ftrfff,r fr 6s-dq s*r ztffi errg fri=Trqrf,{ trrdq s*s q.crrdrB daq * s+werrgsfr t ei}aq tc{r srd 3F{d a-urar B r -T{i@ €trr.r sflfr.7araTsf,d =*c ieta ud srrgf< d srgzrrr gow * srer zi*rr S qe e-€-ff * aeqet g-cq-d ffi Br aretI d 3rd6-rt d ssd A"dr Br Dorfro s*E *qE+ 3rd-6rs *riq dr+Fq, riq 6-frFq sls fla or Mtrr d-dr B r alarR s*r *wc{ srziors *dqd-trr*r s*{ ri?-tr-ril-{rsffi ri?-fl-6ref,.r H-r *} ts ra-aralarB *[ crg: srFa: 3trc[: fhf]: ?reIT Ierq: wef, q ati q gefr rr-c€r?a ?rGEIoTI: tl l5
  33. 33. M6aJq-, Ed ggrgk: qt qt t_ ^ ^qd qfgop;q e-aei gFrg rq?r: ll -. (a- en. 1/27-2a)src*s-argsfrrerB e-dfFr trdrrB Bffeza z+ re* g r{tqi qtri aerui €yn n ^ (z3_. :"., r rzt).- r E6 adraf,-d A qz{t aaraf,d ftt ssd ffi B I gr+ fu-+r # q-d& a-6la1a t{"r s}s 6.} --arW o1 Aefq gr fudA E r gc+ ana q-€ra adTald d sns gu g"il+1 al.rl-m-{ u}erqq g.r o-a} E r3{TeFTeT - €rd<drg-er<+wef-m-erq+wef+uq3rrcr-erq+wef+Ecr+z*rg?ff - erq + wef + Eq + + aier zE+z+aft a-aruf,d da-fldra{iii-d sierriflo a--arqrsffi zie+rr * d-aa E I {ql5 Yp4 srTq i-q qrg 3Tr ch"RIq-dsft{frri aq ziar+rai €-dde elarR sftI: Ia*FrorB iGrqrFr srrgd* Eu# aen EGrqrerf, t (g eTT. r r t +)€ffierqref g ai Ei rt{nfr aTrda: IGrq?i g@dftilq a siffift fterfr, rt (9. efr. r rr s) fue+ a-ara1a fr * d-ffl5lr g@ ffi B, cr6 ddr*t gur sfl a-eraf,d or ftelsg-r 6-6crrflr B r o-g frelq gur r€{ a-greila d fue}q Er{t q-6ur +dI B r e$ €Fu-g@eilhd o-a* E I sraft ardFq qiqsnfrE E r ttn *i gg aft rro areFq d E6 6 a-araf,a orsTfcr@ zgar B s*z sE+ a-greilr or erqweTfR Belq g.r dr+Bq * a[-6ul dar B rte]fuo errtry * 3rgr{rt c-o ar*Fq pm fr a-draf,fl * oa61 } 1ff6rw lardrg"r drdFq g.BqsTtrrsra E"rgeff drsr qnnFq ATU{T JI€r3tTc[ TE{ z-s-dBrr fu€I T+rA-q 5q aglF+ +tr 5t[qrg wef zqeffrFq c€IzIT wef3{T-FT?T erq eiliFq o.uf er6aarzlT - gd aaref,a - aiu gg As; - 1Jrsrg-rg, sql.rqrg, .FtF Errg - srfterBAqr - 3flq a-draf,.T - uer guy dq-ow errg - aiz+, 3rqQ t6
  34. 34. +{ - iu-rarap - o-cr {q Aq - srrdq.F fud qrg - aiz+, smc(rzlT - qtg aar?f,rr - wef gw *q arrq-o futn qrg - srqq, aiz+.6uf - 3{r6rer adref,d - €rq gur dq - znw €rrg - arfrer, sm (Prof. Kalpana Sathe)1.9. What is the sequence of formation of oja, dosha, dhatu, mala, avayava in garbha aftershukra shonit samyog? (Ref: Cha. Su. 30/ 10 & Su. Sha. 4 and 5) (Vd. Anuja Vinod Shah)q?r c+rt-aryr* aral+q ercctaf arair-g+rrE+,rzia-farrei 6eei e-arftrwft erd grrn (a. + 3o/t o)(d-ffiffi)Oja lives in entire body (vartayanti jivanti). In formation of zygote or garbha; due to union ofshukra-shonita and combination of this union with jiva; Oja is existing (tatrapi tishthati). 1q zrRaQ araHft_?Io-eiFrozffi ffirfrn-qri eq urrrgi, 6T5flft Froftraq 3a+ulrqoeffi odd6.Er1q q.+r Eft zrrapq-i zie-d-qr=i €-<_.iTrffi q{_g* EF vcr-Erei-ftquarai a*o- e-m-eler"i *q€-- gf*ffiQEft sref t lr+d ararfqterr+$ s+fu dffi€q*, qi g "rn+id- ?i@elFrd-Fq-d-q-, srsrroffi g z<-aerrrgm-*o fiaft s+q, Efrs+dg{ e-Ela-zerrqrq-o-Aa "TrerT?"r,cr?re[, 1 qepi rlt+ C s*ql er8t s+ftuq er8ftonq(q.et tzrzs) r When chetana tattva lodges in garbha (fertilized zygote or shukra-shonita-samyoga), ojaexistence is primarily proposed by Charak Samhita. Secondarily it is reflected in form ofgarbharasa, which is due to sarabhuta parinamana of this samyoga. Thirdly it is reflected whenorganogenesis takes place i.e. heart is formed and oja gets its location to physically express itselfPutting all these references together it become clear that: 1. Union of shukrashonita is sarabhuta, with already oja existing in union. 2. As suggested by all Ayurvedic compendia, it is sukshma svarupa of future dhatu. After the union of shukrashonita is complete, with oja already existing in this union, atma or chetana combines with the union i.e. lodges in union. This atman brings panchatanmatra, which tum into panchamahabhuta while combining with the union of shukrashonita. Panchamahabhuta of shukra, panchamahabhuta of shonita and panchamahabhuta of atma unite to give rise to prakrit dosha te shariraikajanmanah (A.S. Sha. 12). a Prakrit vata acts for dhatuvyuhan and further development of intrauterine life of offspring 4. Development is of avayava, sukshma mala takes place at a time (yugApt). 5. When the kalala form of zygote undergoes differentiation and origination of various organs is induced heart is differentiated. In this physically developed heart, oja is expressed. (Dr. Nandini Dhargalkar) I7
  35. 35. eq srIsr* rrefuq qae;ratrrrretr: re{a-darei €e-d {rflrfrerfr eq g"r I Iqe zTTer€ areisfrf, enfr arerrg uee1<urf)eraa rr (a. zl sou r o-r r ) eq alaHft g-oetFr<r{ffi ffirffi eq r{rean:i, drrft frrsfr "rrrffr* r crla ara+F+s€rrr-+sft ; v{ ara+t* goe*Franrr*ou-a-w, ro-ddr+z€rrqi g r+t-*trrorrcrElT, 3r€rqEEq+ g arostq gceilc-er,zi-Efq-+errqrq-e--+dae-d€qftr "qaqrurgffi-+E(q. q 3o/r o-1 r qe q6-qrFr) o Oja is found in all the three stages of intrauterine life o In the form of shukra-shonit-saar at the time of conception o As rasa-saar-rupa during kalal avastha o In its own morphological form and characters after the embryogenesis is over i.e. during further differentiation of various organs, systems and other body parts. goelFni alarfqrq{@i aaf gqa} r .i *aan-Efteridrgffiardfr, +q gtr q-trft, 3lrEI: zt#a, gRrff srrorei tr{d€ffi r trzifrrEFla, zr "i6trd, Eft €rfru aa+* t ?Tcrs-ss.aierrsrqa-r*, aeEi dqai, v€ Rrr gft r (g. eTT. szs) "idr a-s Ea qqfr qrErETft 3lTcI: ffi rfr eMs:qr*ai araerft gFre aQar, ffi qefu, ffi, ziqd6rrrdffi"n eneferq r srrFrei r6fui {trdq o-*ft; ei6lffi "{6Cdfud€ffi s e*ffffier€r+d fus€ffiraeqffi o"-orfgau*aa r r (9. eTT. 5/3 rr{ sew) . Teja digests and metabolizes, vayu divides and differentiates, ap moistens, prithvi solidifies (samhanan), akash proliferates and enlarges. . Teja metabolizes and rupat apantarena avasthan prapayati (makes fuither differentiation of cells or development of organs, system and other body parts). Ap moistens; even when anil and anal (agni) dehydrate, it (ap) produces moisture. Anil is responsible for differentiation and divisions. Prithvi solidifies or compresses even though ap moistens the parts and gives shape to the tissue, organ or body part. Akash canalizes; it enlarges the canals, produced by anil and anal (agni), in all the directions.-T5[ effii sftrqrefuEord er$serqqq]er*E draq6fiun5,-goeiffiftr s@ 3{T<+rr da-fl,, q€?Tzr:gerrareqn$, ft6rc: riaa[dr+o..rde]GrqrFr ift frser, *, ftrft*[d ar+f gftziar aar*, --- | "iq.E6.i o Then bhautik panchamahabhuatas are formed from panchatanmatra (Su. Sha. ll4 & Dalhan commentary) These mahabhutas help in differentiation of various dhatus and avayavas (organs, system and other body parts). These require temporal and spatial expression of gene/s in the form of interaction between doshas and dhatus e.g. o Vayu differentiates and divides o Akash canalizes o Shonnitphena forms phuphphus o Shonitkitta forms unduka o Mamsa, asrik, kapha and meda-prasad form vrikka Mala forms after dhatu formation has started. Though, sequence of. formation of various dhatu and mala is mentioned, the time between their formations may not be easy to establish. Also this sequence has yet not been confirmed bymodern embryology, developmental biology and genetics; better to say that no one has tried in this direction. The avayavas differentiate in the last. 18
  36. 36. o However, one should not forget the following verse, which states that certain avayavas require tempo:al (kaal) or default (svabhav) expression oraqft"Trdte :qa+rqzjReq r (a. en. +tzz) (Dr. Sandhya patel) The sequence of formation after shukra-shonit samyog is dosha, dhatu, mala and avayava. According to charak oja is first formed in garbha (cha. Su.) (Dr. B.N. Mishra) ?ieiqd, dsar s*q ara+tszen (qria{ d o o-erar+sqr *) z+a-c fD+a, *q €rFg 3letqE aa (ze1a aa *<, g5{, gffq)a"T sf+ tz, ui 30 d Erfftra ziqarlgrfiz den g.eTr. 4/s of a1arerar * araf d ogqEm F-ff wE fu-qr .ir a-oan B r qerd qrqi $w, er8tsftaq er$ftqT{ I 1fu^tf*i + arwrarfi.q qrrql l (q + t z rz s) ers{Errffi erftE * sf,qera _s*;q ;"1 B@fu &ft B r sezr q"f ga *Er€QT, Trr arg * 3r€er :*c rF*t erra d arqr (?fi-m) t zr-ara +*-e,crcEr€I- 3{+ rr€r d e-q-$ qsd srefq ara+Fq-s€fi fr fi siuq #5c{ efirrq sErEFr E5.cr r{fu age-{{fl arqrerGer q- B- mag ="ifu *r rrft # -oa-,q E r-=-- ^F K.iFnr s+.r 6r Ero.q il-d Edaeae, *i --* (a. T& 3 o Braoqrqft) "ffiaflqq e-+d-{fi qffa frFrar, ed*Fqr, I e-{A zi-daldiar dE i arsEftr* r r eq z+rcord arafTq qaalalse{re-u+, r zia-fm=i €E-{i zl-flrfuefifr eq ar-f5|ft -g"Tu (q, ud. aozs_r o) "i-*1g]- ?r--t@nw"E{aat^zia-tarei^6_<-.i- zranEenft -q gtft €rfl 6,*--t-, ;a-**-fro1dF--s-^flfETffi qFeaf r u*a orc+fo-Eirrq-+se 6-.i ri? a-ra+ldgoeiFra-errcswr+r, 6a-drd-{€rqi g @, iffi#i-l FT{.t-5q-d-.rr,e{erd,rrer: erEFo-Eerrqlq-rn-*q aEEebA .--*rrrg*-g- t qra fua €acnq td *gtie; _d_E, I (E[. sf.zt rz)ara, ft-a ?reTT EErb adaqfu * q(d 3* B r " fuu sHerrg^ * Ew su u+aft" sr"ft mfud -"-6a a, fu-.a srarrzr s e+aftoft-eil or ffaa a-s H srefq ffi 3Tancr + -+; -# gq a -rft B;fr uraf t 3ttornr_-*--ll--elFra t-srrs*;q fr, + araf * o-o-ssre-En d sc{ * =-serrE -.Er fr ssar B, 3F d s*a 6eu + Frfft-r ora frd arer *e * ersr ae d rrrar ts r =*d #*, o*dr B r s*quraf- g.B-e-drfreTqr€reqa1le F++-rzeffirGraep;t ut1+raqr g€ el_dftr aref-tg ^gFelFE ;ft{ 1rg EfM arafzfar arCe*a-qr. u-ua-*6; 61-w-w*: eng-scm: | (a. err. +ro) gsr, elFm Ed "FfEryaf,d: "r* araf --a-Br araf uin-o"ro+d-qr -Fr ffd + Tieilrr{d-* +an- } r ee+hs e$ vs.rrgo aft o*o} B rAq =-cqfuqr<r+reraKrraqi qrg: r sr.rj. 2o/11ry Ef)-"fuaqi edsar r (sr.zi. zort)frai srra*e-ff I (g. T& +zrs) I9
  37. 37. a-raf fr-ors+q"Ifr TITUI-* g *dq"r=tq aref5-arqzq: qerfr flrft{ d4@, zr-dqrg6dd-€-d: ae.rddercffi z+dzrdTard-f3dr-fEl.I: | (a 9TT. 4/s) g-ffi ilsf qerfl arr{ fr 3r.r{€lT d zgtn E I T{aft -at"fo Ed aaa*# gU aft sa-fr €rcadt EFr 3raflzr zaar B r trrgsf *errdd U-o-s+rq gqfrq-d "i{Fdd -;r}}} J .ru-o- aft srqqd-zgar rqranft-o B r a-raf z* ersz sn-qft qr.d g€ a-SA*; -* a-W (ziFTrr om-rrara) srrru€rT d Tsdr B r a.n zlq 3rz{q sir}drf,I s6f,rBrd*IE d-e, dG alraa}a affi B.E r a-EnqrFr a d-d.{d tF-t sref edwagrfu-qr B r-c-. E-eq arzr - | (q. €TT. +tt t) E-d- arp+ zrdtrrqrftr zrots-rrd-s-Eeq ffi d 36reftI srafq o-Str<-qY snft d 5*t arzr d. z+aft arfrBen cTan r{&ft sffiE6 T{Ter ffi B Siqft.T IgadrgT{f{ -ffi -am.rr<Rrrz+i rja ftu-s-6t trrffiss-rir:qdirr ft+rr:rreq t (E qeu* a{-dft eTTazr a) ffi =,rT{ d A 1;rer, a da s}yz U6 firs cbr rit-d 6-re arff ft-s-cEru(sa+rt z+au) qa qrft E r elq sffi or fra+rwa elea dar B rfrfteT 3rdq-q s-dfu errg * -efrFra Ba qaro Etrg-e+: IetF.rd a5qqq{rqJi :€|-d-{i r (9. eTT. +) 5.€-51 zqs B rrera z# trrg sda gu 3fu sd-S frftE- 3{"rEr-r 36a gu taa srofta 3r€tdr Ed:rI 3{odif: IqeY a-a fr arc{ Ebr q-6ur .b-{qrr gr}Rrd B r =e{aqr$: qzreng1qgq ia-ara-ar<*J|a Iqrd€gffir a arefger, 6$ft E ll (z3. elr- 2-53) - irGfon i qrw srrE|r{ fr a-aa+r-ar 3r.€rf,r ?gar B -reIT aEt ftr€-*d fr srrEeq-orrtFnerq or ft-ore{ .rWf zgar B, Etr{ftils araf aaftrtrfa aS o-Ear rfqeu acI -Fr Crdftr =-c{ 3e+ errg ftrflfw 3q-{ia S *an;sitt<t-E"{t? 3tcreltr 3dfu - srf-eloier srrqtt*o ziB-arsfr d uo tr{qr< or sa}s B ffi frf}rd EMfr uraf + *rA *# =-- # qrA sfur * frqrr fr, s{qa d-d _or sfrtrr+a fu-qrB I srd fr +r6reF.r-ea# o-ri gs) a-6N srr}-q- wdg qr e1aaff d e-s e-d-rqr Bfr" ara{ A q{aft sirr q€irr g.F "€Ter 3roa fi e, ffi Ewra d 3TraEFc"r eITtieTi6-{ ?Fr sc*s fu* } r fug s"FrE dssl 3rrercb?r d 3-€-S frf}{d sirr si:tlHn?-aff A*, o.< tFIcTTaR fr qRqm # aA E, 3_{ft q-.FrT arafeQer (-g$l qr 6+ru,-aiT{ (5ar),il*-} ig-n6, F *l zreq "{rE ftF51€ ils da q-r€ er+ler srri qz E-e gertr dff 3ft,=€rT ;1 z+aft sidr lisrr # * €fui?"€IcFr *a ts I frfdla fldtr-d * a.r, araf or 3E@f q-eftrl qztn UI?Icr *d 1. qftnerq azi aJqr- s{q9}46 eTrd6 qIFr, qrq qBer ar6iq qBer 2. 3. 4. 5. €Fg-S aeq er$s qq F* dFd-fr tnreqq 6. zr-dfuI s-eirr era-a-ft uzi er-<-a-S srr+q srrlrr ga-dg ga-dg (Prof. B. H. ShYamkuwar) 20