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INTERACTIVE WORKSHOP (Kriya Shareer), (19-21 March, 2010), Bharati Vidyapeeth, Pune, RASHTRIYA AYURVEDA VIDYAPEETH, (NATIONAL ACADEMY OF AYURVEDA)

INTERACTIVE WORKSHOP (Kriya Shareer), (19-21 March, 2010), Bharati Vidyapeeth, Pune, RASHTRIYA AYURVEDA VIDYAPEETH, (NATIONAL ACADEMY OF AYURVEDA)

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Rav kriya2010 Rav kriya2010 Document Transcript

  • RISIITR IYA AYU RUTIII UI IINPTTIHNATIONAT ACADEMY OF AYURVEDAAn autonomous organization under Deptt. of /yUSH,Ministry of Health & F.W., Govt. of lndiaDhanwantari Bhawan, Road No. 66, Punjabi Bagh (W), New Delhi-110026
  • INTERACTIVE WORKSHOP BETWEEI{ STUDENTS AND TEACHERS OFAYURVEDA (Kriya Shareer) (19-21 March, 2010) Bharati Vidyapeetho Pune Organizing Secretary & Editor Dr. V.V. PRASAD Director, R.A.V. Organised by: MSHTRIYA AYURVEDA VI DYAPEETH (NATTONAL ACADEMY OF AYURVEDA) (An autonomous organization under Deptt. of AYUSH, |linistry of Health & F,W., bovt. of lndia) Telefax: 011-25229753; Phone: 25228548 E-mait: ravidyapeethdethi@gmait.com avurevan@rediffmail. com, Website: www. ravdethi@nic. i nRAV subscribes no responsibility for the views expressed or the materiat submitted byvarious studentslresourceWrsons to this booklet.
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I express my sincere gratitude to the Members of the Governing Body of RashtriyaAyurveda vidyapeeth for their constant support to the activities of RAV. 1. PadmashriProf. P.N.V. Kurup,Ilelhi President ", Shri Naved Masood,Delhi Member 3. Shri B. Anand, Delhi Member 4. Dr. S.K. Sharma, Delhi Member t. Vice Chancelloro Gujarat Ayurued University, Jamnagar Member 6. Prof. B.L. Gaur, Jodhpur Member oPadmabhushanVaidya P.K. Warriero 7. Kottakkal Member sPadmabhushanVaidya Devendra Triguna, 8. Delhi Member 9. Vaidya Shiv Kumar Mishra, Delhi Member 10. Vaidya Tara Chand Sharma, Delhi Member 11. Dr. V.R. Seshadri, Chennai Member 12. Mumbai Vaidya Dinanath Upadhyay, Member 13. Vaidya B. Rama Rao, Hyderabad Member 14. Vaidya Achyut Kumar Tripathi, Noida Member Vaidye V.V. Prasad DIRECTOR View slide
  • CONTENTSL. Preface I2. Llst of Contributing Exp0rts ll3. List of Participating Experts lrr-lv4. List of Questioners v-vl5. Color Atlas6. Embryology l-287. Dosha 20-1468. Dhatu 147-1639. Mala 164-16910. Upadhatu t70-t7s11 . Ojus 176-18012, Srotas l8t-20213. Prakriti 203-22314. Shat Kriyakala 224-22715. Miscellaneous 228-237 View slide
  • PREFACE Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth (RAV), New Delhi has been conducting thelnteractive Workshops for sfudents and young teachers in various subjects of Ayurveda inorder to facilitate one-to-one discussions and clarifications on various issues related toteaching, practice and research by senior scholars and vaidyas This exciting series of interactive workshop between post-graduate students andundergraduate college teachers, and experts from various Ayurvedic specialities has reached16tr rung. This unique series is aimed at unravelling the scientific intricacies of Ayurvedicconcepts, description of diseases, treatment principles etc. It is heartening to note that someof the explanations put forth in workshop books have been accepted by a majority ofAyurvedic fraternity. Many teachers are referring these books to decipher the hiddenintellectual wealth of Ayurvedic texts and the commentaries thereon. Also these workshopshave widened the horizon of knowledge of young researchers and PG scholars, who havesound fundamental scientific background. This 16th workshop is related to the subject of Kriya Sharir. The subject spans fromphysiology of invisible (even with electron microscope) tanmatra to visible functions of grosshuman body. Stupendous and incredible work done by our professional ancestors in this fieldhas become so much hazy with passing of time over thousands of years that in present timetanmatra, panchamahabhuta, dosha, dhatu, mala etc appear puzzling to many. However, for acurious scientific mind reading the ancient Ayurvedic texts with the help of knowledge ofmodern medicine and other sciences, a whole new fascinating and exhilarating world of lifesciences opens where every inch of space has a potential for exploration. The feeling isfantastic; it appears that one has gotjackpot when one dives through the ocean ofthe ancientbooks. The abyss has yet to be reached but this ocean is revealing mesmerizing scientificinhicacies. The book covers theories of atma, human genome, bija-bijabhaga-bijabhagavayava to niceties of transformation of various dhatus in the body. It is impossibleto cover all these subjects (related to kriyasharir or physiology) in two days. However, anattempt has been made by inviting several experts from different parts of India to give theiropinions in this regard. This way an opportunity is being provided to known and unknownexperts to voice their view, which will result in deciphering and proliferation of theknowledge to Ayurvedic as well as modern medical fraternity to help maintain the health andtreat ailments of human beings. I would like to express my sincere gratitude to the Department of AYUSH, Ministryof Health & Family Welfare, Govt. of India for encouraging to conduct such usefulworkshops. I also thank the President and other members of the Governing Body for theirconstant support in all the activities of RAV. I thank Dr.Mrs.Sandhya Patel for her help in the preparation of this book and I appreciate the officials of RAV for their sincere efforts to achieve the goals set. Prof. Vaidya V.V.Prasad DIRECTOR
  • 1. Dr. G. Purushothamacharyulur,HlG - 165, phase - I & rI, Road No.4, KPHB Colony, Kukatpally, Hyderabad - 500 072. 2. Dr. Y.G. Joshi, Aashirvacha, plot No.S, varshanand society, Anand Nagar, Sinhagadh Road, Pune - 411 051. 3. P.S":.)^ Dhargalkar, Professor & H.o.D.nKriya sharir, Tilak Ayurved Medical College, 583 12, Rasta Peth, PUNE, 41 101 1 4. Dr.Mrs.v.sandhya Patel, Lecturer, MLR Ayurvedic college, charkhi Dadri, Haryana.5. Dr.P.V.Ranganayakulu, Assistant professor, S.V.Ayurvedic College, Near SVIMS Tirupati-S17 507.6. Dr.Baikunth Nath Mishra, Professor, Kriya sharir, Govt. Ayurved college, Bolangir -767 001, Orissa.7. Dr. Bhaskar H. Shamkuwar, professor & H.o.D., Kriya sharir, Government Ayurvedic college, wazirabad, Nanded 431601 (Maharashtra)8. Dr.(Mrs.) Gehlot Sangeeta, H.O.D. & Reader, Kriya Sharir,Institute of Medical Sciences., B,H.U., Varanasi -221005. (U.p.)9. P-".-(Mry.) Kalpana Sathe, Professor, Knya Sharir, Sumatibhai Shah Ayurved Mahavidyalay, HADAPSAR 4l l028,June10. !y1 Gra.r.) Indapurkar KavitN v., prof. & H.o.D., Kriya sharir, Bharati vidyapeeth university college of Ayurved, Katraj-Dhana-kwadi, Distt. pune 411043 (MS)11. Dr.Yoginder Kumar Sharma, Department of Kayachikitsa, R.G.Govt Ayurveda College, Paprola, District Kangra, HP.12. Dr. suresh Babu, Retd. professor, Kayachikitsa, H. No. t-ztoll9l, Kartikeya Nagar, Street No.6, Nacharam, Hyderabad 500 026. -13. P". M. srinivasulu, Govt. Ayurveda college, Labour colony, warangal.
  • LIST OF PARTICIPATING EXPERTS: l. Vaidya S.K.Mishra, Former Adviser (ISNI), Govt. of India, 604n Tower Apartmentsn Swasthya Vihar, New Delhi 2. Vd. Dinanath Upadhyay,Smile Complex Town-A, Flat-E/l, Balaji Nagaro Opp. Bhayander Railway Station West, Distt. Thane, Mumbai 3. Vaidya Achyut Kumar Tripathi, Adwait Ayurveda Sadan, Hl 129, Sector, 41, NOIDA -201303, G.B.Nagar (U.P.) 4. Prof. D.G. Thatte, Gyan Deep, 13, Prakash Puramo Nayi basti, Bhadewan, Aish Bagh, Lucknow. 5. Dr.V.V.Doiphode, Flat No. 6, Rajashree Apartments, Nilgiri Lane, Baner Road, Pune - 4l 1007. 6. Dr. P.M. Varrier, Dy. Chief Superintendent, Arya Vaidya Sala, Kottakkal. 7. Dr. Mrs. Bhutada S.S., Readern Bharati Vidyapeeth College of Ayurued, Pune. 8. Dr. Pandkar P.D., Lecturer, Bharati Vidyapeeth Collegg of Ayurved, Pune. g. Dr. Ghate U.S., Lecturer, Bharati vidyapeeth college of Ayurved, Pune 10. Dr. Mrs. Bhalsing M.V., Lecturer, Bharati Vidyapeeth Cotlege of Ayurved, Pune 11. Dr.Chitnis Abhijit, Reader, Sumatibhai Shah College of Ayurved, Hadapsar, Pune. . 12, Dr. Veer Vaishali, Lecturer, Sumatibhai Shah Coltege of Ayuned, Hadapsar, Pune 13. Dr. Joshi Pranita, Lecturer, Sumatibhai Shah College of Ayurved, Hadapsar, Pune 14. Dr. Manasi Nimbalkar, Lecturer, Ashtang Ayurved college, Pune 15. Dr. Mrs. Mardikar, Professor, Ayurved college, wagholi, Pune 16. Dr. Mrs. Supriya Mane, Lecturer, Ayurved college, wagholi, Pune 17, Dr Lavgankar Laxman, Lecturer, Ayurved college, wagholi Pune 18. Dr. Minai<shi Randive, Reader), Tilak Ayurved College Pune ilt
  • 19. Dr. Tarranum Patel, Lecturero Tilak Ayurved Collegeo pune20. Dr. Ambavale S., Lecturer, Tilak Ayurved College, pune21. Dr. Purushe, Professor, Dr.D.Y. patil cofiege of Ayurved, pimpri, pune22. Dr. Smita Kadu, Lecturer, Dr.D.y. patil colrege of Ayurveo, nimpri, pune23. Dr. sheetal soman, Lecturer, Dr.D.y. patil coltege of Ayurved, pinpri, pune24. Dr. Deshpande R.R., Professor, College of Ayurved, Akurdi, pune25. Dr. Choubhe S., Reader, College of Ayurved, Akurdi, pune26. Dr. Vrushali Savai, Lecturer, College of Ayurved, Akurdi, pune27. Dr. Sameer Gore, Lecturer, College of Ayurved, Akurdi, pune28. Dr. Akalpita Dhanorkar, Lecturer, college of Ayurved, Akurdi, pune IV
  • LIST OF OUESTIONERS:l. Dr. Thakur Prasad Sahu 2. Dr. Rakesh Thqmman Medical Officer (Ayurveda) Reader & H/o Kriyasharir Directorate of Medical & Heatth Department Services, Govt. of India, Rajiv Gandhi Ayurvedic College .Moti Daman, UT of Daman & Diu. Paprola, Disfi Kanga, H.P.3. Dr. Naresh kumarJain 4. Dr. Mukesh Shukla Lecturer Dept. of Kayachikitsa & Panchakarma Dept. Of Kriyasharir Smt. KGMP Medical College (Ayu) & Govt. Akhandanand Ayu. College Hospital Ahmedabad. Mumbai- 400002. Dr. Lingaraddi M. Biradar Dr. M.V. Aiholli Lecturer Asst Professor P.G. Department of Panchakarma Department of Samhita &Siddhanta Dr. BNM Rural Ayurvedic College, D.G.M Ayurveda Medical College Bijapur. Gadag - 582103.7. Dr. Jairaj P. Basarigidad 8. Dr. Santosh.N Belavadi Lecturer Lecturer & In charge of Department of P.G studies in Department of P.G studies in Panchakarma Panchakarma D.G.M Ayurveda Medical College D.G.M Ayurveda Medical College Gadag - 582103. Gadag - 582103.9. Dr. Suchetha Kumari M 10. Dr. Suvarna P. Nidagundi Asst. Professor & HOD Lecturer I)epartment of Kriya Sharira Department of Rasashastra SDM College of Ayurveda DGM Ayurveda Medical College Udupi. Gadag - 582103.11. Dr. Devendrappa. Budi t2. Dr. Girdhar Thakre Department of Panchakarma S. V. P. Rural Ayurvedic College Dr.Sweta. Badami - 587201.13. Dr. Chitnis Abhijit Vilas 14. Vd. Vaishali Veer Reader, Sharir kriya Lecturer, Sharir-kriya Sumatibhai Shah Ayurved Sumatibhai Shah Ayurved Mahavidyalaya, Mahavidyalaya, Hadapsar, Pune - 411 028. Hadapsarn Pune-411 02815. Dr. Hema Waghulade 16. Dr. Sarita Ohol Reader Lecturer Dept. of Sharir Kriya Vidnyan Dept. of Sharir Kriya Vidnyan Dr. D. Y. Patil college of Ayurved Dr. D. Y. Patil college of Ayurved and and Research Institute Research Institute Sector-7, Nerul Sector-7, Nerul, Navi Mumbai,400706. Navi Mumbai,400706.
  • 17. Vd. Pranita P. Joshi 18. Dr. Vaibhav Dadu Lecturer, Department of Sharirkriya Lecturer Sumatibhai Shah Ayurved Deptt. of Kriya Sharir Mahavidyalaya Govt. Akhandanand Ayurved College Hadapsar, PUNE - 411 028. Ahmedabad. Guj. 19. Dr. Bipin Bihar Khuntia 20. Dr. Amit Kumar Tanwar Dept. of Kriyasharira, PG Scholar Govt. Ayurved Mahavidyalay A&UTibbiaCollege Puri-752002, Orissa New Delhi2t. Dr. Nidhi Khurana 22. Dr. Nidhi Garg P.G. Scholar P.G. Scholar Kriyasharir Dept. of Kriyasharir A & U Tibbia College & Hospitat A & U Tibbia College & Hospitat Karol Bagh, Delhi, Karol Bagh, Delhi23. Dr. Anupam Sharma 24. Vd. Aniket Gitaram Ghotankar PG Scholar PG Scholar Kriyasharir Dept. of Sharir-kriya A & TU Tibbia College & Hospitat Sumatibhai Shah Ayurved Karol Bagh, Delhi Mahavidyalaya Hadapsar, PUNE-2825. Vd. Anuya Bhagirath Kulkarni 26. Vd. Anuja Vinod Shah PG Scholar, Dept.of Sharir Kriya PG Scholar, Dept.of Sharir Kriya Sumatibhai shah Ayurved Sumatibhai Shah Ayurved Mahavidyalaya Mahavidyalaya Hadapsar, Pune-28 Hadapsar, Pune-4l I 028.27. Dr. Vivek B. Patit 28. Dr. R. C. Satish Kumar c/o Dr.Sudhakar M.Sathve PG Scholar Sathye Eye Hospital Dept of Rasa Shastra, 244, Narayan Peth Shri DGM Ayurveda Medical College Laxmi Road Gadag - 582103 Pune. Karnataka.29. Vaidya Sonali Viraj Shukla 30. Dr. Sanath Kumar D.G Gomantak Ayurved College PG Scholar Shiroda, GOA.403103 Dept of Panchakarma DGMAMC Gadag. VI
  • l-:-*- SFffiJS l*-,-.,* I**-,* a ^,. "--,* .., , .,.,.":,., ,-:., i:, .t:j -, Figure No. L: Fetal circulation Ayurvedic view: arafre araqi qft-Jid-€tr ar$ et-dfr iltqi arwi qft-d-€T Edtmrq-gr rrvi e6-*; arE€Eqr (sr.zi. eTT. 2/s1 rr{ El-€) 8ofta nultlll b rrdl]Endffro$Flrc|lrut m$r$r|nlr by dillu&.r. hrl efraf fitlftLl mutl !a ttnleorttd, Umullad lrtarll| .ltum Cho.lo.tlc vltl aolrLlfi Umbll}Cllttrd Umb{llcil vah ctnl|| Hall- orygrllllerl blood to th. ailb.yo, / I, rucantt I u*urc.r c6rd , I Yoll llc tr nrllrrul Ulod tYEEtfi0 9l.trlr Copynglrl g 200t F@rs Edrntts. rft.. I{5t!tr}g at BoqrBF C@BitRt Fig.26-19 Figure No.2 Placental circulation Ayurvedic view: arefTq arft argea 6A ar$ Foes* I qqr ?T gffift +qrz 5l-E €gq1 1 (eT.g. etr. t rso)#{rE Fq Ferq,-drgcr€rr wi qaen *Erre€r errsnfrldensf}r@li, -- I (s{.9. eTT. 1/s6 qs si-Forcr A-6r)
  • Diffurentiation of Sexual Organg Male/Female - 9 wks ./ l MArE l-17 wks FEMALE Sexual organs at birlh 5rfiPt? tc, Sitred 5€rsnlitr Figure No. 3 Sexual differentiation in human embryo d,itoris 6lr)0i. ir-,ci*ty fnr L:a(rFd te*ualitr www. s s s-now. org/forum/IMale_Female_Andro glv|!y-2.. .Figure No. 4 Comparison ofpaxamesonephric and mesonephric derivatives in human male and female embryos
  • Figure No. 5 & 6: Spleen with torsion of long pedicleS ourc e o f fi gure 6 ; r adr olo sy . caser eports.net/ .. J 229 I 5 5 6Figure 7:Jarcho-Levin syndrome Figure 8: Osteogenesis imperfectaAyurvedic view: Anasthi garbhaSource of figure 7:http ://i mg.bmi.com/content/vol40/issue l 2iimaeesllarge/me8623.fL jpeg
  • rigireNo. e,10 & liTol;;r""HHffi;ffi;Ayurvedic view: Anasthi garbhaExplanation of Figure 12 & 13: An autopsy revealed a head circumference of 168 mm, aflattened face with wide set eyes and low set ears. Cleft lip or palate was absent. Thechest was short with a protuberant abdomen. There was 25 cc of clear peritoneal fluid butno pericardial fluid seen. The lungs were hypoplastic but with normal developing bronchiconsistent with the fetal age. Cytogenetic studies revealed a normal, male 46,XYkaryotype. Histologic evaluation of a femoral biopsy was consistent withAchondrogenesis Type II. Radiologic evaluation was also performed, which wasconsistent with the diagnosis.Source of images No. 8-13:http://www.sonoworld.com/Client/Fetus/page.aspx?id:322Ayurvedic view: Anasthi garbha
  • Figure No. 14, 15 & 16 from left to right: Twins with thanatophoric dysplasia- right andleft images show X-rays of the twins in the middle imagehttp ://www. sonoworld.com/Client/Fetus/page. aspx?id:3 83Ayurvedic view: Anasthi garbha Figure No. l8 figure No. 19Figure No. 18: Stillborn showing evidence of micromeliaFigure No. L9: Radiograph of the fetus showing fractured ribs and long bones.Ayurvedic view: Anasthi garbha
  • Figure No. 20: Axial scan of fetal head, demonstrating poor ossification ofthe skull and easy compression ofthe calvarium.Source of images No. l8 to20;http ://www. sonoworld.corn/Client/Fetus/page.aspx?id: 3 65Ayurvedic view: Anasthi garbha
  • i...l :: ..,r-:: i:
  • CHAPTER. 1 EMBRYOLOGY 1.1. Can we consider jivatma described in Cha. Sha. and Su. Sha. as genetic material? (R4V) Keeping the view of Ayurvedic compendia lhere is no altemative but to accept it as genetic material. Six factors mentioned in Ch. Sha 4.4 and Su. Sha 3.33 are collectively and inevitably required for the product of conceptus. Their role in phenotypic expression of offspring as per fetal genetic configuration is explained in details in Cha. Sha 3.12, 11, 16, 17 1g, 19; Su. Sha. 3.33. These references invite Ayurvedic learner to accept it as genetic factor. (Dr. Nandini Dhargalkar) ?toeiffio-ada+fere-fi?i ffis-aorafr zra-siqqbrm-<r arailsfb+Grffi, ---l (a.eTT. sze) ffoer*a *a-+ren-g"rdr I ---- zl-a-+is-ffi ffief, r crdvefrtfr-"gqd{q-Htra_ot}Er.qrsfr ara gft erqRara gft 3{ffi:1 (q. €TT. z/3 qz qo-qrFr) Achieving chaitanyaby fertilized ovum denotes atma has descended. Now, the question arises as to what is meant by chaitanya? Is it mere starting of cleavage i.e. duplication of the fertilized cell or completion of third gestational month (when chaitanya appears)? If the latter is considered then jivatma does not mean genetic material, which is very much essential for the restoration of diploid number in fertilized ovum and then multiplication and proliferation of the cells to reachthis much stage of development. If the former is true then nongenetic material can also beconsidered since an activating factor on the sperm is thought to activate the oocyte metabolism(Langmans Medical Embryologlt, l0th Edi.; Thus the question is very tricky and difficult to reply. According to Ayurvedic philosophy it looks difficult to call atma as genetic materialbecause genetic material is already packed in male and female gametes i.e. sperm and ovum.Ayurvedic principle states that even the union of shukra and shonit alone would not result inconception until atma descends in it along with mana. The mystery of why some ova do not divide further or do not implant after in vitrofertilization despite no apparent genetic mutation could be explained by ?ailure of atma todescend in that union. But then the question arises with regard to cloned organism. Technicallyspeaking cloned animal has genetic material from two females and one male lone female whoslovum is used for cloning after removal of nucleus and the animals diploid genetic materialwhose clone is to be prepared). Such organisms are called chimera. (Chimeras happen naturallyas well as they are man-made since ancient time. Ref: Vanaspati Ayurveda). Does this mean thatatma has descended in union of three animals i.e. two females and one male animal? We do nothave reply because the fact states that clone can be prepared from this kind of union. So it isbetter we do not mix up these two different subjects (metaphysics and genetics). (Dr. Sandhya Patel) No, we cannot consider jivatma described in Cha. Sha. and Su. Sha. as genetic material.Charak has described genetic material as bijabhagavayav. (Dr. B.N. Mishra)
  • Sushrut Samhita quotes that the jivatma (self-conscious individuality) is ensconced in thematerial frame of mahabhutas and other derivatives. It does not sleep but appears to be sleeping. Genetic material means the sequence of adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine arrangedin a helical pattern to the binding molecules of nitrogen bases and sugars. This material codes forthe characteristics of the cells and thus is a deciding factor for structure, function and lifespan ofan organism. This modern concept is not more than a century old. This mechanism of canyingtraits in codes proved that the health and disease are digital in nature, i.e. the sequence ofmolecules is the deciding factor for all characteristics of living beings. The theory of jivatma(self-conscious individuality) suggests that the life is analog in nature. So these two concepts arenot comparable. The facility in the theory of genetic material is that we can manipulate themutations and cause desirable sets of characters in an organism. This knowledge is being used todiagnose and treat diseases. But the concept of jivatma, is mere explanatory in nature and it is aphilosophical idiosyncrasy. The idea of Jivatma tries to explain the unchangeable structure of thenature. Belief is the major criterion to know jivatma. These two theories do not fit to each other. Jivatma is subjective while the other isobjective. The idea of jivatma tries to understand the purpose of the nature; the science ofgenetics does not question the purpose of the nature but the very functioning mechanism of thenature. The knowledge of genetics gives opportunity to indulge in designing the nature. Theknowledge ofjivatma does not help cure diseases. (Dr. P.V. Ranganayakulu) aa frorur o] #Fo a?ft-s-d aff ara e-drt r sngHo eTTEttFrt arar udfudr + e* ffiEo atfuo-a 6-ir} E I slr{ g€t d araf 6t s-d-de-dr$ Br srrg*< errtd fr - "ieilrrgmefrFra ffi$ g €-g €M arffirarEfr r (q. elr. 318)gmelFra 3{Tffir + z*rr * araf o1 s-€fu 6-S B r 3q€ffi e*o * F+r g-FGrileo) s*{ eilFora (arq-d-q) E* #ftm ar}$-erm 6-6 a-s-A B a of srrar d t3{rGRT or gln$ 3rEnrrr sr.rrr s+fiaa B * goe}Fra d tra-er ssr$ q}Rrd*ar Br "iqtrrH qensfreffai eqft#a frrrtgraq ra-+i €rslrA arq zrd ara+ferai aerr r (er.€. erT. r rz) fuE+ qzrrg zsftm-aFr * g.era zff sfu wre g$ s{F-d E"i T[d A trro-aftffi frlgr€ a-S ffi I .srfi qzFrg ararferq dt srrar or -rrler fts€ aS t-arr2) d qrarssard wauft r (a. err. au a)arar ftran * ttEo atft-e-n * ge fr +efu ar}$e-n sa6 frft B r dfu-a 3{Taroaft eft gzl-S 3{T€IT ai sroa eA o-{ T{6-& r 3rrrz rren srrdr * ga$ srrarr d un * s{rffir or srarfte aw=-*-61 araar.rqti 6flqq q€flsq qr.u=I: I d Tt I 1/1 o) irncqn Is) Grt-ai (q.s#rt 3rrdr Efr #RF atlFqa ard ftrqr ?il Ftre-d fr qnn-fuar * gsq B rs*{ ardr-ftdr n #fu q?:Fqa t oq fr g* # miFft r qfr 3rdqE d o.qd 3{TFrr qiT q}er trara fr arar atr€[ d srrdr * "iqrE at-.relEr oT o-S errw fr zleflsid-s a& Frcftrl Ia) hatu- 3rr.irTT a-T frftq dar str-or arerul 3 erSE o efrr$ * z+rer uigffi d-.F-{ gsa srBe u-a1 $ m-a} 6} a+}arar B r3{TdT erftE i F-6-d qr} q-r *arurg t o..q fr e-ff qnn B r fu-E * gu ga+ffi + fuu sral qrg{ d trer o-cirr B r 3rftqT o} #ftm a?:Fe-d arrqr arqr *=:errFr ksd qe d qr+arr @fft=*-a qrH qiqa+ftrdF a-zqo-Y$ aft drafrft-o a-qHe dS d zl-6-ft t) s) araforeo ano- arE6, fuE-q, 3{ret.t, ?Tr@Gf, T+rGr s*T arrs B r der fr qola ffi -ttrr "Tdq a?:Fqa E #-d gd fr Aar$ q6 rH + ,aorar B @t * ol Frao-c #ftffi 2
  • 4l-{q-fu€q srrd +eFd atFe-a * stqa arrd E r -srrgH6 erre+ + srgz+ru crd* qrt a+rq trdrl+dd zrzrssar B, a d #tr6 dfftTd r ffia srrgf<- errtry *ga-+d fr ar+ar E g€ftu str@q eno ga-tar + 6-d or m-a B ro) snano +rrd di ftrg,ft-T{-+t-q qnqur$ffir, }qi a+n+rarro}gpai Ia-sffrffi E-gEe+ urar fuqzrgerorn arEkrr (q. eTT. zr.tz)srrdqr*fr 3lrzsl sft-oqo-da-rF r arrora+rE?gffift €fuqe{r} Effi ?Isr{,ea+r1n+ qrgei ed tgFeef r ---- ?r<r #sq-*ft €;rat; (a-FrrrFr)3{rcr.[ aflq 3{Tdlr + 6-S * groa ffi E r 3{rdrcr e+ro gtrr$ or *ar a dar }-s+ arftd B r srd) fudr .nr g,{ 3l_drr ils *dr B r s-"rs t-{{r *Hr &ft --l8 .*oro-ard-q qrq *1}ar Br z) srraw a+ro-gkqrft arzt Aara-arg: gEtg:E-rEF ar.wwrftr (g. eTr. szss)srrearqrF €fr srrdE+fuerr+qrarF, d dr# qrdrH 3Trtr* ftForE-rqfr-ol-tu-a-oanetrdr{ s-g;ft e{rdrgqq-Aqq I (s-€,T)s{rdrar ell"r 3il?tTT zft znfteqar * sara At E dfu 3TTctrTT * frfrnrc B r srnqr* 6]-€ a{rd- 3idt?q a-s ddr B r ez+frs 3lr<urr #b aAFs-d a-ff d *--ft tiae- r e) er$s E rra dEfrq I tiaaf,aroelsrerq da..i ard-€q+ I r (q. €TT. r tz +)3{rGIr or erS{ * ft-o.-d rrrar tiqa 6-dA E I 31rdrr ffi er$c d ft-s-d *1rff B ;.A*}fu a?:Fs-d ffi afr r t * qiqeift-o ffi B I (Prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar) According to C. Sha. 414 for the formation of embryo jivatma is one of the main factors.Mata, pita, satmya, rasa and sattva are remaining factors. According to modern science, thebranch of biology that deals with inheritance is called as genetics and the material which istransferred from one generation to other is the genetic material. Embryology is the study ofdevelopment of an individual before birth. According to Ayurveda garbhavakranti .utr b.compared with the same and for the formation of embryo (C. Sha. 4/4) not only jivatma but alsomata, pita, satmya, rasa and sattva are the main factors and all these should be considered asresponsible material for formation of embryo. /r- t.^_ Indapurkar) (Dr. KavitaThe synonyms of atma from various texts are very much suggestive about the genetic material(kind of its functions). Like jiva (vital, live), pugdala (many petals,like chromosomes), bhutatma(centre of living body), prabhava (origin of living body), rashipurusha, hetu (components ofliving body), dhata (constituent), gyan and vedita (knowledgeablej. Its svarup is param sukshma(tiny), anumangrahy a, av y akta (not perceptible).dfrnin-en z+fucrftg s+f}reqaft I(Present in ova and sperm and appears after zygote formation in genome). Vishvarup,vishvakarma (world developer), parmatma is nitya but rashipurusha jivatma is anitya (C. Sha.1).It is bijadharma, dehantargami (fivo-avakramati), produces another atma, ajata atmarjata atma(C. Sha. 3/8) i.e replication of the generation - I and generation -2.It is said that atma is pratisharir bhinna that can be stated as it is present in each and every cell of the body. Each celi is adifferent entity which can be called as anu rup sukshma sharir. Component of sharir are sattva,atma and panchamahabhutas. It is identical in shadanga sharir as the generation of sameoffspring is seen in mankind.grteffi +6-€tfr *erqr (a eTT. zrzt)
  • €qeq agqqard:: aa€ft-ild-6-4f-trfl r (ao-eea)drg drg SftE 3dftcr:............srr4wr8r (a. €TT. 3/16)This replication is swifter than the windd-d-rq sTfrrdrE-o erftq *ar: r (9. err.)The modes of replication are1 ) Shaddhatvatmak (semiconservative)2) Only chetana dhatu (intact)3) Chaturvimshatik (dispersive)4) Rashipurusha (fragmentation) etc. Atma is called as kshetragya, viveki, bhokta and sakshi. The information of itsenvironment is stored in it. The structure, function and quality of the cell changes as per theimprint means store genetic information.qftfrtfuar, gawrr (9. ?Ir. trra)o-dma arct uftfuaqs-arftm* a-6{r* qfrftifuar, guw r (9. eTT. t r t o)Sukhino (healthy), dukhino (genetically prone to disorders), mudhascha (moron).q"aqirffre+trdkia eTTed?TT: (gsw,; tfrFafn-sfr zrffiS srfbrq-q* r (tr. eTT.t rt +)Abhivyajyante means to be manifested; that means atma can manifest the color, shape, sizeetc.of the cell.3{TdJGt: q{-tr{eflr tiqaxrrao-eil rgoeiFnrS z+Gaqplg ri*ng sfffi rTiny atma in combination with panchamahabhuta in shukra (sperm) and shonit (ova) transformits stored information genegically as matruj, pitrij, sattvaj, satmyaj, atmaj and rasaj bhavas.Therefore atma can be considered as genetic material according to Ayurveda.1.1 According to Sushrut, yakrit and pliha are matrij avayavas (Su. Sha. 3133).Is there anyrelation between maternal chromosome and hepatological disorders ? A study was conducted in 2004 by Suskind et al on Maternal microchimerism in thelivers of patients with biliary atresia. Biliary atresia (BA) is a neonatal cholestatic disease ofunlinown etiology. It is the leading cause of liver transplantation in children. The result of thisstudy was as follows- Maternal michrochinerism is present in the livers of patients with BA and may contributeto the pathogenesis of BA. (http://creritivecommons.org/licenses/b)/2.0) This study alone can prove that there is the definite relation between maternalchromosomes and hepatological disorders. qr€qr eft arg eftFrcrqr, I (9. {& 24/5 s-"aw) Shonit is ova of female reproductive system, which consists of matemal chromosomes. (Prof. Kalpana Sathe)1.2. According to Sushrut, yakrit and pliha are matrija avayavas (Su Sha. 3/33). Is thereany relation between maternal chromosome and hepatological disorders? (Dr. Devendrappa Budi) Maternal and patemal chromosomes both have the sites of all organs. One has to considerthe genetic configuration and environmental effect in context to disorders. Modern genetics till
  • today does not propose or observe such relation between maternal chromosome andhepatological disorder (Dr. Nandini Dhargalkar) A study was conducted in 2004 by Suskind et al on Maternal microchimerism in thelivers of patients with biliary atresia. Biliary atresia (BA) is a neonatal cholestatic disease ofunknown etiology. It is the leading cause of liver transplantation in children. The result of thisstudy was as follows- Maternal michrochinerism is present in the livers of patients with BA and may contributeto the patho genesis of BA. (http I I cr eati vec ommons. orglli cen s es lby I 2.0) : This study alone can prove that there is the definite relation between maternalchromosomes and hepatological disorders. ar€ur 5fr arg eftFraqr, I (9. Ttr 24/5 =er) Shonit is ova of female reproductive system, which consists of maternal chromosomes. (Prof. Kalpana Sathe) As per present knowledge, there is no relation between matemal chromosomes andhepatological disorders. Further research is required to ascertain this. (Dr. Sangeeta Gehlot)1.3. Sushrut has mentioned are{s eedqff eiFraft I (9. ?n. +rzs)In garbhavstha yakrit and pliha are produced by raktadhatu. Please explain this throughmodern embryology. (Dr. Jairaj P. Basarigidad) According to Sushrut Sharira, yakrit and pliha of the fetus are formed out of blood.According to the modern embryology, liver (yakrit) develops from an endodermal bud that arisesfrom the ventral aspect of the gut, at the point of junction between foregut and midgut. Thespleen devoleps as a collection of mesenchymal cells in the dorsal mesogastrium. Mesenchymal cells are the meshwork of embryonic connective tissue in the mesodermfrom which the connective tissues of the blood and lymphatic vessels are formed. So it may beappropriate to say that a pliha (spleen) is formed out of blood as both have the same mesodermalorigin. (Dr. B.N. Mishra) There is no exact reference about liver and spleendevelop from blood in embryonic stage.Liver develops from endodermal cells of bud that arises from the ventral aspect of the gut, atpoint of junction of foregut and midgut. Then, at about 6 weeks the liver begins to form the6lood cells and in the 3d month spleen and other lymphoid tissues of the body also beginforming blood cells. About ll3 of iron in a fully developed fetus is normally stored in liver.(Guyton-1049). During early phase of development the liver is more highly vascularised than rest of thegut. (Grays anatomy 1407) (Prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar)
  • Embryolo gical development of liver: 1. The liver, gall bladder and biliary duct system arise as a ventral outgrowth from the caudal part of the foregut early in the fourth week. At sufficient levels of fibroblast growth factors, secreted by the developing heart interact with the bipotential cells and induce formation of the hepatic diverticulum. 2. The hepatic diverticulum extends into the septum transversum, a mass of splanchic mesoderm between the developing heart and midgut. 3. Liver primordial appears in middle of 3d week i.e. hepatic diverticulum which is the outgrowth of endodermal epithelium (also called as liver bud) 4. Further developing liver cords differentiate into parenchyma and form the lining of bile ducts, while hemopoetic cells and kupffer cells are derived from mesoderm of septum transversum. 5. Weight of the liver is approximately l}oh of total body weight during the 10th week of development because of its major hemopoetic system. The haemopoesis begins during the 6tn week, giving the liver a bright reddish appearance.Embryological development of spleen: 1. Spleen premordium appears in dorsal mesogastrium as a mesodermal proliferation between its two layers.Formation of the blood cells: 1. Blood cells develop from the endothelial cells of the .vessels (hemangioblast) as they develop on the yolk sac and allantois at the end of the 3d week. 2. Blood formation (hematogenesis) does not begin in the embryo until the 5th week. It occurs first in various parts of the embryonic mesenchyme, chiefly the liver and later in spleen, bone marrow and lymph nodes. From the above description, we can draw an inference that the utpatti of yakrut and plihafrom raktadhatu cannot be easily proved but on the contrary, blood formation occurs in the liveras per modern embryology Thus there is a difference in the organogenesis of both the sciences. (Prof. Kalpana Sathe) Spleen develops from mesenchymal cells between layers of the dorsal mesentery of thestomach. Blood formation begins within the embryo at about fifth week in the liver and 12thwebk in the spleen. Spleen consists of two different kinds of tissue called white pulp and redpulp. White pulp contains lymphocytes and macrophages. Red pulp contains RBC, lymphocytes,macrophages, plasma cells, granulocytes. Liver primordium appears in the middle of the thirdweek as an outgrowth (liver bud) of the endodermal epithelium at the distal end of the foregut.This liver bud consists of rapidly proliferating cells that penetrate the septum transversum.Hepatic cells penetrate the septum forming the bile duct. Epithelial liver cords intermingle withthe vitelline and umbilical veins to form sinusoids. Hematopoietic cells, Kupffer cells andconnective tissue cells are derived from the mesoderm of the septum transversum. Large nests ofproliferating cells produce red and white blood cells and walls of the vessels. Hematopoieticfunction gradually subsides during last two months of intrauterine life; only small hematopoieticislands remain at birth (Langman embryology tenth edition). Hematopoietic function duringintrauterine life and presence of islands and hemopoietic cells in liver and spleen may prove this. (Dr. Sangeeta Gehlot)1.4. Please explain the following on the basis of modern embryology. erilEraowrsreai 6q+ar (g. eTT. +tet) (Dr. Jairaj P. Basarigidad)
  • In early embryonic period the angioblastic tissue are differentiated from the mesenchymeover the yolksac, in the connecting stalk and in the body of the embryo. This angioblastic tissuegives rise to endothelium and also to blood cells. The internal surface of the heart and bloodvessels are lined by endothelium. The pericardial fluid may be considered as avalambak kapha.So it seems justified even today as the heart (hriday) is a derivative of shonit rrnd kapha. (Dr. B.N. Mishra) The mesenchymal cells give rise to solid strands of angioblasts. These aggregate to forman epithelium i.e. endoeardium. This may be considered as shonit as described in Ayurveda.Myocardium including conducting tissue of the heart and the specific matrix protein associatedwith developing heart may be considered as kapha. The extra cellular matrix of the heart,historically termgd as cardiac jelly, promotes occlusion of tubular lumen during contraction andthus providing mechanical asscistance fior generation of blood flow. This may be considered asavalamban karya of kapha (prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar)efrfra-ouqc{rcci 6e+ar (g. €rr. +rzt)This could be considered as -Theory 1: In the modem science of embryology it is explained that, mesodermal cells whenconverted into mesenchymal cells during growth of embryo there is resemblance in formation ofheart cells and blood cells. In the embryo when cells of heart get formed it develops from bloodcells. These blood cells formed frorn mesenchymal origin, first organize themselves in circularformat. This is called as blood island. Hence it could be stated that cardiac cells develop from primitive blood cells which aremesodermal in origin. And binding material in between these cells could be considered as kaphadosha.Theory 2: Hriday is a sira marma as per Ayurveda. And sira is said to be upadhatu of rakta dhatu,which is formed from rakta pak. Also mamsa dhatu is formed from rakta pak. Hriday is mamsalorgan anatomically. Hence it could be considered that rakta and hriday are interrelated.Theory 3: Kapha dosha in prakrutavastha is said to be similar to that of oja. And oja is said to behridaystha (i.e. site is heart). Hence relation of kapha dosha could be considered with that ofhriday. (Prof. Kalpana Sathe) Prasad means essence or purest form. In the process of dhatuparinam the mamsa developsfrom prasad bhaga of rakta. The heart is also made up of mamsa dhatu. The ojas is prasad bhagaof kapha. Heart is place of para ojas. The heart is made up predominantly of mamsa andpredominance of kapha (prithvi and jala mahabhuta) due to which it has been explained so. Heartis developed from angioblastic mesenchyme, which forms cardiogenic field in lateral platemesoderm. First blood islands develop in mesoderm which surrounds the wall of yolk sac. Earlyin third week of embryonic life mesenchyme grows in the chorionic villi, by the end of thirdweek blood capillaries develop in the villi. The blood vessels of chorionic villi connect the heartof embryo by umbilical arteries and then circulation of blood starts. In 3d week paired heart tubeis formed and by 22 days these tubes fuse to form single heart tube. Heart tubes connect to blood
  • vessels. In 5th week septation takes place. In 6-12 weeks AV valve develops; semilunar valvesformation takes piace before 12 week. (Tortora, Langman Embryologlt, Tenth Eedition) (Dr. Sangeeta Gehlot)1.5. Please explain this through modern embryology. elFra#q qerd Eroerr (9. en- +rzs) (Dr. Devendrappa Budi) The lining epithelium of respiratory system is endodermal while muscles, connectivetissue, and cartilage are derived from splancho-pleuric mesoderm. (Dr. B.N. Mishra) The spleen and liver of the fetus are formed out of blood; the lungs are made of the frothof the blood; and the unduka or fecal receptacle is made up of the refuge matter (mala) of theblood. This question pleads to validate the idea proposed in Sushrut Samhita according tomodern embryology. I do not see any utility in such validation. It is like trying to explaintanmatra with the help of knowledge about subatomic particles. However, the followingexplanation may satisfy Ayurveda philosopher, who thinks there ls an Indian way of science.The endoderm gives mass and shape to lungs. The mesoderm is birthplace of bones, cartilageand circulatory system. This proximity may justify the above concept. The lower respiratorysystem begins its development during the 4th week as an outgrowth of the ventral wall of theforegut (respiratory diverticulum). The endodermal lining of the respiratory diverticulum givesrise to the epithelial lining of the larynx, trachea, bronchi and alveoli. The cartilaginous andmuscular components of the trachea and lungs are derived from the surrounding splanchnicmesoderm. As a matter of fact, all the tissues burgeon from limited number of cells. So theconcept proposed can be validated. (Dr. P.V. Ranganayakulu)eftFra-eior gdq - ?-c-qof, cnar (.trft-gffi)*a- g{gqr, (ar+rz 3/s r e)ft gagel-sr rrg-6 r q.r fr arg of qrS slE t srr+zor * gqg< *qrt 6}dr B r tdsr*o- gegc rr-drd-{€n d Crdfr ffi t6Fd B * 3-} #a o-o} E r td ro+ *d $ ggz+ 6t B-€-d ercd-cnl-i i "6} qareft ts r According to modern embryology the mesenchyme surrounding the lung buds formsendodermal epithelium and endothelial network which will surround the future air sac. At 23week increase in the capillary network around the distal air space this may be looking likeshonitfen. (Prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar) The development of blood in embryo starts in 3-5 weeks and takes place frommesenchymal cells which are converted mesodermal cells.Development of lungs t o The respiratory systern develcips from a median diverticulum of the foregut, which is endodermal in origin.The free caudal end of the diverticulum becomes bifid and each subdivision is called as lung bud. The part of the lung bud cranial to bifurcation forms larynx and trachea while the lung buds form bronchi and lung parenchyma.
  • e The mesenchymal cells i.e. converted mesoderm; form the connective tissue or living tissue of the lungs i.e. serous pleural membrane forming pleural cavity. o The parts of the lung parenchyma developing from lobar bronchi are separated by mesoderm. o The pulmonary circulation is established early in fetal life. The amount of blood circulating through the lungs gradually increases by seventh month of intrauterine life. o So if we consider shonit as primitive blood due to its commom origin from mesenchymal cells then we can correlate development of lungs from primitive blood.(Ayurvedic part)When garbha is formed in garbhashaya from shukra and shonit then rasa dhatu is obtained frommother and shonit is produced in garbha. All organs in fetus (garbha) are produced from shonitor blood. When vayu acts on blood there is a cavity formation. The lungs are differentiated inlung parenchyma; this action can be correlated with Sushruts definition of garbha (vayu enamvibhajati). Sharangdhara has told phupphusa (lungs) are the sthans of udan vayu and isresponsible for respiration.If we consider all these references then role of shonit and phen (vayu) in formation of lungs canbe considered. (Prof. Kalpana Sathe) During the separation from the foregut lung buds forms the trachea and two bronchialbuds. At 5tlweek these bronchial buds enlarges to form right and left main bronchi. Right formthree secondary bronchi and left two. Lung buds expand in to body. The spaces for the lung, thepericardioperitoneal canals are nalrow. They lie on each side of foregut and filled up withexpanding lung buds. Pleuroperitoneal and pleuropericardial folds separate these canals from theperitoneal and pericardial cavities remaining space from pleural cavities. Mesoderm coveringoutside the lung develops in to visceral pleura and somatic mesodermal layer covering body wallfrom inside forms parietal pleura. On further development, secondary bronchi divide to form 10segmental bronchi in right lung and 8 in left lung creating bronchopulmonary segments. Up to 7thmonth bronchioles divide, vascular supply increases steadily and form primitive alveoli. Type 1alveolar epithelial cells lining the alveoli become thinner and sumounding capillaries protrude into alveolar sac. This intimate contact between epithelial and endothelial cells makes up the bloodair barrier. At the end of 6tl month type- 2 alveolar epithelial cells produce surfactant loweringsurface tension at air alveolar interface. Before birth lungs are full of fluid that contains highchloride concentration, little protein, mucus from bronchial glands and surfactant. At thebeginning of respiration at birth most of the fluid is resorbed by the blood and lymph capillaries(Langman embryology, 1OtlEdition). Presence of mucus, blood air barrier, and surfactant maybe the cause for formation of lung from shonitaphena. (Dr. Sangeeta Gehlot)1.6. While giving the description of formation of organs during embryonic life, Sushrut hasmentioned the term phupphusa in singular and locating it on the left side of the heart, hehas said that pliha and phupphusa are situated below and left to hriday while yakrit andkloma are to its right. Please explain. ---- asrei Ttr+{:grrr€r{Eeil; Errirf?r: 66rwq3-E+ea, Ef4rurd e-€{ dai4; ---- il (9. e*. +tzr) Dalhana commenting on Su. Sha. 4/31 has furnished tilak as another name forkloma. In (Su. Ni. 9/18) he has stated that kloma is situated below kalakhanda (liver) onthe right side and is popularly known as tilak. Please explain.
  • - - _q 6rcrso-s <Rrurqrefeeq I ---- wld o-rdso-s;rqEmrE frqd*ruuted=ei fttrqi 9fr6i{l dqraaqasrunbed, rr (g. eTT- s/Ia q{ g,€ur) (Dr. Hema Waghulade & Dr. Sarita Ohol) In Sushrut Samhita phuphphusa is used in singular. The term tilak may be used forgallbladder (pittashay) as commentary of Dr. Ghanekar (Dr. B.N. Mishra) e-eq EFrcl-*rlt-s <ftrtrqre*sq{ | --- w}dr EbrFrsrs-sr€E?frtd frq-i qfeTurqrsf,"€r -n,.tkdd lQ-aqr *siaaq-azpnFreef r €.F. e s-eur)61 H orq t gqu+ E "-daftrcrT d errsrsfr a gd-e-ffid E, Htr-6 dqff 6B urr z{6-A B r crerT da gg{ 3fderq * 3ru-E 6+r rtrd dg{ zFT"-6asida{fu o-c} B d ggo a d-drS 3{Ertlq z€rrcr ?rrwr: T{-trg r{-6-A B s}s dd fiarra dsE ard-+ t fru d-d eft sqEr€r Are * 6t€ rrffrg 3ri{r@r a-S *ar r lffit gTrr(: Trrz: lgd gffir aitffi I ?n!q €<-qs r rda ft-d6q aBeNor r +d-drT€nci *a-ertvd zrra;*q g a1z5Er er$r+d r (sew &o-rg.qn.4/31)Er6trg{ E.6 qcrd): - :rr-gt< d EEu{ or auf4 LreF .Icr6r d *dr B r qr*as d igro={{ A B,q6 <r€ silE s*s tt6 qr€ alE r q:-€ + # M o-eaftror d errsrEil-* srrq-€fr gire Grlr+d *a B, fu ad cm o* qr ero-* B r (qrd-sz A-.F-r)g+ qftc-€* araqi €S Eierqdl€elr Ig-ffi+*g:ft dtr €E-$ qtfrfta GrT -rerrrA* fta-g:anB cr-frqrq qr€rfrrEFraer+, r r (g. B. e r.r a)g-d aiz+fu"s-s-<-ei, tt+} araqpqdfr€rd,, ffi <Rruqre{ftq6.e-g-_d6"rdisttii ERrorqre*s€r{ | d6r sezaei oraqredRera, r Fd r e.+ff 6rd-eu-sr€€r"drq Rq"i cRrurtnedzei ffiFryg€d _rdrt-dei-€e{ qrgnrsFrdeT+: qfrgq r*si ftrsanF crfrqTq 3Trcr-rrrrunfrsef: | (s-6oy) gznffi aiTfiiegffi 31aqd ts d qraqred fr ftera tr.F rrerr <Rwrcned # gwer rEFrcr*rus {r-gq E5r q-qftr ? s*{ d-6 GFl-q + ERrq-qred fr ft<ra ts r ffidr s-d-s *(6e-+ t) qrsqred fr ftera BL 6n-q sreilga qrcIT Eb-.ryc.r €qgdr€-flrd *dr B r rn*alEFT?rsr"-s (e-g;-{) t cRpr qred fr fr€r-d *dr ts s*{ ftffitr -dr-d * qft+ea B rasqei Elrirlif: E€[rR- gfi tt{ fr 6F-q-{rffi sffi crr ser-+ ?TTer zenHo qj<ier Gferc.rr{rr arqr B rSs-fr Eqe+ +d-d trfi rrxr ft-sr B r gl+ qaTr< o1 qr o-t-i + fus arorqrer*as-rsrererr${ zft qe=n-r+ar # fE ura gfua 6-{A E, "q-€ €Eq-{qre} raftgr Ere-E{?q,<Rrq* +gd dff q gfr zlga, sr6&T5I srdTrd gd €e+* r 6a+uqpft qraa, d6r,-f"T eeq 3a{EIiI: ffitff gre"+ q gfr g wrei-erra uro:, 3r6Ererr a ffi oerqft?l-@ Tr#TTqrga I 6rF-tffig:t1-r-dTq zvr< 6+ei z€lr4duil{T. I trrq <Rrura, da-+g;a E!ryEIrarR€raqn (sr.€. eTT. z/1o 3r€q<crT) e*o d 3rgr{rc ERrsr qred * aft EroT{ A-dr qrBs sfu qR E:€-A3rgr{rl qr*d rrro Ea grnr{ * qffi ft;qr qrs -arqreil driFr?r: d-d-Ereereq, <Rrq* e-€F-d dfl gqz+ear (g.en. 4/31 qr,+6-{A-6-r)dr qr*d 3TT€rR d srgzrre rrrd A-6-{ tr6 rr€rer ffieft aft d-S dar I l0
  • ffi)fl - ft-d-6 - arrd dfu{ - €E fre}q-d e-g;q + cRpr rrred d ft€r-.r w}fi z*3qqrerq (fimbqrq), €s o-o-arS (qm-+r) s*z- gg; ftarerq (arra 67sr) zrryg* Be-+n sref t ftils €"€r n gu zrreia e-qr"T a*a B r a,6 ;-- a *1:€ ;.f ft# rafr *dr u-t-g hffi or{"il + zdff zn-r .:ref fuarerq Er?crr srEro BFd-d s-#d +6Br r) gtl-+t =-efu rm # 6t-de * ar* a€ B rz) e-eE sls da o-r =-*tq Errer eTTer +dr B r ftrqfu d d€ruil d aft d otTftrTtEr?rT qdr* o€ B r eqrzi e-g;ft {un q fuq|-gTr 4tTtar,}sfero-r (g. B. s) e) errt-ureru t eo-ror-s 3TT6r...r d srgz+re aft ge-or iraa-+ g, g elFra d-rdd qarti efh.un&.t e-g;-ctr-S* udrr eisc; aroftedfl d F ara * aft qrar qrar B d6 qgr{- t e-rftq <Rrorqred d ftera tsr r ft"{+) da s$en dRrur qred d qarqr B I sr€rrg cRr+ arr& 6eerq dfl ftcaft r 6u-da€t qeq fr ffi B, s*z sraanerer a€q fr. A-6? ffi qred fr Bd-drtsrs) da + ftil+ fr-d-e; qrq aft d-dr B r qR q-€;q + ff} gE error*sr qru d fuarerq +t srrg;ft "{* ftrd"g*t -ue ^a # zrqra e-g{ o. qH fr.n B,fr- *Eldrq-d, Aarorz, slz orarqa Ed qrd mr der +ar B: -Reference Greys anatomy: The gall bladder is a conical or a pear-shaped (tilakriti) musculomembranous sac,lodged in fossa on the under surface of right lobe of liver.el-our<Er * srqft A-6r fr ouid fu-qr B - sffil fuRa-gryei+rg qrq* zE+dT zi€rzF:r"l-ffrd-qr€*u=o tEn sirr qdrqr arqr B fu- +e ) ffiilq qE €qq, ErFq, t fl-6r, =-<-i*ara # ga d eTTer 3{TErcTT T€rra €6 d-{d ero-an BEroq r*^s-a-fr ^uratr ery! offia, re-<r r *argarqr drqf"E €f@ €erq r sFcerolrdgors-unF qrrefttrea f}€a r en*a .6ft6r e-q-*d Ero"r 6r.i- a.rir+d-(€d rr+-raft furrr r (ger #or, anzar-rcrcrel "rr+* ft67i (Prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar)Dalhana commenting on Su. Sha.4131 has furnished tilak as another name for kloma. In (Su. Ni.9/18) he has stated that kloma is situated below kalakhanda (liver) on the right side and ispopulirly known as tilak. Please explain.e_€E 6rtrs€ <Rrq-qred?€rq r da zFrc,t*ru-srqSnarq fr€t"i ERprqre*sei ftd-t6vfrle{ r *qraaqazpnfutqef. r r (g. eTT. s /t I ou -e*)In this shloka Sushrut has said that pliha an{ phupphusa are situated below and left to hridaywhile yakrit and kloma are to its right. This means that left lung is situated below (inferior) andleft to hriday and spleen is situated below (inferior) and left to hriday. In anatomical positionheart is situated obliquely and its right i/3rd part toward right side of sternum and its 6nZtZnportion to left side of sternum. Its opening is situated between cardiac notch of left lung. So thatsome part of left lung is lying below heart. It means that some part of left lung is on left andbelow the heart. Here the left lung is singular so it is described as (singular). If it is described as aparshvataha means laterally then we can say that on both lateral side there are two lungs but inthis shloka there is no parshva word and also other organs described i.e. liver, kloma (pincreas),spleen, these all organs (structures) are below or inferior to the heart (hriday) and not to iisparshva (lateral) side (prof. Karpana Sathe) Acharya Shri Kanthadutt has considered kloma as above the vrikka and the site of thirstwhile Dalhana has explained kloma as situated below kalkhanda (liver) on the right side and is t1
  • known as tilak. Yakrit and kloma both have been considered together among koshthangas. Itshould be in the right side of the heart. We have to consider kloma as an organ which has closerelation with liver and situated below the liver and above the kidney and right side of the heart.This organ may be pancreas because the shape of pancreas is like tilaka. Head of pancreas is nearkidney. Injury to pancreas leads to thirst because main cause of thirst is agni. Agni throughpancreatic duct reaches small intestine and digests the food causing bhaktaja trishna. In otherway insulin, by utilizing glucose, regulates the water balance of the body. When insulin isdeficient the individual develops diabetes mellitus, which causes polydipsia. (Dr. Sangeeta Gehlot)1.7. ln garbhavastha vrikka are produced by prasad bhaga of rakta and meda. Pleaseexplain this through modern embryology. gd r (g etr 4/3o) "-trF{q-s{T<ra (Dr. Devendrappa Budi) The vrikka (kidneys) are formed from the essence of rakta and meda. According tomodern embryology kidney develops from mesoderm. The blood cells are also mesodermal inorigin. There are two layers of fat surrounding the kidney, vhich are derived from meda. So it isjustified to say that vrikka (kidney) develops from rakta and meda. (Dr. B.N. Mishra) In Ayurveda organogenesis is described in Su. Sha. Ch. 4, A.S. Sha. Ch.5 and Sha.Pu.Kha. Ch.5. In Ashtang Samgrah Acharya has firstly explained about the shadbhavas where they havedetailed the development of organs from matnj and pitrij bhavas. In this they have mentioned thedevelopment of rakta and meda. Rakta and meda dhatu are matrij bhavas. After that tvacha,kala,ashay it" huu. been described. On a restrospective view we can say that firstly dosha, dhatu,mala develop and after that -d-{ # dwrn q€rdTrzruq e}ftl-d-srzd rl-rq} r (sr.zi. QTT. srza) This means in the fetus, the ahar rasa which comes from the mother is acted upon by itsown agni at the site where saman vayu is situated and after digesting it firstly the shonit isformed and later on other organs develop from it. Phuppusa develop from its phenabhuta bhaga(effervescence), yakrit and pliha from its prasad bhaga and unduka from the kitta bhaga (wastematerial). Similarly vrikka develop with the aid of rakta and meda. Here we can see the development on the basis of mahabhutadhikya in the urdhva, adhoand tiryak directions. Phupphusa develop from the dominance of vayu and akash in the urdhvaregion, dominance of prithvi leads to development of unduk in the adho region and thedoininance ofjala and prithvi lead to the development of vrikka in the middle region. Secondly it can be said that during shava vicchedana (dissection), the organs which werefound in proximity of particular dhatu in abundance were thought to develop from the same.Even today we can see medo dhatu (adipose tissue/omentum) in abundance around the vrikka (kidney). Not many references are available about the functions of vrikka but in Sharangdhar Samhita Purvakhan da 5I 44Td srrdrrqadfBRnr{d I@ gffi ffi) Grd€q{€r fras{, I w" ro*. to know the relation between vrikka and meda from this. 12
  • Cha. Vi.5 and Su. Sha. 9/12 mention vrikka as mulasthan of medovaha srotas.Sharangdhar in Purvakhanda has mentioned tilavrikka. According to Pandit Damodar ShastriGaud. we can state it as adrenal gland because on removal of this gland conditions like daurbalya(weakness), karshya (debility),vaman-hrillas (nausea), agnimandya (deranged digestive fire),trishna (thirst), akshepa (convulsion), etc upadravas are seen to arise. Such conditions arementioned under meda dhatu vikruti in the samhita. So we come to know the development ofvrikka from rakta and meda. According to modern embryology blood and connective tissue are formed frommesoderm. Adipose tissue which is a type of connective tissue is also formed from mesoderm. Inorgan development, the kidneys are derived from intermediate mesoderm. Hence we can say thatthere exists a common link between the two. (Prof. Kalpana Sathe) Metanephros or permanent kidney appears in the fifth week and excretory unit developsfrom metanephric mesoderm. Collecting ducts of kidney develop from ureteric bud, anoutgrowth of mesonephric duct. The bud penetrates the metanephric tissue, which is molded overits distal end as a cap and bud dilates to form primitive renal pelvis, splits into future majorcalyces. Each calyx form two new buds, which subdivide to form 12 generations of tubules, andultimately form minor calyces. During further development collecting tubules elongate andconverge on minor calyx and form renal pyramid. The ureteric bud gives rise to the ureter, renalpelvis, major and minor calyces and collecting tubules. Each collecting tubules at distal endcovered is with metanephric tissue cap, which form renal vesicles giving rise to S-shapedtubules. Capillaries grow and differentiate in to glomeruli. Tubules together with glomeruli formnephrons; proximal end of which forms Bowmans capsule and distal end forms proximalconvoluted tubule, loop of Henle and distal convoluted tubule. Metanephric mesoderm, which provides excretory units; and ureteric bud gives rise tocollecting system. Differentiation of kidney involves epithelial mesenchymal interactions. Themesenchyme expresses lYTl, atranscription factor that makes this tissue competent to respondto induction by the ureteric bud, and also regulates production of glial-derived neurotrophicfactor (GDNF) and hepatocyte growth factor by the mesenchyme. These proteins stimulatebranching and growth of the ureteric buds. The tyrosin kinase receptor (RET) for GDNF, andMET for HGF are synthesized by thb epithelium of ureteric buds, establish the signalingpathway between two tissues and the buds induce the mesenchyme via fibroblast growth factorand bone morphogenic protein 7. Adipose tissues are modified fibroblasts that store almost pure triglycerides in 80-95%.FGF has been isolated from the tissues having inadequate blood supply. Involvement of bloodand adipose tissue (modified fibroblast) may be the possible cause for development of kidneyfrom raka meda prasad. (Dr. Sangeeta Gehlot) indriya utpatti (A.S. Sha. 5172).1.8. Please explain aen oqimqrFai std-E{i a-erapi q q{IrqTq gErqFr r (Vd. Pranita P. Joshi) aen znqr-mqrE-aiffi rarapi a u"lrqr{ gErqrFr r (s+.2i. eTT. s.z z)owlft,q-arF ilB *dift{ *i a-eruprai q errffiaai q@qftunaTq s€rflqaga-fffr Effir erdtrtr t gg61-ot) 13
  • Entire body is basically panchabhautik. Every sharirabhava is originated in its specificsrotas. How does indriya originate? Is indriyavaha srotas mentioned? So to solve these problemsAshtang Samgrahakara has offered the mode of utpatti of indriya in intrauterine life. Sinceindriya is a special avayava predominant in one specific mahabhuta for perception of vishaya ofthat mahabhhuta it is originated and nourished by that particular mahabhautic part of ahar. Hehas used word kapharaktavahi. The interpretation offered by Indu is kaphadivahani meansdoshavahi, dhatuvahi etc srotamsi. In those srotamsi when agni of mahabhuta (atmiya agni ofmahabhuta) acts on nourishment; during intrauterine life indriyotpatti takes place and duringextra-uterine life indriyapo shana takes place. (Dr. Nandini Dhargalkar) sr{qEEe}q Ekqqr e;ffi qrh ffi{ *qi a-aralarat qraffia-arqT6qftunarq qc{r6raq"Tfiffir a1-dfu l r (sr.zi. en.s/4a q-{ E€) ?reIT mcnzmqrfrrqi fu a-aranrrai q qzrrerRftrqrFr r r Ag srfr q Heequl: s"rr-dr€@-ffu-sEi dq ftr€cq r 3rq-cil: €wrd"-sci aarEqq I ae+ €fu"sEicrgsT€rrctftFiff I I (sr.zi. QrT. s t + a- + s)In the present context, indriya means indriyadhishthan i.e. organs involved in perception ofsenses. Eyes and other sense organs are formed from prasad bhag resulting due to action ofpanchabhutagnis located in raktavaha srotas and then resulting prasadbhag interact with kapha inraktavaha srotas and forms eyes. Obviously these have to happen where the future eyes should beformed, not in any other area of raktavaha srotas. So there are many more processes involved.Not much is mentioned in Ayurvedic texts about these. Also the process is not as easy as said orwritten in the texts. Take the example of eyes, where shukla mandal is pitrij, krishna mandal ismatd and drishti mandal is ubhayatmak in origin. In other words according to principles ofAyurvedic genetics shevta mandal is exclusively paternally inherited, krishna mandal isexclusively matemally inherited while drishti mandal is not exclusively inherited. Thus muchcomplexity is involved in embryological development of any tissue, organ, system or any bodypart (Dr. Sandhya Patel) . o.6rR (snR er< d ffuq zdaq ol siaarfu) ;ffi + sia-ufa d-{d-6raldqc sfid qfrorrq A-iF-r rr+Tr< a+ror i Ekq gg-d d srgzrru ffio =-rok ffi B r(e+rfuo), +q-e+ (rlwe+), srao.rs + €E-q s-flfu *ft B r araf fr srnu-qa+ro t Fou* €Fq =-ilfu oFFa B raq owzmorFai zqta-Eri a-araprai q q"rr<rE gksnFrr (sr.d. eTT. sr+e) 3rrqq frelq €CEeq r owrfrrc-arB qrB zffi+ }wi a.aqrrai qreffiarqroqfrsrrdrq s;Brerq qgzr&ffir a+_dfu r r (sr.zi. elr.s/4a g€) tF.FlR EFT El-€lor zffi d} sidrtd a-ara1d q{ 3{Fd d rrro qb-qrds-E, s{T lrelr< a+r;r * agzrR €trd zft sgk ffi tsreilt-{qefrilag"-tr-aqronB €ft tffiffir eMF€ClvrFrffi r Efrz{i@ d-dGfl r qsft srrgf<, eriw-Eefui !nzr: srge-Sa aensft €trffi ftrq-+s+rgd-<ev zli@rq f}l@aq srfta r srrgd* effifr, frftrorF s+fu r trci qiq&tfu s{ft s}=i srr6renfb-e6, weld qrdrfird, qg MfErEi, T€iuqfBt6, sr"i q gfarqrFrdi, Eti e{rdrenfEl@rq sn;i srorQftei, wefd. qrqdtzi, ?€a-s{i Tgrzi 31-tzi, qr"i qrfafrd gsrff qqReqA dfrqaf,a-{q af,qEdrE I@vergaaftara -Rr.ai.a-tcn) l4
  • slT, wef, T{I, T+rGr, EITuI qiq Friaffi E r a1fuq dehrgrrp sffi €G;gffd T€k znfto_o 31soru t ffi E r fu-q srrg*crgu+ru €tr-q 3-€Frr r{i@ + fbrdB, sfu €rF uia a-aragil d eF16 gau*erq af,q{n qrq * e+aft €ftd qfq&}ft-6 ffi g€ aft, sil* - 3{T-Frer a-aranrrflrre qqX - #aaranrrfCrro, T{rEr - ea aargarFre tqtr - org a-araprfirw drr{r - geff a-draf,cnf-€rcrq eq €F{i fue}uq er<rerzF, aq+nrrt-ci aRkei a-<re-sr+Esreffrqei 3rg:tJu-atft srgurofr I qq *w, send. -rAcr:q€rrcffrer frs{i {"-drfr €-erel: Iad qftforftlefr Eraq r ax tsgara ?rc rerrET-r frgara d€{arrqr}d Ereef: r frgerfrfr-eT.FTcllqr ffi aq agzrftai ero-tqrft-sd:t(*vurgadfuflra -d-d-6) €Fq # fue+ a-ara1a or 3nflrw 6)-dn B, s-S a-erala-$ sE+ EBq of s-€fuffi E r g{cbr eg B, 1. dq Ee{rotq - ftr€ ftq-q tnT q6ur fu-qr qrar B s-€-o.r Eru{lcrz. ftganq - etzftTart.r - sifiIar qrfiq gwu-d t q-flefr 6r q-€rq z+raed rg5d d €=trrq] d =-€Rr 6r lrfi.rt - afta-eot Eq aliatsatt a adcreTftrersr E-drc;-el-trlt =:tr€ra,T{ BE€} ffia1alftftft,65aqrsnd+6rqe)ffir s-d-a-A r (g.en. r ) sz+ sral-ffi * s{q€ftT aeruil qrcrr (zr-to, Ts, da au) aq aa groa *.n6r3r€rcftr - a eq) ?+r 3Tzr.rr a e-qt ol$ eftaq rsrafq d qm ERre d€rut-gffi d-S +dr qr ffi ord e-m afr zsar, q-el Trqr1fr .br orsor B q-{-g g€-o.r .*€ zrruur a-S B r g+r a-d?I dc<r * €rrr, G, ainaer"il * gzm 3rd6re 3roa 6J-dr E r q-6 srao,s ffin (zrrfuo), +q-E{ (zrww),aldlE (ara-e+) als A d-a sorc or alar B r gd-S ffiF 31sorz * *q-€ 3166r*s1 ergrqdT Ertr €;fr aeruil qr"ft z+rfta-o uei zFrgr aenr6 (trq aratretr, rfu6trffi, €ffi 3ro4 +e E | ffi, dtcT ?rer 6-d H €trE-d * zrrarqqd +dr "rret-a6r) B, 3T.r: g{Td se{Elrdtr o_d} ? I @-a)s{Tdcr aild - €F{T siqFd araf fr 3{r?inr e{rer B"€iafl B - furl-A ar€-fu{ B s-{ft *F # @, FrE,aa, qku, 9TT, 3TEII6I, fu.tT, qrswerd gtwrE r (Prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar)aen ocn=mqr&ai *d-€i a-sraprai q q"rr<rq €ClqrFr r (sr.zi. eTT. s/4a)3tcr€ttt frelq Ekqq r owrftn-ArB qrB *aitr{ tqi a-Aranrrai qraffiaarqroqfrrrrrdrq q$rflq agzrR Etrqpr al-dfu r etrrqfffi €frlqrFr Efr s-€-t | (s€ A-6r)e-df rrs ekm qcrrcft B r orn-zm-er& daq 3*{ ardTw €-d-B qc{r< A€Fq =-d-d ffi B I qdf €Fq er< A 3rcr{r.r s-ecr +dr B r omrfraa daq kdEra a-ara1d A q+ B sa sa aarald * srrffia Ergt qrtr A-.Fu agzrE EE rFrfffr gg E r ow*mErFai S-Tzri + +-d-d q-e ddq zr"rflfrr sP{d afr B r tqrfrBRro ard Ru rrs E r dEF srrqd ftrfff,r fr 6s-dq s*r ztffi errg fri=Trqrf,{ trrdq s*s q.crrdrB daq * s+werrgsfr t ei}aq tc{r srd 3F{d a-urar B r -T{i@ €trr.r sflfr.7araTsf,d =*c ieta ud srrgf< d srgzrrr gow * srer zi*rr S qe e-€-ff * aeqet g-cq-d ffi Br aretI d 3rd6-rt d ssd A"dr Br Dorfro s*E *qE+ 3rd-6rs *riq dr+Fq, riq 6-frFq sls fla or Mtrr d-dr B r alarR s*r *wc{ srziors *dqd-trr*r s*{ ri?-tr-ril-{rsffi ri?-fl-6ref,.r H-r *} ts ra-aralarB *[ crg: srFa: 3trc[: fhf]: ?reIT Ierq: wef, q ati q gefr rr-c€r?a ?rGEIoTI: tl l5
  • M6aJq-, Ed ggrgk: qt qt t_ ^ ^qd qfgop;q e-aei gFrg rq?r: ll -. (a- en. 1/27-2a)src*s-argsfrrerB e-dfFr trdrrB Bffeza z+ re* g r{tqi qtri aerui €yn n ^ (z3_. :"., r rzt).- r E6 adraf,-d A qz{t aaraf,d ftt ssd ffi B I gr+ fu-+r # q-d& a-6la1a t{"r s}s 6.} --arW o1 Aefq gr fudA E r gc+ ana q-€ra adTald d sns gu g"il+1 al.rl-m-{ u}erqq g.r o-a} E r3{TeFTeT - €rd<drg-er<+wef-m-erq+wef+uq3rrcr-erq+wef+Ecr+z*rg?ff - erq + wef + Eq + + aier zE+z+aft a-aruf,d da-fldra{iii-d sierriflo a--arqrsffi zie+rr * d-aa E I {ql5 Yp4 srTq i-q qrg 3Tr ch"RIq-dsft{frri aq ziar+rai €-dde elarR sftI: Ia*FrorB iGrqrFr srrgd* Eu# aen EGrqrerf, t (g eTT. r r t +)€ffierqref g ai Ei rt{nfr aTrda: IGrq?i g@dftilq a siffift fterfr, rt (9. efr. r rr s) fue+ a-ara1a fr * d-ffl5lr g@ ffi B, cr6 ddr*t gur sfl a-eraf,d or ftelsg-r 6-6crrflr B r o-g frelq gur r€{ a-greila d fue}q Er{t q-6ur +dI B r e$ €Fu-g@eilhd o-a* E I sraft ardFq qiqsnfrE E r ttn *i gg aft rro areFq d E6 6 a-araf,a orsTfcr@ zgar B s*z sE+ a-greilr or erqweTfR Belq g.r dr+Bq * a[-6ul dar B rte]fuo errtry * 3rgr{rt c-o ar*Fq pm fr a-draf,fl * oa61 } 1ff6rw lardrg"r drdFq g.BqsTtrrsra E"rgeff drsr qnnFq ATU{T JI€r3tTc[ TE{ z-s-dBrr fu€I T+rA-q 5q aglF+ +tr 5t[qrg wef zqeffrFq c€IzIT wef3{T-FT?T erq eiliFq o.uf er6aarzlT - gd aaref,a - aiu gg As; - 1Jrsrg-rg, sql.rqrg, .FtF Errg - srfterBAqr - 3flq a-draf,.T - uer guy dq-ow errg - aiz+, 3rqQ t6
  • +{ - iu-rarap - o-cr {q Aq - srrdq.F fud qrg - aiz+, smc(rzlT - qtg aar?f,rr - wef gw *q arrq-o futn qrg - srqq, aiz+.6uf - 3{r6rer adref,d - €rq gur dq - znw €rrg - arfrer, sm (Prof. Kalpana Sathe)1.9. What is the sequence of formation of oja, dosha, dhatu, mala, avayava in garbha aftershukra shonit samyog? (Ref: Cha. Su. 30/ 10 & Su. Sha. 4 and 5) (Vd. Anuja Vinod Shah)q?r c+rt-aryr* aral+q ercctaf arair-g+rrE+,rzia-farrei 6eei e-arftrwft erd grrn (a. + 3o/t o)(d-ffiffi)Oja lives in entire body (vartayanti jivanti). In formation of zygote or garbha; due to union ofshukra-shonita and combination of this union with jiva; Oja is existing (tatrapi tishthati). 1q zrRaQ araHft_?Io-eiFrozffi ffirfrn-qri eq urrrgi, 6T5flft Froftraq 3a+ulrqoeffi odd6.Er1q q.+r Eft zrrapq-i zie-d-qr=i €-<_.iTrffi q{_g* EF vcr-Erei-ftquarai a*o- e-m-eler"i *q€-- gf*ffiQEft sref t lr+d ararfqterr+$ s+fu dffi€q*, qi g "rn+id- ?i@elFrd-Fq-d-q-, srsrroffi g z<-aerrrgm-*o fiaft s+q, Efrs+dg{ e-Ela-zerrqrq-o-Aa "TrerT?"r,cr?re[, 1 qepi rlt+ C s*ql er8t s+ftuq er8ftonq(q.et tzrzs) r When chetana tattva lodges in garbha (fertilized zygote or shukra-shonita-samyoga), ojaexistence is primarily proposed by Charak Samhita. Secondarily it is reflected in form ofgarbharasa, which is due to sarabhuta parinamana of this samyoga. Thirdly it is reflected whenorganogenesis takes place i.e. heart is formed and oja gets its location to physically express itselfPutting all these references together it become clear that: 1. Union of shukrashonita is sarabhuta, with already oja existing in union. 2. As suggested by all Ayurvedic compendia, it is sukshma svarupa of future dhatu. After the union of shukrashonita is complete, with oja already existing in this union, atma or chetana combines with the union i.e. lodges in union. This atman brings panchatanmatra, which tum into panchamahabhuta while combining with the union of shukrashonita. Panchamahabhuta of shukra, panchamahabhuta of shonita and panchamahabhuta of atma unite to give rise to prakrit dosha te shariraikajanmanah (A.S. Sha. 12). a Prakrit vata acts for dhatuvyuhan and further development of intrauterine life of offspring 4. Development is of avayava, sukshma mala takes place at a time (yugApt). 5. When the kalala form of zygote undergoes differentiation and origination of various organs is induced heart is differentiated. In this physically developed heart, oja is expressed. (Dr. Nandini Dhargalkar) I7
  • eq srIsr* rrefuq qae;ratrrrretr: re{a-darei €e-d {rflrfrerfr eq g"r I Iqe zTTer€ areisfrf, enfr arerrg uee1<urf)eraa rr (a. zl sou r o-r r ) eq alaHft g-oetFr<r{ffi ffirffi eq r{rean:i, drrft frrsfr "rrrffr* r crla ara+F+s€rrr-+sft ; v{ ara+t* goe*Franrr*ou-a-w, ro-ddr+z€rrqi g r+t-*trrorrcrElT, 3r€rqEEq+ g arostq gceilc-er,zi-Efq-+errqrq-e--+dae-d€qftr "qaqrurgffi-+E(q. q 3o/r o-1 r qe q6-qrFr) o Oja is found in all the three stages of intrauterine life o In the form of shukra-shonit-saar at the time of conception o As rasa-saar-rupa during kalal avastha o In its own morphological form and characters after the embryogenesis is over i.e. during further differentiation of various organs, systems and other body parts. goelFni alarfqrq{@i aaf gqa} r .i *aan-Efteridrgffiardfr, +q gtr q-trft, 3lrEI: zt#a, gRrff srrorei tr{d€ffi r trzifrrEFla, zr "i6trd, Eft €rfru aa+* t ?Tcrs-ss.aierrsrqa-r*, aeEi dqai, v€ Rrr gft r (g. eTT. szs) "idr a-s Ea qqfr qrErETft 3lTcI: ffi rfr eMs:qr*ai araerft gFre aQar, ffi qefu, ffi, ziqd6rrrdffi"n eneferq r srrFrei r6fui {trdq o-*ft; ei6lffi "{6Cdfud€ffi s e*ffffier€r+d fus€ffiraeqffi o"-orfgau*aa r r (9. eTT. 5/3 rr{ sew) . Teja digests and metabolizes, vayu divides and differentiates, ap moistens, prithvi solidifies (samhanan), akash proliferates and enlarges. . Teja metabolizes and rupat apantarena avasthan prapayati (makes fuither differentiation of cells or development of organs, system and other body parts). Ap moistens; even when anil and anal (agni) dehydrate, it (ap) produces moisture. Anil is responsible for differentiation and divisions. Prithvi solidifies or compresses even though ap moistens the parts and gives shape to the tissue, organ or body part. Akash canalizes; it enlarges the canals, produced by anil and anal (agni), in all the directions.-T5[ effii sftrqrefuEord er$serqqq]er*E draq6fiun5,-goeiffiftr s@ 3{T<+rr da-fl,, q€?Tzr:gerrareqn$, ft6rc: riaa[dr+o..rde]GrqrFr ift frser, *, ftrft*[d ar+f gftziar aar*, --- | "iq.E6.i o Then bhautik panchamahabhuatas are formed from panchatanmatra (Su. Sha. ll4 & Dalhan commentary) These mahabhutas help in differentiation of various dhatus and avayavas (organs, system and other body parts). These require temporal and spatial expression of gene/s in the form of interaction between doshas and dhatus e.g. o Vayu differentiates and divides o Akash canalizes o Shonnitphena forms phuphphus o Shonitkitta forms unduka o Mamsa, asrik, kapha and meda-prasad form vrikka Mala forms after dhatu formation has started. Though, sequence of. formation of various dhatu and mala is mentioned, the time between their formations may not be easy to establish. Also this sequence has yet not been confirmed bymodern embryology, developmental biology and genetics; better to say that no one has tried in this direction. The avayavas differentiate in the last. 18
  • o However, one should not forget the following verse, which states that certain avayavas require tempo:al (kaal) or default (svabhav) expression oraqft"Trdte :qa+rqzjReq r (a. en. +tzz) (Dr. Sandhya patel) The sequence of formation after shukra-shonit samyog is dosha, dhatu, mala and avayava. According to charak oja is first formed in garbha (cha. Su.) (Dr. B.N. Mishra) ?ieiqd, dsar s*q ara+tszen (qria{ d o o-erar+sqr *) z+a-c fD+a, *q €rFg 3letqE aa (ze1a aa *<, g5{, gffq)a"T sf+ tz, ui 30 d Erfftra ziqarlgrfiz den g.eTr. 4/s of a1arerar * araf d ogqEm F-ff wE fu-qr .ir a-oan B r qerd qrqi $w, er8tsftaq er$ftqT{ I 1fu^tf*i + arwrarfi.q qrrql l (q + t z rz s) ers{Errffi erftE * sf,qera _s*;q ;"1 B@fu &ft B r sezr q"f ga *Er€QT, Trr arg * 3r€er :*c rF*t erra d arqr (?fi-m) t zr-ara +*-e,crcEr€I- 3{+ rr€r d e-q-$ qsd srefq ara+Fq-s€fi fr fi siuq #5c{ efirrq sErEFr E5.cr r{fu age-{{fl arqrerGer q- B- mag ="ifu *r rrft # -oa-,q E r-=-- ^F K.iFnr s+.r 6r Ero.q il-d Edaeae, *i --* (a. T& 3 o Braoqrqft) "ffiaflqq e-+d-{fi qffa frFrar, ed*Fqr, I e-{A zi-daldiar dE i arsEftr* r r eq z+rcord arafTq qaalalse{re-u+, r zia-fm=i €E-{i zl-flrfuefifr eq ar-f5|ft -g"Tu (q, ud. aozs_r o) "i-*1g]- ?r--t@nw"E{aat^zia-tarei^6_<-.i- zranEenft -q gtft €rfl 6,*--t-, ;a-**-fro1dF--s-^flfETffi qFeaf r u*a orc+fo-Eirrq-+se 6-.i ri? a-ra+ldgoeiFra-errcswr+r, 6a-drd-{€rqi g @, iffi#i-l FT{.t-5q-d-.rr,e{erd,rrer: erEFo-Eerrqlq-rn-*q aEEebA .--*rrrg*-g- t qra fua €acnq td *gtie; _d_E, I (E[. sf.zt rz)ara, ft-a ?reTT EErb adaqfu * q(d 3* B r " fuu sHerrg^ * Ew su u+aft" sr"ft mfud -"-6a a, fu-.a srarrzr s e+aftoft-eil or ffaa a-s H srefq ffi 3Tancr + -+; -# gq a -rft B;fr uraf t 3ttornr_-*--ll--elFra t-srrs*;q fr, + araf * o-o-ssre-En d sc{ * =-serrE -.Er fr ssar B, 3F d s*a 6eu + Frfft-r ora frd arer *e * ersr ae d rrrar ts r =*d #*, o*dr B r s*quraf- g.B-e-drfreTqr€reqa1le F++-rzeffirGraep;t ut1+raqr g€ el_dftr aref-tg ^gFelFE ;ft{ 1rg EfM arafzfar arCe*a-qr. u-ua-*6; 61-w-w*: eng-scm: | (a. err. +ro) gsr, elFm Ed "FfEryaf,d: "r* araf --a-Br araf uin-o"ro+d-qr -Fr ffd + Tieilrr{d-* +an- } r ee+hs e$ vs.rrgo aft o*o} B rAq =-cqfuqr<r+reraKrraqi qrg: r sr.rj. 2o/11ry Ef)-"fuaqi edsar r (sr.zi. zort)frai srra*e-ff I (g. T& +zrs) I9
  • a-raf fr-ors+q"Ifr TITUI-* g *dq"r=tq aref5-arqzq: qerfr flrft{ d4@, zr-dqrg6dd-€-d: ae.rddercffi z+dzrdTard-f3dr-fEl.I: | (a 9TT. 4/s) g-ffi ilsf qerfl arr{ fr 3r.r{€lT d zgtn E I T{aft -at"fo Ed aaa*# gU aft sa-fr €rcadt EFr 3raflzr zaar B r trrgsf *errdd U-o-s+rq gqfrq-d "i{Fdd -;r}}} J .ru-o- aft srqqd-zgar rqranft-o B r a-raf z* ersz sn-qft qr.d g€ a-SA*; -* a-W (ziFTrr om-rrara) srrru€rT d Tsdr B r a.n zlq 3rz{q sir}drf,I s6f,rBrd*IE d-e, dG alraa}a affi B.E r a-EnqrFr a d-d.{d tF-t sref edwagrfu-qr B r-c-. E-eq arzr - | (q. €TT. +tt t) E-d- arp+ zrdtrrqrftr zrots-rrd-s-Eeq ffi d 36reftI srafq o-Str<-qY snft d 5*t arzr d. z+aft arfrBen cTan r{&ft sffiE6 T{Ter ffi B Siqft.T IgadrgT{f{ -ffi -am.rr<Rrrz+i rja ftu-s-6t trrffiss-rir:qdirr ft+rr:rreq t (E qeu* a{-dft eTTazr a) ffi =,rT{ d A 1;rer, a da s}yz U6 firs cbr rit-d 6-re arff ft-s-cEru(sa+rt z+au) qa qrft E r elq sffi or fra+rwa elea dar B rfrfteT 3rdq-q s-dfu errg * -efrFra Ba qaro Etrg-e+: IetF.rd a5qqq{rqJi :€|-d-{i r (9. eTT. +) 5.€-51 zqs B rrera z# trrg sda gu 3fu sd-S frftE- 3{"rEr-r 36a gu taa srofta 3r€tdr Ed:rI 3{odif: IqeY a-a fr arc{ Ebr q-6ur .b-{qrr gr}Rrd B r =e{aqr$: qzreng1qgq ia-ara-ar<*J|a Iqrd€gffir a arefger, 6$ft E ll (z3. elr- 2-53) - irGfon i qrw srrE|r{ fr a-aa+r-ar 3r.€rf,r ?gar B -reIT aEt ftr€-*d fr srrEeq-orrtFnerq or ft-ore{ .rWf zgar B, Etr{ftils araf aaftrtrfa aS o-Ear rfqeu acI -Fr Crdftr =-c{ 3e+ errg ftrflfw 3q-{ia S *an;sitt<t-E"{t? 3tcreltr 3dfu - srf-eloier srrqtt*o ziB-arsfr d uo tr{qr< or sa}s B ffi frf}rd EMfr uraf + *rA *# =-- # qrA sfur * frqrr fr, s{qa d-d _or sfrtrr+a fu-qrB I srd fr +r6reF.r-ea# o-ri gs) a-6N srr}-q- wdg qr e1aaff d e-s e-d-rqr Bfr" ara{ A q{aft sirr q€irr g.F "€Ter 3roa fi e, ffi Ewra d 3TraEFc"r eITtieTi6-{ ?Fr sc*s fu* } r fug s"FrE dssl 3rrercb?r d 3-€-S frf}{d sirr si:tlHn?-aff A*, o.< tFIcTTaR fr qRqm # aA E, 3_{ft q-.FrT arafeQer (-g$l qr 6+ru,-aiT{ (5ar),il*-} ig-n6, F *l zreq "{rE ftF51€ ils da q-r€ er+ler srri qz E-e gertr dff 3ft,=€rT ;1 z+aft sidr lisrr # * €fui?"€IcFr *a ts I frfdla fldtr-d * a.r, araf or 3E@f q-eftrl qztn UI?Icr *d 1. qftnerq azi aJqr- s{q9}46 eTrd6 qIFr, qrq qBer ar6iq qBer 2. 3. 4. 5. €Fg-S aeq er$s qq F* dFd-fr tnreqq 6. zr-dfuI s-eirr era-a-ft uzi er-<-a-S srr+q srrlrr ga-dg ga-dg (Prof. B. H. ShYamkuwar) 20
  • According to Dhanvantari the formation of all parts of garbha takes place at same timeafter shukrashonit samyog. They have given example of Vanshamkur or Amraphala(su.sha3/42) This is accepted by (c Sha 6/21) charak also (Dr. Kavita Indapurkar)oja I qe1fr E drqa s*q, t o For garbha poshana and to provide precurser molecule for avayavotpatti.Sharir arambhak dosha o dvurgaa-qat E er$tq r . drqri gft s{r.+e{o-drq t (a-o-ea) ) Sukshma sharir - Panchamahabhut and atma ) Sthula sharir - matrij, pitrij, sattvaj, satmyaj, atmai and rasaj bhavas.Panchabhautik guna utpatti o Vata - ruksha, laghu, sukshma, khara, vishad, chala, shita o Pitta - drava, sara, snigdha, ushna, tikshna . Kapha - mritsna, manda,sandra, sthira, picchhila, shlakshna, guru, sthulaAnnyanotpatti o 3{ItFlafle dt-g --- Aq --- ffiTrq ft-€Tq ow --- eng t o {sltt rcki ---- er$r qffi --- {ilgM< I o Er*q, en-ao-q-ffi .Frrqq I . orcrrsr+or --- frdift{ - 3i{Tunq - 3{TqreITaT+I - ftr*Eafranq - t o (kapha+rakta+mansa+meda) yukta avayava.Metabolites) cell ) tissue) organ )systems(dosha) (sthula anu) (dhatu) (avayava) (srotas) (shadanga sharir)?ie{-ofr€Tfr rd}g rei senaorcuq t (Prof. Kalpana Sathe) It is very difficult to decide the sequence of formation of oja, dosha, mala and avayava ingarbha because- oja is present in each and every cell of body. Before fertilization it is present inrh.rt ru and shonita and after fertilization it is present in garbha. It is well known that at the timeof shukra shonita samyoga predominance of dosha determines the prakriti. As shukra is also adhatu oja, dosha and dhatu are present at the same time in garbha. Mala are by products ofchemical reactions that take place and may be next in the sequence and after that organogenesistakes place (Dr. Sangeeta Gehlot)1.10. In case of avayava utpatti (Su. Sha. 4125-31) are the terms shonit, asruja, rakta justthe synonyms or do they have any specific meaning? (Vd. Anuja Vinod Shah) Yes, they are synonymous in the context of embryogenesis. While analyzing Ayurvedicembryological views the meaning appears to be blood since in majority of the organogenesis Bloodlmerriion"d in Ayurvedic texts) shonit, asrij or rakta invariably is one of the components.is essentially required for the growth and development of the embryo; in fact the blood islets arethe first to appear before organogenesis starts. 21
  • These terms certainly do not appear to be used in the meaning of a female gamete asthere is no mention of male gamete during organogenesis in the concerned references (pleaseremember that both Ayurvedic and modern genetics state that genome from both the parents arerequired i.e. both are not functionally equal). Importance of male and female gametes is foundduring the description of various components that are essentially required in garbhotpatti i.e.conception. (Dr. Sandhya Patel) In case of avayava utpatti (Su. Sha. 4-25 & 3l) the terms shonit, asruj and rakta are usedas snonms (Dr. B.N. Mishra)In case of avayav utpatti different synonyms of rakta were used e.g. 1) Vrikka, udar and pachyamanashay are raktaprabhava 2) Guda, basti,vrishanau, kandara and sira are asruja 3) Phupphusa,jihva, hriday and unduk are shonit prabhav The word rakta is used as rakta dhatu which could be the premature state of newlyformed blood cells *ur*TT dTc[: f,f@frc[rctr: q,B+d rmtriaf]+tM I (g. {& s)"fudl newly formed ovarian follicle (premordial state-rajah) or rakta is believed to be generatedAgainby rasa dhatu in females. It is saumya in nature.z-E+rffie-qr sEri {q, rT{IrEzffi -- Q qerrE4uf qfta-afEigf qffiarq-sa-q 3{Tc"T<}d rffit (g.Tt 14/10 scaw)i-a €rq ofltro-gr efrFrer*E ar.rft r (e-ew)As the blood cell grows older their color changes from white to dark red. This mature cell iscalled shonit. srr-&i srro.+ei g"rsrzffiq r*qwi srr*oq r- mature ovarian follicleThe word asruk means ruptured blood cells while flowing through liver or at the site of wound.3r{uf: ftaq rIt from biliary apparatus (hemolysis) suggests bile formation Asruk means which stops the excess blood flow from cut site. Platelet aggregation formsmesh-like structure where the ruptured blood cells are liberated (rudhira).There may be embryological connection in formation of organs in this fashion, which is still notunderstood by modern sciences.3tT6t{ TrTz a{Trr - *< - zmfrwoiar - zmrFa - ftrdqr - T*r - EEIF ve*a ) 6*d ) 6ftd ) 6fr8 ) qqdi (r.m) ) ffigo ) snamo (efrFra) (Prof. Kalpana Sathe) In case of avyava utpatti the terms shonita, asruja, rakta are just synonyms. (Dr. Sangeeta Gehlot) 22
  • 1.11. As per Charak, what should we understand bija, bijabhaga and bijabhagavayav.Please substantiate. (Dr. Santosh N. Belavadi)eqrtrft g@eiFrdrqt (q. eTT. 2.1a A-cn-r)er€l eruq E srqerqt-q ffi d-qfiri qr Aqr: g*qqrqsa], d dq--rszi Foqffirer<T g 3T€[T: e]Frd ararferq #qa+rarrsqe-d: zdt-b-{r.ri q erSrftqarrurrarim*qsdwa+rq-si r (q. eTT. 4/so)Sushrut has stated the same meaning in verse Sharirashtan 4/63.dr$ a-6-rgBi d-dT 6-dn or e-auryj-araf ffit a F rr#q ffn q$ri ffi dE ffi{Vd, a 3 3q{d-itrd Nw araffirai qr€--€rd1-6red efurq dwTer troie]{-""=- gq urne--* rrsfr a+oft g agf ftr€trr"fu crT s{-dft, uerr-Eeqrgasrdd-q"r-rn_ g€ ardft a-o-rffio arerle-qqzq 1 tro a ardft, aerr <i$d diltn gea-anrffio .rrafprsEarra-s traerrfterqr Fqft @ e+-dfr --garalqrqra, tThis commentary clearly explains the meaning of bijabhaga.It is some part of entire bija.Bijavayava is some aspect of the bijabhaga.This can be compared with sex cell, chromosomes and genes as practically it is obvious andfeasible. (Dr. Nandini Dhargalkar) When we study the texts (all Ayurvedic texts including Charak Samhita) and. analyzethese three terms it becomes very clear that part of bija is bijabhaga and part of bijabhaga isbijabhaga-avaya, irrespective of the meaning of bija. The common understanding is that -bija,bijabhaga and bijabhaga-avayava are used in the meaning of genome, chromosome and g..r.trespectively, or chromosome, gene and locus respectively, which is certainly not true. Givenbelow are a few examples, which negate this erroneous belief. o According to both Ayurvedic and modern genetics dushti of entire bija results in intrauterine death, while monosomy or polyploidity of entire chromosome also results in fatality according to modern genetics. Well-known example of survival of monosomy of one chromosome is 45,X (Turner syndrome).fi-q-1) Bija as maternal or paternal gamete (or genome) ffq Eft gPeiffi I -- r agwd-i E u-eiar$-eaffare-g<rqrffi-q; z<?rger , ----t (a. eTT. 3/17 q-c a-6-qrfu) . ffi gft qea trorr+ard ffi r (a. err. 4/3o q-{ a-6-cnFr) . ffi gft g$1 1q. eTT. 4/s1 q-{ q@tnFr) . firf e$ge-*rrdagA r (g. eTT. 1 /3s q{ s€ur) . Here the term bija is used as maternal or patemal gamete (or genome).2) Bija as genes &/or factors responsible for the differentiation of the organ or tissue. . aerrgmrffia eilffiqarran-fifr qr{qfr r rr} ar*g21era_* z-frfpro trE ffi ar-dfu $eqr (a. €lr. 4/14 qc a@-wfu) In this reference the meaning of bija (bold and underlined in the verse) is same; the comparison is shown for the male and female differentiation according to Ayurvedic principle. o 3{ trE E t-ffiTdaromdgfti fd-qr sd{dc,t r=+aaqarafr, gei 6.+d trd eagd-wgm: earrfl{ ardft r a qrEeei er{ ?a=reaguarfi-di dEi ffif, €rst, 23
  • aa fup1ft arerfq ueJftr€d-arR qc qre-a gfr; qd ffi,mr er srri-q.r "azFrc"T gq 6rd o-$ft r (a. eTT. 4 / 1 4 r@-qrFr) . Though the chest area contains biia responsible for the formation of breasts. and face (upper lips) contains bija responsible for the appearance of moustache these secondary sex characteristics are not formed during intrauterine life because temporal (in relation to time) expression is the nature of these bijas. (Chakrapani) . This reference implies the meaning of bija as the genes &lor factors responsible for the development of the secondary sex characters in male and female. This involves more than on" g"n" &/or factor according to modem embryology and genetics. . --- ar $d @etc{i tl*df,rdi to-rzrqqr (a. fr. t+rs) o flEr gca"a11g;6"r q gArd ffiqatri sg.qrai 6r{"i arqft r (q. B. t 4/s q-{ a@qrFl) "rq . Dushti of bija responsible for the formation of gudavali results in development of congenital arsha.3) Bija as sex differentiating gene/factors: " . d]u|r{ zraierrEuaqld]urq rdiT{ftiaft a{afr Et n, r (q. QTT. z r t a) . ffift gr;eiftrarqr gqaq-ffifr ffiananqr (a. erT- 2/1a rru a6-qfu) . If the bija (shukra-shonit) possesses both the male and female components dviretas is formed (Charak). If bija-janak-bijabhaga is mutant the child becomes dviratas (true hermaphrodite) (ChakraPani) . a*rrgE6rffia *keqarpn-ffB qr{qft r td areilgeares zfrRro I]q ffi sta* freqr (a. €TT. 4/14 uz a-o-urfu; . [f there is uaitittu of raja then only the female sexual differentiation occurs. (Charak & Chakrapani) . These references imply the meaning of bija as the genes &/or factors involved in the sex differentiation of the embrYo.4) Biia as genes or factors responsible for normal/abnormal function of the organ-------Y, agfifrd s-frft qTa ?TT€q 3iffir, z{E t@ F.E. arst) . ---- e+ F Ou-asrAA; r (a ft 6/57 trz a-o-qrFr) . If the bija (part of shukra-shonit or both) is dushit (mutated) the child will be born with prameha i.e. congenital prameh or madhumeha (Charak). Chakrapani has specified the bij adosha as Prameh-arambhak.Bijabhaga (used in the meaning of differentiation of anga-pratyanga or tissue):ffqarrur- . ftserr* ffielr (a. eTT. 4/3o u-r a6-qfu) . 61511q. sia1q-eia1ftil.rffi a+rrr: ftcIaITrT: I (a eIT. 3 / 1 / rrE a-O-qrFr) . go-su-d}IJ1E1Ei &Tl?i ftqa+rrr, I d<T a-.eqtrls*a g€:cl-.*q qa, --- | s-[gqFft 3Wl (4. eTT. 4/31 rrg.r6qrfu)ffqarrur- . ilsTfgrqtra-d d]=G.erlail 2;af91-qd-we{TrT:; fu-{r ilsfqr{req qftra ?IaIT 61-qarurg-srr*{g-q-{rr ,,il-a-+1 a{TrT: r ararferqrt} q arqdrd-q-{arsA efrFra-e-d -o, #, srrfffif,arurz=q-EfuEqqar I err&i q q-4fr ar<erorvQad **4, o* itt "rrf-+-tn-raf6rd u-" ardft | arafiord +d urorMqq-aeagualfi-ai zFrA -fu"fuft, a-, errforz-+aro-Eqrfr dq-s s-Aq sq-q@r: I qAq o*.4- a-E1q-d @ a:effi 4sfeprtzr ?t?rT =.--r dqsffi ft{qr a=-qd d-dd r --- r srr+ftq srqqqerda ara+fer+zqrfsrq 24
  • izn*er giM r ^lfirrwFrft ^Be-fir"nq-drq; srd g fra-qiarq-€iar gfrarg, e*o-srqi erffiqe{r*rrdrfrfr - tadtq-ser d=q-rh r =fi-a-aira-o srrfrqEt6-d-f,errurrdr{ r erFsrrrFfr 3i-{+qri.S-d€ru1zt I --- r r*qnrftfr zsfrFaar srrffiwqdr@rqq I Ezi?ri goware-<-an-aer- $q-Tfr gosqlqq erru+Enu (a. eTT. 4/3o qE qqqrFr) -ftqarrur- . qftft;6apa+ferq$-qa+rar elFri ararferqzq B-a-+) ffqa+rur, eftffi ararferq ftqarrrr, eiFraararferqftwa+rar, r (a. eTT. 4/zo vz aianerz) . aerrgmrffia StrreqanarrffB qrqqft r(4. qlr. +r t +) . --- r *a fudr qR €Eqfu +rafr, S.i qrg€ al_dfr @, d-d I "rgerlB urrqt; qEr €ft-g-€-€w-qr gY t!ft,. crdr Ssd-ffftd-qa{tanq qgq5*i aal erfu qR B*Eqdrq ffi €E-d-d-+} N ardft, -rdr gb, srfu gra-<wei arofrr (a. €TT. 3/17 u-r a-o-ftqd-qe{rlr- Bijabhaga is defined as a part of bija, and which is responsible for the differentiation of anga-pratyanga (organ, system or tissue). This meaning is similar to the examples given underthe title bija (point No. 2). Bija is either maternal or paternal genome. So bijabhaga is a part ofthe genome. It would not be appropriate to label bija as chromosome, bijabhaga as gene andbijabhagavayava as a locus. In the examples of bijabhaga given here bijabhaga for formation ofuterus is called garbhashayajank bijabhaga, while bijabhaga responsible for the formation oftvacha (skin) is called tvak-bijabhaga. These two examples would make the nomenclature easy.Any bijabhaga can safely be named after the organ or tissue depending up on the morphogenesisof the organ, or tissue it is involved.dslrd dfiarr& gq a-o-rffis araferSEarroreq zr-a-or-eHctn ftqft,@ aroft a g aralqrqra.r .r-gfr+,-..gd taa+r+o-diqidrdrAdrraiel?I: I {€ d-qr"f€q ffq-a-* q-€fr8-d"q,,-=ft-(8. eTTl +ro3 qE g-€ur)here bijabhaga term is used in the meaning of part of the body (limb in this reference).ftqa+rurrcrerE- o 3{tFErtrer*a ara+ferrrsrtsEq Her gMr (a. eTT. 4/3o qc eoqrFr) Bijabhagavayava is a part of bijabhaga. Here Chakrapani has given two examples of avayava of garbhashay (uterus) and avayava of artava (either primary germ cells or any gene or factor involved in the synthesis of female sex hormoni/s). Similar can be in the case of male counterpart.There are several references in ancient texts. To sum the meaning is applied after studying thecontext in which these terms are used. Bija is used as a gamete, fertilized zygote or the organ-system; bijabhaga and bijabhaga-avayava are understood as a part and subpart of bijacorrespondingly. (Dr. Sandhya Patel) As per Charak we can compare bija as stri bija (ovum) and pumbija as sperm;bijabhagaas chromosomes and bijabhagavayav as gene. , (Dr. B.N. Mishra)frq - rqd,,siod ffqa+rar - rd.ffia ftqa+rorrqqE - dEq ftq, ffqarrat, d-qa{Trn-erercr or auf4 q-. en. s d srrqr B r"Fa-dzcra-e-{q qt=q E 3TsFrflcrelcruzr ffi ftqa+rar sq-ila} a{Ef-, n-Eq- azqgrs-rrE-q-q-s"rfueftrr..qwrqftr (q. ?Tr. srtz) 25
  • flgq A fr Fgq zft srof?rT ffi E, frF-€ stE€r ailET-fudr €ff zlorllor3r.€T fr 1ffi td -6 o-d .TT z{eFcTT I g{t6r sqffio-zur ffq, d-qarpr, d=qa+rarroqazio-qar Er"T ?rre 6}-flr B I lJF qr aifdrd fr ftira fus{ sifi eIT 3lcrqei d d-q qr -m B, 3zt 3{cfelcl GrflfI d frrg;fr ftlzr€ *,ff Bffqarra-rr+e-q d ftrg;ft 3dat r erdT €_{qT e}Fr} ura+ferqftq+rrJl gderarq-g} cldT a.€zll<fl I er<T gcr{gT:elpra 4sf9;epfi-olrrrrlEf€f: ulM -rdT qfrqqr{ I ercr ?{€[T: €iFreararferqftqs{TdrlaFElzJ: z*o-flqi q erffiqarrarrarffier q-iffi, d-6r qqrg;fta$rwr,afra-ei aral erra qaqfr r (a. QTT. 4/3_o) fu€ fu-tr 3rcrerd A d-q d srexqr dqa+rur fr Aq u-€fi-d & B s-a ffiqr d-qarrail A 3ro@r # .rrd 3{aqd fr ftrg;ft ffi Bt dq 3ur rfr + eifD.rddq-r aTaTfefrT 3ro@r a{r+d-rmr ftqarrar u-gE fr ts, crcr cr6 zd} desr (sru;usiaqrer "{afr qfirr.TT a a-dr) 3d@I o-cft B r qo sE+ T* + €iFrir ararfertr t ftqa+rurcFr 3rcr€rcr qgse +# B CI6t 45 Rfrs-dr (3iddfff, ?f,S-€S, dz-ffi E-Ftr@rqd-gffi)" ziaA 3d@r o-{e B r 6q =+r -z* + e}Fra * ararferq +d-qa+r-ara-irq s*{ Td-6-{ ffq, erS-E d-qarpil d so ter fr ftr€ft 3id@I ffi B a-o cr6l gS drdf (?ff z+ailEi I?Fse qrfr fu€ T* + gwtrd or 3{etr.r A-dI) ardIEFTffi 3Ea o-c* Br +q eft ffo efrffir (a-+-rnfu &or zrrz) ?IF - goq-S-q elFrd - sffSo dq Efr €-€ E.ar"Far-A dG I dq Efr ?Jdr r go-5qffi &rpnftqa+rar r (aourFr &or +zso) srafq araf srrsaro - dd - zq-d / 3i€flffq or ErE5 a{Trr - d-q a{Trr - qffiad:qa+rur or Eo q€fl qd-F - ftqa+rar $zrelcr - d-a-gftrstm a-d A q6 €sw fu-trr qr e+oar B r d-q-sdzsiaq qraftdqr: JirF6: arlE +a g6q-{q araffi gort+wr, * u-qftrdiq* r €. eTT. 4/ 6 3) q-dqr qrsqd=a+rd qr er$ an ffi r q-€frrdi ta+rrta 6rqe g arar{sr: I I (9. ?TT. 4/7 a) - qqfr {5 go-srr*o- * sroa ffi B aerr raa-ryzoriaz 5s_fr e_<arq aEdar rGenotype means genetic constitution of an individual fixed at fertrlization (Medical Genetics byC.p. iaU. The genotype of any of these individual does not change during growth by mitoticdivision. (Human Genetics by Maurice Whittinghill)dr{ftr€ Er€r - araf fuqft.ffiera d-d dS qarart g $-se) r71in6lfJf.f -ro fr-dr6 *dq a-o-.# + ft{s i.n goq A fus 2s qarqr Br dfrF qftqf- d-m fttEe{ s.a fr dd fr} (d-6 61) Wf- sr.a -d airdr B r s*{ E-{ft 3" u-irr er;,.*; 11 srfuqd aeri =-sidrE-.;1 q-Eqrf araf seq-= *dr Baraf 1 Gr*efi-a =.a srsrg ttci;ri,.i- ; + g2;q-q4 Erzr *a"rdFi uif,ra s-trftd f 3{&tdtcI,frro-dker Etdr E I g{reFr E@ crrgq d-fl fr ffi srwfdr B r The relationship between advancing maternal age and chromosomal abnormalitiesespecially triomy 21, trisomy 13 and trisomyl S are well established.(Medical Genetics bY G.P. Pal)araf or qelTa zrrtor - ?IF u.i srr*o rFetus origin after fertilizationof ovum and sperm " araf fr ffi frr€ft1e6 d sr+6 6ru"il d d-q anar gfu LrzF .t;rtr ET.ITeIT?r ffiere-tnradMgzaans6rtftrdrz-&B t (a. QTT. z tze) 26
  • dq gfu 61 dlef d #anfr frrqtrreil 6r rf.F 6r{ur e"rrErr B r Ba d frEersrgoifire; @rfEr3+ or siaarto *ar B raraffio-E *rrfr mr ?€rra - qffi{iar I ar€qcqrqq araf fuEgreq 3{Tct*r€q ElT6.rcreq. €11re4.€Edq-E6F-e r (a.w. 3/ 1 3 a{6rg-trru fu*+ grFru dr;Trildr rr-g-{rer A rer err €urarrz 3E@t *a ^s{ft qcrrz i afEq, fu{_g 3{TGnf, g{TGtrrI, T+f.I, ulccl_r E-t aTrd + ?r-€qrq B,ureiFaqfta ffi B r doa cm a+ro eft z{rg.rdr * areiFeqfu sRie{d E sngEorgzrrt *qffifl (arE-cT aerr fuqq) d fr araf Erqfr *ar B I r sngH€F a-drgr{rt offiq q{ sqtr€r.r fi-an 3rrrz eTT}rrq E ;} 3;€-S3€T.Dq-8, iltrr*, dqr *fuqrq< ar{6 d-q fr ffi d--?{ fr-€F d orr.r gru@r** Br2) Hemophilia: Hemophilia is a bleeding disease that occurs due to deficiency of appropriategenes on the X chromosome, which are responsible for production of factor VIII and factor IX(clotting factors). Both these factors are transmitted genetically by way of the femalechromosome. Therefore, almost ne/er will a woman have hemophilia because at least one of thetwo X chromosomes will have the appropriate genes (bijabhag avayava) (Physiology Guyton). (Prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar) As per charak sharir (cha.sha.4/30) the combination of Matruja, Pitruja, Atmaja,Satwaj,Satmyaja,Rasaja, bhava collectively can be called as bija because if there is any type ofdeformity in any one of these bhavas there will be congenital abnormality which is explainedthroughly in cha.sha 3. (Dr. Kavita Indapurkar)Er{q er{q fr 3irrr+qrr:q dd &qa{r* sq-aufr }rdft ?r€r d-{qia-r+s-d-t-q fu€F In Khuddikagarbhavakranti Charak has mentioned the above in context to the query putforth by Bharadwaj regarding the birth of similar offspring as their parents. Aatreya has replied that thlway melted wax takes the shape of the mould; similarly the species give birth u""ording to theiryoni. If there is any uptapta bhaga (deformed part) in the bija or bijabhagha, correspondingdeformity occurs in the offspring. If there is no such uptapta bhaga there may not be similaideformity. Thus the offspring may not be exactly similar to the parents. The above concept can be easily understood if the terms bija, bijabhagha andbij abhagaav avy a are completely understood. There are various synonyms denoting the word bija. The most appropriate is themeaning mulakamam i.e. the main cause for the effect seen. In this respect, shukra and shonit arethe main cause Fr garbha utpatti as stated by Chakrapanidatta -d-q gft goeilFr* rCharak has substantiated it with the statement -T*q o-aqrqfl*#q g;r gdT *a Efrferg+a ri.e. during the garbhadharana according to the dominance of rakta (chromosome from ova) orshukra (chromosome from sperm), female or male child is bom accordingly. Hence, bija shouldbe considered as shukra and shonit, which in regards to modern science can be considered asspenn and ovum and nucleous ofany cell. Chakrapanidatta in his commentary has stated Bijabhagha as - ^ffi&TTJT:I 27
  • Bijabha can be considered as the chromosomal material i.e. it is responsible for the formation ofthe various parts of the body and have the ability to determine the sex of the fetus as well as theformation of various systems in the body. From this we can consider them to be chromosomes asper modern science. It is known that chromosomes are made up of genes; these can be considered asbijabhgayava. DNA in genes, according to its sequence of pairing of the nucleotides is responsible forvarious features of the body. Any mismatch in the sequence of paring may lead to variousdiseases like Down syndrome. Substantiating it from the Ayurvedic perspective is difficult butnot impossible because there are examples given in Sushrut Samhita as Karmapurusha to it. Thiscould be considered as jivatma, the bhogayatan. (Prof. Kalpana Sathe) Teratological abnormalities depend upon condition of bija or whatsoever part of bija isdefected; the body part developing from that portion of bija will be abnormal. Bija is sperm andovum. Chromosomes may be considered as bijabhaga and genes may be taken asbijabhagavyava. All defects caused due to defect in sperm, ovum, chromosomes and genes maybe included due to abnormality of bija, bijabhaga and bijabhagavyava. . Fetus can be damaged due to morbidity in the gene, u,holly or partially. progenya Whenbijabhaga (chromosome) in artav is vitiated the pregnant women delivers vandhyaWhen gene is affected putipraja (putrified) child is bom. Morbidity of gene also producespredominantly female-shaped but not actually female and named as varta etc. (Dr. Sangeeta Gehlot) 28
  • DOSHA
  • CHAPTER.2 DOSHA2.1. On what basis are vata, pitta and kapha divided in to five? Why are they divided infive and not more? (Dr. Thakur Prasad Sahu)A) Vata dosha types: o M: z+ tiqrnt (q.fu. 2a/5) . qr{i<Er 3d54 q.{"T ffi.F errprateruil crFg: dqen qfra+m ersi qrt-oft r (€. T* 1s) o ffiaR: org: r (sr.ei. z1 20) o uraraozurqfu: gToTt€[T: ?TeItI: titl (z{r.Or. 29) o Pulsations, conveyance, filling, classifying cApcity and ability to retain entities; are five sets of functions, by which vatadosha is divided into five sets. o Work in all systems of body is mechanical. It is carried by five categories of vatadosha. 1) Prana. 2) Udan. 3) Saman. 4) Vyan. 5) Apn.B) Pitta dosha types: . qfu 3+qE++**d-€q ft.ci dqen ufuaramq s{1H,n 3rgq€ o-ifr zrar r g.Tt 1 s o tnqrD-r,cr.DTTTerEF 3Tr*{o.elrw6-deP frdq r (sr.ei. z1 20) o qrEr6 zqEi qrsfu z+rsenrffi aerr r o urGrr6 ift fuas arffrfr T€rrda+6d: l arr.q.g( s.121Due to contentment of agni, pitta performs five types of functional outputs in living body.Management of red color, digestion, working luster in body, intellectual output, and constanttemperature of body. 1) Pachak. 2) Ranjak. 3) Sadhak. 4) Alochak. 5) Bhrajak.C) Kapha dosha types: dfur crer zddqq ldar dqqr vfraaq,z{f}rl+"equr d6-d +qr E{"T iI6"Ts-<+-+-dn srgud o-$ft r (9. T& 1 s)srdciq6ffiero-a*oq#aF}, "+flr r (sr.zi. e1 20)Five categories of kapha are mentioned here - one working for stability of joints, one forsoftening food, one for protection of internal vital organs like heart, one for refreshing a personby realizing taste of food and fifth category for nourishment of special sense organs. 1) Kledak. 2) Avalambak. 3) Bodhak. a) Tarpak. 5) Shleshak. 29
  • Reason of five-fold division of dosha by Sushrut:The karma of each Dosha is described in all compendia. Yet depending upon the sites, qualities,proportion of panchabhautik composition and ability to produce the diseases, five types of eachdosha are described.qenFa: tiqen f}r+ arazerrarmep-dft: rfDrz*ko-ef,exr 6*-b1 ar+rserrab-enff+, r r (g. ft. r . r r )d*d e-Effta-cq e+ra+rda q€id zerrffiralta ftr=e-cq arqra-tftRrseqftrs€rki frftrc2a-Eerb-qr *urieq <efu@|F r (s-€rur&enr) As agni is classified into five types with five different names depending upon the site ofagni, function of agni and diseases produced by agni in case of vitiated state, vata is classifiedinto five types as well depending upon the same criteria. Dalhana says that different names offive types of vata-dosha indicate different actions and functional output so different diseases aswell. Until Sushrut Samhita, five types of vatadosha were read in Ayurveda. This compendiumhappened to classify agni, an inseparable factor of pittadosha based on criteria given above.Hence it must be taken that agni is as good as pitta in this milieu. Any way, this compendiumstopped short of classifying kapha. This third dosha is classified in Vagbhat. His compendium isaimed at giving ready tips to Ayurveda practitioner. Perhaps for this reason he has forwardedbasic idea of dosha classification as follows: mdq*q"q e a]-<rEarofr t -rrr qen rrerqrerqzefr-i mg oEs€is{i "€rrdd r Dosha should be classified on basis of site e.g. vatadosha located in pelvis or in colon. 6affi qerr-earsj)E_+rtrgraffis-ui fr"atqqa_ffis{i r Dosha should be classified on basis of function e.g. vatadosha, which looks afterrespiration. vatadosha, which looks after excretion. sr+zerrd qen-frrdsei u-gftrdsei r Dosha should be classified on basis of status such as dosha in physiological condition,dosha in pathological condition. fu+ uerr-ftear$asgft;fr5ei, srftr*arngftrdsei r Dosha should be classified on basis of etiological factors responsible for their status suchas vitiation of dosha is due to overuse of special senses or perverted use of them. srrqftr* qen-eiqraer.ilsei qrzraepilsEi r Dosha should be classified on basis of clinical manifestations such as vitiation of vataleads to ptosis or dilatation of organ. zrrerad qerr-ftaa*qer*sei, Bwnq€r* I Dosha should be classified on basis of line of treatment such as-ailment subsides withoils or fomentation. qen-fr <ngeds-ei, "i+rrd "*rygrilsei I Dosha should be classified on basis of permutations and combinations such as combiningwith pitta or combining with kapha. All these points are applicable for clinical examination. These are important to pinpointorigin of pathology in any dosha and pathogenesis thereafter. For physiological aspect specif,rcthings like site of dosha and differentiated functions along with knowledge of bbility to producediseases suffice. Commentator of Ashtang Hriday, nonetheless, has provided followihg information,which is applicable to criteria provided for five categories of each dosha. 3{er qaffiqi AsTUri ftftrsgqraler*or b-qralqlq da dq e}<ldr6 r Ashtang Hriday commentator agrees with Sushrut Samhita to classify all three 30
  • doshas into five categories depending upon their specific locations, and differentiated functions. New inventor may find it feasible to divide them into more than five categories. (Dr. Nandini Dhargalkar) Several classifications are described as mentionecl below. However, classification of alldoshas into five has become established and more popular. aeat<eq z@qa-€i+rrf=r<ar_dfr I ---- E"i ftrdrRE srfu r(sr.€. Ttr 12/2 u-t ffi)z€rTGta[: a]€ - qzETQTem€T, znEger+-fa, etq - ear{* r€-dre{ 9-{d6 qrg, fro{q u-afo org3{zt-{uIT?I: a}< - fua org,, U-gfud qrg*gd, ald - freqrqbr rgfua org, srfrr*ar rgru-o args1-qFra, at< - ziz+aerol, arrzrc4€rurEITeI;rar: eY< - ftqaefrqerq arg, srwilu?rq drgTi*akr: +< - ftagm arg, ed.w-gm arg-- - z€rregpa; oeuawrrffiezerrtE I ---- qrsffi Fft zlanagz,zerrei, aerrsfto-ddErqa].< v t (a. fr+. 2a/s qs q@-qrfu)There should not be any difficulty if someone finds new dosha or develops a more acceptableclassification which is agreeable to all. (Dr. Sandhya Patel) Vata, pitta and kapha are divided into five according to their functions in specific places (Dr. B.N. Mishra) The three doshas, vata, pitta and kapha are divided into five groups in later periods ofAyurveda. This division is based on different concepts like panchabhuta, panchatanmatra,pancha gnanendriya, panchakarmendriya and so on. Five fingers on each limb also might haveplayed a role in this division. The purpose of such division could be useful to understand theclinical use of herbs. Ayurveda physicians have not yet applied this knowledge in nidana, i.e. thetreatises do not talk about particular drugs useful in modulating either of the varieties of doshas.So let us think that this branch of knowledge is still in the process. Some herbs like pepper improve pachaka pitta but the same herb is not proved to beeffective in improving vision (alochaka pitta). A drug that improves the appetite has to be apittavardhaka but other functions of pitta are not attended to so ancient ayrrrvedists proposeddifferent types ofdosha basing on the action ofherbs on doshas. Siddha system of medicine classifies, for instance, vata into ten types. So the division ofvata into 5 types is mere speculative. This division is clinically useful if we can use thisknowledge in treating different clinical manifestations. The chllli (Cayanne pepper) improves theblood circulation but we look to saman vata as locomotive for circulation. If chilli supportssaman vata what is its role with pitta? So the division of tridoshas into each five is in itsformative stage. It demands turther empirical investigations to substantiate the hypothesis. (Dr. P.V. Ranganayakulu) Vata, pitta and kapha doshas are present in all over the body. They each divided into 5types. According to Sushrut, doshas are divided on the basis of their nama, sthan, kriya and roga. qensFa dqen fh-+ arryEerraEnqra*: r Frdsftrea-safl q.S anaEerraffi rr (g. fu. t r-r t) Arunadatta has told that doshas are divided on the basis of their sthan and kriya. srer lrt:i#qi +$rri ftRres€rrarsr+q I 31
  • B-qreler{ da dq frafaw I I (er.€. st t 2/4 sro-ure cd eE I) According to Acl-rarya Niranjandev Vidyalankar (Prukrut Dosha Vigyan; P.No.l18)these types ofdoiha are not independent. They are divided in only 5 types and not more becausethey are present in that specific ithans, performing their special karmas and when vitiated theycreate the specific diseases. Vd. B.V.Gokhale has described that doshas are divided on the basis of panchabhautic are onlytaratamabhav and phanchamahabhuta gunas. As panchamahabhutas are only five doshasfive and not more. Doshas are divided on the basis of phanchamahabhutas by vyapadeshastu bhuyasa nyayawhile giving explanation to this initially vata prakaras are considered. Pratta uayu is called as Buddhihridayendriya chittadhruk (s+621 2/4) t The gyanendriyas are sukshma. Chitta or manas is said to be anu The sukshma gunapradhan uuyu o. ,rubhur vayu can only reach upto this sukshma gyanendriya and manas.therefore pranvayu can be considered as nabhas vayu Chalatwa is the guna of vayu which is shown by its gati, utkshepan, apkshepan karma. arftgqMffi: r llrEr,zraf Gnqrsfrftm-a qftq€r erEfton{rr (srgz* t ztt) Therefore vyan vayu is considered as vayuguna pradhan vayu. Udan vayu karmas are smruti, varra,bala, ptayatna and urja r (ar€ E& 12/6) These are increased in shiti ritu. Therefore udan vayu is supposed to be apya-pradhanvavu. Saman vavu is agnisamipastha and rukshaguna pradhan zl-flr+sFa e-aftq-:er N qzft zr-da r (sr.€.21* t zia) Therefore it is considered as agni-pradhan vayu Apanvayu is gandha and khaia guna pradhan vayu. Therefore it can be considered asparthiv vayu.Pitta :- Pachak pitta amlao visragandhi - Parthiv Ranjak pitta sara Vayveeya Sadhak pitta buddhi, medha - Nabhas Aalochak pitta= related to drushti Taijas Bhrajak pitta abhyanga lepadi pachan Aapya Kapha:- Kledak- madhur, snigdha Aapya Avalambak dharan Parthiv Tarpak related to indriyas Vayveeya Shleshak shlakshna Nabhas Bodhak sthan is jihva (formed by kapha and rakta) Taijas (Prof. B. H. ShYamkuwar) All vata, pitta and kapha are dividcd in five only by Vagbhat. Charak has divided the vata types are according to and Sus6rut has divided pitta. In Sushrut Samhita, it is explained that the according to sthan, nama and karma. Some experts in Ayurveda say that they are divided dosha are also five. dominants of mahabhutas and as the mahabhutas are five the types of each (Dr. Kavita IndaPurkar) 32
  • Ayurveda is based on philosophical physics, which describe the functions of substancesbased on their properties. The anupravesh siddhanta about evolution of dravyas says that theutpatti of dosha dravya in human body is based on panchabhautic gunas, which the dosha dravyabelongs to e.g. vata is akasha and vayu mahabuta. pradhan dravya. Its properties are ruksha,laghu, shita, khara, sukshma, chala etc. These are the common properties of vata dosha. Vatadosha circulates all over the body through rasa dhatu. Wherever it resides, it changes its property according to the ashraya site and the nature ofthe function performed. It interacts with the metabolites present at that site to perform variousphysiological functions. The different gati with the same molecular property at different sites isnot possible. The urdhva gati of udan. adho gati of apan, tiryak gati of prana. shighra gati ofvyan, sama gati of saman are similar but not identical. Spandan is the samanya vritti of vatadescribed by Gaudpada. Similarly agneyata and apyata are samanya in pitta and kaphaaccordingly. The tendency to interact with the other panchabhautic gunas (udaka or rasa) is thebasis of division of vata, pitta and kapha into five and not more like the amino acids areclassified into five main groups; in particular their polarity or tendency to interact with the waterat biological pH near 7.0, pH as in avasthapak.stftqaer oF, ftd fu<oer, uad ga I (g. {t 46/s24 27)qra-{q zr-offia *werrgar-d qrfuqra, r (11. T* 46 o= g6q)Like wise fiv^e types of dosha are evolved at their specific sites in normal physiological state.srir: tisen 6.3nr+* - q_o&B-e?Adrcrrfldi zerrar;ftsafIt is dependent on the nabhasadi panchabhautic specificity of particular dosha secreted at specificsite.Why are doshas divided in five and not more?(Ref. book - "Mathematics in Ayarveda", Author - Vd. S.A. Gokhale, Vd. J.Y. Deopujari, Pageno. l6l). If one wants to get knowledge of bhedas (types) in numbers, then the principle is thathe has to double the difference easily (Bhaskaracharya)Tridosha are divided in to 5 types; if they interact then the types would be as follows.Bhaskaracharya has given sutra Ekadhyakottara Sankhya which simplifies the sequences figureofankabheda.1 12 lx2:2+l:3aJ 3x2:6+I:74 7x2:14+1:155 15x2:30+1:31These 31 differences are acquired in total form; from separate differential akash tatva is silentand remaining 4 bhutas are found in tridosha in the aggregative form of disease. Therefore thecalculation which is 31 involves 3 and I these two figures. There is zero, which is akash tatwa 3* l:4. This 4 number explains the situation of Panchmahabhuta. (Prof. Kalpana Sathe) Although doshas are present in entire body there is no specific basis for classifying thedoshas in to five. This may be classified in to five for easy remembrance. (Dr.Sangeeta Gehlot) JJ
  • frelq Eerrd 3rrdrd a qdr$ B, + tr6-s2.2. tlrd, fua aen 66 + fr ry T 3nqr{ qs E ? @t El-d-d frr€fr zrr Elatnr;"= "-o *o.+ tr$ B " tFIT + *ar B z+ qfr t-g1r 6}dr B d 3,<rssor .;; fta$ qru: s€fraq# frRre rerra A A qrge{ qr$ qrftqraq qrftrS (srrorgo orgetw qr<*ier) d qwrero a{ciftrd ftr€ft afi r (Dr. Nidhi Khurana) I -(3{€ "1* t rt)t arftr* e+fr 6ara**ftae*e+{+s-qr: a.f,a, -dq .1g€I z€TTaq r (ffi-&ot)€6!!offi6. .rd * "ft31q s11Erag-;1e*t e-qrsn-afr a=trt erft-erra6r,-t ="R.** a-sen-qfu gtwr*n=t a5ft a1fterffqr6 3{ftq6 r -r-.o.-161r s5nft qaq1erfr fte}Sr drd{€rr-1{l-(qT&^zore) qeqftqsqrflui o.*ta*, ,-# qrrnpttfara-cq .r.11: gercF cq zerrar6 qrdt -dmrfrfte5T"T &I-dFn e*ilea 5s+r: r::;il-=d-;;G zerrd aeq,3TEl-ffzI: i* (&o-r) oo, r I;=- frft4 dre zl-d qrdfr-rrur- o*t *-in- dr?I: efrft;geria-o dgqfr sr* elrfr:*s-{"rrarB 3r.r sed d€qrff: , e*fi-g I (g z{- zr ta)qzrelTeTel:, rrmrerqa€Pi frEiTq, 3{TATQTe[:These references indicate the fact that the basis on whichlocations of vata,pitta and kapha aredecided are as follows: sthan l) Firstly abundance of dosha in specific location is important.inofdeciding.its dosha becomes particular 2) Secondly the physical avayava where treatment of vyadhi effective is also considered as location ofdoshaUtpatti of dosha is considered at following levels - a) Utpatti of prakrit dosha at the time of conception oUtpattiofvaikrutadoshainintra-extra-uterinelife b) UtPatti from ahar at avasthaPka c) Utpatti at the time of dhatu-utpatti in dhatuvaha srotas as dhatumala one to one correlationof At all levels utpatti bears clinical and basic importance, however location of dosha again cannot be location at each level does not seem feasible. Deciiion of interpreted in words of vikruti or prakop in the same way as utpatti can be correlated hundred percent in sarva tantra prati tantra fashion vatavikruti like avabahuka In this ,rie* pakuashaya is not needed to become vikruta in bahushosha, padastambha etl where pakvashaya becomes choice of location of treatment effective on these vatavyadhi (Dr. Nandini Dhargarkar) _-_- l 3T.r {IE a-a e[ft<T:.qo-4. d--rfr gfr} eeffe fte]t-or qEE-rend. €E[ L frelffiemql Er{ ,,erTer =-ftr:,-fuil@,_- zro-aerffisffii t (sr€ q t 2 /t --- q€qaruTursnfta-d ger6- zanaen-dEriler t#t-rA#tt 3TEuref,) (Dr. Sandhya patel) The main adhisthan (places) of tridosha is based on the basis of chikitsa karma (treatment). When basti, virechan and vaman are given in vata, pitta and vikar -klnhaj result is respectivelY in pakvashay, amashay and pachyamunutlhuy and urapradesh, a definite achieved. (Dr. B.N. Mishra) q{ fud s*{ 6tn + d fte}sqr{aT 6l?rru E e-s €a-+t ftr€iftr d an€rrs d qrd, EFr ?errd -i dar-B ge+ zftiu B r dfusa-qt ftrq;ft a Td" =tA-{-"*- h A6r fr EF q"Fa trraar ? t 34
  • e-dsq qr$ qraft-orEr: ercfu agrreq g+qr, srrq ftm zrr* zrffi+-rrrwareftr e* 2o/a q-+qr"ft) (q.drg or €@-E€rra q€T€rq E r qrafuorS .FT grrrs{ gre[: qcrclr€Ter # *ar B rSflq-qrgtF- ft+zr*i€q a*Eei q-dAq 3rd-qrg6-fl I (ar. B. Tqrmu-rfErzoa) sie-qafteld arg frrur, ?rsrrrT I "{*q erg qtriftla-f,{ 6-a-e-e-d-or-96{ u (sr.6. B. t ar+z)s,ie-qafrera-org ftrsrs* 6) ei€E-d o-s t qrg 61 trF-qr z* 6ie o-s +dr B r E€-Sftrg;fr erg +t aser 6-d d ffi B r seft ?rt-s qr6kia+ qrFr fr eft qrg -ff +Er 6-dfrt 6rB dft Br orgelw drfb fr qrg * oet s*e gw gw # gk +6-{ E;qrarE ffi B rga arRr$ fr clr.r rft fr u-ga g& E fu$ cnr q"EIT€rEr er6 ftelq B I gdzenfro qfEreil fr d* qri qra q-stq .Fr crrtur rr-Ercrq fr A-dr B r Etfrfu arg d * "€n6r?iq-e[, qdq, s{rft b-qr qrrcrTerq fr fr ffi E I z*E-drt (g. z& ztrzz) ora-+ia-+-za-cerqf qcbtq - oiMet{a-:orr (g. {& zt rzz) s*z slror 3iT{, gtr s{TR qz a-se st"r6ngtn, ergefrv 3*Eqr-Eda{ qrfEr sroa fr} B r Ee{fru gd qrEre* d EB-tsr ;r qrF B r fr "€ITeruisrqq€Ier€r t ersr E Eff qre Br qd t s{q6$or * ffi ger -rE *rrr E, g"ft s6rgefta Efu-e+r i zro qra qrflr* 6r erfld *dr B r (zenHo s+s 3Td: [er qr] efra-oq-+-a: qelT.r rm: qrrqs$q-6 r (sr.6 e1 1 2 / 1 3Taur<ccr "rrdeF6)A-6r)e-+-qroft + ar.r d aft e+aft qrafue;r$ tnr er?rrcr g-d-+ €-cT Tqtar fr fr*dI B r (q. e& 2o/a ao) (Prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar) The main sites of vata, pitta, kapha are according to their maximum function seen at thatperticular site. These three cover enitre body and the functions are also in entire body. (Dr. Kavita Indapurkar) qra fta orn * S €@ qr frelq r€n-a 3rrqr$ a d-dr+ E s-d-fr qzFrer€rqrg 6r qerra zerra B r srrqrd a-+fi. e gnr6r cFr:q ofta Efutwr 6;rsrqra korz # arar er:tra lrri qrd Frd""r d fus Bq-gffi o-or B I .rr-r *q Ed-d "Tder$€rda"i ftrEEft FFffi, u-6}q ftelwa E{ft ?€r?T * sE"{ d-dr Rrrr$ +dr B r qFdfrfu-e+r aft Erer qrfEr of sref fufu-.zn 6-& q-{-E *q q-q}q 61 f}r6 "r€ E rsrdE€[rE stufu e-qT+o. trdq, sr+q gcb]q qilarrdcr 3{et-qr 6rEqq, g-o qreftd,aql qlefi-d,- z€IIEI Itrdq, stqr€rrar q6]q snft o] eqra # ra-] gu e-o-araorgmrp ^qrf}r fr d ar+afk, g,s, o-rftqq Aq q-6+q +dr B, -rd +d; frelq dfrr€fr + S sria+ A ftn a-S B r fta dq o-raia-E * 3raru€rrEr @els "qri dq-€fud *t B r Efu-tq+r * eraa qr trr*sr a-S m-qr il Tr-fr-dr I *rr a-fi-d d.* qs "€rrd)gerr;r qf-6 e6 fu-qr ,TT zr-en-ar B r srq-qrgo - II* T€TI-d-q atr+affi+e+gEffi 6rcrT: tr (sr.6. E. zztsz)fuarufurr+ft z<-ar:rrfara-a o-c ero..* E r ur6 E{r-rrrtr 6-d ts r q-ig Erg o}fuora-ar Erc"T.rrcr uzi sq-qa-zGm gs.S fr eft oscfieq B r "€rrd{q-qpnftqtil - cfr tr-Scr d sE+ arg aft qe5a ffu-e+r tn-rff qrtrs r (sr.6. zzr+s)E"iT q-{riT @Tf}r (sr.€. .1 2) t qrer * sft 3{qra q}q # fr qrfEr <elq d e-aqs-ft aS r (Prof. Kalpana Sathe)23. Some of the seats of doshas overlap each other like sparsharendriya is the seat of vataend pitta, rasa is seat of pitta and kapha or amashaya is seat of pitta and kapha (Cha. Su.20). How do we explain their physiological and anatomical differences? (Vd. Pranita P. Joshi) 35
  • For sparshanendriya in respect to vata and pittaFor vatatrarer*nE --- wef*Erqa rFor pittago wefd q fuaEq rSparshanendriya occupies entire body (sarvashariravyapi). Sparshanendriya is location of vatadosha as well as pitta dosha.Functional differentiations as per compendia are following: 1) Out of five types of vata, prana (indriya-dhruk) should be considered in case of sparshanendriya (tvak) A.H. Su.l2l4 - function of prana vata is dharana of indriya 2) Out of five types of pitta bhrajak pitta should be considered in case of sparshanendriya (tvak) A.H. Su. 12.14 - function of bhrajak pitta is tvacha brhajan, abhyang, lepa parisheka adi upachayati. Sushrut has added that the same pitta is also responsible for chhayanam prakashkaFor rasa in respect to kapha pitta 1) Kapha is shita while pitta is ushna so to balance the ushnatva of body they help each other 2) They both also balance the opposite gunas like manda-tikshna, sara-sandra; and others (Dr. Nandini Dhargalkar) zerrlg €fr qeqarsrraffie?qrag I ---- gr"ffi saaagz,zerrai, aerfi6-d+6r<m$ pc; u , t (a. fr+. 2a/s vz a6-qfu)This example unequivocally explains that two entities located in the same place do not interferein eachothers functions. Though it may not be impossible to make the distinction between the areas of functionsof doshas it might be time consuming and expensive; and in some cases we need to find out whatthe entity means before searching for its exact anatomic area of function e.g. sadhak pitta, udanvayu etc. For sparsh karma of vata sparshendriya means nerve endings in the skin and forbhrajan, maintance of ushma and varnabheda karmas of bhrajak pitta tvak could mean sweatglands and blood vessels, and melanin (synthesized in melanocytes and transferred via dendriticprocess in keratinocytes) in the skin. 36q"il ar{rdr-{Ri d"ffa a ccro-rl?ruq TUITGIZF€r, ---- | (4. z& 13/1 1qs zro-qrFr) Similarly, urdhva sthan (upper part) of amashay is kapha sthan and adho sthan (lowerpart) of amashay is pitta sthan. However, finding anatomical or physiological boundaries inamashay for pitta and kapha is very diffrcult. For that we need to come to a concensus what ismeant by pitta and kapha, fix their location/s and then search the means to prove these views. (Dr. Sandhya Patel) Tridosha are present every where in the body in mutual basis so there is no harm inoverlapping (Dr. B.N. Mishra)Sparsharendriya is the sthan of both pitta and vata.qmre leerci drnlzr, tr*fr qarend ftirwa ll (sr.€.21,lzrt)arf}rcrqrerq # dft{6l eJEri zE+ Igo zuefd q fuas arf}rz-s frelqa I I (sr.g.z1* 1 2/2) 36
  • Arunadatta has given the explaination that why sparsharendriya is said to be the sthan ofvata and pitta. qra-E+Ra-are-o*: trkrurd quFa r ftrd q d@fr e-qar.r I azargar$ru+d-{gffii {€fia{ n (sr.6. z1r zrz 3rsur<ccr A-6r) Agni is called vayusakha. Pitta and agni are the same factor. Due to this relation betweepitta and vata doshasparshrendriya is the sthan of both vata and pitta. There is a physiologicaldifference in the sparshrendriya of vata and pitta. The sparshrendriya in vata dosha is relatedwith prana and udan vayu. Prana vayu and sparsha kendra i.e. somesthetic area both are situatedin the shira.qr"ilsq qelurr ( sr.6.z1 tzt+)By the indriyadharan karma gEu 6n$Fq ftna€Jqr(sr.6.21 tzr+)Pranavayu receives the shabda, sparshadi arthas and then gyana ofsparsha, pida, shita sanvedanais made. Udanvayu works by varna prakashana 3{:Z€n6rg-fl=r€r ar{{rdrf}{Jrdi€"tq I , rr (sr.€.ztrrzrs)The sparshrendriya in the pitta dosha is related with bhrajakpitta. It helps in the pachan of bahyalepa, abhyanga etc. e-zg .uB fta.t dftd-d arrq-+}sFaftft ziar r *sa+iar ffii b-qr e-qrqi q-ffiT grqrdi q s"Frer.F: n (g. o)"*21l1Rasa- Rasa is the sthan of both pitta and kapha. arfusrflreFT ff drftdtr ofH gE+, r gq zuefui a fuatq arfDrt-* ftelqa, rr (s+.€. zt r zrz) s{:zFrrd ftftrtE;i:|6qEfvEff+ffeT* T{Tt t H gr"i q fuAdr q Ertb=er E?Rr€s: n (sr.€. Td. t z t e) Rasa is the drava dhatu. sg E-drET{rS r+6.i cff-d-a ddur q-RunRB{frfe}S: t gs{rrs} I I (g. "T?I{14l1) "n@ Pitta dosha also has drava guna. ftfti a1-g-+65 ft€uilwi dg fur* zl-i ezi r (sr.6. 11, r z r I ) Kapha dosha is formed with jala and prithvi mahabhuta. sr+ar gdaqi edqrr (sr.li.zorr) Due to this drava and jalamahabhuta adhikya rasa is the seat of both pitta and kapha.Paribhramana of pitta and kapha dosha takes place with help of rasa. Rasa is the sthan of piua. Itis converted into rakta with the help of ranjak pitta. e+ sand rtfr e-gdqffi ure zrurg}ft r (g.z& t +r+) The function of this rasa is to provide necessary factors to the tissues for the process ofpachan or parivartan. While in kapha dosha, rasa is responsible for providing nutritive factors forthe poshan karma of kapha, (Ref. Purnachandra Jain)Amashaya - Amashaya is told as the sthan of kapha and pitta. arflarsrarerq,ff dFr6r oFrt sE+ r gq gqqfEiq fua-s arflart-* frelva, r r ((sr.6.+ t zrz) =stda Rrgdq qEfu-qFffreTefr Ttr: t +A qr"i a fu6p q cFtn??r gd?r€z: u (sr.g.q t zrt) Chakrapani has divided amashaya in two parts i.e. urdhva amashaya and adho amashaya. a4 )t
  • fud-{€IT+g 3{Tarerg[ gfr srrarerqr*arrar r srrarerq gft srrflrer+tdarrur 1 (q. g1 2o/a qoqruft frffir)Sthan of kapha dosha is urdhva amashaya and pittadosha is adho amashaya. Where amashaya is entrrsfr-dra-{ il-+fl-drerq gfr Tq.rr: I srRri drfr"i S?i # qr* lMrr (a.fr.zrtz) Sthan of amashaya is in between nabhi and stan where pachan of ashit, kadit adi ahartakes place. ar*oe+rrqffird{€rraff r (sr.6 +r 2/2 ffifror) Amashaya is located in urdhvasthan of nabhi, where apakva anna is situated. Urdhvaamashaya is considered as amashaya which is sthan of kapha. Adho amashaya is considered aspachyamanashaya or grahani which is the sthan of pitta.According to Charak, sro-eRreraq sldr€r u-6unq u-6uft a?TT r 3{qfti erl-5q€@i rr€i q-dftqref,o:ll (q.fu.tsts+) Sthan of agni is grahani in which apakva anna dharan and pakva anna vimochan are done.Charak has also told that- srHEerfttffi | (a.sd* r zrt t) Therefore sthan of pitta and agni are same. From above we can say that adhoamashaya isconsidered as grahani which is the sthan of pitta (Chakrapani).According to Sushrut- qseftraersrara qr -b-frr rrftbFfar r a:eEflq qaoftaar r r (9. 3. +ort aa) Pitta is situated in pittadhara kala which is pakvamashayamadhya or grahani. (Prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar) Explanation of following seats of dosha which overlap each other is given in a chart formDosha type Seat Anotomical Structure PhysiologygTot aluf Above upper palate Neurons brain functionEns6 t+d at.rw-eer 6e+ Pituitary Hormonal controlatro am TQr{:?er: Sub arachnoid space Functions of CSFItdIEr arf}{ Diaphrasm Mechanism of respirationeftflTEt srlia {rdtq Vagus Mechanical stimulation for secretion of digestive enzymesqrao ttra srEt srrfrlerq Stomach, duodenum Functions of HCL, bile, arf}r oancreatic iuice.fta.{iF, EFIF se-l 3TrfrIefeT Stomach HCI action on ingested food in Greater curvature. Emulsification with gastric mucous in lessor curvature.qr4 €Tq SA node Conductive system of heart3i-qcTdt-F 5{:TeITal Thorax Pericardial, intraplueral, spinal intervertebral fluidET-f weEfreq Skin Sensory, tactile, pain, touch, temperature 38
  • ftriir c<I=IT Skin Melaninftrd 8r€I Blood vessels Functions of hormones and metabolic enzymeszFrS 8ITT Lymphatics and blood Large protein molecules vessels and enzymes (Prof. Kalpana Sathe)2.4. Are tridoshas structural or functional? If they are structural, as stated in Samhitas,can we see them? What are the parameters for measuring these structures? If they arefunctional, then why are their types, places (adhishthanas)o qualities and amountdescribed? Why are there Iocations described? Is there any scientific reason behind theirlocations? (Dr. Bipin Bihar Khuntia) Since color, odor and appearance of dosha are mentioned in compendia and in nineprimary karana dravya the compositors of dosha or panchamahabhuta are accepted. One has noother choice than to accept dosha as a structural entity.Following general features are also indicative: 1) Doshas are nourished by ingested food. 2) Doshas are chief responsible factors in decision of deha prakriti. 3) Three doshas are functional representatives of panchamahabhutas; yet vata due to its inborn cApcity of movements is considered as leader of three doshaa) All three doshas are in form of matter. Vatadosha is different from kapha and pitta. Color, consistency, odor and other manyphysical properties are told of kapha and pitta whereas physical properties like color, odors arenot learnt of vata. It is not seen with eyes. Charak Samhita states:3l-€Elzfff: qm-O*affu I , . It cannot be seen but it can be realized by its functions. Just as air cannot be seen yet it is appreciated when it flows and turns into wind. o Kapha and pitta are matter as they have physical properties. Hence there is no dispute about them being matter. o Vata is perceivable by its functions and functions can never be without guna or properties. o Hence all three doshas are dravya svarupa.b) All three doshas are composed of panchamahabhuta. o Vata dosha is composed of mahabhuta vayu and akash. oPitta dosha is agneya. .Kapha dosha is composed of mahabhuta prithvi and ap.c) All three doshas are different in their activities.Constancy and durability are bestowed on kapha by prithvi mahabhuta. Vata is not able tofunction like this. A movement is soul authority of vata. Pitta cannot induce it. Biotransformationor conversion is denotation of pitta. Vata is incApble to do that. At the most, by virtue ofinducing movements vata may bring two things together or separate them. Hence all three doshashave their field of activity where no other dosha encroach. 39
  • d) All three doshas are manageable by three shaman- and three shodhan-karma. Etiologicalfactors of diseases are three doshas in living body. Treatment mainly comprises of shaman andshodhan.e) All three doshas are circulated through out body. Vagbhat has stated that all three doshas arecirculated through entire body and they occupy the whole body (te vyapinah.Aqrqi g e-ffiaifr+ srqdegrrB rDoshas are three in number. Out of five mahabhutas, two remain passive as background scenarioand three are active. Active ones are vayu mahabhuta, teja mahabhuta and Ap mahabhuta.Doshas i.e. vata, pitta and kapha represent them respectively.Out of these three vata is different. Movement needs energy and space. Absence of energy orspace leads to no movement. Dosha vata is akash plus vayu. Akash provides space formovement, and vayu supplies energy needed for it. Similarly dosha vata is essential for anymovement in living body. Without vata dosha absolutely no movement is possible. Vata dosha iscombination of two very predominant mahabhutas namely akash and vayu. Prithvi mahabhutagives shapes (murti) to every matter. Since prithvi mahabhuta is in extremely less amount instructure of vata dosha; it is called (amurta), i.e. it cannot be seen with naked eyes. All the functions of doshas are due to their qualities or attributes. Predominant mahabhutashows its qualities in dosha e.g. kapha is predominant in ap and prithvi .Putting it into equation we get:Kapha: Ap + prithvi .Ap: Drava, sara, manda, snigdha, mriudu and pichilaPrithvi : Sthula, sthira, mudimant, guru, khara and kathinaQualities of kapha as compiled are:Kapha: Guru, shita, mridu, snigdha, sthir, picchhila, shlakshma, Sandra, stimita, vijjala, acchha,manda, sara and madhurObserving all the equations of qualities of mahabhuta predominant in dosha it will be seen thatall principle qualities in dosha are acquired from mahabhuta. o As entire uiverse is evolved from panchabhautik components, human body is also evolved from panchabhautik components. r Rulers in universe are five Mahabhuta. o Rulers in body are doshas, which are fepresentatives of mahabhuta. . Health of universe is dependent on ruling of these panchamahabhuta. Vitiation of any one of these leads to severe destruction. For example normal mahabhuta vayu in universe executes many functions (C. Su. l2tlChapter) e.g. it controls and separates seasons, helps in burning process, controls transit and rotation of sun-moon-constellations-planets etc., flowering of plants etc. When mahabhuta vayu in universe gets vitiated it executes many destructive acts like earthquakes; floods etc. o A group of body entities, which rules metabolism and establishes homeostasis in healthy body is called doshas. These doshas are biological gears of living body and are responsible for manipulating various functions needed for life of human. Within physiological limits they maintain homeostasis in human body and when they are out of these Limits they are responsible to generate diseases. o Another group in living body, which comprises of biological instruments or apparatus through which various functions of body are brought about, is called dhatus. They are guided, controlled and managed by doshas. Dhatus cannot work in absence of doshas o Still another group in living body consists of biological rvastes accumulated after ware and tear process of body is called malas. They do share a certain proportion of function of living body. When these elements finish their part of function they no more remain useful 40
  • for living body. They then have to be disposed of. If they still remain in body they become nuisance to living body. o These three groups together constitute living body. o *werrgaa4s,i E er$E r g. T& 1 5 Dosha, dhatu and mala are basic constituents of living body. Ayurveda is not consideringany fourth group for the foundation of body. Out of these three fundamental groups doshas aregiven due importance since they are body controllers.arg: ftai ocn-s+effir, errffi .)qEiurEf: I (q. z& t r s a)Vayu, pitta and kapha together constitute group of functionalism in living body. By above verses it is obvious that three doshas together constitute a chief group, which isresponsible for homeostatic mechanism of living body, if these entities remain in physiologicallimits. (Dr. Nandini Dhargalkar) Tridoshas are functional. They are shakti rupa dravyas. We cannot see them. There is nodefinite parameter to measure them. Their places, types and qualities are described according tothe specific functions they perform. (Dr. B.N. Mishra) Tridoshas are dual in nature i.e. they are structural as well as functional in nature. Theyare structural due to dravyarupata. The references regarding dravyarupata of tridosha-1. Tridosha are formed by panchamahabhuta; as panchamahabhuta are dravya, tridoshas are alsodravya. ar*rr6.r:nerrga+i_ cng:, sila-+Ei ft6q sia+gefravi edqrr (sr.zi. z1 zorz)z) rc-{tBrdl, o-#g-n o.ruui 21-a-orfu qq dq c@71 | 1-. R r zs r )Karma and guna are dravyashrita padartha. As doshas have their own karma and guna they arecalled dravyas.3) Anjalipramana of kapha and pitta dosha is stated. sQ edwsr: dq fuazq- r (a.en. z t t s)4. In vriddhi avastha kapha and pitta doshas can be eliminated e.g. kapha dosha is eliminated byvaman and pitta dosha can be eliminated by virechan.5. Kapha and pitta arc avayavsanghatyukta. 3rtierdq gfr fuaea-woq sraqcrffia I (zr. E1, 1 2/7 a-+-qr"ft)6. Occupying some space is also the quality of dravya. Doshas occupy space in body thereforethey are dravyas. * qrftr*sfr 6araulzefaezilfsierqr r (s+.€. el. t rz) From above references we can prove the dravyarupata of dosha. As they are dravyarupathey are structural in nature. Some gunas of dosha are indriyagochar and some are karmanya. Inkapha dosha their snigdha, shitadi guna are indriyagochar i.e. they can be known by indriyas, buttheir bala, kshama, dhruti etc guna are not indriyagochar i.e. they are karmanya (known bykarma). (Ref. Purnachandra Jain) From above discussion we can say that doshas are not only structural, but they are bothstructural as well as functional in nature. Doshas are present in the body in two forms i.e. sthulaand sukshma. * q q-E{rfl ftBer eeldqgflfua}<a, r ?Fr trrg: Erdr ga* g a*<qrad r r Gq€f?rB-{ra) as *si "l€+r ard arg a-<r erotg 3rd-{€rFg T(€ar: 3{!ft€t€r: fugd erdaq sTfu@ srffkq- erde*oq, B-qrarq-erg*veq 1 4l
  • ga-lgffigoeerre-d {ewsq6s "€ns5a-cred zrf,d er8t r (tra-<Rfff frrgf oFrsrq ar.r+rer *a) According to above shloka, pitta and kapha dosha are divided into sthula and sukshmaform, but vayu is not in sthula form due to its achintya, atindriya, etc. qualities. In case of pittadosha amashaya, pachyamanashaya and agnyashaya srava can be considered as sthula pitta. Thefactor which is responsible for any pachan or parivartan in body cells can be considered assukshma pitta or the factor which is creating energy or ushma in body is also considered assukshma pitta. Therefore we can see doshas but only in sthula form as they are indriyagochar. Wecannot see the sukshma form of dosha which is karmanya.Parameters for tridosha -Qualitative parameters 1. Tridoshas are assessed subjectively with the help of pratyaksha, anuman and aptopdeshapramana.2. Radial pulse examination (nadi parikshana) is conventionally used by ancient Ayurvedicacharyas to quantify tridoshas and to assess the status of tridosha in human body. In modem science also it is stated that pulse does not give information about only thecirculatory conditions, but it gives information about other valuable things also (,4 system ofclinical medicine by T.D. Savil P. No. 105)3) Tridoshas can be measured by the vriddhi kshaya lakshanas of doshas e.g. aeforeo.$ Jwr-drftd oqroTrg ?rgq uE ra I eatr<r€Fqqlei u*aruara-ea-ar r r (a. z1 t z r a z)If above lakshanas are seen, vata vriddhi should be considered. These kshaya and vriddhilakshanas can be convefied into quantitative form by gradation system in statistics e.g.karshya - + minimum ++ medium +++ maximumWe can also use the vriddhi-kshaya lakshanas quantitatively as followingAccording to Ashtang hriday pitta vriddhi lakshanas are- 1 (sr.er* 1 1/7) Eight lakshanas are stated in above shloka. Here 8 are considered as 100%.If 6lakshanasof pittavriddhi are present, thenTSo/opittavriddhi can be considered Following parameters can be used for tridoshas according to their types -Tridoshas are not only functional, but they are dravyarupa. As dravya has a specific place, type,qualities, amount and karma, tridoshas also have these. erxrflerirr o-*gwr,6-rt"i zl-a-orE eq <rq Eeqt (q.T1. trst) There is scientific reason behind these locations of doshas. Generally doshas are presentall over the body, but they are mostly present in their samanya sthan e.g. vayu in the pakvashayakati, sakthi etc. q"ETerq oft;e+ftereffi€r-{qqf+F{rfl r terrd tlr-rt=r d-e-rft qmrerrd Belqa: rr tzrt) (sr.€. "I. can generate disease in any part of The second thing is that when doshas are vitiated theythe body, but mostly they creat disease condition in their locations e.g. If vata is vitiatedgenerally it creats shula in kati, sakthi, etc. (Prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar) Triodoshas are structural and we can definitely observe their functions. They are dravyasand so as per the definition ofdravyas. e-arBrar o*gun:oEui eq dq cqa I "rfldr$ 42
  • They are always associated with guna and karma so they are not only functional but alsostructural. Guna and karma of tridoshas are explained in samhitas. We have some parameters formeasuring these structures but still we have to develop more. Pratyaksha, anuman, upaman and shabda are the pramanas, according to Ayurveda. Nowa day with the help of modern scientific instruments we can develop parameters to havepratyaksha pramana to see the functions of particular doshas. (Dr. Kavita Indapurkar) Tridosha are structural sharir dravyas having panchbhutic constitution i.e. dosha matter ishaving chemically structural formula (every biological substance is protien in nature). Vata issukshma and not seen by naked eyes but pitta and kapha are sthula dravyas and some of themcan be seen by naked eyes. The remaining questions are answered in subsequent answers givenbellow. (Prof. Kalpana Sathe) The term Function in a biological system is a highly subjective expression. In fact wecall all the processes serving some meaningful purpose, a function. Again, the terms meaningful and purpose are very subjective. Therefore, if someone understands doshas to befunctional let there be no objection. But, it is to be noted that without the involvement of somestructute, there cannot be a process; and without the involvement of some processes, there cannotbe a function as well. Therefore, doshas ought to have some structure, if at all they areperforming some function. On the other hand, it is easy and practical to understand doshas to behomeostatic mechanisms rather than understanding them in terms of either structural orfunctional. In a nutshell, doshas represent all homeostatic mechanisms. In this context, bymechanism, we are referring to a process and one cannot see a process. It is jgst likeunderstanding the homeostatic mechanisms involved in the rnaintenance of arterial bloodpressue. One can neither see the baroreceptors in the aorta being stimr-rlated nor can one see theimpulses being carried in the efferent nerves. The only effect that r.ve can see is the bloodpressure returning to the normal levels r.vithin a few seconds or minutes. Scientific basis of locations of doshas can be explained by an example like prana vayu,which controls the intellectual functions, cardiovascular functions, sensory functions, respirationand many other reflex activities like sneezing, belching and deglutition. As all these functions areof brain and brain stem, it is highly logical to say that prana vayu is located in the head (murdha).(Kishor Patwaidhan, Humun Physiology in A.yurveda, 2005, Publisher: Chaukhambha0rientalia). Similarly, pachak pitta is situated at small intestine and therefore, it is responsible fordige,"tion. We can draw similar rational relationship between every closha and its location. (Dr. Sangeeta Gehlot)2.5. Are their any objective parameters for assessing functions of tridosha in the body? (Dr. Jairaj P. Basarigidad)Human body, as per the Ayurvedic compendia. is a laboratory itself and the functional measureis supposed to be the measure of tridosha. As far as objective parameters are concerned each guna can be assessed in context of itsfunctional output: 43
  • . In respect to prakriti for example ushna guna of pitta. Ushna-asaha, ushnamukha, sukumara avaiatagatra, prabhuta piplu-vyanga-tila-kalaka, kshut-pipasa-vanta, kshipra valipalitkhalityadosha, prayo mrudu, alpa, kapila shmashru, loma and kesha. r In respect to its physiological function e.g. pachan, darshan, medha etc o In respect to and further vitiation e.g. daha raga ushmapkita kotha etcIt is necessary to research every point with specially-set experimental, clinical and surveymethods and then this question can be answered. (Dr. Nandini Dhargalkar) No, we can only assess the tridosha by their normal and abnormal functions. (Dr. B.N. Mishra)Functions ofdosha-Vatakarma- s-e]Taq4rr]fteqrc{ +Er errgarfttrar r €-* *+ arftrrai il-*: 6affu6rgm{ I (a. z* t er+e) I s€{r-A€--dIT{ ft:azITT{ ier ffi r errcrd-rr€n a errgaraerrwi u;elol q11 (sr-€. ztr ttttz) We cannot urr.rrill the function of dosha by objective parameters but some functions of rrchhavas and nishwasdoshas can be measured by objective parameters e.g. in vata dosha karmakarma can be measured by respiratory rate, spirometry etc Cheshta karma of vata dosha can be measured by reflexes, muscle power, muscle toneetc. Vega pravartana karma may be assessed by excretionof urine and stool in their normalquantities per dayIndriya vaimalya- o perfectness of indriyas i.e. vision can be measured by Snellens chart of vision. o Hearing can be measured by audiometry o qrg*iTeiTerz@ e=i?f6€*rat€ar"€r-i frrqar s+irrq EIEt-€t: T{ttr;qrorrd dratn s+tBqrerfiarafdrfrar, zr-d er8zerraqro-E: uierro-tnz, gTft{s, qqffi qrq qofr:wefer#- eilt-{qefa-+{ri, Effifr e+hwns-t+dqriefiqur frwr qft;-farai, T€Krrsgiiltrrri altar 6-df ararfsg$-ai,. s+ig*s-ggfrilr-€-qagi uaegfua r (a.z1r zze) . qrg?iT{jaerz:- MYogram o zrdGrerfqfsna sf}rfrdr,- perfectness of indriyas o Hearing capacity by Audiometry, tuning fork test. vision by snellens chart. . qrg?iTeiqeru: dairy erfi-{fl 6qq ei*a I o fr+zrarg erIR o.qa ?iaei*qr (a- g. 12/ 44 eoqr"ft) o ei€rra+-{ er$cEq Surface marking . Tgrft weferq* Audiometry Functions of Pitta <efti hin-swr q gEwr ?aar*oq r qa{r rrz{rA *en a rtMftorEqqlr (q q 18/so) ftai u-qsa-aeB I qE--d-sBqarr*€Irfr eld Tg ffr{}:n (sr.€.Ttr 11/3) 44
  • Darshana: o Darshana is checked by perfectness of vision by Snellans chart. o Medha by IQ test . Ushmaby body temperature o Raga by Hb%Functions of kapha: zffi cieftq-rttiq *{-q gq-dr daq I erar eJftrrda+ea omoaffrorzuq I (q.z1 tezsr) I erMers.q Rq-oera dfrrdrE€TarRfer. r (sr.6. ztr r t rz) o Bala Fatigue Index Test, weight lifting o Dhruti by IQ test . Sneha by lipid profile, skin moisture, skin sebum o Gaurav by weight (Prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar) There are objective parameters for assessing functions of tridoshas in the body. We canuse different scientific instruments and tests to assess the functions of vata, pitta and kapha, butnot for all. Of course this is todays need to add objective parameters to assess the function oftridoshas. ECG, EEG spirometry, reaction time analyser, thermometer, stethoscope,sphygmamometer are some of the examples of instrument. Quantitive and qualititive tests canalso be assessed (Dr. Kavita Indapurkar) Ayurveda has taken rapid strides over the last decade in realizing people all over theworld to probe into basics of physical and psychological heath-related problems of fast changinglife styles. Countries including India are now recognizing the importance of science of life i.e.Ayurveda and its principles based on dosha - dhatu -mala vigyan. Now this is the right time for enabling and empowering of Ayurvedic doctors withwestern diagnostic methods since biochemistry has also taken rapid strides over last two threedecades in understanding the etiopathological and pathophysiological problems, basic to a hostof diseases physical as well as physiological. It is dream of biochemist that the biochemical substances themselves would be replacedor altered at will; the so-called genetherapy." One must not only learn the basic techniques of biochemistry i.e. simple routinebiochemical tests like estimation of biochemical constituents in blood, seruln, cerebrospinalfluid, saliva etc. but also analyzing them in terms of dosha, dhatu and mala. Even moreimportant for us is to design various simple biochemical tests for dosha, dhatu and mala, whichwill enable us to teach the modern world the Ayurvedic etiopathology and pathophysiology ofphysical as well as psychological diseases. Ayurveda has its own analytical methods in understanding etiopathology andpathophysiology of diseases like trividha pariksha (darshan, sparshan, prashna), dashavidha rogand rogi pariksha (Ch. Vi. 8) and ashtavidha rogi pariksha, nidan panchak, shatkriyakal andsimple observational methods for various diseases like mrittikabhakshana in pandu roga,makshikosarpana in blood and urine in madhumeha. Physical examination for body fluids likerakta, stanya, mutra was also performed but chemical analysis was not done in those periods oftime. 45
  • aftroffia er8-{-flrgd{ I (a. ft- +rt)Therefore there is unlimited scope for research in the field of physiopathogenesis or etiology ofvarious diseases in Ayurveda. Suggestions regarding selection of topics are given here.e-qt+qefl-dreq gffci qa-*a a t?-a zierrqf-*a E srqrqa zS: G* t IFor objective parameters for assessing functions of tridosha in the body please see answer No.2.6. (Prof. KalPana Sathe) At first, let us be clear that no single substance or structure in the body can represent adosha. Therefore, we need to know how tridoshas can take up different identities at differentlevels of organization in the human body. By different levels of organization, what we mean isthe different levels at which some purposeful and life-oriented mechanisms exist. These levelsinclude cellular level, organ level, system level and organism level. Now, we know that vata is responsible for all movements and it is the initiating andcontrolling force. pitta is responsible for digestion, metabolism, production of heat and otherforms of energy. Kapha performs the functions like protection, strength, support, growth andresistance. Different entities that may represent three doshas at different levels of organization cannow be understood by analyzing these functions or biological effects. For example, initiating andcontrolling part of a cell is nucleus. Different cytoplasmic, mitochondrial, and other enzyme-mediate chimical reactions and some other energy-producing substances like ATP areresponsible for producing heat. Protection of the cell and its organelle is primarily the functionof different membranes of the cell. So, at a single cell level, the above mentioned entities mayrepresent tridoshas. tn the same way, we may even classify the different cell organelles to bevata-dominant (the nucleus), pitta-dominant (lysosomes, peroxisomes, mitochondria) and kapha-dominant (Golgi apparatus, ribo somes, cytop lasm) Similarly, a^single system e.g. neruous system can be taken up to understand tridoshas.Most of the movem"nir, ,"pr"sented by vata, in this system are due to the ionic influxes and playseffluxes producing an action potential, which propagates throughout the neuron. Chemistryan important roleln neurotransmission. Several enzymes and neurotransmitters required for thisprr.por. can be considered as pitta. Protective function in this system is performed by several structural entities that make .tp tn" neurons and also by some other factors like cerebro spinal fluid, blood brain barrier etc. Tridoshas in this context are therefore different. At an organism level, three systems are said to be very important as far as the homeostatic functions are concerned. These three systems are called the great coordinating and the systems. These systems are none other than the nervous system, the endocrine system immune system. ih"r. systems can exactly be equated with vata, pitta and kapha respectively. On ttre basis of the above understanding, we can conclude that the parameters of measurement of doshas vary significantly from one context to other. For example, recording the conduction velocity may serve as a good parameter for assessing vata in one context and, in another context, genetic studies may serve the same purpose. (Kishor Patwardhan, Haman Physiology in AYarveda 2005). (Dr. Sangeeta Gehlot) 46
  • 2.6. How do we examine dosha status quantitatively and qualitatively? Can we use some ofthe biophysical tests like viscosity, specific gravity etc? (Vd. Pranita P. Joshi) It is necessary to research every point with specially set experimental, clinical and surveymethod and then this question can be answered. (Dr. Nandini Dhargalkar) We can examine the dosha status by kshya and vriddhi lakashana. (Dr. B.N. Mishra)Examination of dosha by qualitative method.1) Tridoshas are assessed subjectively with the help of pratyaksha, anuman and aptopdeshapramana.2) Radial pulse examination (aadi parikshan) is conventionally used by ancient ayurvedicacharyas to assess the tridosha status in human body.3) Tridoshas can be measured by the vriddhi and kshaya lakshanas. e.g. ore*orev-*sprorFra- o-qrar-a ergr{uErq I E-erfsr €B+a;.t qarqaraPaaru (a. z* tzroz)Ifabove lakshanas are seen vata vriddhi should be considered.Quantitative examination: These kshaya and vriddhi lakshanas can be converted into quantitative form by gradationsystem in statistics e.g.karshya- + minimum ++ medium +++ maximumWe can also use the vriddhi kshaya lakshanas quantitatively as following.According to Ashtang hriday pittavriddhi lakshanas are- li]ra@ gE-_d-dr6ffiE-d-drr (sr.6. ztr ttrz) Eight lakshanas are stated in above shloka; here 8 are considered as 100%.If 6 lakshanasare present, then 75o/o pittavriddhi. can be considered.Parameters according to dosha typesVata doshaPranavayu:1. e-rsna",id-dq Breath holding capacity2. €a.Baq Respiratory rate3. €Tq€rrrtrr Heart rate4. Skrcqq From nirnay-kshamataUdanvayu:I. q-q-d, s,sf These are decided by working capacity.2. Ecri weight lifting, Fatigue Index Test3. eft, €Ifr, rqfr IQ testSamanvayu:r) srF+*igersr It is decided by abhavaran and jaranshaktiz) zlr{fu-<d ftae-d By hearing peristaltic movement.s) zlT{fu--dd *d-a Frequency of passing stool and stool examination.+) E+wra ia-aier Frequency of quantity of urine excretion.s) 3{-rt-€r 6<-+ u.rraq - BSL should be checked fasting& PP 47
  • Vyan vayu: ),, fufrquT HR before and after exercise is measuredz) "=R g;q, z+of btrl- erSrura Pulse examinations) ercrur q-+d-rq-.I Swedapravartanaafter exercise is checked.+) #fteftera BPApan Vayur) gftq frrl{-fd stool examinationz) sr.A-.rn qft,hrqrrur- Enquire whether adhovayu is daily and naturally excreted or not.s) 31d-gq offi5a artrry ftr€-d- Urine frequency and pramana are checked.+) ?1-q-r.fla fr ?Iq-€ft - Sperm ejection- whether normal or not is asked.Pitta dosha:qrErrr fud-r) 3r-RFur qeaq -Checkedby*d qe}Ba sra cr€rur 3qtn"EQE-{s-€{re ffi I g.-dftq€r q #errrsq -g-*z-s-q*gfrqrwi frtaaq- crewlq I I (sr.zi. z1 t)z) +n Ask about gauravadi lakshanas presence after meal. Prinana ofrasa is checked by darshana pariksha. Excretion of mal, mutra is normal or not is checkeda) €artreIT gaE fuorai qdqrdq Other pittakarmas are norrnal I not is seenEq6 ft-tf,- Rasadhatu ranjan- RBC counterrer-F fud- lQ test a-at{er zIT€Iof gtd- Rorschach test (perception test) is done by showing bhasman chitra.anqo fua r) gqrqa+rai 9"Fr91zF:- Complexion of skin is checked z) srarffiWai qrf,=i-Time taken for absorption of tiltail drop on skin is recorded by stop watchsrrdt{6 ft-daq-q-g"rre +-C- Vision test bY Snellens chart Colorblindness and night blindness are excluded Kapha dosha Avalambak kaPha- r) Fr6-rq Ask for any type of pain in trika, kati, etc. z) €eq-Eq 3rcEi€aq- Ask for chest Pain. s)elqrsri zrcn-{€Ir;Trai 3rdciEaq Other kaphaprakara function is normal or not is seen Kledak- r) srq+iqrfl ddarq - Ask for gauravadi lakshanas presence after meal z) eiwEerrarai 3€q{- 48
  • Is kapha is normal at ura, sandhi etc sthans is seen.Bodhak- - Rasbodhan is proper or not is askedTarpak- aglB+rwi Tt@- Ask for dryness of eyes, ear, etc.Shleshak- s+efi-rie*qr - Sandhikriyas are prakrut or not is checked. We cannot use viscocity, specific gravity test for doshas because- . Dosha is not a single factor but it is group of constituents, which is present in whole body. . They have different functions in different parts of body. o Doshas are karmanya therefore they can be measured by applying tests according to their functions. (Prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar)Dosha guna pariksha (C. Su. l)Vata guna pariksha (C. Su. 1)Sr. No Guna/karma ExperimentI Ruksha- Shoshane ruksha, Assessment of lipid profile of venous blood snigdha viparita plasma after administration of sneha kalpana for 3, 5 and 7 days2 Shita- Stambhane shita, ushna Refrigeration of blood sample and its viparita biochemical analysis at low temperature, (slow integration of cells)J Laghu- Langhane laghu Ultrafugation test for proteins qurutwa rahita shiehapaki4 Sukshma- Vivarane sukshma Estimation of adrenaline in sera before and sukshmasrotogami, sukshma after administration of vatal draya in high marganuDraveshi doses5 Chala - Drerane Chala Est mat on of adrenaline after exercrse6 Vishad - Kshalane Vishad Estimation of .plasma- triglycerides, serum cholesterol after oral administration of Triphala Kashay for 3 days7 Khara - Lekhane kharaha Feces analysis after administration of KamoillakaPitta guna pariksha (C. Su.l)Sr. No Guna/karma ExperimentI Sneha- Kledane snigdha Determination of presence of fats in bile2 Ushna - svedane ushnah Sweat analysis after administration of Sunthi with hot wateraJ Tikshna - Shodhane tikshna Biochemical analysis of nasal mucus secretion after pradhaman nasya of Maricha (pepper powder) 49
  • 4 Drava- Vilodane Dravah After meal gastric analysis of soluble food5 Amla-Mukham stravayati 1) Analysis of saliva (pH) after administration of lemon 2) oH of sastric iuice6 Sara- saram waoti shilam Feces analysis after purgation by sour gruel.7 Katu- Jihvagra chimchimayan Analysis of saliva secretion after administration of hot chilliKapha guna pariksha (C. Su.l)Sr. No Guna/Karma Experiment Guru -Brimhane guruhu Blood plasma analysis for large protein molecules by ultra centrifugation method and estimation of albumin after heavy meals, like meat, Masha etc.2 Shita-Stambhane shita, ushna Gastric analysis at low temperature after viparita administration of chilled milk on empty sfomachaJ Mridu -Shlathane mriduhu Estimation of plasma proteins after oral administration of butter for 3, 5, 7 days4 Snigdha- Kledane snigdhaha Estimation of venous plasma triglycerides after oral administration of shrita5 Madhur -Tarpana Estimation of blood glucose level after starvation and after administration of glucose water6 Sthira -Dharane sthira Stability test for saliva or lymphatic secretions7 Picchila-Lepane picchilaha Analysis of saliva after oral gargle with oorridse of wheat.Prana - All Sensory nervous functionsUdan - All motor nervous functionVyan - Conductive system of heart j I Adrenergic and cholinergicSaman -Gustatory nerve stimulations related to secretions and peristaltic movements of gut.Apan - Pelvic nerve stimulations related to excretionPachak - digestive enzymes and iso-enzymes amylase in plasma (gastrid analysis).Ranjak - Hemopoetic substancesSadhak - hormones related to brain intellectual functions.Alochak - Visual purpleBhrajak- MelaninKledak- Mucous of gutBodhaka- mucin of saliva ,Avalambak - Triglycerides in venous blood plasma, pleural fluid, pericardial fluid, intervertebraldisc fluid 50
  • Shleshak- Sinovial fluid Tarpak - Cerebrospinal fluid. (Prof. Kalpana Sathe) 2-7. qso i fum sil{ 6E rFr 3iqfrT g-rrTur qarqr E q-t-E qra trr aS 7 / 1 s)l tr erT. -ffi qgersr 6]-dr arrer Grr rtrr?rr B z qR 6ff + m.B fu qra d qftqrq or ara gs-d o-d +1 aS E ?il td fud 3*{ oq * eft 6-d frd rr+ ?i, fu-{ s-trA siqfrr qFaror d fre ar$ B a (Dr. Nidhi Khurana) Vata dosha is extremely low in prithvi mahabhuta even though it is basically panchabhautik. Only prithvi mahabhuta can give a matter or murti. This is the reason of inability to test vata in a routine way (Dr. Nandini Dhargalkar) --:- @ gcrt r,, gft r au.#sa+o -rerr q r?c: (?)_..a a-)@uar aqgryt €-dnerFl-€-drd$s## -€ g-*r, , 6r.€. QIT. 3/81 qz srgurecrr)Because of its amurtafva (shapeless Charak) vayu cannot be measured. - In Sushrut,s opnion notonly vayu, but other doshas, dhatus and malas cannot be measuredt-a@*oqr d qFqrut a ftrst r ruqi ----- flrq-6_ u (g r& t srzz-ts) d.aap-qp6 futr-ger€tqd -E-r-mrFrrrs-irea-a-A*ar.trn"#*rf# srEenfrfuroA.aft sra?fr€raarq,srsenfuaai q Eft*sfu 6r& Fr€-rr srra.ft-"r+sfu a, o=- p,-n o;, ea ffiaevrq+ W _-*,a@a)+d; aenssqft€rdsfr qrd- ed-qr=fb=-fA, o*6qrqrarrfn€aare{Fd,, g1g_ futr-€q-ffi, gdE ergffini in-*56 errFrdrai- }f]isar.i ET fuErA; id oeq*E #eq ;d e?er*, ; *d- F-J, ,- (g. 1s/37 oa s6or) "rdt. "{ (Dr. Sandhya patel) With reference to Charak Sharirasthan 7/15 perhaps the anjali praman for pitta and kaphais described as mala of rakta dhatu and rasa dhatu respectivel y undnoi u, dosha itself. vata is notthe mala of any dhatu, so its quantity is not described. (Dr. B.N. Mishra) eaffi aguiqq54,, dE qt uarurafDrfei, gk-are{ e}Fr,a-#E a-o*-iuiqorq#, .iE+ an+a q-g ?dqur: dqfud- "n-i =;.n uaasta-ogmarrr (a. err. zrts)sffi lrdITUr-uar_a+i1 q-qftr$qr qgdeq Earyraqqfteqr"Tsffirqra ....... (err*.orerr eiFdr rdtis .r rzs-zo) 2rld = r rqft z u-qfr -d : siiwd- (r o o ffi) qso tItEF (edwo1,; * * ., sirf,fu 3*{ fud .Fr IrarTUr qiq si.1"nEN?rr€rr Br qra or vapr e-S-qarerr ts d B org + a-d g*;,+ dr+ Br . Ytn l F. s& t zrz) er) srtiara - *foq fr grw a # qrarr 51
  • 3rdqrd €fr ftrd Qasdq 3{zrerei ?iqrd Gaq rz) sraEftara- E@qa q{ a sg} qrar z€rrd srd-dft€rd gfr €e{rdq I @-d e-m-o-af q Eer: effi ag 3l{: ll ftrffi fueqqeSq "-*il{d u.r q I gFffiAqpri iar -tartl-qezrqrr (9. fr "trz-a)sr€rrffi - + qo-c a-S ?Fd<-{uT- q1q, &€i alurdm -H ard Aq, # * 3r{d Br szizrr ara aqlFv * a # AzrreitGiq$ +dI B I o-*EfTcI qIUI zleaeaefrser ftqEuil{ I (q. Ttr t tss) effi aq oer-ageftd-".rnfi=}dq-q qgg u-rd gurT arE6o r r (4. ^q- zr+) rqrd + gor E u{*rcr: €qr, ag, zlqfl, # ga {"fi o-r qftarq a-S o-s z{6-a r qrgzfr arqr ag1 qr *-- *;fu-u-6?*efl, srqf 6es aa B I qr= * qpqrq .FT =IErs-{{+ ord acrzr dar B r 2 , NA qulrdraY<E-z€Xrrs*z-z1ew Aq frr<ftsr zegrtleufra}<a t ?Fr trr$: er4r gd$ g-qeqradrr tftq€ridfu<ra) "l€fl aq tsi aea "rtg zr<t zralg 3q{errg 3{lr€[et: Fi_gd ^erffiaq srfua "l€uf: tnnAq- eri.nflw# En-qrar*-srg*uea r ga-igtuaeriitwrcilgT-d-trdd} erEt r "l€qoqa: "€gE.qle1-a-f,a (fufff AgAl (oftrtrq "rrartr {a) -dt fr aa e.tro# ,jrg"rr. om sfu fud as. ?:u_ slz rlea ffi u-rg ui] a-61 =-q-sffiA#B, oig a- ue;1m E-a sTpie, srfrFrq B iarsT qT "tg "f**--i uTcF?TT =-nftils (Prof B H shyamkuwar)a-{6rqrd =1srlft-<F gk ttci i errS-s T€Ilcr 7 fr fr aiur.ft lrfirur trdrglT B qA €rd a+flero-a-a ara --ereT; *; fr # E" -tr- €ffi"r t-at gu 6-dr tsr qrorqrd + tua N B4} -q;; e-arqr E r Ieg" i *a**g;=-e-.nar B fu dS +.rr-ts{r +A B, sa-or € qdrur tFI a-4 alrqr nlr fr rqo-q- frsiddfr6$ e- , "rrga- errcq fr -ft + a-z-a eqsr Etr tnr qftera fr ds # u-rg ? "toq qflror qarqr rET-r Aq .d irq(d e, "t.tiq s-S a;]-€d..nT* e-6t &dr rsrga-fa "l€q EE[, ffi eiFra + TrTe[ -3?Ter<?TT, edura1 zFI qrol Far -tL{{zFrTr B3r€ft_rrEr s_srp. a_fl.n.| ..ra 61 c--sE.r fr,-€ 6-{a B I 3rcr: 5p. arw ry .rg u}{ll$-,!,} * dr?r cr rrdnur c.F qc,r zn-ar Br 3rr*d-Ef-fu-qr t,u6-.T fu-{n rer *q"{Ed=7=g*#*tl d^ r-ero-r^cz5 51-a=lrur *rn UgTI B I Eq saror * q@?r: (u-arura,) t* r 3-d-r6onef fua srrlT A.f* aft e1q-gk cFr €Ird 3ft 3n-aqq-q5 $ qr€- ; g"r-" ;#EFr +"t a d s-a-#-s--r 5. qan B atu-d stffi ffi B qarrr&B rn;1 un q.1ro.ra: gk 3- -=ffi, rsrrr{d-Er-r -; A;B gk .ft€q-dr r teft s{-u-{€n d fr ow fr ftr.. uti ocn €-rft *t- A ffi E 3{16. =.iye -]!. at a efo (d EFr qatTsr-r: a-d-d fu-fl ;1s rq e-ard.: erq:gk. 6F-a- sra-{€rsfr qE trreiqur qrerr -. =#t B r eft+ftrs u*fgA-q 31=1qE aft -"-.;5 ".d-t: gfiTsr +i qarqr B I edwr €#ltF--*= 1*orarv iil"dq r (sr6 z1 r r ta) q r gT& r s ftffi-{d =<o ffiq*t+a (prof. Kalpana Sathe) 52
  • If we consider the relation of vayu, agni and jala with vata, pitta and kapha dosha then itwill be clear that the existence of agni and jala is visible and their functions are also clear. If weconsider with reference to vata dosha and prakritistha vayu, the existence of vayu can beperceived by its functions but it is not possible to visualize it.It is also not clear that up to whichLxtent it is spread. Therefore its measurement is impossible. In the same way, it has beendescribed about bodily vata dosha that - 3r@-d artrcr o-d a (9. B. r ) Due to this factor we cannot measure vata dosha. Pitta and kapha doshas are found in drava state.Drava can be measured that is why their anjali measurement has been described. (Dr. Sangeeta Gehlot) 2-a. q. 7/1s fr N t5T qfturrff cr-rT{rT Er fud s sidfr, tT"IT tEtF 6 eTT-3ffit dq d lM a+rq B aerr sr-qd Er * qfrurrff fu-s q-6rg ziaro qr UTtF.TT ? =r+orgstr ? qra zFI qRorra d d-ff fu-qr (Dr. Nidhi Garg)e-e-qftrr{wrci a-gu}evra:..........uedwur:, .h fuanq ........ (a. eTT. //1s)ds 1M a+ro B zdfu t erSE d qa E I*s qr-g ild-tri E erStq n (9. T1* r szs)<rrg: 3{IcFrer€rrgavi q1g, s{rd+ei frat sree{gferff€ari-edqrr (sr.zi. ^% -?o)- *d S ftat srrars €o..Er err 3rat rffi A * de-fi-drw er$r d qEiqe B, aerSc 7;q q€rur cb-{ # sqsra E-6i d-6i €rrg, =qerr€ fr qftrd Aa ts qai t qrafum edqr * o..q fr aft qfrsrd *A E I gtft q-.nrs *q rqa Eq B @]b i dar5ralar.ao B r snq + gd edqr 3ft4 fud qrg + 311-5tQT ETrrqra erfi-r-fr g@ s-d-d-o o-r$ o-c*orsr B r qfr-ar-Heiar B + 3r€eer sTls 3rfiRd darqr d =Tr-d-qftwa ftrq-Sa Aa B I cr-r d s$q 5q Ei zr-d-grA fr 6ftH€ ffiB r gErGru EIT-r .Fr rrEar-r aS a zro-* r qrg-dr aaref,d u<-olsr 3rrebrer, €ngfrE-+d erss zrr$ ziaro €rrEq-dui e@2trscr q{etaref s#qr 3rgu-6ui erffi T{-sq q<qeref, 3rarelT srq#q {d a{ardfro6; r ({€)ora-&s- s{iiqmaq, eiTdqfterd, 3{Ez1q11s5q *dr B 3fu qqq, aEr, 3{Fie gurdrc{r*dr B E;rft zn.rtil i srqd o.q drg z* qrqr a-S qr zftF?tr I 3-dT+ -6-crr{{ B:ecIT*I AEI €rrgdft: siFIT I €-* *sil arft-a-ai qrEil o-qfforcqqrr (q.e* tar+s) qrgrd-a-q-a€r{: Ml u-otf-oe+erargqld-qrai E-q-dr q+dr ? ;rt;f€I: I I (q. e& t zte) , qrgd E +€rfr wEf dr*d rI gTor: qrFrqt (a.q tzttte)a-rg sta-{€Tt er$r # Td} "qd:ll g+ sqaTT{, fr:adr+r B-qr osar B r "iqrfrarg e*- ga B-qrs*, err qFdnq €E d< d6 arqr sr zro-ar B Iqra * €@ gnr- ad guT tfr arqa uFr 5q.rEQnt (rj sq-.nr{-a:e-zlTT{ - Respiratory rate €rdrzr atrsr dI zrorn B I (z) =qarz+-fr:?€trrl b-qr 45T Wf ofre*t - Spirometry (s) =grz+-B:QEIT*I fr sie-tftrgw 6r qalrut - Pulse oxymeter (+) +Er - Reflexes (s) Frrft Frd - ECG (o) aftaw 6Td - EEG 53
  • (z) ar& drft s-nruT- q6 A sn-gdE+ -T"T q$en _ol 5€l€ 3iTI B I g{Irr.F|-g .i1g + ftf}]-da 6-m +} arElr .TT ?rtE"TT B afu-d ..g d a-ff arqt 6 {ftF?TT Ifrrd 6d- cefai qfuawr q gE Ewn aeardEa I qan q-e+rA fren q Frao-qfsfrortuqrr (q- e*r e,so).om orq- gH der ft€rzfi q dttzi gq-dr Eaq I erar gftrt-*ar"q owoaffuor*qq r r (q. E* --r eu s r ) tro s*{ *.i + ord aft qR-aror tnr 6u-} B afu-d ft-a sfu ow i qd t;u =rIErBr - ftraedqaq g-{fii{s ; ffi, fud + iiqGt qnrur f*+ 3 q d-d * "{qrd 45q1 ar+r B "Gts{r an6 a d-drqr B I (Prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar) e-sft +s 31ffid qm-oaro# d1aj, aerr@ qTE-dq-dqftt"&€rEi; *a arqlma drd-€efr-d qfrqfr r (aro ; qa;qFr) I qr€tt *" *+- 6q1.51-$ eflq 6-de or erd o-Sg+q a qwr, 3ftr€€IT fr.lrarT, frerl qra *qserr6, eqre{ tJ?i ft:?tITEr, €rlgrlft ErerR; ftnat qI€n, ofr l?6E-rfr den t6t5 Aq- +i, n rt-d, -1t-, g"ar, qa g€rrR- Erd E-{A E I €-oI#m * er6 qr gk "-+€r,qra+ gr 6-S EFr ar6r +dr B r srfffuad qreftat ffi * * #q * Eier+ * .,1ograe ae + d"gk o,1 3€drd *dI B r srFre{rt".* 5t-- + zag gur. - .rgrd +dr B r eele qs mw N + srka 6r .ft g_6"TT_-br 3rgaTIEr 6tdl B Ier5yss€r e-gur:e.rrd * +q o-r+ + s{TErq fr aa -3rga|a **a -B 6;{ ."€r5d qz 3d"Fr qRarrr rrisftft-o-e A atb"TT qelI zre B Ttr5tr,-= a srqd gs t*rr dS E r N rnr cnr aIEr a-S r q-{-Ee-** -G r{-d-d ara B}Ji; ;, A -d 3n qaru B; * qfturrq aft ziaro B I =aeF[ s{fr End-Asr.d;, fiir&irfre-z, gg tei arftsfi-d ffi -+ tnrzr Eti sngor$ €1afr--frt +EFtzT ftftre g|-d# il "qrql erar gfio-a E . r 3{T-FreT adrw _ueargzBa -8, +-d-d qRrdToT # ara sr{iarq -ff- "=g gdo B t or qftora-.q --6|r*fo + qrflrg 6-€}qor, EZi -;1E qrfdr (6io4era) * qra *q trr}era crcr -rH AG*fl, 1;=;y{ftAffu-qr qr s-+-ar B I (Prof. Kalpana Sathe) 2.s. itcit + qdq zFr tFrwr "-{il + *il6T flr6cT a * scr *qen-dTE ts *;i 3|-d|?5*t sF{d 6ils{ 11rn ? +S Errrrcnr srrR * orasr+tq d d qrdeqffo arg{, 3fiffio* -"* o* *a * -sr *TGTT fi an+r *rn fuaqr tnaeTrffo frfr * alan a (Dr. Amit Kumar Tanwar) Dosha vriddhi and prakopak karanani are grouped under aharj, viharaharj and asatmendrilartha salnyogaj. Pioper judgment of reason and remedy is physicians guesswork and-experience. In vata pruf.op dui to staying up at night,_ which is chiefly due to vihar, and only opposite rasasevan may not suffice. Along with it vegavidharaj chikitsa (of "gudh**u, sleep and mrudu mardana are indicated ratri jagarana), . ,h , Nandini Dhargalkar) (Dr Lr__- Madhura, amla and lavana rasa are vata shamak and kapha vardhak. Kapha itself is - relief responsible for nidranasha so intake of madhura+amla*lavana rasa - kapha vridhi - nidra of nodrarasha. Intake of the above said three rasas are equally effective like vatashamak dravyas. (Dr. B.N. Mishra) 54
  • *m + s-+}q Fr -Fr{Ur 3rrrt T{fr + +d-6T + f}rq d ?il TE+ aq erraTttr ap1 *} * .=r€r ao dun, d-s e*fu *q s=d; # am--* * 3Trd-o, fr6rE, da-+-arfRw^s< d ia-rft _-Esr Efu-au+r ei d5I aIg"rFI c"TErun 3kIEf, agZft-mOWr+r, fudq, sg F-ff zrs[rerr: edrqqr, rr Ig. zl +zr+) I ElT-re€rdurr arij oqrqgrEffiT, i il-qh frai eiqr"i o.qrq- o-e Frcro.r, n O-qcf6-d-dun fra{ Zqre-<-64-A-4."n: EErti-iFI Tg_Qm--**eq +ffi I waftrorqrr fi. treo) *s + sdrre=r slz sqerna fr **-rt"f. ae * ?TT ""i +s-+*6 e-tr-tq-$ Tc{r .l-a-qFtr, eqs*;eq erffqfrr ?r€rerT r qrd q-a-erfu, agzrmaqurrs€.i er+rqfu, I 6q-rftTc,TErstr, +giRqT€.qren, a5rfumowurda ;aqfut Erg"r€rc,r.run: eeslruit .ffi, fta{ ia_aqfu I -i r-!r-r @ enaqfur (a. E. t ro) 3n*;r d seo-drr*ela M ?rerr @i rfr r ogftmosrr+r dr.i q-a-rr-dfrffi ".*a "n"eg1q fruq r i +a + + dr.i qrdil-d-6-i+ a dq: r Er;r E 3irq-tr6 qffidr* EE-&, ar6f-g{q6-di@rrrffielur rraFfr "e- ;"G# erqqdft <effi, Eror""nfaS- tr ffi--s*#, =j"r="rra ffiar.ErGTT6€IT sc fre)*or vezrT: Eri fud effi "*- + ;;fu,ft;; G;#; u-r+r* Fg+fus +fr + s-dblq Eb-r EFreor qR *q q=mq- B, * 3is_S*qursaqi n-e{ *}^* -*#hnr +d-a FR"q ara+d srf.ero *;.o*R * *q--e-dq g=" a"";"; Eft sr}err iidar *an, on-g -fte}s "-{fi 3q€[m- fran r #; fr+qra dslgg{r{- q+rqrq d 3 t}q f erelr E@errarar, gureff.flTar s+{ 6-dz{rffr"=- r 6.e}q *fr s *E B qerr g-q fr-elq-, o.rd frels .+s ftelq5$ EqFq * Gnrr+ur 6-{+ A q;-d+"rrfl-o=- * "r; rfus E-rr o-dfrelq gq*ar fu=*q *dr B 3fu =-$*t enfu * or €re-s srRro a;; ?rracF rrr tar gq6e1o. 616. ;.ora g6+q cFT elitrq Ffr eft gd;rr fr o-ar *an r (Prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar) qra qdrq eb orsur dlq-*g, qrge* ffi, .E q-d-*- 3T16rg,€, Eis4, eErET, ?rrq, Og owr+ ft-m ra-rizor, -arrte,zor. .t -*q aora ;;," +or;rp r,T*-d s{Frdar, srf.*ga,"rff "ne B r ^qrfs EFr -F,-usr c} aft d ",g*;trr€ird d sralrru qer#, F€rd qfrdda -.", #*.*" +"" r g<raonef zr*fufue+r "dr drrrcUrN 6=il s: ara s-+iq d a} F-^-gu,dq d TcF?n r Er6r a-rn eff zqra+rfuo. Hfl-- ; a =; d-dd6 ft-d frsE+ # * qrfd. Errar ?rerT aour tr-rr d or Fr{er } r ts 3r{E€rr fr +q errrrcF + dea * .il* srf€r6 -r* -b erear }- rriiTgf1 Tgzlq+ d-fr^*dr gzr{r"-{il zft aq s+}q d+-; ;-d# #.zn;r}# q6* B s+s +f$r fu-errora-3, er3l qrd-4r eft -R= -=ff B, ffi, R:T +d-d aqe-a oz* B r m-q d o-ar Bfue* :+f6. or Eqrs effi{irrd *.n B r fu-affi"n*o .iAE+*u.--r- s) "*.a.o +) -gg,.S- D €* ,l trf*dHr or Friler*ffiffiq sr*qE fr fu-err Br - "} If prakop of doshas.iscaused by the differentcauses other thann9t be possible to pacifu dosha by using dosha shamak rasa. For example ,J::::T: t::lplace due to night awakening and if madhur, amla and if ,;;"k"p;;; lavana rasas are prescribed for doshashaman then it will not pacify the dosha; rather it will cause vata vyadhi ;; to obstruction ofpassage Night awakening is a cause of vata prakop as well as agnimandata (Ch. Chi.l;l3g-41).If madhur, amla etc. rasas are prescribed in the condition -of agnimaniata there will bepoduction of ama; this ama will obstruct the passage of vata dosha and ultimately cause vatadrs€ases. 55
  • we think about dravya, guna and karma samanya, nidra is a karma. To pacifY vata Ifincreased due to night awakening requires karma samanya. Therefore in vataprakop caused bYnight awakening nidra is appropriate for vata shaman (Dr. Sangeeta Gehlot) gati of2.10. How can tirryak gati be explained in comparison to shakha-asthi-marmadosha? Is tiryak gati physiological process or purely pathological? (RAV) and because it ails the patient forTiryaggati of dosha is certainly abnormal physiological processu torriii*" and takes a longeitime to treat ii would certainly produce some pathology leading todevelopment of doshP.@re#q frqr qrk --- r (sr€ z1. t zn z-t a) and swift action (caused byShakha-aSthi-marma gati of vayu is due to its action enhanced into the srotamsi;;;;,,;hna, tikshria and ahiia acharana) resulting in its entry from koshtha(which are vivrit due to same causative factors);n-q6arrdr dqr, dertrargzifiqz{ rLri;=r aq d-t-qr ffi fu-qr{r (sr.6. z1 _r azzr)HH-:,=*n;;;-- "ft-* fto*i, arkd€qf ftrqd e-r* er*, gvfFeref: t (3{. qei q _efrerftrgaere-arfuz Ederqtrat;fu # q{ Rtua €ofq, - aa-ftd ;€- s& 1s/21 ffi) (Dr. Sandhya patel) As three types of gati (urdhva, adho and tiryak) are achieved by tridosha in shakha, prasar of shatkriyakalas (Ch. sha 17llr2)kostha and marmartt i arrtitig pathological condition in (Dr. B.N. Mishra)erei Eend { EFeq A**i Bfterrarfr Isdeqrqeq frS#eq ftr+qr Bft-qrsqEr t tftfrqr qrErer de errsr a-ffffr€r-{iFrg (ql zI* 17/ttz-tlz) I#r ant**t Aqrat Bften arftll gatis Ooitras have three pathways or on the basis of Praman of dosha 1) KshaYa 2) Sthan - svamanavsthan 3) Vriddhi on the basis of direction of dosha 1) Urdhva 2) Adha 3) TirYak on the basis of sthan of dosha 1) Kosthagati 2) Shakhagati 3) Marmasthisandhigati Besides this prakrit and vaikrut gati of dosha are important. arfreq fufren EG u-g;ft tg;ftea vr I (d {I. r z r t t s) direction egin ivarc, In tiryak gati dosh;s inside the body move in tiryak or transverse are present in the shakha marma, asthi and shula etc. In shakha-marma-asthi-sandhi-gati, doshas of both *at i. When doshas are in their normal"state, this gati is called as prakrit gati in case 56
  • wdhva-adho-tiryak gati and in shakha-marma-asthisandhi gati. But when doshas are vitiated or&ere is presence of ama or shakharupa vaigunya, this urdhva-adha-tiryak and shakha-manna-offiisandhi gati become vikrut. Vikrut marma-asthi-sandhi gati is more dangerous than vikruttirlak gati. Tiryak gati is physiological only when doshas are in their normal state, but pathologicalnfren there is presence of ama or shakharupa vaigunya inside the body. (Prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar) Tirryak gati can be explained in both ways, physiological as well as pathological. Thephysiological gati of dhatu, especially rasa, is due to vyan vayu. Sushrut has explained that vatadosha is tiryakgo i.e. it spreads in all directions Charak has also given a list of vata karma inrelation with its gati. It circulates all dhatus i.e. vyuhan karma of vata dosha. It resembels withthe property of sound waves; it spreads in all directions. [habdagati - Vichitaranganyaya tirryakgamitva (Su.Su. 14116 Dalhan)]. Naturally vata dosha is shabdavan and sparshavan that means itcan produce sound and itcan be felt anywhere. The physical properties of vatadosha are shighra(speedy-high velocity), laghu (very low molecular weight), vibhu (spread everywhere), bahu(abundant), ashukari (quick in action), muhushchari (storm-like activity) and vakra sanchari(spreads in any direction). With these bio physical properties we can say that the tinyak gati isresponsible for physiological processes like circulation (vyuhan), assimilation (upasnehan),diffirsion (anuvartana), membrane permiability (srotobhedan), propogation (vikshepana),excretion (bahirkshepana), biological force (prerana), pressue (bala), pulsation (spandan),conduction (vahan), contraction and relaxation (akunchan-prasarana), peristalsis (munchan),deglutition (annagrahan) etc. When these normal processes are inhibited or over stimulated thenonly natural tinyak gati of vata dosha is disturbed. When vata dosha, along with pitta and kapha,circulated through rasa dhatu resides in already weak tissues and in solid part of organs made upof rakta, snayu, mamsa and asthi; further in worse conditions adho, urdhva, asthi sandhi andmarrna sthans are also involved structural deformity may evolve. In this condition vimargagamidosha cannot be reversed like in sandhigatvata, vatarakta, asthi-saushirya and many morevataroga.In above pathological conditions tirryak gati of vata may be more harmful by involvingmore structural deformities. (Prof. Kalpana Sathe)2.11. How does one explain ashraya ashrayi bhava of tridosha? (A.H. Su. 11/26). Pleaseexplain how biological forces like tridosha act through media of dhatu and mala? (Vd. Pranita P. Joshi)Relation of dosha with other body constituents, especially dhatu of the living body(ashrayashrayi bhava): Living of similar entities bearing similar qualities together isAshrayashrayi bhava in simple words.3nssfrft E-fi-a-gurr€lraq r (q;ncnftr, q. 2-& 1 2)Dosha system is controlling and commanding for living body. Three of them are located invarious organs. When doshas find similar qualities, they tend to remain there comfortably. Thisis ashrayashrayi bhava. It is explained as follows:a-+*nF fter& arg: ftqt g *{ztrr+: IeeqreBgffier,rrerdtF"ur a-d-eTq aeraeruwiwel4 rsrRerarozrEil*i qr$ gktr ad.nq redrwrrgardr drdrq zierq{dlffira r rqrgar-grrd: ---*- r (sr.6. z1 tt tzo,zz) 57
  • Ashrayashrayi bhava is described by Ashtang Hriday for the purpose of explaining the relationbetween dosha and dushya. It has two-fold meaning. One supplements pathological investigationand the other adds to management of disease or chikitsa. Ashraya is adhar or support and ashrayi is adheya or ground for support. Dosha staystuned with dushya i.e. other body constituents. The vriddhi of dosha is reflected as vriddhi ofdushya. This law is applicable to shleshma and pitta. Vriddha pitta has natural tendency to residein rakta dhatu and gets engulfed in it, hence the dosha dushya sammurchhana creates a diseaselike raktapitta. Similarly vriddha kapha develops rasa vriddhi, mansa vriddhi, med vriddhi, majjavriddhi, shkra vriddhi, purisha vriddhi and mutra vriddhi. Therefore the symptoms of rasavriddhi are similar to that of kapha vriddhi. This principle is quoted as: daaq r (sr.6 z1 r r re)"-{+sftThis is general phenomenon but still every law has some exceptions. This law has againexception about the relation between asthi and vayu and said as asthimarutayonaiva. It meansthat vriddha vayu has tendency to abide asthi, but it has no capcity te increase asthi. On thecontrary vriddha vayu decreases and deteriorates the asthi dhatu and develops asthi dhatukshayajanya i.e. asthi deficient diseases in it. Vata vriddhi indicates brimhana chikitsa. It brings vata vriddhi under control. CharakSamhita Sutrasthan suggests basti (enema) of milk and ghrita with tikta dravya as treatment ofasthipradoshaj disease. This is shaman of vitiated vata. This points out that Charak considersashrayashrayibhava of asthi and vata. In Nidanasthan Charak states:<rgffI: r (q. f. +ra) "*ar drqftelq occurring due to kapha vriddhi. Vruddh kapha helps in vitiatingPrameha is the disease meda,mamsa, shukra, vasa, majja, lasika, rasa and oja. The set is titled as dushya vishesha in CharakSamhita Nidanasthan 4/7. In Charak Samhita Sutrasthan Chapter 28, while enlisting dhatupradoshjanya vyadhi,prameha is considered to be due to medavikriti. Therefore it can be concluded that Charakconsiders concept of ashrayashrayi bhava.ftrsi eaql sfrti srrqil* urarfraleeaarq terfft ffiE q{dqeiantl +{€-q Sil rr@ zr-Fccfl fueftaraqrqr+e*aa r r (q. E. +re)Becur,re of above-said dietary and behavioral etiological factors kapha is produced in abundantquantity. The vitiated kapha spreads easily in the body due to the loose structure of dhatu The[apha gets easily mixed with fat due to similarity in properlies between meda and kapha. Thekaptra being abundant and vikrut again gets mixed with kleda and mamsa ad makes it vikrut. Thetreatment of prameha is:eild-gdr e-.rrdiql (a. fr. arzz)tvteaiing of kshaudra is honey, which is ruksha. It is key treatment of kapha. Yava being rukshareduces kapha.€ne- g+rs.r-dr Eftri ftaq z-*a errtrtr+t tn-drdi I q. B. 626Haridra is tikta and ushna. Amalaki is kashaya-pradhan and does not increase kapha; hence it isindicated with honey in paittika meha. Similarly Charak has insisted on inherent relationshipbetween pitta and rakta.fu<rdq frrm srd rarc.+r 3qqer frrs+f qfuao, tdcfE zffiAdq s<fr qraeiFraqrr (q. zl 24/11-1 "-mfuaa 6)The above list indicates that shonitashrita vyadhis are pitiaj vyadhi. Aggravated pitta has atendency to get accumulated in rakta dhatu. This combination becomes responsible for genesis ofdiseases: 58
  • *w gw dFd anFr, "iq=er r 6ftqfrFrftr+seqri Tffiilrqi flrqFdqr (q. Tf, 2a/2s) The above verse directly means that treatment of dushya rakta and dosha pitta are interdependent on each other. This is the reason of describing management of rakta and pitta in ;";; Charak has explained- ;;;p*. €"fq dffiig zfu b-erq1 frto-€q-dreia rdr"-i elFras art fi.z1 z+r.tz) It means virechana is foremost treatment for pitta and blood borne diseases. Charak, by this, has obviously accepted ashrayashrayi bhava between rakta and pitta. In short it is seen that dosha and dushya are controlled by brimhana and langhan Chikitsa. When kapha and pitta undergo vriddhi, langhan is applicable. Thus the treatment acts on doshas vizkapha andpitta, and related dushyas rasa, mamsa, meda, sveda, and raktarespectively. For vriddhi of vata brimhana treatment is applicable. Vice versa when kapha and pitta ,nd.rgo kshaya, brimhana treatment is applicable. When asthi undergoes vriddhi, langhani;;; the sake of kshaya of asthi and vriddhi of vata is indicated. f;; (Dr. Nandini Dhargalkar) Vayu remains in asthidhatu, pitta in sveda and rakta dhatu, shleshma remains inthe dhatus i.e. rasa, mamsa, meda, majja, shukra, mutra and rest of mala. Thus doshas and dhatus have their ashraya and ashrayi bhava. Therefore the medication that increases certain dosha shall increase the ashraya dhatu, but it is contrary in case of vayu and asthi dhatu because when tarpana kriya is used to increase the asthidatu it will decrease the vata dosha and vice versa. Tridosha move through all the srotamsi in the body along with dhatus. (Dr. B.N. Mishra)a*rEerB ft€rdr drg,, frct{ g ffi, Ieiqre)&g, ffi*-,,q+d5-{q ?r€arcq qfaerqsilq-E"Tsrftcrarsaffii, qr* gktr *dqn-o redqrwrs-gdrdr a"flq zr-srerq-*affiUqn rTSdrs-Edrd s-.d-trral ekeie-a-gEe{Tra | |fronrq TtrMd o-armsqaqF+: I (s{.6. T1. t t rzo) sTtr€rs a urrd-dq, €< trd fr iiitaarsg€ F **-Ay_ sgar B I sr.r ErE qr-r snR N aen"flE ocr, aiT{, +E, acqr e}€ "-.ffi zE+ snR .rrgs* fr snsrq E.isrrsr* el@eT * r e-5 crruur ts fu sTTsrq srfrer snR ud sngr-eft q* srrfr zft srrq{{fr d siqftr qr srrsrs-ft-d-o rro zfr- eftor 6-{dr B, # s=tt d ,ft eftor 6-{-f,r Eu-rq 3{rgl-€r s*r org 3{relfr * sftT .rqrq ;ftdrd dfi *dr, dfu gB rdfur b-qr zft qerra-ar z-6-dT B r qa B-en 6"8-+q d srgql d-ft- B; €=ft" gk ; ^s+Rer +6rtq di qre ffi fr eiva srafq s{qdfur i eri} =---# a-ra *ril fr "*.*rrenGa + fuu .Ieqolqr s-{.ft qiEu, fti-s-s frrq fi ffi gqE c* N EFr snsrilsreft Erftr.q ft-{ar B, d 3l-d-s+t enfta d e_s **1- g"il + -** rS eTsr 6 d orsq srr+ E g*# a- s{r& 3qra{or }E;c rqe znliItktr ry--a-araprfltre U*- r t zr-*ffiffrpir dg fu*ai c?qr (sr.6 11 t rr t)ffi qrg d g"r- "r-{ frgai Etrar ?rrr3 Tq;eEi c.tElarr ?rfi I tFTA-"i g"n qS gev*ar* eilFry-* r r (g. + +rs) .r qd qs fus, sa, ag- gd ffi g.il -i""-g fums*E z-qd # ftT.ilar B3mra gil + -nr$rr e-s qs N 6T sns#rsrs ur@-q€r eqe *ar B rlk or qia++ft-6 ziq-d: r ft*i snaiqqr (g. z& +zrs) 59
  • ft-a sfla-+q sar+Id A frFtd B ITftT cFT frAf. I_ +* *t-t z{tqi a-gqrdt qg-ad ^l I I (q. rq srza) ftrdwoi, z+ zrior z-cfr t-.ma-6ofas*{ Ttrd"f dsm 1 6611r ffi Br ze{ d .#--=i--* -ft- A-F-{ srrt+qq-ei q-{ 3n? zm a-A A an-u}q a-arafarf-ers # t eft o,:ur +dt - 3TTglqrsrS g"T s*s sqraafld zrercer +Crl B r szft q6T{ cITd Sfu srtier fr "T+TloT + 6; arlsrflq-s a{ra. "rftI=nr zqs *ar Er (Prof. B. H. ShYamkuwar);.nr.rl"rd "rrE a*rserB fr€r-fr arg: ftai- g zffi r ;5; dltE ae*iterqls{R*ftq tt these ife the biological substances having(1) Tridosh a are rrot m.r"ly biological forces; lil;il ruru ur. also panchabhautic in nature.oroperties of panchbhautic guna. simiraii ers*q frverrga-d I (3{T{ 1/2t €€l "Tsdrer: panchabhautic gunas are in nature. specinc groups ofThe food that we eat is also paichabhautic of body responsible for thJgrowth and developmentfound in dosha dhatu and mala. Dhatus are rasa and sreep. The assiriilation of nutrients throughand are dependent upon the food, exercisedhatu till shukra #;;;bh" forf,uttu is called santarpana and opposite is called apatarpana -"Tan* *t"g*T fttgsrr-rEr: ga errssr t -!srzi t e"r e) #J- e Ht{+aftds""1*arBQnf r to most of the dhatu Group of (2) Group or prop.rtiJ u|tong, to kap; d;rh" is .similar propertiesofpittaao,r,uiu"ry-nruchsimilartoraktadhatu.Groupofpropertiesofvatadoshaisthe not similar to any dhatu. High calor;]il il;k; and razy rre styie are responsible for growth of dhatu and kleda vriddhi, where ui lo* calorie diet, excessive increase in kapha, excess This is for the increase in vata guna and dhatu loss and extensive awakefulness are responsible saushirya) and osteoporosis (asthitshaya and asthi opposite to kapha guna leading to osteopenia and various raktaj to sveda Over intakeof spicy food cause, in"r"urlll Oi-"-U**r.leading "tiadni apatarpana The vyadhi or vice versa. The treatment of utt .rlaani uuuihu is langhan ie i.e. santarpana. Therefore the importance is given to treatment of kshaya avastha is bruhana ashraya-ashraYi bhava. (Prof. KalPana Sathe) AshrayabhavaisdescribedbyAshtangHridayforexplainingtherelationbetweendosha In normal whiie ashrayi is adheya or placefol and dushya. Ashraya is adhar o, ,rrppoJ in the normalty of dhatus Vriddha pitta resides healthy status equilibrium of doshas ,rruintair* oport sfrne way In the causes the disease raktapitta. rakta dhatu and after dosha dushya sammurchana to kapha vriddhi (AH widdha kapha vriddhi *d i;;;t;t of ruru vriddhi is similar to "urrr.r-ru* vayu there is exception vriddha vayu has a tendency Su. 1 1/8), but in ttre-case of asthi and In vata dhatu. Vriddha vayu decreases asthi dhatu. reside in asthi but does not increase asthi vriddhi brimhana chikitsa is indicate;;; t"tti of milk and ghrita with tikta dravya in The asthidoshaja vikar. In Ch. Su. 2g p.u*"hu his been considered as medavikarujanya disease is interdependent. It has been explained that virechan treatment of dushya rakta and pittu aosr,a by as foremost treatment for pitta and blood borne diiorders. Dosha and dushya are regulated and larrghan;;ikil;. rn t uprtu *d pitta vriddhi langhan is indicated which "1t:-Tlt ",1 brimhana treatment ls associated dushya. In vata vriddhi and asthi kshaya brimhana indicated. (Dr. sangeeta Gehlot) 60
  • 2.lL.Please explain the concept of doshotpatti and doshaposhana. (Ref: Cha. Su. 2814, Cha.chi l5l918) (vd. Aniket Gitaram Ghotankar)Doshotpatti is learnt in context of: l. Prakrit dosha , 2. Vaikruta doshaaerr tfu<rg,-Efren dralr<el: ]rr€dr t-qar"e I ?T5tr gt€?TT: e+wfuqrqr, gq] fuagarerffutn-qara t a er$zun nq e1rg{iu1r: I dEr1-gsTEti fr-€-dt-dTi ft.,Tanrr, r qgoiT,a-oqra-afur zrffi q t* TifrFlE €rcr*sr: r (sr.zi. elr. er+)This is because these are originated by different ways.Origin of prakrit doshas: Kashyap has given references regarding existence of dosha in atma,which transits from one body after death, and enters another body to take rebirth. When this soulre-enters womb of next mother, shukra, shonita, akash and vayu accompany this soul inseedlings. In form of shukra, saumyatva or kapha and in form of shonita, pitta can be taken totransmit through previous body to next body. Sankhya philosophy can make us understand this.Events of origination can be enumerated as follows:1. Since everything that exists on earth is composed of panchamahabhuta, spern and ovum arecomposed of panchamahabhuta. Their union cannot be possible without their getting split intooriginal components,2. These three sets of split panchamahabhuta come together to form fresh set ofpanchamahabhuta.3. Two out of five mahabhutas come together to produce one dosha (akash + vayu : vata; teja +ap: pitta, Ashtang Hriday and Kashyap; Prithvi + Ap: Kapha. )4. In such fashion all three doshas are originated.5. Doshas, which, descend directly from pancha mahabhuta, are prakrit doshas (prakritshariraikajanmanah). These doshas are not classified into five categories. All qver the body theyare in the form of one and same set having unique ratio. If prakrit kapha is predominant, it is insame ratio in every cell of every organ in every system.6. These prakrit doshas are responsible for seven types of prakriti. (Tatra prakrith saptavidhayahaprakrute hetubhutah).7. These prakrit doshas additionaly get titled as dhatu since they sustain and maintain living body(te shariradharanat dhatusaudnya).8. Ifprakrit doshas are affected, product ofconception is either naturally destroyed or it producesgenetically abnormal baby (mumursho svarupat chalanti). Since genetic diseases are difficult orimpossible to cure, living beings lodging genetic diseases are never comfortable.9. These prakrit doshas are responsible for prakriti of an individual. In coupling ofpanchamahabhuta, one or two, of three doshas become predominant. Rarely all three of thembecome predominant. This intensity (ulbanatva) originates in unicellular zygote. It is carriedthrough all cells of entire body because this unicellular zygote multiplies to give rise to all cellsof body after process of multiplication and differentiation. (sarveshu api cha dehe samnohiteshuprakriti ulbanatvena vyapdesha). 10. This Fneans that prakrit doshas are main dictators of expression of prakriti. They retainconstant features. (yavat jivitametatswarupa ityartha). 1 1. Not only this, these prakrit doshas are to vaikruta doshas; what a seed is, to a plant. 12. lt is for this reason that they are called doshas (prakrit doshasaudnyakanam vaikrutanamvatadinam.bijabhuta). They are responsible to generate to vaikruta dosha. They control digestion 61
  • of food and by the way of digestion, by the way of genesis of dhatu, originate vaikruta doshas.After origin, vdikruta doshas merge in prakrit doshas. This new combination of prakrit andvaikruta doshas is entity doshas in our body.Origin of vaikruta dosha:A€-d.r{E ararfufDrh:g?rtq 3{rart-{q adlr: srqAg sr{ffi rt o-ranRsVas<uaTur{R "+a{dfr * srgaprfu gslrk a r (sr.zi. err. eu s)d g uaa str{-o.rdi zr+aroEa A a-€ar r ({gqrsr)Vaikruta doshas are produced as waste products of food and are circulated through body of fetus.They merge with prakrit. They are mainly responsible for health of living body when theyremain in physiological limit. If accumulated in excess or if they decline, they disturb health.These vaikruta doshas are produced after janma of fetus. This verse does not express exact eventrelated to origin of vaikruta doshas. It is clear that vaikruta doshas are generated after janma. Itshould therefore be decided what is janma. One thought of institute considers janma fromconception. Other one considers janma when baby comes out of mothers uterus. Combiningboth views origination of vaikruta doshas can be considered at two phases. One phase isintrauterine phase and the other one is extrauterine phase. Word garbha indicates that hrst phaseof their genesis takes place in intrauterine life. Nidation or anchoring of products of conceptionto uterus of mother can be considered as janma. Maternal blood starts circulating through fetalbody immediately after anchoring. Since blood of mother provides all necessary nutrientsrequired for fetus, growth of fetus is principally dependent on maternal blood. It is for this reasonAyurveda gives so much importance to diet of mother during pregnancy. Vaikruta doshas in intrauterine life are generated during assimilation of maternalnutrients. If her supplementation induces imbalance in vaikruta doshas of fetus duringintrauterine life, baby can acquire genetic diseases* q-rarffia @ *a srga&rfu grufu arIn second phase vaikruta doshas are originat.A utlr birth-of baby. Since there is no hint otherthan these verses for this origin, one has to go by logic. It is rational to think that vaikruta doshasstart working from event of maternal blood circulating through fetus body and are continued togenerate till end of life. After birth, baby starts taking its own nourishment. Vaikruta doshas getgenerated d*iqg digestion and assimilation of these ingested nutriments. Therefore vaikrutadoshas produced in this postnatal period are dependent on intake of baby (rasamala, raktamalapitta, annamala vata). This again is the reason for giving so much importance to looking afternew borne baby. Prakrit doshas and vaikruta doshas always remain merged together and in this conjoinedfoqm are simply called sharir doshas. It is necessary to understand henceforth that whatever issaid about doshas is always said about merged, inseparable form of prakrit doshas with vaikrutadoshas. It must be kept in mind that an iridividual can control production of vaikruta doshas bycontrolling his diet and by shifting in to favorable environment. All these measures are advisedby different compendia by means of appropriate regime of season (ritucharya) and byappropriate regime of day (dinacharya).Poshana of dosha is through kittaA fua.eq gwrfua-{r6ruq-g+rerd zzr: fu*ed q aeryssaf}rffif,} I rfu--€rE q<-d[dgffq qrafuae*ar.r: ----- | (q. s* zer+)From prasad or digqstible portion of the food, rasa is generated and nourished whereas from kittaor non-digestible portion of the food category mala is generated and nourished. From thisnondigestible part, sveda or sweat; mutra or urine; purisha or feces and vata-pitta-kapha- doshaetc. are generated and nourished. This shows that putrefying part of food nourishes doshas andthat is why they are capble to vitiate. Qualities always descend down through genetic tree. Since 62
  • origin of doshas from putrefying portion of food is prone to vitiate, doshas are bound to becomenuisance to the living body after vitiation. (Dr. Nandini Dhargalkar) Doshotpatti.and doshaposhana, according to Charak Su. 2814, are due to digestion ofahar rasa and production of 1. prasad bhag (rasa) and,2. mala bhag (kitta). From prurua"Ufrug, ufiseven dhatus are produced where as from kiua bhag mutra, prliirh, sveda lmuta; uata, f,itta,kapha and dhatu malas are produced. (Dr. B.N. Mishra)crqrro-ar- ildr6r{q-{Tr€rdr r+r: fu;i a- aansqarflrffit I fu-srd @ e-q-d-aq ____II (a.T& zer+)er$cdM*q-+rE*ffiBr 1- urqa Narfu2- D-€-d ffi -rerr +E1r srrg,_. ffitn <rrFrr(zr: qrq-d N-qarea I ?T5r qr€;1re+wft1nrr lr€A -igw SrfRo-o-qra, r * er$zerrssrrd errg uisr; *qr@rdi F€-diar d-wa1ar, r (sr.ei. en.ero-r z)gmeftFra-ora qrafuaedqr +1 qrq-d +q 6-d* t # araf * +fi-d-{ 611-sq 11gu arafueEft or Graf.or o-ua B r "-6}lIFeIFEnJ_i# 9 _"t=t *q 3E-e :_s€ft-dt+d *=r ---- r (€. err. +roz)6: a]F6il * araf * sq siamerqd + FE tz{ t ener *to **l=o ;-fD- earsrr Eaft fu6r-E+ *ar z-sar B T rve u+-dqraoiartraqif qrafrra ow1ftoa, r (orevu en. sr.ail)qzrl _t q"ear( d^gu 3r^rdru +dr B s-s-s d as@d ffi B 3-s a€d dq6-64 Br gr+ E.qd Aq d-3d?rft 2 qzrrr d ffi Br r. frrrro ersr ffi2. €rrgtrd grsr *r$rroftrqrffia-ar danq eq JafrTerrqi qffi I e+ frqro gfr zqa, rr (sr.€. r&ezso) "T{rd?atqrcsrFa gm d srrdr{Jrr or qRora-a *tn B -s-S fuqrs. 6-6+ B ftqr6 a rrors *dAB r69 -ft-ftr oqrqrdTi frqro. qrqeft % rr. Ei, fr-€ mr furrro mg .5tdr ts I "tr-2. 3tary g{r trr ftqr6 srft{ *dr B I3. argr, .rcruT T{r znr frqran agr *ar E I FT* * qra *q Eft 3@€ ffi a,3g6s-+q zft g-iqfu * ft51-*q aft slts age frqro* ffi B I defta1* qr6qil: zbgt^qo- qti.:l@FT-fud-€-d frqrq; sraa gen-arera ragr: qffi!-axfr fuqro o.ngoait (a. T& 26/se,6o)Es+ seftn 6l $Rq sa *+a-ara[d fr{€sid * ftl-€ o-*zro-} B rE-d G-d qiqfrtrro-arftsad r (-. 26)"-s Eft 3-trd ft-n-areld F- qe=* s+{ N -ft =-€fu ?ft fa-d-6rap * q€ B edrqror:Telrgfl qrgr sfrd+{i ft6qr sraar gf}"ry eiqrrr (=t.zi. s* ,orij rqrars+a*, s{Faerflr srry*wr, u-crr<-aqFa, ailsHa, raffi, oan{ef+dgrrE rdqaro, I (sr.6. T& 1 o)sr.r: T{rdtq-fre}q fr{eaid * srgu+rr ftqr6 * ffi ffi Br 63
  • o€rrg4d-.rdr{r afrdld- fu-sa-a-{q fro-{fr zrr€l g -odsqo ftd Hie-lq eldr, ffd: -€6{g fr{l=r: I | (a ftr sz t e) r om: fucrT 31"a1 a& U-{ffifi-{ I -frerrffi €rrEdi g;-aei drErr: t I (tIT. en.3 /6 3)***s-HH-+-+: B-;# ;.E ri=l uu EF-q Ein tb-6 €-u* E u*jSH # H S-# -*i- Ez a-d "F F "a61rp g3 **%# g---*-1: ;::;";H=*i#t:d-*=.=a.= a-a o-sr B B b-€ Tszrd =-saq * +tra -->l ->-- at* +a ;== C--e + 6T""T qw d "z{ EFr q"f, ,. ffi J#]J .;-fr- * qrE-{ Fo-a-ans t-*i * qffia d-S *dr B €€rds ftrd r * g-, F6: S---B$**TT.j - iffij-1}$-ffi,-5=]rr-B ta]sm6laEt-o-grBl -- * aa -- E5-{e + fr{ss. elrg d eT"q 6)a--a fi er8-s a Eel@Tqr{ e*qBr sT}z fr ffi61 3-d-51 ffi B qra u.ra aft ffi Br =-€ EFI 614 * "r--.o*l- ;; ; +* T.-d W qra d 3{=airTEr o-ar E ;il *g-;.;1{- e E"rdu r.trg--* a-+C o1 errg s*u a-d aft o-gr B srrir€l: zg: arafuae5mre++: t (sn.E 3{ r;ffirq ;ffi, cb-Jrrq aq5TT: €r|-gflq "151;n- s)N-qq- 3{6r€q uffi-ffrd-{q q-g€r-g lTEn<b?f: I ag?rdrE oda+rora +-aagi sfft r r qi- g qardTr4Iq freoerEqmaFlTera: I ft-aaqdi$} r 3{rerqrdr.r-.rTlorczr r qmrerei g qrkrcq eiqar+eq aRa-ar 1 rrftfrFs-,d-{q arg: €TQ %a{T?r.r: I (q. fu t sts,r o) a-oqroft 1 suft A-rFr- d 6-6r a- of qEzlgffi^ =*stt 5rq-i o-ca d qra 6<u- t sd q€rrd-{enq*F u.6-e Br g-{rfr arur uE *,18 fr o# ;g= ;-.n =-efu-6ff B ffi qr s&s.r *ar B =rfu-*, -*ra .tta.* a:otn 6T E-Sor r aeri ee-qri.+ Tc{: N qEfrcra ^.;*-t erfrrqaEfa t t (q E r sr qoqr"ft) - t -;-$-fa 3rrE,rg€{- srrar B * sl-ffi{-€{ zft ET6r 6qq--;n= -f}i + d]-a. fr gu{ as e3{r6l-u a ftrd. .5r s€-sor nera 3-€fu ffi B ffi ftr<-$qra-*errqro 6-d-4 B r srdala +dr Bl ar1-argqa€;+ q --E*t* qEftera t ;;t- "-€-{€-d fudef*rr-(a E- acr: ftct{ r srqo-qr"ft) .Ei-q 3{rclr{rEr arfd{ + ft} fr; #*- a a"rcI6r q@rerq fr s{rrTT B d 3{r,,run-{r gI* 2i1-; .n= o* 6 orrar B ffi u-*qra-tenqro a:-ot 2l r "ftffid1- srfr araanrg *J;, -g#ttftod *" -qef;s6a t t- (a_. ft. r s/*oqroft A-F-I) ------.* -.e-- o-,=-, qwdfo-d q",f,i ;1o;1 qr frqr .t#.rr.rr* grur dar B t{fi Effi tF-6 zro-} B r gfuaaer, oq5 fr-i ftaaer u-od ga t #tn-"** B:z1r{ 3{I6rs qftgeAq I I (g^T& +orsz) q_E,}q-d.€f-d aeroi qftqr<-q. a3{T6l @ -"ft€eq 3{ftqr+d aeiqfr-eef, fta{ fud-oeils-ad}ara 3{16r{: s{fr-<-d€j} -g.rEI.-6; qp.iaae I q-€rsr g;,, -;|-.,-, G,.{rn Grofa-c{. ;1eA-r qftai6}ftreef: r frq-d* r "rffiu;r e.aor&6r) . *rr : ggrrTsgsdao-arBfusrgeerrqro.aN"or*qur*enBr B. H. ShYamkuwar) (Prof. is digested and the formation of According to charak Samhita 2814, whatevel we ingest Dosha poshana will be.done with the help prasadhkya bhaga and marakhya bhaga *iit be there. by malakhya-btr-aga. Doshotpatti takes place during ;f #*inii"- ":ra -"laposhan wiil be done 64
  • sukshma pachan as Kaphanala - rasa Raktamala - pitta Annamala - vataOf course, prakuta doshotpatti will be there at the time of birth. Vaikrut doshotpatti(annaprbhavaj dosha) will be in sukshma pachan and there will be poshana of all dosha, dhatuand mala. (Dr. Kavita Indapurkar)Fertrro-q acrsrrererT &{Tr< Eft I (a. E. 1s/11 a-oqrFr)Concept of doshotpattiAnnamala vata - Poshak vata, rasamala kapha- poshak kaphaAsrajaha pittam - Poshak pitta-This is the concept of doshotpatti andeequri =r As{€rrci srgua o-ift rThis is dosha poshana.qerrxi Eiq gqfu E-e eta-g.n: ger€F I@gwrfur . (Prof. Kalpana Sathe) VATA DOSHA2.13. Analysis of vatai) Is it guna or dravya?ii) Correlation between power, superpower and vata in the human body (Dr. Mukesh Shukla) Analysis of vata is given in all Ayurvedic compendia in context to the qualities andfunctions of dosha. Charak has given this analysis in various contexts.ael: effi a1J, fleu*qs+5el frq< sr, rfrrq€-d-g+:f,4:afad:"irrcrrprft I I (.r. zI* t rse)Commentator of Charak Samhita has explained the intention of this verse. He says that it isprimary outline of attributes of vatadosha, which, if gets disturbed, becomes responsible fordisturbance of health. Along with the list of attributes, measures to prevent or to curedisturbances, if any, are added into verse. All these attributes are clinically important. It ispractically difficult to decide as to which attribute can be called as principle attribute.Nevertheless movements could be principle attribute of this dosha. All other attributes aresubsidiary to this critical property.effii alrai qrst (a-a5urftr<a)aerageffi Erd-gutr aaEfut (4. z& rzr+)In this verse (daruna) property is added. Commentator as spells it as:€roqci eitq.ldrq o-rfui o-ffift r (aourFr<-a)By this property, absorption of moisture is expected. This verse is in context to physiologicalaspect of activity of attributes. When diseases are generated due to malfunction of any attribute,physician should rccognize symptoms. This is the chief purpose of mentioning these propertiessrrdad Taaqq I (a+-qrfrqa) 65
  • attributes are specificallyIn this context, commentator adds in his commentary that these strongowned by dosha, which remain constant after coming in contact with other entities, including originated from this doshaother doshas. These properties are responsible for different diseases other and withAny dosha cannot uffo.a to disturb balance of these ptoperties with eachproperties of other dosha.ard-{go@tqft a properties exhibitedAll these attributes alre described above. This verse is in context to physicalin structur", p6yrloiogy and psychology of a person. Contribution of influence of dosha -considerecl these attributes in;;G.;;;-prir.rti is in thls verse. This shows intrauterineproperties and helps in preventing measures (Dr. Nandini Dhargalkar) It is shaktirupa dravYa. (Dr. B.N, Mishra) refers to wind or moving The word vata is first seen in Rigveda as vatikrit. It directly to be a supel power It is oftenair. we breath day in and day out. The irrind outside is thought The wind that enters the humanreferred to the power that moves the planets around the sun. as vata and a causative factor for allbody transforms ito life. so this bodiiy wind was known certain traits (ruksha, laghu, sita khara sukshmamovements. Vata is described as a dravya withcala etc). The difference between u gunu or dravya is illusory. The dravya is home of gunas so o.f vata in the treatises suggests thatthe gunas are not divisible from the dravya. The iescriptignvata is a physical substance. It not seen bv the eye but ritt ry the skin. The bodily vata is taken asthe force that creates movement of everything inside The power und ,up"rpower are imaginary. Th. po*"t is something that human being possesses the control of human to move. fulfill and think. The superpower is iomething that is beyond form of wind- Rigveda too asserts being like violent upheavals in nature _etc. Vata is embodied water. The mortal forms of these three that the disease and decease are caused by wind, rrre and immortals fill the human body to caffy on functions The power thal is not harnessed is Understanding power is primary to hamess the power vata is pivotal in validating the ideas of vata usually referred to as supelpower. euantification of and power @r. p.v. Ranganayakrrtu) i) Vata is a guna and dravya: , -- - ^r^ r-^,. Vata is a power fril d.auya with guna because guna is always of a dravya tt ll -l1llYi However, there is a controversy ln guna has no separate existence. It is dependent on dravya. dosha dhatu and mala charak has not Ayurveda that during descliption of aniali pramana of dravyatvs gsnnot be challenged given the exact anJunt of vata. But only on this balis-, its Because Susfuut has described that the measurement of dosha, dhatu and mala cannot be given Amgng these dynamic constituents vata is accurately (Su.Su. 15144) since they are very dynamic. has not given its measurement most dynlmic in nature. This ,-,tuy 6..,u reason that Charak that vata is produced in In Astanga-i"*gr"f, st*.ir. o chapter, Vagabhat has mentioned has accepted vata as a dravya koshtha with sound (ra JhubOa) from ahar. Thus Vagabhat 66, shloka- 62-65, it is described In the padma purana Bhumikhan da2 yakhanda chapter as dravya. that vata measures one pala. Hence it may be considered (Ranjeet Rai Desai- 38/817) (ii) Power, super Power and vata 66
  • In our body power is due to action of vata. So, vata can be said as power of the body and mana out of these, vata is theEach and every tunction of the body depends on the tridoshamain factor which controls the activity of pitta, kapha as well as mana.hs-trr q+dr d rtEl-€I:I (q. ttr. tztz)ftfti ri{ zn6: tial ffi flEI eIT-IEt: I-; Jr **A"a-* uraft AEaqrr (en-R srzs) aqafg€rfdr erSftunqrr (a fu zerz)"r+gdd these..f"r"nces, it is clear that ultimately vata is the power of the living body, From there are certain functions ofwhich il;;;;-indirectly performs all the functions. However, .b-" siddhanta or panchbhautik explained on the basis of tridosha1i;1;; uoov, whictr can;isiddhant because they are performed by a super power i.e. atma This atma is anacli meaning it is body to otherneither generated noi destroYed-. It only migrates from one Sa n *eo er:arFr aEi <6ft qrdzn: (rftdr) cannot be destroyed by aly Dosha, dhatu and mala can be destroyed, but the atma ^it.,r"uooriJ.io". i, is the factor which uniie with the panchbha.tik vicar and creates thecharacteristics of lit-e. They are --^^-^-- oiiio"r azo g,d ffinoflr grn r (g enr z r e) These are characteristics of living" body which can be explained, only considering the power leaves the body. the body is knorr asexistence of atma i.e. super power. Whenlhis super although it has dosha, dhatu and maladead body. tt curnoip",forro the functions of livingtody,These become nonfunctional in absence of the super power er&i R rfi dftsq egarlnzaiaaq -ara-gah (a t Gapraeluanq dqd rr €TT t rt z) Among the ?undamentai corrstituentslf.body., atma is given the apex position gtrsrFlqzr".qrgftGe-lau qr ad: I aa"r-Jg gdd gQ: u"dz{ ll (fta"ft zr+z) "-sr "r: the existence super po€r The concept oT punarjinma and moksha is also dependent on i.e. *l^ih " atma. s we can say, that all the physical and mental furictions of the living bod1" is the characteristics of life which performed, directly or indirectly by a pow.t i.". vata._However, are performed b-v a super iannot be explained by tridos[u riaaitunt or panchbhautik siddhant power ie atma (prof. B. H. shyamkurvar) For analysis of vata please refer to answer No26 (i) lt is a dravya having guna and karma : panchadhachesta iii) po*.. is bela like vyan bala: muscle power vata is capable of (iii) Super po*", is dhairya and ability to fight agalnst any situation Udan doing prayatna, utilise urj1a1$produce muscular as well as r lt1t1l TY?j:,,.,,. ft. 15/14 aoqrnr) g;ffi,-H;#-F- €rrer{: (a, Supe$ower - may be atma guna in vata (chetani; Analysis of vata functions bY 1) Examination of the higher function 2) Speech examination. 3) Examination of sPecial senses 4) Examination of cranial nerves 5i Examination of sensory functions power Ljn^u*iuntion of motor functions, muscle tone, co-ordination, muscle 67
  • 7) Examination of reflex functions. (Prof. Kalpana Sathe) Vata is both guna and dravya because vata is sukshma, avyakta and controls all theactivities of the body. Due to raja quality it initiates all types of activities. In living body vatadidoshas are sukshma and shaktipradhan bhava which is dravya and also shaktirupa because as perIndian philosophy guna (shaktirupa) and guni (dravyarupa) cannot be differentiated in sukshmaand activated state.ii. Vata is a power by which one can perform its own activities regularly.iii. Superpower- vata is having powe{ and superpower both. It is called svayambhu (Su. Ni. 1/5)and controller of this great systern. Impulse for movement may be considered as vata and the strength (action potential) bywhich this impulse is propagated may be considered as power. Nervous system may beconsidered ut tnp.tpo*er because all the activities are controlled by **",H;1tl"#"*" Gehlot)2.14. can we explain sancharana sthan and ashraya sthan of different types of vata 1g1owdosha like p.rana, apan? (A.H. su 1219 & Hemadri tika) (vd. pranita p. Joshi)Since vata dosha is a mover of all body entities and is responsible for all sorts of movements, itschief location (ashrayasthan) along with its extended areas of action-field (sancharasthan) aredescribed in five categories. Table for this is provided at the end of five verses for five types ofvatadosha. Sushrut Samhita, however is specific in offering diseases of five types of vatadosha aconcept yet unexplored till his era.Pranavayu: sri q*iar, r :rz, uuaq;1 g66qaerop.f,gq r &+aer-EeleTrr{E-rE{n Sr{[R O-d qgToT: -$Erqfu;aso d rprana abides head. It takes care of chest, neck, intellectual faculties, andemotional aspects. Itfunctions for expectoration, sneezing, belching, respiration and ingestion of food. qrortq qeilr,@,tSaaerdqr<rglqrE{rdrflR o-d qr (a. ft- zer+)=qrciLocation oi pr** is head, chest, neck, tongue, mouth, and nose. It functions for expectoration,sneezing, belching, respiration, and-ingestion of food.Ergd a-edar8 qr"il ala aagq s+ I slq-e-d-d, el.frqseoeici r"n=d er"i, *a qeitriffiror s{ft grq€ "€rlaq r (e-€tre6r)prana is that type of vayu, whicti sustains whole body and freely circulates in mouth. It functionsare ingestionLi fooO and for survival of a living being. When vitiated it generates diseases likehiccough, asthma etc.That pianavayu is located in mouth indicates other site of body for this pranavayu, such as head,chest, neck and nose.rr5r gTor: qefB srsft€Td, 6-aqs: gdCE-q-€F-q a*era*errstrr &caerE*iuns@r(sr.zi. t1 20)Same functions as other compendia are prescribed by Ashtang-Samgraha.Udanavayu:3<l6t-{€f $4: {eIT=f =ff8$: 6-d Cq A (q. tn-C a tt I f. zetz) s-q-ciMR"tq-gft"; 68
  • qrui-drd$: zraft s{:T€fl-d, derrft 6-dm<tq +E trq t q+q-@;a:TEFrt*: "raraq(qoqrFr, qz f. zerz) rUdana is located at umbilicus, chest, and neck. It functions for speech, sirength, energy etc.Commentator adds to this verse that even if same place is indicated for more than one type ofvata dosha e.g. prana and udana they do their own individual duties. He provides an example toclear this concept. He says that if vessels are kept one above other in one house, vessels share thesame space; yet function of each vessel is different.s-6rdi ara e-rqfg}fr qcr*crrlr: r*a anftraffitr&ilsfD+q+f,i rse*u-gurardarq 6-Sfr q fuelqa:rr (9.F. trt+)Vatadosha, which leads upwards, is udanvayu. Commentator Dalhana points out that location ofudanvayu is left unmentioned in verse. He advises to grant all locations suggested by CharakSamhita.3tfr dr.sfr I zerrd g-d srgemaB sn=[ aTTeg:EfarE r anffiftft snRer<rqsqort+rfftelqr r (e-eoreo-r)Commentator speciltes that even if unsaid, other sites of this type should be considered.Similarly respiration should be added to functions even if it remains to be mentioned.S<fa ggl-g Sr-OrS€l(lt6-@i-r{T6l-d"|-ra-qT t@ffra$€Jprffffieranp6-q, r (sr.zi. e1 20)Srotoprinan is added to above-mentioned functions in this verse. This is indicative of extensivecirculation to every system and all cells of the same.${:{e[ffi€-{pr{ig[ @r ,lr (sr.€. T* t zts,a)Samanavayu ffR{ saf}rftm, r"ffir€argrF rrrdser, zrar*sFaoaq-<, r r (q. E. 28)ffi q ffi+ adertl"e?ru-+E r (a;n-ca-eo-r)This type is nurturing agent for agni. It therefore is found in vicinity of agni. It functions insystems, which convey sweat, water, dosha. Commentator suggests that systems conveyingdosha should be taken as all systems as dosha is circulated through out the living body.s{EfrwFlrererqE: T{-flr+ aRar€irrd: r rrqfr awigq Eelsq frfrrafu E r"frs.d@T.nq €Ea a.rErdn (9.fr. r)Sushrut Samhita agrees with proposal forwarded in Charak Samhita. Location of this type ofvayu is in stomach and intestines; in vicinity of agni. It digests food, separates absorbable andunabsorbable portions of digested food. It vitiated, it is responsible for generating diseases liketumor, indigestion, diarrhea, etc.TtirflGr: sid-dffiq{€r aeigerur: qzrcITere-+ra-a-gmrdqr€a-6 fffuqr$d-ffciq-drderrtq qr-r6r ftrla-a fueereffiB-q r (er.zi. zL 20)Saman is in vicinity of agni. It induces and strengthens digestive fire, acts on systems conveyingdosha, excreta, semen and ovum, circulates through systems. In GI tract it holds food, digests it,separates it into absorbdble and nonabsorbable portion, and sends it further in lower part ofintestine. In this verse a different thought about this vayu is proposed. Its existence is extended tolast dhatu i.e. shukra, which indicates its function is not limited to GI tract and digestion of food.Nourishment taken to other body entities is also converted into assimilable form due to action ofthis vayu. Its command is expressed by Charak Samhita also. This verse clearly spells theseimpressions in words.tr-ffr*sFa, erffqser elt qtft zr-da r3{-t r5udlft q-dft ftrffi q[afr rr (sr.€. gtr 1 2) 69
  • This verse is none diff-erent than alorementioned verses."-{r-{g €r{i urft zrarraa-stRa, t (en. u.ti)This verse is one more addition to functions of saman. So far only digestive and absorptiveaspect is considered. Here, conveyance of digested, absorbed product of food is conveyed toheart. This function comes underiurisdiction of samana.Vyanva.vu*d qrcfrft ud g arra: eflqarftrdsn{ rarftqE+rs.nffi{b-o: €€T I I (4. E. zare)Since this type of vatadosha occupies entire body it is known as vyan. This is very fast. Variousmotions of body. relaxations" contractions. eyelid reflexes etc., are due to this type of vatadosha.q-€--Ttaas 4r* a2Pia6rfrucr: I€irdrqtqura"T"arftr tiaw ffi r€-€"q go.* nTn-{ qr€r€T:"tdtearr{ I I (9. F. 1 /t 7 ,1 a)Vyan occupies entire living body. lt induces circulation of rasa. It is responsible for sweating,various secretions, and five types of motions like relaxations. cotrtractions etc. If this vata typegets vitiated, it becomes responsible for diseases related to any location of whole bgdy.izrEioe*str gs{ snRerd (-dt:, aa €ITffis-d geef, I Tiqdd n"tq I rhenffi riq ier: Eft qz+ruq-sfr%;qa-fuaaa-saaa*ftrffi qrwra-qk t sS ga-rfrqs{Ertr-s-"*qtl-Gr&r-=r-h tiafB{: qtrfu: d.rm €ft r zrd?eanqffieJmqr (raaw)Commentator Dalhana adds to meanings of few words versed by Sushrut. He describes fivetypes of motions as relaxation, contraction, downward movement, and upward movement,movement in any direction. Some other commentator spells this word as; motion, relaxation,upward movement, opening of eyelid, closing of eyelid etc. His commentator explains Sushrutsstatement about diseases. He spells the meaning of word (sarvadehagan) as diseases affectingentire body like fever, diarrhea, which show manifestations in r.vhole !ody.@r* €R srqftera, q.e=T-6-d-{: Sqarft:, arft !ruil-Er srrf+a 3r$q srde}q Gr&rs-;gr dawr s{@E<rrq-ar-d}aifrdtEa @, effi q Smqfrul<a fta+wa srd€q fu€rq r{rl *fl EFiFISI: €TkiTdffi r (sr.=i. u1* 20)Compendium Ashtang-Samgraha adds more functions to vyan than previous references" Inaddition to five types of motions, movements of eyelids he refers to yawning, enjoying flavor offood, penetrating all intra and inter cellular spaces, sweating, bleeding, deposition of semen invagina after coitus. He does not stop short of saying that separation of absorbable and notabsorbable pafi of digested food is in jurisdiction of vyan. Chronological nourishment ofdhatavah is included in specific functions of vyanqrdil €R ftera e€-+TM ardlr.I: Ianqlersi-cffiirr rqrq: self: Anersatse qftrsEir s€ftonqrr (er.€.2& 12/6,7)Vyan is located in heart. It circulates through entire body. It is great in speed. It is responsible foralmost all actions of body like motion, downward movements, upward movements, and closeeyelids, open eyelid etc.d6Tfer: effi qrtn-s*efqr I --- arfr t srlerorfl siarsq Sr€idqaq I "iF-fiqqg-ofrq, sirrueT sr*aeaq r Erfrq, srqoil, frffid-d{ | S;frq.: 6$ fuerrc{, r snftu-a,ifar{ a+ur- srarlore-a-ft efr erdr{?luRtro rCommentator explains meaning of mahajava. Maha is great. Java is speed. Hence mahajava isvatadosha type, which is ultra fast in action. He also adds menaing of adi or etc., in context tothis verse. He quotes that yawning, enjoying flavor of food, a few specific actions should beconsidered in addition to examples offered by compendium text. 70
  • Apan vayugqdil dffiA q Ensqa d€rut geq I3{cnErg€rTEr{ir{€T: ?JBF{xerqafb-q: I{u-erfd-rrail ar (a. fr. 2a/1o)Lower abdominal organs are under influence of apan. It controls all reflexes related to theseorgans like testes, penis, anus, and groins. lt functions for menstrual flow, eiection of semen, andexpulsion of baby. This is very thoughtful of Charak Samhita to consider excretory functions as mechanicalin mechanism. In spite of active re-absorption, formation of urine in lact as per modernphysiology is mechanical in large extent. Micturition and defecation reflexes are mechanical aswell. apan is controller of all excretions through pelvic organs. It functions for expulsion of fetusfrom uterus, for excretion of urine and feces, also for ejection of semen and for menstrual flow.q-cffir€rrdefrsqt-6T: 6ra 6tft qrarsq It+ffzsr q-€Eq{E6-rrsTfi+fla€r r€€qa €Ea n:rnq €n"rq eft-rgqrsrqra r r (9. B. r)Sushrut Samhita concurs with abovementioned functions of this vayu. Due to vitiation. thisgenerates diseases related to bladder, anus and allied organs.srqra-€ stqra ftara qfral@a-E rgo-rtci€rcE-oqp?rrafGr+-aqb-tr r r (sr.€. T1* t 2)All these concepts are stated in abovementioned verses.Summarizing table of ashrayasthan and sancharasthan Sr.No. Name of vayu Chief location Extended areas of function 1 Piana Head Chest, neck 2. Udana Chest Nose, umbilicus, neck a J. Vyan Hearl Entire body 4. Samana Near digestive fire In GI tract 5. Aoan Lower bodl Pelvis, bladder, penis, thighs (Dr. Nandini Dhargalkar) The sancharana sthan and ashraya sthan of different types of vata dosha can be explair-redon the basis of their prakrut karma (AH Su 12-4-g) @r. B.N. Mishra)After a detailed study of the above reference i.e. A.H. Su. 1219 and various tikas, we canconclude that the ashraya sthan can be correlated with the principle site or site of origin ofparticular vata, where as sancharana sthanas are the sites of secondary action or sites ofperception of that particular vata besides its place of origin. It can be explained by followingexample.Vyan vata: As per the different reference its ashraya sthan is hriday, however, its sancharanasthan is entire body. We know that the main function of vyan vata is rasa samvahan, which isperformed from its principle site i.e. hriday. However, vyan vata travels throughout the body forperforming different types of movement, which are also its function We can correlate vyan vata, with the moving wave action potential responsible for rasasamvan. This is generated automatically in SA node. It travels throughout the cardiacmusculature and is recorded from the peripheral parts i.e. chest and limb. Here ashraya sthan ofvyanvata is hriday whereas its sancharana sthan is whole body. 71
  • So, we can say that ashrya sthan is the principle site or siteof origin of that vata, where assancharana sthan is the site of secondary action or site of its perception* (Prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar) AshraYa Karma Sancharqrur qefir (brain) q{"7 3{: -Fud 3{T6g 3fadqsfl-r 3{: (thOrax) 3qffiaq arr+r arfb+ ara €ks sratarq arrg(i Avurga-drai s-<-d-qEiqra u-cricaq er$*rq zE-sd-6 6etT heart) qdaqefifiIcr s{ffiq dE . s{TaTerq S}U q@IeTq ""Tanfger66-{sr (Greater curvature of stomatch and dudeonum)3TErI6r 3{rrr6t-.rT: g@-€gffq ffi snftr oftd *q 3-€ (Rectum) ,mt €r[?ur{ (Prof KalPana Sathe) Ashraya sthan is the main and controlling site of each dosha whereas the sancharanasthan of these doshas are the extended area where other active functions areperformed. Ashraya sthan is the chief location of prana, udan, vyan, saman and apan vata ishead, chest, heart, neaf agni and pelvic region respectively. The sancharana sthan of prana arechesi and neck, of udan are ttor., umbilicus and neck, of vyan is entire body, of saman is GItract and of apan are pelvis, bladder, penis and thighs. praan vata regulates intellectual, sensory and motor, cardiovascular functions, spitting,sneezing, respiration-and deglutition. Udan vata is located in heart. It circulates through entirebody ivith great velocity u"d is responsible for body movements like downward and upward helps inmovements and eyelid movements. Saman vata is in vicinity of GIT. It receives fooddigestion of food, divides it in to useful and waste parts and sends it for further propulsion.peivic region is main site of apan vata. Lower abdominal organs are under control of apan vata.It is res=ponsible for reflexi activities like menstruation, ejection of sperm, defecation, micturition and expulsion of fetus. (Dr. Sangeeta Gehlot) 2.15. Why is pakvashay considered as the main seat of vata while motor and sensory functions are controlled by CNS? (RAV) Answer is already given about the reason why pakvashaya is considered as main seat of vata dosha. So far as motor and sensory functions of CNS are considered, modern physiology is based on different principles and atcepts nervous system along with hormones to control all r"r.ii";r of all syste*r. Ayrr,reda considers dosha, vata pitta and kapha to manage the functions ryr,.-s in lirring body. How can one correlate only vata dosha to CNS and demand the "i"fi siie of vata to get related with brain? main (Dr. Nandini Dhargalkar) 72
  • Most of the vatika disorders are cured by basti chikitsa, which is performed at pakvashay.Therefore the main seat of vata is considered as pakvashay. (Dr. B.N. Mishra)Pakvashaya as main seat of vata: Pakvashaya is considered as main seat of vata, while all the sensory and motor functionsare controlled by CNS. In this sentence the first part of the question i.e. pakvashaya is the mainseat of vata is true but the 2"d partthat all the sensory and motor function is controlled by CNS isnot absolutely true because there are many motor functions which are controlled at local ievel viaautomatic nervous system. However, it is the fact that most of sensory or motor functions are performed b1 ucuronalmechanism. The basic physiology of nervous control of sensory or motor functions is due totraveling impulses of action potential from sensory organ to the centre and then frorn centre tomotor organ. We know well that these impulses are nothing but the waves of depolarization andrepolarization of membrane of nervous or excitable tissue. The polarizations of membrane is due *to unequal ionic concentration of Na and K* across the membrane. So, we can see that how these ions affect the whole sensory and motor function of thebody. Any disturbance in their concentration alters the whole nervous control of the body. Theseions are mainly absorbed fiorn the intestine i.e. pakvashaya. if we alter the absorption of these ions from pakvashaya then whole sensory and motorfunctions will be disturbed so pakvashaya is the principle or original place for the factorsresponsible for controlling whole body. This is why pakvashaya is considered as main seat ofvata instead of considering CNS. It is also evident that the main treatment of vatik disease is basti, which is given inpakvashaya for treating every type ofvatik disorder. This is also a reason to consider pakvashayaas main seat vata. (Prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar)Vata utpatti, vikruti and treatment beneficials are seen in pakvashaya. Pakvashayotpanna vata isposhak vata of other vata sthan. CNS function is governed by the prana vata at murdha sthan.Spandan of prana is samanya vritti. The linkage between CNS and intestine, especially largeintestine, is through craniosacral ant flow. These parasympathetic sensory and motor functionsare the ANS reflexes. Defecation is voluntary as well as involuntary function. The function oflarge intestine is to absorb all nutrients and throw out the wastes. Disturbance in this activityshows many manifestations in emotional and physical symptoms. Irritable bowel syndrome isone of the best examples. It is the pathomechanisms of functional disorders. Since various CNSand gut-directed stressors stimulate the brain gut axis, processes modulating responsiveness tostressors along the brain-gut axis and the immunological, endocrinological mechanisms,disturbances at every level of neural control of the GI tract can affect modulation of GI rnotility,scretions, immune functions as well as preception and emotional responce to visceral events.Brain gut axis in IBS e Genetics (genotype character doshaj prakriti) o Environment phenotype character doshaj prakriti (pratyatmaneyat prakriti)aenft gi te)fuo zerrd Aeq I ekT: srq qr* qrtrrRE-orzr aflGd af,.rra g+fl, I 3{5Iq ftffi ari z+-ffienrcrserffEr: I q.{t 2o/9 zlctr{d. (Prof. Kalpana Sathe) 73
  • qiq 8}-{ 6. q{@ a qrd + o-C fr "aruf€frai 6df-" 6T qntd fu-en EaY< + qe old2-1 r ard# E-qror, s€TE[, z{:F[Ta g{tlTa, qra I gms A tr6-s frfire Erzratar B z (Dr. Nidhi Khurana) . Vata dosha is responsible for garbha akruti and dhatu vyuhakara functions in -tlosha intra-uterine bheda is executed is described above at par. Tilllife of f"t".. guri, on *hi.h vata question of thinking of bhedadifferentiation takes place and the organogenesis sets in, there is noofvata dosha. (Dr. Nandini Dhargalkar) arerf€d-ai 6-df (4.)phenotype (morphological) of garbha is due to vata. The phenotype could be of tiniest body celltottfruiof L"it. bodi. Vayaviya fetal components or physiology are sparsh, sparshendriya, uchchhvas (respiration).raukshya, cheshta, Otratuvyutran-(differentiation of different dhatus) and d-{qrmtq aratzg dft-Een=i "qaq I acreraft ard-Eg qef* r r Sqsn zrFaefr <rt-er€rtzr ar5-I: I 5ed ftr+4epdra ffi erelT crelT I I (g. QIT. +ts.e-se) Ir, t"r*, of modern embryology and developmental biology following functions areattribuled to vaYu. o Growth of body and formation of various channels (in collaboration with ushma) . D"rr"lopment of entire axis involved in touch and its perception o Roughness (this is required when cells move; if there is stickyness the cell movement will be obstructed) r Cheshta (movement of cell, body i.e. antero-posterior and cranio-caudal foldingposhakof-th: parts, dhatus, their embryonic disk in the early stagl, movement of body, body bhaga and waste Products) . Dhatu vnrhan (differentiation of various cell types and development of various dhatus) I Urt rttluur [entire physiological axis involved in respiration (Dalhan)]In these developments all the five types-of vayu are.involved. #,-. r*ih?i"-#lfii*"i;"i** -tg, tiqen sfrarm, er5t €r*qfr t (g {* W).ro-.* adaqr qe- 1,rrd-re od,; s-s-{dfrkqrertsdt "*T}:-g}g@-{rre-r;rr ffi- sror€r --dJ ftnal1 e-tr-q;rgtqr"rt goTl, ry 6-irl; tiqen qftarm €fr a?Ta-lEt *q"*+q.nra €1T{ul"1, - 3{Err;r€I I srd g G sdergrai s-*ie-arftffi-d 3n-$:; ^"y=t ea*qeqrE+rfterr*;, ?-z,q,-€Ei asi-rffi-e-a "ffi.==n-#rlat; qt{"i errdrrzr{rctai- ffi;*E ;+; a#, ffi,: Errsi" -1: 1s/4/ 1 q{ s€.r) "+E qrft{qas rr (g. - "e (Dr SandhYa Patel) of mothers uterus Ovum, after fertili zation,is completely dependent on the environment is responsible for the which is seat of apan vayu. So apan vayu withthe help of prana vayu garbhakruti. (Dr. B.N. Mishra) q-sfr. qso i a qr-a-tnaro-$-q 3{€g-rq fr- uruffi tFr BuFt-o a-rg a} o-ar B aentu qrg A ftRre dd d q ffi cd t "[r-{€rrd ge+ etd e € #;*$,ffi--ffi;;F, qrg tu=ft aft frDrs a "=* d a-fr oFfa tsr 6rd 74
  • afu-d drB-6 i;rr A 6a1 qts BRaq o-s zr-o-t B fu q5 ord 3{EnET arg a+r ercrqrg + Tr€fr-6_. 6rd a tl:Er-r *dr B r Ba ffid d-d + 3{rErz oi ga ft{;fu-qr {T zr+-ar E r 1, ^"ro.d il-g^q E-+TT silfu snR qarqr arqr E 6-dfu era orgd fuflq 6d E-r srd, *ilFr gar d frerd ed sT6rd g;a ffi.rg-+ zrd er$cqanfua d er-o-ar B r a* * qrg -61 6-r$eb ailFr gar a-S t I 3r.r: t -"rr+ferq a.n _sra-s-€-+ srrBrd araf srrg;fr a} qffia a-S a-c+ Bz) qe-en-d-oaraf q, gffi: oFfu 6-g} r ez-o]-qrS + o-sr fu sq-$ffi zrErErao uraf EFT ETTUr o-t sS qrac Gror-tre rFr 6"rd 3Tsrqr qrg B B t oF qs oraf "inrq qrqqa erq * ararfu;fr Hrr 6] aft i zren-* B rs) araf or errsor tit 3Tster qrg 61 o.rS B ab-dr errtr * e+rer S zrrer *qtrr +ft3{TqeercF B r uraf or q}qq qra qrg ErtT z-s{ q-s Bafu 6.z-ar B qg "iqrBa "+ddd (g. eTT. trzs) rarafd db =fla "zt-d-€irqi --:- @efrEfrr - ^arq€ drg d€rzr z-er qz ftefz>r sr.r: -* B{rg;ftqra qrg.qs Befu Br "i-rred "if+) *qrqi qrg ee_fue +5€i er gufqr (u. plr. +rrs) E-<-6-{r --l €6ci eFr g?i E-a-qfrr-(g.- en. azr s) q"h a +€* ryr of gersF Eft qF a -*+ q-{ €<+{*r --q (qra qrq)q-g;fuir d-6r tr-ed ara+fu;fr 3irua eF-{ff B r Lra, gE+ i tr;h; r;Er .iaft tr-6rd e-6-a B fu erra org aft urar@ Eertgo B ; FJ# r3rir: g{t 9tFrs 6ar 6-g r{6-} B fu ua+@ +-r EerFsr ga ff erge* + 61-dq}a# Br (prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar)None of these is alone responsible for making garbhakriti in fetal life. It is karma of samanyavata, which is carrying all indriyartha and dhatu to give it a body form (murti-sandhan) andmaking a figure of garbha like its parents (yoni). The vayu is mainly responsible for stimuiating(praspandan), to separate the tissues (viveka), to carry them to another place (purana), to placlthem in an organized fashion (dharana) and to carry forward the extra tissues to a waste(udvahana). The whole process of making garbhakriti is praspandan udvahana-purana-viveka-dharana etc (pranodan saman vyan apan atma) (prof. Karpana Sathe) As such it is not mentioned in Ayurveda that which vayu is responsible for garbhakriti.Apan vayu may be responsible for this function because apan vayu is helpful in.expulsion offetus menstruation ejaculation (AH su 1219) (o". ,un*..ta GehroQ2.l7.lHow do we understand the following in present context? Please clarify. af}reer **T watr+d4q I r-(en. g.ei. sr+r -+z) (Dr. Santosh N. Belavadi)2.18. How do we interpret the process of respiration given by SharangadhariIn the concept of respiration, according to Sharangadhar, the pranavata situated at nabhitraverses through the kantha. What is the anatomical area which should be considered asnabhi? (Dr. Suchetha Kumari M.)This.verse indicates e The entire physiology of breathing according to Ayurvedic priniplce. 75
  • The movement of prana vayu between nabhi (through interior of heart, o kantha) and exterior and then back in reverse order is explained here. In otlrer words this is alternative flow of air between exterior and interior (of the body) o conducting zone hierarchy: nabhi ) hritkamalantar ) kantha ) exterior ) back to interior (entrie body and jathargni) thorugh hriday . Exchange of gur., between ambient air and interior (i.e. lung and ultimately blood) in four phases ; Ventilation: exchange of gases between atmosphere and lungs o Extemal respiration: exchange of gases between lungs and blood and dhatus . o Internal respiration: exchange of gases between different srotamsi o Cellular metabolism: involvement ofjathargni o gazr+rft *ara, the gas molecules is much This phase probably indicates alveolar ventilation (the velocity of to alveoli). greater thanthe disiance that they travel i.e. between terminal bronchioles r For more detail please refer to "Intersctive Workshop between Stuclnets and Teachers 39 of page N 35- Ayurveda (Praiuvahu srotas Disorders and their Management)", 2007,RAV Publication. (Dr- SandhYa Patel)Verse Sharangdhara-samhita is considered:arfBrEq grorcr.r;l: zgqar €?s-4dT6"{ Io6n1 otrtrtrqfft urg-fu5rarqara1t t$-trI- affigi ga-{rqrfr tara tmqffit dqqquzzraaqtGA-st-bt" zi*rndrgsaA rr Qn. uti sr+t-+e) getspranavayu is located at umbilicus, touches inside of heart. From neck, it passes outside and orback within no time, through same route after assirnilating vishnupadamrutamambarapiyusham (oxygen) in itself. This pranavayu maintains entire body and it nourishesjatharagni. As long as prana abides body lives This verse needs a lot of explanation. Since normal respiration is unavailable in respiration. Matching points of this verse compendia, this verse became popular as description of is read with modern respiration are learnt and actual concept lorwarded by commentatorsthereafter.To learn how this verse matches with modern respiration:Umbilicus is location of pranavayu in this verse. Same author in his compendium whiledescribing five types of Vatadosha mentions location of pranavayu to be heartmrerg ;its]t dft"qre aen 6fr r6> T{-didae -tg thq6r{T: ll 3TErTa: cqrc?l-ara*i qrffi 6$q a r @ll (en. qci stzt,za)-r-€ft a-aft-rcq is obsJrved miving in body. i1t.it locations are; pelvic colon intestinalFive types of vayu and whole body Names of these five typesIumen where digestive juice is secreted,-heart, neck are apan, Saman, prurru,"udun and vyan in respect to their locations sequentially Thismeansthatauthormeantaboutsomeothergas,thanon€outoffivetypesof or milk. Nectar is sky and piyusha is nectar vatadosha in this verse. Dictionary meaning of ambar from sky is virtual meaning of amharpiusha or milk is capble to sustain a person. Nectar coming as oxygen from environment Hence amhaipiusha can logicutty U. interpreted 76
  • Nabhi is umbilicus. In intrauterine life it is through this umbilicus that baby is attached bya cord to placenta of mother and receives food as well as oxygen supply through matemal bloodAyurveda assumes that umbilicus is the one, where all vessels carrying different matters, originPrana is one of these matters. Respiratory movements include thoracic as well as abdominal movements. Abdominalmovements are noticed through moving umbilicus. This could be another reason why umbilicusis mentioned. Upward direction of exhalation from moving umbilicus towards neck (pharynx and nose)was observed by Ayurveda scholars and described as pranavayu abiding umbilicus, touchesinterior of heart and passing neck (pharynx or trachea) escapes out in environment. There itattains fresh energy in form of amharpiusha, with which it returns back fast into body. Afterbringing this amharpiusha inside the body it freshens whole body and keeps digestivemechanism in fine condition. This is accepted traditionally that this verse describes expiration and inspiration.However their commentators better interpret compendia. They comment facts read betweenlines. They happen to include dictionary for colloquial language used in era of compendium. Byreading on Sharangdhara Samhita, it is realized that these verses are nearer to Yoga "orn-.nt*yconcepts (respiration).A little different concept forwarded by commentators of Sharangdhara:arf-arzer Eft orzqr{ ar+} frera: @ ICommentator interprets umbilicus denotes entire body.-6"rq qfrtrETqffr srafq E5u-d€€_s..d-q ffi{ qrw efr arsrrfaf rpassing neck it reaches head.urg fuEq?i o-gr-effira-e-gri $-gwa tIn"the interior of head, yogic chakra exists, named brahmarandhra. It contains necessarysecretions for life. This concept explains that this pranavayu from umbilicus through interior ofheart passes neck, enters this yogic center in head, assimilates life sustaining matter existingthere and comes back by tu*. putft. Yoga was routinely practiced that time. (Dr. Nandini Dhargalkar) Nabhi may be interpreted as the center of RBC where hemoglobin (Hb%) stays. Pranahere the expiratory air or carbon dioxide is necessary for respiratory drive. Again it takes part inmany processes. Hb + carbon dioxide - heart - lungs - trachea - outside. Vishnupadamruta means waterof the Ganga river, which is pure and holy. Here we can take pure oxygen. Because pure oxygenis hazardous. So it carries amberpiyush, here it may be considered as atmospheric air where allthe gases are in a balanced mixture state (Dr R N. Mishra) arf)a{zet: gToIEJErat: =6@-dara"{ I 6-(6rq oBffitrroffr"€Eqr ur€i frqF-{r€aq rr fi-tur arre-tfi-qi ga-{rqft }ara: I dlvrq-d teraft deqq rrc{rEldqll (en.ei. t rsrst) al-gq + srsr qrurE-rg qz GT&r{ E--{a Br cil d-rg__lJfl-era Et 3{rET{ AsS qrsr.rTq #aa e I g{{ lrc. ea.-affqr fr fifir qrur-u-= ^snz ao6y uur otr qrsTcrrg ;; #;-"*t E-d fbra tsr aiar+-eaftar sfu 6rffiq-< d d ftdA B "{eef gsri+ q6 zqe erar E t .rcrci sr*gd sr"i se*gfrf,q s*"=rA) *a1qdr arsqeffi-il r (araro--eaftar 4.2s eft€,=ru-r f 77
  • q=q gs.cr: grfuft-gqf,rftro"raqi qrg eBFfz+rrqft zr qrun"ffigd frelqqcqrtrrft 3rqeqft{ft dravr*qra-Er6*ft orq liswr*srrrdr@T qfu, r (@1 -irftnd arfBrEer lrrurrrcrEri i freqrRra arg B r fuEr+ # srq stre+r*s -+tqrsr sTf-€r6 B srefq €rg sr?Ied a-rg B ffi qruran-g 61 3rq1Ena srs d qranBr q-+6 qrqdrg "-6-e der # qrar B r ffi ser dq cFr srF-d-qrqr€ e-a-ar B a*so.r+4 srq 3ifrtrr+s 3d@I *dr E d 6q * um d qar qrar B @q, tfrutera) rer$z # 3r1I€d zm ftr*sfr Er€rzr E-6trrd A-6T gmeez +dr dqr d irnn B raaraffzen grFr4i lrpn qrqTanf}lqlrrrBran IMersrgdr ffi:tt (g.eTI. zrs) sle uearq 6.<eT sle qgre"+ d s*{ qr.rr B r gSFs-{ izn 6{r erSs #aezr # ftera B 3rFr: 6d +-a zro-i B zft, Inferior vena cava is the anatomical area which should be considered as nabhi.erurrgrT?rT un fu+rsfr fr eqrc{ €* drf}r a-o fuiqar sfu arf}{ * qras 66-4r wg}ffiBr T€s-dr €E 6aETA"{ aT?Tc,T6r rF-dTcr€r€e€r 6e-+ t 3{<{ T€TEItT d Aneq-A d3RI€a srumrg srr& B alz gqzfr ubl qr-r * 3r?I€€ qrg qrsc H6-cr qrft B rgg-d * 6eu o] gg*o-c{-€er qarqr B I EsftS"r zrgeei 6aei zeq srfrgaqr (9. eTT. +rzz) Etn€2fr fr mra-O-o s*{ srdEsidrq d fi-q s6 fb-Tfu m }, 3rer: qrgftha-q d 6l-€ erqier d-S *dr B r sc{ f}Tk a} 96-{ qrg 3{<T €rr crrd{ eRcT-TT* sn rrr zro-ft B r "6us;t<1 eBtrFrrrfft A EruTn d 6rfd srq eii@ zFT srqa qrerroHoeieN +1 +e-fi-{ ?d?iT frar s*{ a{Rr6 Tqrd * zb-#r <cnEr d s*{ E-oaar +ft-d*dr E r qa qEa-affi tfutera B r d-ar ar+ezfi-qFq ga-{Frrft }ara, * sr;a,eq:ta sTf}r}d B r s-o sm d sr+derq sffis Ebr <rfl"r 40 * srf-ero d qrq alsr ea:aa?ilEg s-dfua fr wrar B slcqB:eer+r;r d qrar Er uearq qr6{ A sffiqa H + ftrg sra?tr€TEr dar Br qrFE * + 3frffitrd fuqr .rrdr B s-S srrer$-qx 6.-da ts r d 3r<sEq€Zft d A fr qrft Br + sffiqd ftqlot*ft-a * ka-+z rer ?rET ErtT 6N -"fiofqd * * z+aft +N tnr ffora srflrla B @ ur"rorgo-<rq er$s rqrorcrgsffi * fuqr rrqr sjffiqa rercenT * z+rer fua+-e g€s ztnr * E"Er #6eq S or+r+M A F++-e-qi-{ aarerqff Er<rzr erirr€r er${ # qar qr-rr B s}Eq-++. +}q +1 qrq-drg qrq d qrft B r "dfqera q6{radq * qrurqrg 6T GIEETF-a * sa-er ercm B-qr arqr B r argdt stFd zigerur En?-TT B sfu 6mq €rc qz 3ffii€fteerd +t B-qr aft a.o q?Frt znrsrFq qrqrc B d sjm *ar Brsruragrqi z*az+i €{q {f, d-6rc+deq r (ano)den qrsrda de d-ffii €e-ei €r.Frar: r (gga)F€-$ gqe B ftn 6e-+ qrurdg rff * srur.rrg ei ardor o-{d T{:rttffi * are?rfi d "-g+-drfr!-qeqeftrr€r erftE d al-d +dr B r fr+a of a-acoqtf ffi da-roranrre-o +-q e* 3rq-dr+gs B r s{T-FIer, qrg, 31fu, aTcf,, gefr f EuETS fr srr6reftq a{Trr s{Fr€F B r +srrsreftq a{Te[ 6rrd{ * srsrcrrg 6} sr<-E frE-in B r 116r -16 qrg Ere"fr fr frT€rttffi * e+rer Fa-oz erSz d zrirr&T errgs* a-6 q*-rdr e Igafu qrFrdr qrun: eiFrci arga-f,* I (q. {& z+r+)g$ gmrerq, r (a+r+q-6rer)den Tffir€rrE: Erour: r (anercft-<ra) E{{frs ,rrdFg-{6-d t areqa * re or gw 3TTEI{ €q€Tfr Eb} ffid fu-qrdr€rT B r qearq d6 qrurqrg tnlwrd qrob-qr 6-{+ eTfu 3ida 6"-dr- B r eTfu3dd 6.r+ 6a qb-qr + +{r;T d W-g- dre E s{rd srtraq rrffi t o.q #or*a srq 3fi-r:{r+s s*t 5ru-$wa d@s qf,A E, srafq srsrqrg 3{q e}* geffi zrry-m d rrrar t r gefr d sier fr zrrym # rrc qrnmrg srqraqrS @r*a er+sffis) * qffia d rrrr.n B, d sEr rtm d ar€qfl * EroTfr d qrar B s+E 78
  • a erd{ d6 frqr qrdr B r gE+ awa-6i err*-ureru * d easaqB-ff or q"la fu-qrE A sngHo errar d ergz+rc E r In this reference from Sharangadhar Samhita (Sha. Pu.Kha.5/51) the process ofrespiration is described in a nut cell. Sharangadhar has described all the process of respiration. Inmodern medical science the whole proc€ss of respiration is divided in the following steps.A) External respiration: i) Ventilation iil Gaseous exchange at the alveolar level. iii) Carriage of Oz and CO2 by the blood. iv) Exchange of gases at the tissue level.B) Internal respiration: Utilization of O2 and production of CO2 by the tissue., Here in this shloka all these steps are mentioned. First of all I will like to explain the firstdoubt that in modem science, umbilicus has no significant role in breathing. However, inembryonic life, the fetal respiration is through umbilicus via umbilical vein and artery. Givingimportance to embryology of respiratory system, he has mentioned nabhistha pranapavan. Nowwe know that physiology of an organ depends on the embryology and anatomy of that organ. The second doubt is that there is no mention of phusphphus in this shloka, which is themain organ of respiration. Its explanation is that he has mentioned a term hritkamalantar. Thisterrn should be used for both lungs as well as heart. We know that both these organs are equallyimportant for the process of respiration. This is why the disease of lungs leads ultirnately to heartdiseases and vice versa. In the first three lines of this shloka, Sharangadhar has mentioned the process ofexpiration and inspiration.marqr<-{ftq$r-These worda mean drinking of amber piyusha which can be correlated with the exchange of Ozat the alveolar level.ga-{rqfr }ara,-These words can be correlated with the process of fast transport of Oz via blood, through all overthe body.@These words denotethe internal respiration i.e. utilization of Oz for the production of energy.The energy generated in this process is used for the body anabolism as well as catabolism.d-f,{r-dil-d?rd-dq&These words sigrtify the importance of the respiration in improving function of agni. Since lifedepends on the metabolic activity of the body. All the metabolic activity depends on enzymesand these enzymes cannot be formed in absence of energy. The energy of the body absolutelydepends on respiration. This is how he has given the importance of the respiration for themetabolic activity of body. (Prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar) When translated, the above verse gives the following meaning:Frana vayu situated at nabhi, after reaching the proximity of heart, comes out through the throatto consume a nectar-like substance called Visnupadamrita from the external atmosphere. Afterconsuming this nectar of atmosphere, it reenters the body and thereafter it nourishes all parts ofthe body including jiva and jatharagni. Shamgadhara,the author who penned down this verse, belongs roughly to 13th centuryAD. In all textbooks authored prior to this book, the site of prana vayu has been described to bethe head. But, here, the same is said to be nabhi. In fact, the term nabhi, in Sanskrit, means a 79
  • center. So, this has to be understood to be a particular center in the head (may be the respiratorycenter, for instance). Proximity of heart means the lungs in this context.{fti ffd gh fterft t terms jiva anrd rakta are synonyrnsiti, ir ,rr" ipinion of Sushrut and this means that the gives the following meaning: BecauseSo, ofwhen translated with this background, the above verse theil;;i;ii;;;;r;"u vayu, sittrlted in the brain, a nectar-like substance is consumed throughact of respiration. This substance in turn, nourishes the whole body, jiva (blood) and jatharagni control ofIt is clear from the above that this nectar-like substance must be oxygen Nervous be inferred (Kishorrespiration and transportation of oxygen through blood also canPaiwardhan, Human Physiology in Ayurveda 2005) (Dr. Sangeeta Gehlot) supplied to.tfe . Ozpresent in all blood vessels in specific concentration continuously tissues (pusyanti cha nisham vayuhu). This is intemal respiration. COz produced in through respiratory metabolism reaches heart through inf.rior vein and is expelled out pathway; the lungs and the pharynx (kantha) o External respirai-ion is stimulated by pran vayu (vagus), which is supplied to the nabhisthan iliupttrug*), which actuaily- begins the mechanism of external .respiration air (vishnupadmruta) The gaseour .*itru"E" is explained in tiris shloka. The atmospheric also indicates with oxygen rich air (ambarpiyush) is inhaled. Patum vishnupadamrutam the control of respiration through MO (hrit-kamal-mastishka)- As COz concentration increases, it stimulates the inspir:ation forcefully (vegataha) to supply (prinan) oz-to the produce digestive fire the whole body. This prana (O2) il animals goes with the shonit to jatharanalam (enzymes). (prof. Kalpana sathe) 2.19. What could be the reason of atlotting the functions like mucous expulsion, sneezing to inside? when it gets vitiated its and belching to prana vayu when its gati is from outside diseases like hiccough, asthma etc fiaCtoma lJpposltey gati prodlces r---- uraa;fary<Garzirarue o-d qrt (qfr zaro) s,{:6s-@$ ekeq$Grrrfuaetq r ea-aera-5ft4;orz+raraerq I I (srE rL t,z r a-s) ererQT: €.;a S"+ frffir"dl"rTR-tFq Jlqlq (g ft t tt+) - (Dr. Girdhar Thakre) d5r qTil{€fra-Efter-d, q5o-}gsa-i gd]GEe-6-qa1-dfrE"1-ff€l-|-zurffiE-cT erEg 3qa:rr{ ueaniqarz+ sr-fuenfrB-rr: t (srzi zora) q{ ;;..r*, €arc+}{q-€qdre+sa:q}eraqr (sr.q" ".0/6otz) g€) ---- -i#;eraa{ ---- II G{"i(sr.zi. s q{ g€) t r B,eqrsisa,q}era{ r 1 /2 ;; __ e;@s-oqi (sr.€. r& 12/1 q{ 3r-sra-d) ]ll;;;;;l First of all shvas function includes both inspiration as well as expiration. vagbhat has separately mentioned both phases as prashvas and uchchhvas Now,pratilomagatimeansreversemovementarrdthatappliestoboththephasese.g. expiration is not pratiloma movement inspiratory dyspnea anJ expiratory dyspnea. Normal to cause.shvas and hikka Pratiloma gati of vayu has tobe associated with kapha s€zr os-€qq nfureorcflq z+ t (a fu r t r t z) -a-ift mr"reo.r€-dffi *flift{ zrtndsha: I 80
  • fu6rq qrg: qrlilser q{ig.r: t- "€.fti_ alta-r d eqrsi qpqerAeortre*cqefi (g. s. g r u s) (Dr. Sandhya patet)This answer is given with following points: l. References indicating gati of pranavayu 2. References indicating functions of pranavayu and their gati 3. Final discussion with logical argument1. References indicating gati of pranavayu: Gati of pranavayu has to be taken in context tofunction as two ways, the references are given below:For gati of pranavayu as from outside to inside: qeifu,6, (q.fr. zer+)"qrd-qTrrt-q g gTot: €fA q-6fft r (a. fu. r sro)sr-dffr6ra.F-rrf-r5r s1v13 qsfB srEft€r.T rddeaE, (sr.zi. z1 20)Hence the location of pranavayu is in head or murdha and sancharanasthan or extended areas offunction are from its chief location to nasika or nose; jivha or tongue; asya or mouth; kantha orneck; and it is responsible to bring the food down in k-oshtha. Therefore it can be concluded thatit acts from upward direction to downwards or from head side to chest in standing anatomicalposition of human body.For gati of pranavayu as from inside to outside:"*o-aero.1arlarEer rnqqil.r: q;dq eBtrE"TfftCharak samhita, allotting the function of shthivana, kshavathu to prana adds to acceptance of thisgati from inside to outside; inspite of the chief location of pranavayu being murdha or head.For gati upwards as well as downwards: SEs-t-ou-d6$ FAG{qfud€Jq ree-aer+qrcrt1M?r€-r u-T5r grqr3 qrfB srEfrera odrsE, gdks-€E-q a-derryfferrsr &+aeroegiorrcqeqr"iq"rrE{rtrq}enRB*q, r (sr.$. e1 2 o)Ergeil aesztqrS €{ sruil apa fugq rzlsat gfqrq(qtr: qrgfrqrrqqciq+ ;grEreT: €o-a ga FcrmlsrtrrRorq :rrdrE | (g. B. t r t +)E-qe-+iqrftE-{gq-d€fui, Ad qeils,eianFror arft qTur":q T€rrdq r (qeur&rnr)For gati of pranavayu in entire bodyarfDrs€r lrl-srgzrar --- | gfr croaffiaarf-u-s€r gft s{T6i}Tc.crr (en.u.ai. st+z-+e)gdk{6r{q qrturSparshanendriya is all over body and pranavayu functions as indriyadharana.2. References indicating functions of pranavayu and their gati:Shthivana - from inside to outsideKshavathu - from inside to outsideUdgara - from inside to outsideNishwasa - from outside to insideAnnapravesha - from outside to insideHriday-dhruk - since Hridayfunctions for rasasamvahana in entire body every directionChittadhruk - for similar reason enite body or every direction3. Final discussion with logical argumentTwo hypothetical explanations are offered here: First is, one has to accept the gati of pranavayu in entire body, considering its vitality andfunctions. Prana is a special vayu type and is responsible for vital functions of living body. 81
  • Hence it bears tremendous physiological and pathological significance. It should be consideredas an exception and can be accepted as acting in all direction. Its gati should be taken as from alldirections to all directions as it is extremely powerful and vital.q,"rG";;ddarzr3, s€or&6r)91qw+a, qronHa, qpnBr* dr-gftft anqqfef I (g ,..7/S srra_) € Considering these referencei logical derivation ii to accept its action in entire body witheoual oower.#t=t+*+<*f"=i arg@r- qrciTr_fltzi era-HE Ben g dq€q I zqra-E sr** ft*ftfor r r (q. E. zerzzo) - .e*.og".11, sTfutl-flr;i eradq Eft ead€qfr€l"i gufq t -Ben qrci gfr s$a€in€n Btn @r*"i zeq Efr z.ie pq urcrfrer:Ardfi-q r (eor) I;*re zlgai+"na =6, fterft: ff.Iero..rl This reference is significant about the direction of each type of vayu. A little deviation orobstruction to pranavayu is not affordable to human to continue his life.31r5r: grurfl$fr ffiee1 gwfrrST{€I: tFs-$-€EeF R-Eered-lerq-41-jtft z+ t (4. E- tzttt,te)qr"n-c-orra-orEa- *dift{ zr-cFd e+Fra: tPranavaha srotas mulasthan is hriday and mahasrotasa Second is, one has to accept unidirectional gati of pranavayu, from ouside of body toinside or from upward direction to downward direction then obstruction to it is vital andtherefore praftais illotted fuction of overcoming the obstruction. (Dr. Nandini Dhargalkar) + €-@ 6-d 3{@rer}er e*s eorr* rsorE+ B r 3rrrs g{{ ftils-s-frqrsrqrg srurdrg 6-d ftrSq Etdr B d d -*-# ; ft. 6;;, erog slu 3?n" 6-d 6-{* E + ar*q +-C - "r-G qroa oq fr *i E €g.- b *ro spe-od gya + --r< d6q eiaror61 3 gft-+ref r erryff ertr s{{ "i+--t- €q--S u;r z"rrq ."tr fu ftrs, q*er B -d-fr 6tdr "ifl -r - "-.-- =1*# e-srtrar * ;r"T ;n-{ dard-dd $ b"t+ qrsrdrg d*rrs"t ara ffi B r #rr="tq; ,i=rftai a a5qq erqrRftrsqryafr id, a-m-+fFr ffi +e"fA-.n ltar €daq €Bqerrs"rq qrsr: ft-ift I ;t .qfrqhsartai ziGroqr -firqE-$h t el-rrn gfu: uaei ttt 1Mrr (a S ttrzo) "=ta-; qR eE-rra6-qr # {d--u* en 3fa[ ".r€ Aftro-r.-o -eF "+ 3,-u.zq rdaTT aan fr eas-d -* + "i* A dffi lir"Idrg o1 eraq-$d. t ^tt* qs 6T -*f# k B +- e g1-na s11i^sqorp-.trnqrsil ar1 a:-t+ tritrer "-54 il A*=-tfr=$-**"{.-frafr s-d-+ fuqra-o d-< afr3w fr Rera AA B I slorqrg * * aienftrs# -tnqrsfr qg Ffq5iur qra-ar$ t qreqa * *ar B a 3nqrE-a Ea dd} 61 sq-gffi r e*{ tg{r }sr aft iill-dr B qeera; snR qrurq-fttqq-q drfb fr ffi B b-qrfu-c -+- d .rea qEref qler o-eA 5p or *i; *- * sh srqrft + dpf A Sqa, 6rdg, 3qilE ffi ffi Br d;-oj=si1g-H;qr{nqdr ^zta-a-r rr B o-d T-Iarg- i. Aa :. €.tS 36"i-a **A B -+ ffi I 6q4,*;a6=+qfrftqfu*>(m?ffitaffiero+)rs;rb-qr3frd g@ €#€) r ffi qrurdrg d qrqdrg # ;d;i; rIft qr€-d -dff B .,-d urqd -" 5 Aa 3, a=-fr ftftF+ u--{e un or-"-d a61 ffi B r "-rE frru_ 82
  • eqrzrrfr fu6rg d srqqrg-d qFr*a IE fu€-d ffi B (deffi#+-a s#€)r *gror, seo slE 3rd{E zffi + E€ + Arft e, fuelei Efu-e+r .ft srrqe.x-6-drzsft Bt (Prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar)*aqerq"{t.€rteaTT{r6lpp od q , (q. E. zera)s{:rno-eri@r6o-aemqrcrzFeflzrr@crler€d u Gr.g. + t zr+-s)ererer:€-* g* Fffir@;tq- (g. F. rr.t+)s<rdil ara u-ti1tq}ft qq-+crnr: (€. F. r /t +)Mucous expulsion - shthivan Sneezing - kshavathyuBelching - udgar Normally the function of prana vata is to swallow food (ahar), inhale air (shvas) and tostimulate peristalsis of esophagus (sarana). In this process when saliva, nasal mucosa andesophagal movements are produce in excess due to obstruction in the passage; then the oppositegati (movement) of vata dosha is reflexly (vega) produced. The pratiloma (opposite) gati is forthe protection of the system (pranvaha srotaia).- If it happens persistently, itre diseases likehiccough, asthama etc. are seen.err4dreil: arftEelsrq E+ +rn, wg<arotra r q*o (prof. Kalpana sathe)2:20. How would we explain varna karma of udan vayu (A.H. Su. 1215 and A.S. Su. 20)?Udan vayu sancharana sthan is urah sthan, so how can we explain generalized varnakarma of udan? (Vd. Pranita P. Joshi) . Seat of udan vayu is chest. This travels through nasa, nabhi and gala (throat).The mainfunctions of udan vayu are initiation of speech, enthusiasm, nourishment and luster in the skinstrength and boosting of memory. Due to production of urja (nourishment), the luster willautomatically be achieved. (Dr. B.N. Mishra) s<rd qrg tnr 3qd-s-d erg g-er m-d B erSE -ft qqrqa-er b-rrrs* d * rTtstrgq dfu-d sier 3id-6r *dr B s-S erSt * qrAs ffi cbT uurdo-Ear B r =-.-r-. u-rg sngHo errsr fr erss 6r q"f Ttrerrg + sq-{ ftefz ugar B t-Err o-ar B rN sm eft -fu€ft _fr ersE orar-*ar qs qr.n B r srrgd< TiFfl- # aft erftE olq"f Tcrirerrg t sqr fraf{ tgar B oar tE+r B r aiT{gfu ffiTcFi o"fq-E+l.i q-s (g. 5 q 1 s/s) qrqqrg Er{r sfffida erfts d fuqr qrar E s*l Ertr o.r*d srzrsfrAr{€s er$E * qrsE =era-+rg 6or qrar B r ffi r*r d srgfu o-r ffiro-sr fu-qr qrarB I sert S€-.€i-d tn-C urqa s.q * a gqr * 6-r+d srq- 3ffidr{rts aftila qem ergrfr S # a-oren B ffi erSs -* Md srrar B r gE{ qrrrg scra org * "{fb-dd!-d s-S er$s fr *dr a I sEIoI 4rg tnT ?€IIET st:ze5ra1 } Afu-q serrT d!-d zn-d T{rt erSs *sqs Fcrar B dftF "{a?q ?ffi 6r rrrt er$r fr *dr B s*s rffi +t srgfu 6<+sfu groz{ Erer sET6r drg t "ia-{sr 6-d A qrcs SEft qrft B 3qertla r (Prof. B. H, Shyamkuwar) 83
  • Varna - color of skin The sthan of udan vayu is nabhi, urah and kantha. It helps in expulsion of impure air outof the tissue and urah sthan with the purification of circulating blood .The skin gets nourishedwell showing the healthy complexion. With the saturation of impure blood as in CO toxicity thecolor of skiq nails become bluish. This is an example of suffocation; the impaired function ofudanvayuatrrrahasthananditsgeneralizedeffectonskin. (Prof KalPana Sathe) In the context of udan va).u, the term varna should not be isolated from smriti. ^It is infact, the varnasmriti and not varna and smriti. Varnasmriti refers to the process of recall(r€calling the vocabulary that is required to frame a meaningful sentence during vak pravritti). pravrittiVama means vocabulary. Even prayatna and urja are to be read in association with vakin this context because the major function of udan vayu. is to produce speech. (KishorPatwardha n, Human Physiolo gt in Ay urveda 2005). (Dr Sangeeta Gehlot)2.21;Howcan we explain that varna and smriti come under the control of udan vata, whichis situated in uras? (RAV) srdft€ra, I (sr.d. z1* 20)=era sqft+s{ror{q qerTaq srrerrd l (srowea)S€rd-€r 5{: sriRafizerraqr @)Different opinion is offered by Sharangdhara ;t*, d*.} g}; (en. vei sr+t)- EqaT{, these verses inaiJate that udanavayu abides thoracic area. Since its field of function extendsAllto nose it acts from thoracic area to nasal area.Vama color of body is reflected on entire bodyati{d ad-rltil o.gfre-tq rq"f{d g;d er:M rEreb-+Irg efr serE+rsrffir ..... srqa}q Fq ..... 3n-dtr (a. E. artoz)H.." i, location of uian vay.u along with pranavayu. Heart is responsible for circulation of rasa rakta. Skin is provided with nourishment due to this circulation. Luster of skin is dependent on to mind- function of udan vayu. Smruti Memory is special function. This function is related u{q+-rcc-ai arei zqft t dsr+r:<I fueaei r (a- r& sora) ffit-"Jd;d;, tu+i a eFt{Eaqrmind is heart. Memory is connected with functions of Location of udan vayu is heart. Llocation of mind. Udan vayu therefore is responsible for memory (Dr. Nandini Dhargalkar) Smriti or memory power potentiates if one thing is repeatedly told. Udan vayu produces speech lvakpravriti;. fherefore smriti comes under the function of udan vayu. Again there may be some nervous connection from urah pradesh to the higher memory centqrs (Dr. B.N. Mishra) 5{: T€lrarqf€Tcr€l, ars+rarf]raieaiq r rr (e{g E* t ztsa) 84
  • 3rga{-d-6@ arci rrye, qelganruv sr+{q q?olq, srgelarerf z+ qfrq rrye I - €: erT.l/e7){+r$r erH +1 garafrrrFd 6-{ +dr gS t-{ft o-oh E r s<rd qrg qaqafr sSqTs-{e dr$ org E-r t-{ft EFr qrft +1 q-gfu I crrer rra{r rrxrcq *dr E F{ft *sqTer +i s.drn o-jr B r sdlEr drg d<t"T qr"ft 6t q-gfu + T{Ter 3.n s-d-siftrqge qft effu + t9Er # €fl, sJft,- {qft E-ii a.m€rff e1 3s-deeftE?TT TAff B,ffi #E, qr"ft + #d + qr*r srflfrf,q rrTarg€fi (it-s-d 6i+iE{) fr E s*{ dar*Een uti gk €"<f,dr &ffd trl ErsiTsr E r ftqqq-asr cFT ord uwr*rg^fr*6 B slE ;gTar "iTq oz* or 6-rd aa "-se B q-{-g + "ifud ara d 3Ftrd * *drgaq qftt;.q d s-.F-d o-{e o.l €Erd sETEr cr"?rT B adfu 34F, qo-tqrft b-qr fr*{ 6-tir qsar B r gc{ftTu "{ftrd EnTor tFT g-cr: rftgrq eB + frg s*z NRra ara6] T{ft o.ft qraJft H + ftu sEra arg-o"rffi sstn } -3€-iF | c-6a*- -Fr 3{:[e]cl s]z ara €eft d g* aq fr sgar B I sEl.J arg otsffi A + gq ara ftaq d ascn fu{dr B ffi gEf-gT-, -*qft, =rrd 5l-46Igeffio tnr€r<r- :l-qra qrg .* gqE fuqq srw o-si A ffi ff ta} fuaar B r (Prof. B. H. ShYamkuwar)Varna- as explained in answer No. 2.20Smriti - memorySmriti is sanskar-janya gyan. After the artha grahan by prana vayu the information is stored inthe brain (mastishka). This stored information is protected by srotoprinan of udan vayu. It alsomaintains intelligence (dhi), mental endurance (dhriti) by supplying stored knowledge to themind (manobodhan)..r{ftR-S=d{ef fuqEx-Filaa r (a. fr. ert)Aieal (yathartha) knowledge of subject (vishaya) is called smriti.zrdalraaa:mcqq r (q. eIT. 1 /4o)A clear understanding of principles of universe (trikalik gyan)zqft srfrft-qruetfu I (er,€. T1* 5/s7 3rsnrdcrT)Retention and remembering the past experience and describing them in present are also due toatma guna (dhi, dhriti) (Prof. Kalpana Sathe) Speech production is the main function of udan vayu. Due to initiation of udan vayu inthe body, up*aid movements of diaphragm and contraction of thoracic and abdominal musclestakes piace. The air present in the lungs by moving upward causes vibration in vocal cords oflarynx and sound is produced. But in production of different vowels and words along with larynxsome important structure also participate i.e. brain, palate, root of tongue, tongue, teeth, mouth,lips, nosi and thoracic region. Speech production is under control of two branches of vagus,rr*r viz inferior laryngeal and superior laryngeal nerves. Brocas area in the cerebral cortex isessential for initiation oi ,pe""h. Ua* vayu is fretpful in recall of vocabulary to understand theproper meaning of speech. Memory is a recall of past experiences. (Dr. Sangeeta Gehlot)Z.2?.What is the meaning of srotoprinan in case of udan vayu karya? (Ref: A.S. Su. 20) (Vd, Vaishali Veer) Srotoprinana means prinana of srotamsi. Rasadhatu mulasthan is hriday. Udana avasthitisthan is *u. Ruru-ramvahana is from hriday so all srotasprinana is possible to be under controlof udan. More details are described above (Pr. Nandini Dhargalkar) 85
  • Udanvayuproducesbala,andvama,whichinturncausessrotoprinanam. (Dr. B.N. Mishra) with srotoprinan by rasa (tarpan). Secondly udan vayu karma is to nourish dhi, dhriti sthan system is done by sensory and motor channelsthe integrati r" tru-ifr*j iunction of t.t"o"t into proper motor regions of the brain causes theThe channelled sonsory input (pran karma) system in ihe post synaptic neurons isdesired responses (udan karma). Second -"rr"rrg".required for the pro"o, or memory and to activate other motor functions like speaking singing G the post synaptic cell rnembrane is done by theetc. Opening of rp""in" ior, .huoolls through AMp or GMp to protect th. Jompot"nts of limbic networkd#:i$ll3u;;"il,;yiic sutr,"l Themainsitesofvata,pittaandkaphaarebasedonorigin.Theab^normalityofthese of doshasdoshas starts from ,h;;i Asit is described in sanchay avastha, the sites of sanchay "r. and prasar take place Doshas in prasar avasthaare their own sites. After sanchay, prakop (Su Su 24119)rernains in moving stage. They cause disease in the placgs wheie they get space of doshas is not necessafy at the same siteIt clarifies that for ih"-"urrrution of disease vitiatiorr In the same way vata dosha gets vitiated in its ownVata dosha remains activated due to prakop. not cause any symptoms related to pakvashya becausesite and reaches all over the body but does ;;;.ilil;rd;iu rruy,, causes uatruiosrra due to*ffi:ruHr?*rffi"n"nno khavaiguny" i, 2.23. It is quoted in Charak Samhita er}+ ee{er{ff frMEra-o-don urqtrr (q fr t ffi #Hd + frfewa t szso) vyan,chiefamongstfivefypesvatadosha,circulailsrasadhatuThisrasaiscirculatedin (without taking rest). Does this reference entire body at thE same time and incessantty indicate blood circulation 1Dr. Girdhar Thakre) n-s_m eng,, pfrffi_iifr ;G;-a--; Inthesamereference,followingc-ommentaryisgivenbyChakrapnidatta --qroTt ua"i a;-"EfE"dla*ft Eft; Rasa into consideration commentator wants to impress that ; pnivri.i*.rl*ld not take only fluids should be considered while reading about while reading this uers". titooa *a uri oiher in the verse describes the meanings of different words circulation of rasa. commentator further of verse. Thev are as follows: These are mentioned while reading meaning fr41q, 3trd"i qr€?t u,-d e*zr *ffii$fr"ffi #--t+".ft66iq* T{aft zrftnraqtp.-uuni {rd-d €fr €dtuq #frffii -"^"*J, #*a* t6enai ^g"*Rft is known as pumping in appropriate manner Entity, which executes function or p,rrt irg and vikshepochitakarma. This is n nction oi.,oi*. this circulation ii accomplished in entire body, ;ilJiil""usly flown ceaselessly, all the time all the way (Dr. Nandini Dhargalkar) r @. H 15236 qs qoqrFr) elaft "-g-5*8If$:,ffi-dr{-€-ffftq-{fr-E-aqrgE-aaa4efersrffiG-drortT6"t so obviously this reference denotes blood circulation patel) (Dr. Sandhya 86
  • Yes, the circulation of blood along with plasma and lymph (rasa dhatu) is carried out byvyan vayu to entire body at a time ceaselessly without taking rest. (Dr. B.N. Mishra) erse fr d-d s-dr$ €rrg+ zgr, ?cffi s+{ s€6 ffi q+-qa i srr6r{€{ m-er Bt-e-ftft Tei etrerrgoara, fa ofErsrffi r s-enri q-6ui er_dfr I (q. fu. r szs oa-oqroft E-.Ft-) q-e6 dq Ei -ffi,- dw.ET 3fu rnsrcrrg znBu r sezr Trg iiTc,T q-Eqrdr B,Ts{elrg +sur q-dqldr B 3fu qrurdrg €qrdr B r * dldT -E6 z+rai nra-o-sqqrFd *A B r dq,rr q-€ffi + "-cffi tff a-Faq-ffi E rd .ffi B r a+qerrgai qEgFd{E aodqr (a. f.r szas)"{dsr circualtion: Movement in a regular or circular course.This is s+aft errgsil d * {q-d €rrg # + .Fr*sr aerr s+aft €rrgsfr +} tilwoicr q-ggr}zrr rnrirr E -{e + EFrsq gS z-seia-aa ara Eqr B r (zia-ga, -- tr{qq) According to modern science blood consists of 52o/o to 620/o plasma and 38o/o to 48Yoblood cell (RBCs, WBCs, platelets). Mostly plasma contains water, protein, hormone, lipid etc.so we can say that plasma means udak and rasa dhatu ahd blood cells means raktadhatu. _ a$dera d sb-qr fr Tftr€rrg; €rs qer # a sngFo ernry frgd os zrqfiera zF-64 E I qra drg urffR €cr # zstu E eTts Jg;;ia-Fa 6??rT er8-rBrq eezrn qr+ cz+sffisa r (g. fr. t r t t ,t a) eftff€r erS{ fr r*rcr6 Tff t qa 6a+ s*c e-flH *&dr B I €{EI silre ddtq * rErt-m Ei ztlqrffiEafrdt fr +-6-dr :B i 6-o ""i?ia-66r "T{qrfrffiErr ErGrttrcerT fr ui€Rra s*{ ftro-{ftd dar sgar B r "t"J-urua"dq ftro-s+ft iqaeq ffi r (g. err. +riz1 ?tTrre!-r: €Tq erotffid-a fu6-r{{ Gb?rrT T6-n B s*s tfi a 6-{a rT{q-q ei qrfi Br ee "i6tq =q"tftff eratrreil fr fterft-Eenq-oe €ffia)d cercio;ero + frs er6r€r-F B r era-org freffira 6-d- -nr g"T **"1g * errdr Bfrfrq 3fdd rrr€-i o-d :r-eq frNfM *d qr+a r (aovrFr +6r)srerfE TE{ d gfd rrrrT, 6aiz+}eft Eff eTfu, #"tF-ff eraFr$ftt frerfte<rrtro-ar -rerr qpf fr ffi "i6-tq qerrg + ar{*q urr a A-4r + ftq-*et (o-rtB+ro 1{r*6-d) 6-{A z-s{qfrarflItr E-srq-{ oq * +dr B sfu gd rrqs qr+qrg6r qelqr 3iYE 3Tq-eler E@-dr *rn B r srt er$c fr s+rrrsarar Ersr +qq E6-€il?T q-da-dr E r 6e-+ S <errr slE qraarrar t ft}w E@-€nq z-m d qrd{ #ot B r e+ * q-5iffi fr, aarerryff t.E-€ 3rar eTTaIr qeTr*n3il fr slg srtr * srEiw *Rrors* # aar qrar B3*{ +1s 61 +.qr ft-d ErTrrr B r grrqq tr*q qs qrg 6? Er€hdr B fuT "-{r{ffisfb-6l" *q erm erSs e) sfu era-arg E+lt erfts fr qgar E I =rra-qrg rg+ d sqr,;ft* aen a€q fr elq-dr B r sErzi*aq q-dF-{"r fr srrqy } 1 e+ erqrFfsraztaraeq srgdrfrelq"rrgerrqds ersi aqerc,-effi {g$m,q-a-riara-o-ffiarefuryr$<i eftr (g. z1 14/t6 s€r86r)erqqfuararor * er< d a"A r{rqe qrfr ? r s{ftfiiltr qfraraur * 3{Fa d Gorar efta{ifr 3rrE zdt s*{ t-lrqFarar +dr B s}z ua+iaraaq qRaj-ffr * d-ir a=f a+s-drFd Aqt B 1aq1 ff+ - 6t s*s z-s+qPdrqr a}dr B r g*+ qcFrt s{HzlaraeE +1 q-a-+H -eqfde1a, er< erar,oTqq zeziqsa 61 effi-q5 w$dera sTtr"-*l-+ie-Fdq-a*ara-,eq +} Ra-d o-a ;r+-} B r srqsi ** ftftrq* ar.Tc"TGr r+r efiil€r er"$-s *, efirr&T srqqd fr .qfralfta "-s-{i-f,6q*dr B r ss{qFdr-aq .n.r q-€iltrd *q-T qFlieTT, qTgrarg q-dqrdr B shs errflrr6-q-qa-d +1 6N A +6-{ e}eqxeorr+rfr e<ri qrsg *6-dr:Er-6R z-g+, fr:srfr, rrar g.rEr zrda, IRrrrflr, €<-{i qrfr, daTrr @ergffir: Rrsr r (*m+ifrlar) 87
  • a}-d-*iG-dr fr o-ar B +t 6r+ t se{ ilt erSE fr iarar B s*l ga F -* q* 6ea frsrrar Er gE+ ?rg5 + 6rei srrfftra ilg t-gdT B ffi 6dr zD-6 zr-6-a e of "-€-{ia-6di qs ereS&era or dq *ar EI (Prof. B. H. ShYamkuwar)dr* €R fte-dq Iqt"affi a-arwqj rt (sr.€. z1r zu o)Ashraya s.than of vYan vaYu is t riiuy and its sanchar is all over the body. Vyan vayu is spreadeverywhere.zraf g qr(a €ITa: IRasa dhatuvaha srotomula is hriday and rasavahini. The function of rasa dhatu is prinan andposhana to each and every organ.The svarup of rasa is drava dhatu, which can easily beiirculated by the vikshepana karma of vyan. Rasa paribhramana is in circular manner.qnqfu{g ae-aq - t, AJcordingio modern science blood is circulated in same way as that of rasa in Ayurveda.Compostion of blood is blood cells and plasma. Cells are the solid part and are red in color. Theyare ernbedded in plasma, which is slightly yellowish in color, which resembles rasadhatu. Thisliquid part is circulated because of its {ow i.e. sara guna.+r *n*tn-*-ru d-.nuTi aJ-doi a{aft- | (g. eTT. z t r a)This flow is due to. force generated at heart (SA node). The blood is ejected with the samepressure andpropogated ttrrough vessels all over the body at the same time This is-exactly,l*it* to the vikshepana karma of vyan described by Charak in Chikitsasthan fifteenth adhyaya. (Prof KalPana Sathe) Vyan vayu circulates rasadhatu in entire body at a time ceaselessly without taking rest.chakrapani (on b. Chi. 15/36) has explained that the term rasa is used for all circulating fluids inthe body inciuding blood. Vijayarakshita (on Mdhavanidan 3314) used the term rakta rasa. Thecirculation of blood from heart to all body parts is the function of vyan vayu. Rasa and raktareside in heart. Vyan vayu has vikshepana function. Blood vessels (sira and dhamni) arise fromit. tt"urt. Sira cany Utooa to all parts, provide nutrition and return to heart through blood vesselin a closed circuii (Bhela Samhita SutrastharV2). Pumping activity of heart persists throughoutthe life due to: vyan vayu. The role of nervous system is important in blood circulationSympathetic stimulation produces peripheral vasoconstriction, increases peripheral resistance -parasympatheticand increase cardiac output while stimulation decreases cardiac output andblood pressure. In Nadi Gyutr it has ilso been mentioned that the heart keeps on contracting andrelaxing continuously and repeatedly which signifies the autorhythmicity of heart. (Dr Sangeeta Gehlot) 2.24.q.€ qra s aeflr fr mred en-€€rrn err qsftT Fraar Br q*eiqr tg.Tt rsrt+) ^ qB-ffirB q-6i E*A g|-€|q{-s e m frF"it siirr frelq fr qR orao-g tii fue}q q fr EE_erdr*a q-s eft am e r- aq-r qs Flq-d{ 3{q-d:r ftr€id era sid:r gk _{.q-€ aft arg *"n qrd drg 61 o*d sE+ zfasq B z "n+e (Dr Nidhi Khurana) In this referene, Dalhana, commentator of Sushrut Samhita explains the meaning of karshya as mamsakshaya. ored aizrerq r @-eur) 88
  • In this case entire vayu is described hence it should be understood that vitiated vayu leading tomamsakshaya of hriday is likely to hamper rasasamvahana (Dr. Nandini Dhargalkar) Vak parushya and other features described in Sushrut occur due to general vata vriddhi,they do not indicate involvement of any specific type of vata. Considering the general featuresone should hot infer the features occurring due to specific type of vata. Since the question isasked about vyan refer to the following verse related to its general function and then whathappens when it is vitiated (vriddha) in a localized part. It is exactly opposite (swelling) ratherthan the anticipation of local wasting.td qdft wd g alTa: el}qDTF[d-urra rffi:sqTn(q.8. zars)a-i{daf e-Eg: ft{rrqrfrse€dn"aq I (ar.6. B. r azso) steftHrr (sr.6. B. ttrzt)eE{dr El-fl qBfrrsr,-qr€rrfusr, I qrg fr6-t-fi-o.rrilq odan:rq qE Ergr o-da1arffier €efqr ----r fu-+anrgRlE"I? cT6 q aiu+ q ds-fii*, * zierq,-snsr$,El-{€f cfifi | qr* ftra-r-mo.B:, oeiarfr I 3r.r tro uitEi-s-fi-trrcffi Rto-qF,fr+zrFeqaHs ?riFclat, sdaqr (sr.6. F. t3/21 rrE sro-urei6r) (Dr. Sandhya Patel) Vyan vayu travels in entire body simultaneously. Therefore it may produce emaciationwhen it is provacated (vruddhi) (Dr. B.N. Mishra) qra gk d zrranq aerq ; erSz aff E eTETT anr q"Fa B r €16 T{aft q-6T{ dora ei ek # arg frdr ts | an.r org of gk S qs qsfu zu+ ara-tn Baenfr g€-d 3{rereelEn-.rT i srf-€r6 T€ +e rrs E er?rr 3idl@r d rr+-ft B"ia-6d r dra qrg tnr g-er 6rd Ter zia-f,a # + T{Te[ fr zlrer g:r-61 6-rd z+aftlr€Frg t srr$e-a ad q€T{sr EF"-TT eft B r an-gzia u"i q-€rr{sr a+Tc,r aftaera +trqr{r 6trr B r 3rir: fut+ sirr * qrd qrg 61 gk ffi B sE{ siu ftelrv fr s{rei-{6q E-6+ + €rer q{rq g.erEff aiT{ teffi fr 3rr€"ia E=i lrercq aft qa qr+rn IEq sb-qr fr 3-€et crrfl * wr<r sqf qef ffi I "tr qrd drg q,t gk qdqrffi ril sdgda lr+trwr aft qar Err+rn aerr serd e-qf 6t gqa aft qd qrffi + qeqr{ rafu-d us FRqq qrg + qa.+ + qeer{ &ft T€r fr.gfri, dS A qrffi r g{lzrr EFrtq F6 B "ftffr I "i-d-ir-d i) ana qrg d gk *+ q{ Trr "ia-{d * qar B afu-d rr+ qrg +t gk + ftrss{TEeq6 rrrEelcn 3{T6rz gd qrg;d deIT qro-slFa qrcTr{ errqeqF B r {Et "-trrFdqra otg -ff gk dr* q-s srrgda g1g{rzsr qa crri d Ert(Ir 3u{f 4bf aiar qa qrftBr *fua srft srgura fr zE+ errg d gk a A qre d er$-c d gierar sara ffiIz) q;erar .Fr g.F si-{ ffi6 cnrtq B r qra org +1 gfu ffi w 6ry-rft qa qrftB + fu o-rFqro srrsegecarft B r dfu-a uo zfi-ar i sTf-ero eqq of arft qai qreft m-rFqro 3rrsdge e-d+ cror.rr B r 3rel: T+I aft zn:r A qr+drn r (FrankStarling Law) "id-Fd3) ara qrq d siur fretq fr qG d 6re tr{ s{r siar fte}q fr rs+ gk +* gu aftora t Eer gur Eff srf-ero-ar d qre * s-c{ d g;erdr 3roa ffi r 3r.r: @FoT qrgd sr.qfEr6 gk * aft g;erar 3ro@I ffi B I (Prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar) 89
  • fred @ra qrg zb-drizd.T{rd-sd+@t .rorzs)ffi EkrcTr,rr (sr. zi. B.e-Ein-+ar Berqq€ftIet: | (g-<)ored aiz+qrq, I orw-d ewt-d er8t sl-trdaaq 3pry6qrfr: I (scAw g. zl t s tt +)qrd qrg 6r {€rra W erfts tsr erolur-fr Tcr Tg-ercr frra---d=*- Tg F frg1* +i e r qrstur"rd crrcr T6r €ftrd +.Tr B A- ffi E@ ?er fr, srerfar A qz eIT*"f- fr ei6 err frfir, T-.g, aiT{ trrdfq osdr B r ser z€-rFd "idq;zffiq d qrrq gs-rfd-ga a EB d -orsoj rrf{rozoT, g.a1?Tt, a*zo, gd[gk fr "1 "{6f-q 1jai1** A-f* d-62 €eI?rT M-r ffi B I 3IiI: qra gk -or frrsia qra -aft-"t aqfdTB3- qetoo] @T-T, 3TEIT-[, 3qrd, €iFII-rfr F{-{r A drd n?{, a.t q€tTEITcT, srFa, s+erfurqra 3lzretzr -uP ti}* Jarg, t zerra 6-d f]ra-(trq.6^ qrttl, i uoJ oa =,q B r qra-cnaroeftq 3{€qrq d a-z-o * qra-urd uu-*-A gu rie-eia€. qrE u;qrcrr, @T;T, s{Erra, zrt 3{TI+IT o-ar E I qrd grg_ +- E rS d 1iwf er$r =;<Ta, "Ta-rd aft s-ed*r B r q6 ters ftr{I, targ, aF:+ ;n€"4 s,B="nfr tersfi 6rE-.rft-* g-gt g€ E r crr-r qA e*e * nd siar q-€iail d + eftafr|Err€Atft B gk Fery gw }ers ^-=_= r3rir: qrd qrg # gk fr cr€rur ftrs€ tlu r qq 5gqa& qt eft agdr s*{ a€r.Ti t orgor €eI?TT 3t.ra ffi B r (Prof. Kalpana Sathe) Krishta is caused due to vata vriddhi because main quality of vata is laghu which causeskrishta. The main function of vyan vayu is circulation of rasa. If vyan vayu is disturbed thenblood circulation will be disturbed leading to cardiac overload. Cardiac output and peripheralresistance will be increased. (Dr. Sangeeta Gehlot)2.25. fu-ga-d-s fro-{n T{r€[ g tnrbrsq-uT: I ftai aiers E-d-d ffd: dq€ *6rT: I I Frrfug ter61ar+er;tr d6t: ffftq E?Tqr (a. fr- 15/14-1-e)g.ir 3Trpjlrr tIT €t errg trr aq tntb aeIT Ttr €Trg tnr a-a - fua- B r 9 €rrgtrel#-n- Aq-rrq ow-fuea * +* ftrd B ? grft lre,rc qra *q eft ffi errg 6raaBzqRafrB,ddz (Dr. AnuPam Sharma)Utpatti of kapha has to be considered. In prakrit sthiti it is generated by panchamahabhuta infetal condition, which responsible for seven types of prakriti , which never changes as doshastatus remains constant in this status.;; Afr<1g, Eften Errirrd€r: rrr€trr t.€Edr"q r ?T5t qr€ar: u+qfterrerr gq-tegrp" erffir, A erSzqrt-nq^€rrgridr: I Aqt-clrdi F{€drar{ ftqaf,ar I€ffi, sq5trr<-afu r zrffi q tB dECfu a1rIaQT: r (sr.ei. en. 8. +)In vaikruta sthiti it is generbted as aharmala, which happenes in intra-uterine life.+€dlz-g aralffia+FT,gd-Jq 3{T6rT{-q arar: -g ;da gano# e-+arEk a ria*ift r (sr.zi. QIT. 8.5) + D-€dl I gEqrwr Extra-uterine life it is poshanaswarupi utpatti. qzrrEfrnq} srr-qd qrorffier#l ararlsalffiro-ar ffi Functioiring kapha dosha in human is merging of prakrua with vaikruta. 90
  • Dosha kapha in living human: prakrit kapha * vaikruta kaphaT€-ag srdffi(sr.zi. err. s.s) r fr orarftq*q @ tdq srgqu-ofu qyofta a rKapha poshana is done in avasthapka and in dhatuposhana.er:edq"nad sier 3{Tdrrrrct: -- efrar"i EeNrr u-a-e-ftfr -- r(&enr, a. E. I s)fuqd Ter€r g 6dIn both these conditions it is nourished from kitta. sE+: fu q aarsafb+ErfftrB--d-dftI {+d-€gffq qrafuae*anrr ---- | (q. ?l zer+)All these references lead to the understanding of nourishing various attributes of dosha at varioustimes.Malaswarupi dosha is prakupita shleshma?T5r ffc,ra*Tr e ----u-gftET: q drdftde*anor, ---t (a. eTT. 6/17)Is vata dosha mala of any dhatu? If not, why?Vata dosha is aharmala. Dhatu are nourished from ahar. It is generated before any dhatu isnourished as it is vital for all movements, conveyance of aharrasa to dhatuvaha srotas. (Dr. Nandini Dhargalkar) Kapha and pitta are derived from rasa dhatu and rakta dhatu simultaneously. These areknown as dhatu mala, which are produced from ahar rasa, but the tridosha are originated frompanchamahabhut. Thus they differ. Vata is not the dhatu mala of any dhatu because of itamurtatva (shapelessness) (Dr. B.N. Mishra)goeiFnruieffir qi erHrq sm-d: u-qftroi,ila ?14 1 (g eTT. +to+)qst q{ rlq * qr< d dq q-6u *} B cr6 urqa * +a tsderrq *fu<rg ftrEften Errirrq€l: Irre-dr: *qarea r aT q-rQcn, z+wfrerrrrr, U-q*Fgapr: er$to-q;aTra: Ii erftrerrwrrerrgriFn: Asruqtof f{€-diar d-qa{fldi g{ff, e=;trr<-ak r a-dqfr qaB zrfufrfig lr€dr s-w*;r qq*q, r?-€-dr{g _ ararf4fD+h: E?f€Il-6r{ TE{rer+a{Td: qr€+E ffi a orarFoe}aTdq-dn"r{k eTe+rrr{+gdJ-dGf, gwvfua r I frl-€ errqd 6-6* B fu qr-diR Aq A qerr{ + ts-srafq qr€d a*r i-qagd-S qr€-d qrdrE +rkt q-tnrc * e-€ft + EFrgq 6Frcb-r erffi b 3rod o-.efr -E r r@1fu qrdrR erSs 6r errs.r 6TA B r Etlft{s g-d-d qrg arfl A 6-dA E r *q arat 6a q€-dr& q€d gs qraft Ebr *-s qrqd qrilfa EFrtq *h B r sa-d ?_€-ddrdrR + E-sfr { ry="rrzl-d g-oar fr qMa 3{r Hra E r Sfua g-sq A vledEn-drR d T{-sfr d qffiq afr s{rrrr B r Tcrr t .rearE d qrarft 3iro@r *} B=-+ fu€-d o-a* B r ix-dfr z+aft a-gd fr qr€d 3tcp€rT fr z+aft qrar6 dq qg-eqcffi E, aerr6- g.a q-& gu d-f,rR N 261 sTf-€ro-trr ffi B I gi{ft dq * trgqfrt s-€ft 6-& qrft t slr d +€d B a araf * ffi gu 3{T6rE sc{ * aa-* "-dAsida dft B r Fgrfu+ trqrd-rr # + 6rer * sa qr€d qrdrE # fr Frra-+q d qr* tsrs*r t *qa qrdrR qr€d drdrE d ?rrer ft-d-6" Er6 E-q A+ q{ cnrcT snft +rFrsq s{rqA zqranfuo lrdrur # Td6-{ er$-e 61 3q.Fr{ rb-{A B, sfu 616 snR *cFr{q 6rcE? srerErr o-a do-E ersz6] gfud o-sft B r sq-*crir d 3rgr{rc e-qft-{q dq s*z tqftrer dq rro E.cr o} rr$ El "icafgtrfiT *w.rr 3{cr€€rr qrzn fr sffEd N + Eirur A-dr E r g{T6r g5d ttEratm q* fr srrqr B I "ieafstfr<oer m-r6-, ft"d- fr(oer, qqd ga t 9T
  • sr-+oM ft:Trr{ 3{TEt-{: qftej5}arr (9. Tt +atszz) efq-d + 3q{T6rT s{fu{d€r 31161-g=q#r E#, srrars t erdala- # q{ trd olfud ar1 sfu e{ff II.FrE qro d qr} rrc TGr dE "fl? "Ff, fr wrar B A 1ga-so qebr{ S -="t Bt a-a N frt sc-d errg uftw+a d ffi Br a-a E-F"; zqe fu-qr Bi I?T5116rg q-{{rqrd sg{: frFqfu a-ars-ala+Grffi rHffiH*S*q*"#)-**ffi . - 1 EI€s z-{I q{rr<-{ia6 sEr sfu z. da vr fu-g a{rar - ?*< 4.T, g$q qra, fua s*z ow snR rgr{r-d@ €flgdi qrorffierda, r (a. E.t sle)G"fr + o-+rr€ A Ir.Fr+ d qftrra fr Er *; t 2. fu1e 1. -fu--dd fu-Cd €atr ftffi sc{ d T€r €rrd * -+ "zracr om sfu Tffi errg AB fu 3{rart qrcrer Hfifur 3rgr{ru 6fl z16 o-a wet+ qB-qI1yar .Rr 3-q-*ffi -*d ni.rn;1 p1tr- +q5q arrr, fta efu dw s*{ err-g-rrd qraaqB-qr fr BF+d arc4aq ftrddslrs 6s i srdrr 3Tcri[ di B -ac{ r .tg fu=ft G <il a-S B, s€zFr zqfuzur FF qerrt A *nn r arg d 2 art d-drn Tr+ E I qene*4trz+ffi r(1 + tTtz)spiqrd qrdr {d a-cr fr qrq a-S +dr B r sradfr€r-tt _srafq d Er.F T€rlorcr{ "rofu fuaeAqaq sr{€Icr a{qrd ?Bir, gS o-g sro-} B==- -fi 3 1q6ii a-a Ea{Tdq eft so-} E uz-3rdqTrr rsrtrdfr€rdtrfl gfr o-g rsrsE* e-qa-a5-af i r ftdr;fr frreg.rqaq "-+mgd ttd a I sifrrf,ffiqr.ri +tntarzrge-{tq (g. ft. r rt-e) er6r * .totq Gi rr6-d a-S B I ar-T 3rdlcrr # A ftrd s-€-S aeroil11, -rg1- ;1 3S "r*# ,rT T{.F"TT E r s--{ft rr{6 clrd Tf€* B I aa weitE-q qr{q B I *g 5 ;-*r "rfi-gt-dT zr+-ar E r ger T6r" srqf 3taofrerd, 3rdrlff s*z zleu=11 dorsr ara "di €rrg 6T a-a a-S d e-tnar# ffi I (Prof. B. H. ShYamkuwar)qrgsr-dfra-d-6-ggr {smftro-d Ed-q{ Iqra-erft s{frd asq Erffi ll qrdrR N d sdfu z.ri, g"T Eti F d or eiBar dei d f}ra ed qr f}r€frrq-{il * A+.- A-e A 3rrgtre" S Ersrf*S +} ztara 6t n B I 5gr "iarqH fuar trrafrfua €{d qs- fre}q tqra t I - ti a hqr Elr-Ir6eI: qr€-an*€-<rrq "t*it soTer sr=ar*qftrT qr "{qdirru B I; o*E" *" gF.nF* + zffirr * * fr araf =d Hr- dA erer$r 16r EY elrer -urryq e-€fr cnq fu +s:G ?ia a ";"fu arar * T€ ?trr affu-.Fr p-A Er srrm;" e{ org s+E-qa sad -TETBr + *€- *q erSs.un gfu # q?arE zrT ,ral + qearq =A* . aqaala tst zz+ + acr*raEr;j ;--- -r+ s{rd*- dRT -3T16Tz #-ba B r + A€-d *q srrdrE, =EE, @ *et,sfu sreil efr qerlr A gE- eITqq"r -ora "{F t qrsr it"-uot *f st* *.a E r T<-{i (fud A} B qS" Aq 6rd 6-{A + qeqrE en tr --t-A + r B fr} Yea1q trr*"*i p-€ A* =iar a B I -€fud ;d;-+b=o. .ra=-; -16= fr64+ B a-o =l.€ a-a o-er qnn tsr o-s& or smE-e daq sr€T u.ftd }6or Aq il& B efr6 3rdEF _d3q, T{rEr6 S"q ezi i e+rarq o.rd -a$ cTTrb-{ er fr6ryrr ;d 6"a"rear # * #a o-sr B r ge{ qrq- +-sa-orar u- fufi errg or a-a afi d zrenar I E-rga-d d-"-t B ffi s-e-q d]a a =*t6 + 4drer efrd{q 5fl6r *dr * r sTrae€Tfld qttl aq erss d s€{r6 Osar B r =rd[6r (Prof. KalPana Sathe) 92
  • These dhatu mala are malarupi kapha and pitta. Vata is not the mala of any dhatu,however vata utpatti takes place in katu avasthapak. (Dr. Sangeeta Gehlot) PITTA DOSHA2.26. qso i fum + gr fr fua or T€T 3fin;r qarqr qr€-.T B I ssi d}€si q ed srrei tr* ogl (q. q t /60) E#qig gg-d i fu<aq fua or r{r srrcr qarerr B r frRi ?fte.i rE E.fr *Ei ffri a*q q r ssi qF-si +o fu<-dei qrm*o qrr (g.q, zrrtr)* fud or qr€-a r*r 3fiFr gsrr qr ft-eoer prucil g3Tr ? "-tr (Dr. Nidhi Khurana)Following referenes clearly answer this question.s"+6€"t ffei q. c--rffEi e-{ 69 Iffid-g+, fud E+rrE rrerrqft r i (a. 11 1 /60)gyr?r+a i.5 erffiar ztrfffucrroqarrqr T{-d E-a- r1-6-q} I ---- 3r€o-€r?TT *dftrac;ffi, 3rdr.rr: qdrt-drcETq fud-rq, gga g oEaTAq ffifrq, s:rc,r.rr qfr<oersq ftra-Smr r LrcI zr-*iM ffitr-{q arft=d I Etratrqoeraa-mai q qdraart-c€rdTt1 ffiE, ffiafur-*i ardft r (ffo-r) =g$"efr..i ff€i cd qF dEi ff"i a*a q r3ui 6gz-€i *E fue-rei qrry*q arr (E.T& ztrt.r)fu€dei qrm*dft fue€qr++qqai ar-dfr ft-eoen-ffciga-a-r-+i arqft r(A-.Fr) (Dr. Nandini Dhargalkar) 3titR-{krr +6 ft-:)*+ 3r+q:€aruE€r€rq ftas; gga g En.gc-A-dftraTdffiq, 3rEr-IT q fu<aerzq I qgffii-"iAe.i qrc-iia" a r "(g. +- 3{. fua-r:fi-emr 21) gfrr Ed fum-cq drfttrt uiTar fta-"erarym# q "r-s+d-drtrlafuitrdTadrt-c€rdrq ftarE*cq-d-+8, gg* g ffi afut2;i arafr r (a.ze 1/60 qc q6qrFr) q{ g qardTlor{€r ft-<oqEqrrare{Tet-t: I 3rrarer+ra+flrq€r fraaqffirr (q. z1 t s/lo) 3rrcTalr-r.r gft ura-mwotra, r (q. z1 1slt o qs ao-qrFr). . Amla rasa is due to equal parts of ap and teja mahabhutas. This amla rasa is of prakrit pitta. Sushrut has considered it as katu only. o Even in Charaks view vidagdha (incompletely digested food that has been released from amashay) pitta has got amla rasa. o Hence it is quite obvious that prakrit pitta is amla because of equal amount of ap and teja mahabhutas (it is also katu, in addition to amle, according to Charak and only katu according to Sushrut). Vidagdha pitta is amla because it has been released from amashay after incomplete digestion of food. This pitta is called achchha pitta by Charak. (Dr. Sandhya Patel) gr*i swi ft€{Ji q Ed sr+d. ss zFE I (q. e& 1 / 6 o) SfiFrc-€rn +d ftrds.ffi, srqhil; ztar?er€rq fuds, gg* g 6grs-#4mtm+ 3rFkIT q fuEaqEq ftrm-rq}ffir I ergfti fuedrei ara# -- gA- EriTrs+6 ars+rafr fua-s gga}r<-{-{+ arEd I Edq q fuoenqryaai q 93
  • inaraar?E€r@rq ffio, ggA g ffigq ftrarfb+ffioto aFc[r{ti e{Eft r (e-ourFr &or u.z1 1/60) fta or r{T 3fiFr den EFg Eb-€tr arrlT B sfu gg-d e #d-d q; T{{ qarqr B r3fiFr r*T ft-eoer 3ftrs€rr + fud -Fr e-arqr B r fr"d rFT trr+6 g"T s.d-d qzuF aqarqr B, g5d fr dfr r gErGa-i grq, fta-oer g"r g.tir S erar fra srffi sc{ E"id srq ffi gq rrerra S orar fud 6E Ter rFT +dr B IqrErr5 fud + E-"fid fr qrda{e fr o-ar E, e-era-qEni rrr+-rftm-$urra-aeTRaq (er.e rf, 1 2) rtr-rcn Fa u-o cqEi t d-.r-r .Fr drrr o-r tar B ?il g-S arqa qrd sfidzigr grq ffi E r srFa qa *q sara E r frrd rfteui E-E qF *c,i d"i a*q q t swi 6gr"i +q fu<-d€i qrcr+E q r r (9. % 21 / 1 1) gdrff fud-rq ftffiFr ;rqaert i cefuara ftfti tfteun66 r ffe.iTrftilordffiaq r qft ftrea-orEer r dci T{rffr++errsr{ r ftd E"rdra?etrer{ r oEz-eiqtEft-{€i ftrdq I ft-qoei qrm-*}fr fMcrqza ga-t-6-{zi arEft,F+eoerntr=igw-m-r*i alEfteq qe*, F{€d€i ffift ffie}qtftraEs-tr (sew &or g. z1 zrrt t) fud + g"T cnr dufa g€ur + ftrffi seFrg + fuqr B r tfteor qI"T aTfia-,zrffienroq B r gft fua-aieft r d-d d"f errarr.rE€lr -FT aeror B r ftrd d"f Fsr-araEerrtnr cTeiur- E r .rg"ei uqft-{q fua ol E r wq fud Fd-<-d€r Brcr*arr fr A ril sra se+or *ar B r ga, qrfu 3l=re€r fr dS fu{r€rrcffi 3ftrs€rr * fud 3{Er t-{r q-T *drB I e-ei q-{ fuqa€r 3{cru€rr fr S qrar ftna tFI 3TFr srq{€rrqr6 of sgrtrar *€ag s-o-i E "?T - r fu<oer 3{crs€n A rrcFrr n zr-d-$ GTT T{6-ft B I tr-<F sr€d, ffiq fuqd r3ftrt€rrqr6 siaafa *a qrA fud Eft fu<oer 3ftrE€Ir ?=iftra am sru€rr* Ergq of B r€t{fuu +6 urqa o-a} q-{ unnr< a-S +dI rfreoer slrr{€IT - gr€dq{ g qanflEr{q frqoerEqrryi}lr-kt: r3{r?rerr@Tdt-dEq fraaqffi rr (q. E. I s/l o)ft-<as{-+fr qtrcrrcrcErc{r I 3fiFra{Terr gft GTTarrcr*roqdr I (a-+-wrFr A+l qetfl sra-sqrqr-6)q-{ra s{Tart 3rrarrerq * srri d s+{ d-6.} gu 3fusrdq-arE-*rr o) rlrkr +-6{ fueoer d il-IT B r Ezl+ sg+t qFr+tqr srffiTg{ frq-ffild A qrft Er ge{ 3rarcr r€r * orrur fud d g.k d qr& Brggdrgs{r{ 3ftr{qrqr6 -3;Fd-"er 6(6, ffi ftgaeJ,, rrad ga isrsffi ft:lrrr{ 3{16r{: qfrffirr (9. {1* +orszz) s-6+q_d€fa-depi uftrlreq@ra-sTErgdtr gfr r sTfrqd€r:agrr6ru:, ow qfteffi s{frerAq affief r fra{ fu<oe}s-data 3116T{: uft-geft rvod ga: ersF-oq-m 3116T{:, hst+r} Frafaz+rz *€e-+d qFaja}Fsef, r (9. Tt46/527 g€sr a-.Fr) gg-d * srd-{€rrqr6 6r faa stFrt * o"f frtqr ts | qera sr{+errqr6 fr srfudrer gzr€€IT fr T€re d]c.IT ag{ TeIT-TEF s{Tgrt tFtF zFTs€-{r oqrar B r eJEB om s}z age ss{ gsrg{rffr@ } r ffiq 3rr€erqT6 3ia-ufd3{rEF{ d sftG5qr 3rtr d 6-{ cr6 ft-a or g-&{q 6-sre * o.rsq *dr B r srrr z-{rE?i fud €ur e+rar61 B I g{{ qtFT{ 3rcr{qrsr-F fr ae qrafud fu srqserr lrr€d A B s*z srrol sE+3{:Fr qztr a"rr ggd H a arar B r atEF eft quFa eH €g_ir A f}rd ffi + .Frsur e-6i Ti*6 3i.q=q gsn B rqz-o * fr ef:rEE-sq * s+aft qg-<r d-d o1 qarqr E r e-ai qE urqa fua "Ie-{€rrd d-{A erffq sr*Eerrqroreiofu fu- frt qr€d fu<oer srtre€n tnT+ g"il rrr o"iaeran*er g"il fr 6-{+ * s-# d z-s+ futf, t d?rr+ B s*{ qa errtqftrq$d eft a-SEr (Prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar) 94
  • futa or ??{ qrfi d fuarra-:erra r d sra+gz oar B 3fu fuffrd r€rrd a rranq. ?I{ 2o/1t fr srff a=i oS o-sr Er gg-d # aa * ftrd or ffifim. z€r srpr.rr+ 6ruq 6g fr B sfu ft€rn€r.n t 6-rgtr fum or zs+ srm B r gq$ dtc i q{-6pri g5d + akr fr Fr$enarrE{ qd-d 6}dr B; .t-€ qE fud dq + 6rS cnr3{crE€Irguq freiqr fu-qr qrU * zqfu-sr fqr qr eIEDtIT B r fua * swr, ff€or, o.rstr +qe-d Ed-T+6 d qs ro {q + ad qa a-6rala t qrerrs * srm go1gm *ar B r fud +s a-6retd qqTa E-q B r 3ttrt?IT tfteorar 3Tflr6 ffi qz Fq +e-ilqor * (e-m ;;E-d-{) ftq" E€fttr 6} qnh -F??rr E, atr s-€-fr oE Ter .FTurqaTlq *dr Bt g{r# +q E"i drg d6rry.br qTerrar Br gga i g. T1* 42/r #fu.d o] ofl o-gr B r 3rir: fuitr tnT Ter q-€fr-{q ffiF6) carsn-d # rrz srrc,rg3n, gur 6g g3n 3}}{ 3116rg 6r ft-s-€ qro *t d a-qa A fuc{ qorg g-"q #s{iFTErr Frde * <-S fr ?"qrcd{ A-6-{ ft-qoerar B-d@ ffi B J{ft -rgg fud tsr:F-T Tc{ d o-rror 3{T6r{ g ft-{oerar 3rc-a ffi B I 3{T6rs pf a-a d zrzonef srmF gor gqeM c}# eff Bfuq sr+serrs* # urqa fum aft +g 3rcrrdzp o-ar B rffi srcq ?1tF-€r-IrEr 3ruEr +dr B r erre-.d€ru fr ft-d 6r r€r og ft-m o-arEr fua, Gt[, F4osr-, srtr # t sre]itr frar "iftdr dg # * tfteq E€T 3iETcr Br +3tFro"q (s+f-ero Bwr) *dI B r seT. sra-srF-a srEriIT s{Fro d-a} o= ftqa€rdr grui=rffi E r sqr. Forsrtr * 3rud srff a-eqrfr +da A frcoerar frft Berfrorane-o-q) I sEtrrur a-an-gr{re -DE st-ff, ftr€re E@r, 3tET T+r, €rrtrfr * fudgk ffi Br ger$ {A Rr€ *dr E of sq-+ffi zE+ fr...r + frfe{d o.q Br agiap. fua errs uri 3rtr cb-6r B r fua r* m.eft s{Fa oq d oeft srFq * f}ra o-orB r fua fr srrar*er ud rqier + q;nRr6 q+rF r A s{r-reT.ffirgs.Er E.sr..rc d e-cn*crr$ 1 q-g z€rra pzi -n-g fBra-a A f}rd oq * fuar qren ia-rar B I trq.zft.tra., drffr,ffiio gE{, gzarua-a gE{, sre.ifrz-q eqr$4, du-€rfl€-{ 6r#a-{ snR fua+" fr ftf}rd o.q B I 3rFr: fua srm # q-{ aft z+rqrq 3rcrg€rr fr srfuqosr *ar B rz€Kr rrrror fr qqanEr s-.rE€rT d" srffi fud Eff sqfr€rfr fr 3{TErl ft-qoer *ar B rfrr.m ttdi +E fud d . qfqfr fr 3{rdrg + 6fu siefr tnl rr€ra *dr B s*sq?ETerg€n fr aw 3rof aa1 crt €IT 3rFd d aer ad ftrff # a 3{r6t{ T+T =;wrar i6r elqur *dr a I fiT{ u.ei srff fuftT A 3{t-6rg arcr rFT frrrrtur *dr ts r slff aq-a qErd fr aft uenHo frea s*E 3{Fa + Ersq Ebl nnd ffi"t€q (+drdn*flfl) frt frf}rd sr€€nsfr Em zr-d-fle # srrz+rff ffi r B-6rd uri fu.Ergqrod -aft srff, fu€ren-ff, frw="errff, gg+effi, u6uft, 3:rdr+I.F, gfr{*dl, t$tq,s+6, ftelqa, ag*5, efu, srs*fdRd snR *urr+Eens* +t e-ryrfu ad sryrk aiar6-{e + sqrgr r{i-$ r (Prof. Kalpana Sathe) Prakrita rasa of pitta is katu not amla. Charak has explained (Ch. Su. 1160) katu rasa ofpitta. Sushrut has also considered katu rasa of pitta in normal state. It becomes acidic inabnormal state (vidagdha avastha), which is known as amlapitta (hyperacidity). Sharangadharhas also followed the same concept i.e. katu in normal state and amla rasa in abnormal state (Sh.Pu.Kha. 5129). This acidic quality does not appear suddenly but it is already present innormalstate (C. Vi. 8/97). When pitta is increased due to its provoking factors then due to decrease inpH pitta becomes predominantly acidic. (Dr. Sangeeta Gehlot)2.27. ftea or frelq Eenq qro i silifiTerq ttar€rT B (q.rts 2ol8), wdfu ggd esrfiflTerq eft{ qffirerq d aeq (g. q. 21/s) erafq q€raTlaTer€r tretr qrdere A qrfB{** qrqr B r gs fbrq qa tnT tnre.tr wr B z (Dr. Amit Kumar Tanwar)zH d-{fi-crr oftre-an-anerq"q ftnn-eerrarF, a-qrtqrarer$ fre.}*v fuaneraq r @. "-{nT* zo re) 95
  • ereTTerq gft srrarerqr*firur, eir nlE 3TrfiTerer: €ft srrarrer*ede{rtr, r (&or)tower part of amashaya is near to nabhi.Aq-E€l-dnB 3{cr sed d€sf,rd{: I rT5t dTt[: silFrg<-tia-rr trgvft srd =TTfr:qzElTgTe[:, trererqaezi fud-5{, 3{TaITefe[3"r-flr$a +d-{qt {& ztta) (g.qu-.rereraeei fumzq ftrsf,tr g e-q"ffi56evqE | fu.f, "+e}*or,Nabhi is between pakwashaya and amashaya€ara*{Ei*fferfref,sia-qr, r (sr.g {& t rz)6arfB+er<raai a-gar+rafdrrleft aeq*arlarzranerq zd dtrr+l efErz zs{rEo- zvefd q ftazq, anf-anrq frelqa t t (qr"aro)Hence no big dispute is quoted by different compendiaOverall the site or location is below hriday, around nabhi, and pakwashaya in adho-amashaya. (Dr. Nandini Dhargalkar)There is no difference between Charaks and Sushruts or Vagbhats opinions, if we take modemphysiological view in consideration. First following references should be understood properly. ftnf,-{qr+g 3{TaTer€[ Efr 3Trflrerq 3Tfr+rrur,, edw-zertg sTE TTerersn-qrer*edaTTrT: r (q. z* 2o/a uz aourFr) q{ g rrar+il=t-t=q ft-<oergqrtrfiT-I?t: I s{rffreren@dflr.rn€r ft.naqffirr (4. q r szr o) r (sr.ei. z1* zorz) r (9. r.L 2 t / 1 o) qzrcnirreretffee-s€Tftfr arfdT{€rq3r5tr sgd edw+errarB I cr;r, 3{TaTerE[: fuarerilffi r (ge* ztttz) 6Tdr{ ortrrE fuarelffisra-a-ssffift r - a:q ftmsq s-d-ff6.qrquftweranq, ftrqaarReef, r ffiEi egar6,-s2ef,;lfh(qra +G-fi gft r ua*d-gFial-dft-qR E qreffi*i qrssarer* *aq aq setn-{€r sr@ Ersqsfto..i,-T?r€q Grq-e-ffisF-a erffio qBRft I rrtqelur fuarertffi 66rer€i ?ilerfudr,sq-arffi Eqrftr€-*qrft r qseffiaqi fuarerq-siMflrerei "Tr€rrx@T€f-qd TgftfTsrdrt-lqrerrs,;u-rnrevrgarffi a-gtrE-s-qrfiffi -3{THTT: {€naq r iu:=arE-qffi, qft qTer srrarer$ ar}a-cr a-gtr€rffrdrg d qaq, "Tl€rqranef,^rdfr a; iargffi-3rraFrrerer: fuarerq+Nift r (9. Td. 21 / 1 2 u-t se.r)T ower part of amashay is pitta-sthan according to Charak while Sushrut and Vagbhat havementioned the pitta sthan between amashay and pakvashay. The reason for locating pitta betweenamashay and pakvashay by Sushrut is very important. He has explained that if amashay is belowor by the side of pittashay the pitta would digest the body. This is very significant since if therelease of gastric chyme (which is highly acidic) is uncontrolled it will cause ulceration.Remember that the usual cause of peptic ulceration is an imbalance between the rate of secretionof gastric juice and the degree of protection afforded bV (l) the gastroduodenal mucosal barrierand(2) the neutralization of the gastric acid by dudeonal juice. o Mucus often contains moderate quantities of bicarbonate ions, which specifically neutralizes acids. o Cephalic phase: this occurs even before the food enters the stomach. This secretion accounts for - 20oh of gastric secretion associated with eating a meal. o Gastric phase: Entry of food ) secretion of gastric juice during several hours while the food remains in the stomach. It accounts for - 70Yo of total gastric secretion associated with eating. . Intestinal phase: the presence of food in the upper portion of small intestine, particularly in the duodenum, will continue to cause the stomach to secrete small amounts of gastric 96
  • juice, probably partly because of small amounts of gastrin that are released by the duodenal mucosa in response to distention or partly because of chemical stimuli of the same type as those that also stimulate the stomach gastrin mechanism The presence of acid, fat, protein. breakdown products, hyperosmotic or hypo-osmotic fluids, or any irritating factor in the upper small intestine causes the release of several intestinal hormones. One of these is secretin, which is especially important for control of pancreatic secretion. However, paradoxically secretin opposes stomach secretion. o Pancreatic juice contains bicarbonate ions and water in addition to enzymes. These bicarbonate ions neutralize the HCI emptied into duodenum from the stomach. o The enterogastric reflexes can be controlled by o Degree of distension of duodenum o Presence of any degree of irritation of the duodenal mucosa o The degree of acidity of duodenal chyme o The degree of osmolality of chyme o The presence of certain breakdown products in the chyme, especially of proteins and to a lesser extent offats. o (Textbook of Medicat Physiology, l0th Edi; by Guyton & Halt) o Thus when we understand both Charaks and Sushruts views without sticking to the literal meaning there is no difference between them. (Dr. Sandhya Patel)ffirqeq ftrd-{€rrarB, aqrqrarqrd fue)tr fuaEenaqt (q. T&zo ro) futr-{€rr+g €ft srrqrerqre}a{r<rr: | (aeasnFrra. q zota)zrttr + 3lgg-{rt fud -Fr Ee}q-sqra 3{rdrrerq B r g€ Eidei fr q;FqfDr qcrrgr{rs3{Tarerq o} A }Tru} # E&Tt-#d fu-.qr artrr B; sd srrflrenT +1 o.w 6.r s€fid d?nsr* srrarerq efr ft-a o.r rqrEr E;ar arrn B r arf}rEa-ara-i rrTe+{rdrerq gft q.r: I snRTd srffi d"i # qmr 1Mrr (a. ft. zrrz) qr6 + s{rffrerq tnr r€llEr ers{# ;rD{ q €# d d-q fr Eb-gr Er Gr6rsnRrd sr&d $-d d-6 Ea qr{ s-6T{ * srr6r$ 6r rrro *ar B r sq-}ftr +3g_{{rr qt-o * e-d g.Frt * srarS 6r qqd 3{T+r91q fr fr +cn B, er6 qrd "i<efEft B s*E TE-arffi* Efu * srrqrerq d ft€r-ff arf-ar s*r "qE + *q B er€r sft "TE*eqe *ar B r ffig sngFo er$s zqar +t €fu * ft-drr et{ i qE anfD+ 3fu Td-dil+ d-q d-6r*dq + F<-{ _(za-o) q6"ft (s--gs*Bd-d) ag sria (dd{ E-e";ertd), gE{* 3rc,ttclT gro-alTqrer, (ffi-irr) e-g;q (ff) 3{rE arror- srr* B r qro * .ffi 6tT€rrcr s*E frd q aTFa t deier d zq*e-sr tF-cA gg .Far B 2ft, sro-qrf*sr+a-qse- qe.ilq qa"ft qar r ar rr (q. 8. t srso) sTffi erEt frml-cruia, r (q. z* t ztr t) .srefE T6"ft sTFd trr 3{rsrq B s}c 16 sr+ gu 3{@ 6r zr-6ur 6-{ft B r rra u-6qftarflr + gqS a+rur fr B r sTFa sfu fud-* ziaier o..r rq66-{q oz} gg o-srE "-dft fu er$s # s{Fa ftaia-ola sa;or E I sqlm z+aft * erd 3frgarrd c,rrrr€rr rT zl-+-ar B fu qz-o i 3{Tarerereiar or sq-€fuI o-ct zr-ffq q6i 3r@T rnr rrErcr +dr B Er6 T{aft arrrt E* Tigfuo "ieefro.q d 3rrarerq o-ar B s*E gtft fus a-E5rfiFr e fucf, d frelq reflEr 3{Tarrerer rnrsq6o?q td saq sr€i srrflrer€r o] ftrd 6l ?€fl-a arcn B I # qr-o * fi+ 3rgs{rE q-d"ft dr6IT qr so-ar B r a-6uft (e-..gs}Ba-a) * fi s-€r€-dd "{q+f sre}3n4rrel-er 6.r afl"T (*d-{ qrd sffq" za-o) ErH-+ "rrer sia-dd srrar B "+Tf r 97
  • 3{TATQre[ er6 3{TA rFr {d u€r]Er E r €gftTs 3S 3{TaTT€rq cb-gr arqr B I €r5r3rrar 3{erfq qqETEr.ffi zlr 3{€fqcttr 3116r{ (e-6i ftr€Fft + €fu A 3Tr.fr etq a-S ft4-qrarff B) I g€ qra * er6 Eb-6r n E.F"IT B fu 3rraT?rq fr q*r d go.srra dft Bs*z rrmrerq (u-or rr-mra z-gar B) # snors qEIeT etrrlrd *ar B I 21T+6 geoi .ftei q e.i srati zrz ql (q. e* t rao) Itr{ g qar#TTor€[ ft<oergqrffi3{TElTil: ftrcaao sfr a r (a. fu.1 s/1 o) qro * furf, + {"fi -r d"fid 6-{a gg 3TFrro-{€Tr qrcn 3{TaTerq sidrfu o-Fr3 1 fua 3Tqffi 3rde€n #- erm (sftflBtr) T+IT.ucF *dI ts aelr qcrct 3tcr€€IT fr ss-orT€ 69 +f,r B r sngfto a-.Trgr{rr fuqru fu-qr qru * 3{raTerq (za-o) d Ttfud# dt-dr 3lF€SIdS-6 sYzfi-s 3fiFr B s*s 4-6uft ara zl-d TITa erEr: re ft-ffizg{r.ff6 da E, fldi sr-r EFt q=Ior Wf +dr B r gqlm +ieaf + 3rgr{r{ 6fr q-5o-a zro* E fu a-go * 3trarerq ?Fr ?€rrd o*ad gu srefr 3{Tarerq (d-d-{ qrd 3ifmzsqo), u-6uft GsiBaar) anrr ag sria (dd gtue€a) o..r aft e+rar fuqr arqr B r agq-dEn arfr qcmrelq: QZflEFITQrqaeri fuaEq I (9. {& z t t a) gg_.T * srgzrrt fua o-r gw @der) T€IloI qffirerer 3{rarQr€r aeq o-ar E r si6 fuaeru aErT eIT o-ar qffiftfar r g;tr fr g5d a ft-d .* ETTUr 6-{e qrfr €F."TT +} E-& ftaersr .FcTT "iqefo-ar E futl-o.r r€rror qorerq slg sfl-arerq aeq fr ft€r-d u--ft o-gr arqr B r sq-+ffi ffi fr d qa clrd rrrg A itrre E fu 4-6"ft 6) * fttn olfrelq z€rlot arar B r "i<fr arfDrErarerq, ff d-{ft6-r ofErz zg+ t €R=q-d.i a fuarq arf}rt-* ftqlsd: I I (sr.€. z1* r zrz)tlroajre i araft fr} futd or ftelq r€rra arar B I a-<rflrera-a-a-gq q2ro6q7ffi 3a61 ; fr€r-.Tr q€rerq 16r$ gzrTffrrTfuf&d r{tt (sr.€. eTT. szso,st) sq-+ffi t 3rgr{rs qr"are d gg-o d-drgr{r{ a-6uft 61 3{Fd or s{f$Eraarar B qei 3{a zFr ardq fu-qr qrar E -sfu iil6i fumertr tn"IT ftera B, fu{r6l "ieafT€ITEI * sed EirE + Jq{ Eb-dI arqr B q?Ffiarq r sngfro er$-s ra,n of Efu * *sr rnrs * arf-ar sroaqrerq (ffivrc+) 616-6ra E r -srafq arFr + ftB srrarerq rTcr g-dr d (sffia-a ffd-A) - d 3rdarrererftera Bl s*E ie+ drg # E q-gn En ft+H Br 3riralTerer + d-qf ".rrd^3{rdrgrrro fr gq-effi AA B r-3{16r{ or ziq"f qrercr s{a-qrerfto T{rd t fudr E* fr aqd e-rn-tn r gtft Fds s-S sfta or sngr-q srerfq 3rdarrerq Eb-drq-doft B * arfD{ + drerrsidft€rd B r s{Tqrerq d Gffilq & qrar ft-d aft afra-o.r erur fr zafod *dIBr d d sr6 ftna or a+ar Br ge+ vor+ z+aft srrqrs t ft,+ gs srFa d frelq zcrrd or R+a 6-{e +qr< er6 uqe *ar B fu z+aft srrqrd- i u-a"n 6) fr sret: ftrd .Fr frQre rqteraran e r (Prof. B. H. ShYamkuwar) N + frelq r€nd, s+d frelq o-d, fuors ati trfu-cq+r d eqra fr ro* guq5B E I E€ ass * fri6d +-g* qE qs+ snR t srrqrerqrR u+ ftta or frelq+erraed o-ar B gc{-6l .reET u{rffA srrdr B rr ) a-e+}-m irrffrerq- srafq srrarer€r t ardarrrr fr srffi ftrd qra-6 ftRf, + uq dga zff 3{Tar-r+eIT pti uaara 3TErE€rt o.r trrafor ozar B rz) e-aY srff fu.d s{rffrff ffi fu6lE 3rc@t dd B ril srd"r sr-ffifud fr aa-a Efu-e+r i srrsnqr*ila srerf-ero futa or elera frarBrgg*cffi 98
  • r ) qqara 3rdz€Jr fr u-6"ft srat{ qra=F ftrf, + cETERT FTd t ors.r qr+orFa t.,.rrfr oEfud (d ;@ B) EFr s{T6rz qqd Eft qcrcrrer€€n ud E-{rfi srrru€rTHfriq ozar B r z) eraY sr€fur srtrfud fud-d€rrff N fu6rt 3iro@r *ft E r s) frt+a * snqrf-ero 3ie@r o-g fua +r elera *ar B r d-rdal-a-tr arD+ erafq arfli snziaia d qri fud .Fr Ersq, Err, eru, ftso-gr B I -nfDr 3rreirid + ayg"X, er€d, srrarrerq q"Ererq snft srE-q* fr ftera fuea "-ir+cr 3{Fd crr aldut *dr B r 3fiIzrcr, srefcrm s{zru€rT * q@Tet-qz€T qr€-S ?T{ furf,3{ar zrzonef cnrg"Ta[d Br qaara afu rrircr st-r dfd"ft uzi qmrerq-fr {6?TT Brsrefqm qr gffi 3ftru€rr # srffi futr * srd fu€r.r +ar E sls +1er gafeft, ftq,zrzorefta, er€< 3{zrt€IT gTt?t ffi B sTerErT srftrE5 qE Tzr, .3No,rdr, terarErflt-r # "irfEfreer61r"ffi A-dr B I gg{ fud 6r trd-{a frr6;.€-+r * Bdr.r frtqr +qrar B I 5{{ ?r{6 3q-+ffi Z+aft SroEerrs* d ft-d + T€rrd c5r 3rErErr srEr.[ stc,rrrff6cd B t sra, frelq ?€Ira aiJqn-ffi qarqr B I =iEarorS i srq;ft €fu A sfiero qra.nrS d 2;q d (Prof. Kalpana Sathe) Doshas are present in entire body but the specific site of each dosha has been mentionedon the basis of predominance. Pitta is responsible for paka karma (chemical change). Maximumchemical changes take place between stomach and small intestine, which is the site of pachakapitta. Vagbhat has considered nabhi region as the site of pitta. (Dr. Sangeeta Gehlot)2-2a. wr fua fr gF-;r B a ffiftr3r) qtr ft-dr fr 3TFd B ?il gero * s{Fa * +ena, *E e ord or sftfus @rBa9 g3-d isrtr-d en qna*t fr oar B "sa-dq: rft _rsser sarFdea zrd€Trg aqa4ft;fl:, I qRfutf, uti tr6 E ?il q}rfr * sTftFffi sTFd zrrqar or ffier o-g* o.r ror:frfutq Bz (Dr. Rakesh Thamman)Charak Samhita quotes that agni is located in fluidly dosha called pitta. They always remaintogether.srffi er8t fuaira-ufla €fuins-€fudT, ga+ganB eb-$fr I dq Ererr qfri srqfri<efaq srEefd ar{rfirt@{ riFror: s-€ftftr€ftrildtr eN }T?i fr}€i 65f 31}6 q-{TrE.srq ftn-ar*i ffi ffit-or<s+ 3fid:s+Fagqqr*+ffr oeqlr (scur&+-r g. T1. 21)A) Then why agnisthan are mentioned different than pitta?Since pitta is dosha and agni is guna of pitta in form of ushma, they are mentioned differently.Location of dosha is decided with following points:B) In samadosha samagni why separate mentioned agni and pitta?Samadosha indicates perfect homeostatic condition of tridosha with each other. Samagniindicates ushma executing its function of pachan through dosha pitta. Therefore eparate mentionof samadosha and samagni is read. (Dr. Nandini Dhargalkar)qrqr;nreTengaqi qrg,r srrulei fta{r (ar.zi. z1 zorz) -T5t +E y-g aei ftazu dqailrnu-o.c+@.--:(sr.zi. eft1-6-{n"1-gi --- I 4 zo rz)qr&rErreT€rrgaqi qreJ, s{ratEi ftEqr (sr.zi. z1 zorz) 99
  • er5r q€TaTTerelEIcFnQTEl-ef€s-{€i da-fl-dralF-rd-6-asft - ad)-{ffi erftla-€i-d-{ui cTenFder€a"req -*t"*;#- ht--u€n-ttA a-*-zer}orgrfflrlfrfua-aai q-{fr a]?d@ frTGft" efqlftr ; (srzi z1 zott)a-gra6Aqqa, .r,-o.tou<ig TtrEq "G-frl3iu6{r d5raE*=";;:ft=;-Fq-asigTd@eTftrdz*d-{"i-__-l (er.d. z1 2o"/7 q-{-g€ A-6l) - of agni mahabhuta and recessiveness of soma ^r^^.^:. These references iearly denote dominance pitta and also due to digestive action of pachakguna (ala -utruUfr"i"ii" pin" For this reason types of and agni are considered same Other four(like proces, of .oJing Ly nr.lp{tl bacfraf<) svastha samavastha of dosha applies to all the threepitta are not called ** l; irr"-a"nrrition of agnis and notdoshas and not only pitta; similarly ,ama.astha of agni applies to all the thirteenonly jatharaeni n,2ffi1frir: r ga*aer- ftraftelq, qrE-cnzids6aftft -ffi 9ra r qen r (sr.ti.- en- o r z +-z s)aq@*a-s-+r -#afiaftftsla g"=_r*f: ffid rr@ffi"i-irrrfreffisaeerss @-frtlsq-ro-e.-ofrrera, ffi,r rrr 5€ €1-cr)egqffi-6i $;ireftr (srzi QTT 6/34-35 (put f6rth by others) This states that vagbhat has quoted the refined definition of agni of iosha, dhatu and mala is the agni that antah ushma producei due to sarrnipat lcorrgl,o*..utionj rag-icarana and other actions of other dhatu- does paak of the iJ i" the grahlni tvuEunut;, agnis. These frupp* simultanlo.trty urra iot in chionological order of action of grahaniagni rasadi that.anatru1i*u lthut include agni in and (Indu). In other words some acharyas believed otherdhatuagnis)isagni.Thusthereweretwoopinionsregardingagniandpittaanditappears that the issue was not resolved Also please refer to the reply no231 (Dr. SandhYa Patel) Pittaandagniarenotthesamething.Theyaredifferentfromeachother.Agniactswith entities. For the frmction of agni, pitta acts as a the help of piua. pitta and agni are two difflrent medium. (Dr. Kavita Indapurkar) 3iFa fud aYqI*< qt-o i qg wE o-a frrqr B d erftwer ftrd fr "31ftqt;1 q1$) ft6i6atd:" 666-T- s{F-d GIT"TT Td-5q a *o-s ftra s{F-a A qa-arR;.;; +r B-;tEfq er$-,rs.r*-- B r str* 66ffift va Efi c-d fr ftaa;i;ftd;; a .ro"i; "R= ft- - s*€ q-d i 3{Fd E?i ftrd fr srata .tm #i; G mt- .1 Err?r s-rn-a A *" eft <eri& 31 ft-a tti frdator q-€ slFaqeld *. =-o* ;]$| i*ftrla-; * eqw 3iltrrd toeft frae;qT ts erftz-s€r ffi fi "#--; A *. rft oq g1d A sr+6 Teq, z€na, ry u-d";d-a er$ss€r sqr*a ",6-a A =iHfA- frtft i- A fr d a;sft 3{crn.r* # J,n----q ;- -a"t a-ft r B r e-"f tud---srffi3.ff$ €n srrd+qier fr =#or q.tfer+; stft A q -rd sldb "dt E r t-- -B d erra got, 6-tr tFT 3TEreTT ?erTa, atd ;*-^adt *n-;;, €artra ;i Gder fu-qr BI sjtfus Br .srd, "<-{q qfta{rqr "ff- de o.+^zntr gUT, tF-d fr Graar qeir 6-s_6-s ftrd rfti s{Fa -, =o-"* ffi A "* ttd q? gS tu6 qrq-o.rF-a G ffi Br ai ";.;--:er+ s { orqttr-a frf# anra e f =+ g"il. ftE fu-qr qrs d rrranrFa, siaslFd, B A 3da 5€T s{trr+. 3wr *€or fua Fq, 3NT, ffq-r, aE., Ury"""gt ";;t-*--q 3ld-1y6 3wr ts r qragrp-a iilu-{ (e-raql ;"fq6k dg, uf€fl F, or-}ffi Ji.=r6-"H!qa;***t-# 3ia--qr B .il **rtr- *, =.{i 16r #-B; 100
  • qrd{rFa 6I fr ?iq"f erS{ # Bar gsn sier arpr B I areft srft-a EFT 3{Tsr€r<T-IT E1;6r sier qrs si6"ft sfu q-E arq B I ge+ rrs srrd-+q sier q;r sl-gqrd s-{rB gur 6-d6) F€fFir .F.??TT B r fua sFa urarror g"r&tfuE # * Fd +q * tteonF-d "nuffi Br qsg dtr gggra d-.6e * fud gk * aiqlFa ffi Br gsr+} errs d eftEfBrca g-{ra{sil * qqs fu-ff B I1 ) q-d fua errao sfiad€io E rz) srwruv, ar€r ftr--gkdr B q-€ gffi aS o-E} ra) fr-orz<< ftna rr+tqo B, uig srF-a erffa o-Ear E r 3rir: fuan erq <-.8€[ sErrrqr 3{Fd e} fr aerfar B r (Prof. Kalpana Sathe)2.2s. ftrd, g;qr 3+{ 3nFd rrr rErr Eroq E Z wr ffi at gqq san B rn ut.Fuq Ea (Dr. Rakesh Thamman)Pitta is dosha. It holds agni as an attribute.s{mq er$t fuaiaafa, €fudrs-€fud: lJanlJanF 6-}fr IUshma and agni can be taken as same.s{tr-qggrerffiflr oeqtr (s_er&or g. Tt 2t)Besides pachan pitta has many functions to execute.qsffi rrfus-ar a gqurR?idrdba Inerr qE{rd *en q-fusfrorzqqrr (q.l& i8)@ srFdffflq{ sr}a-rdr{t zor: frrtr: ftcri @rr (t3.en.z)"*BdEgqg-csAqarr*ensffei+dgdr& fu6q r (sr.6. z1 1 r )Agni or ushma is meant for pachan chiefly.ft*fut @ ,Dr.NandiniDhargalkar) (Dr. Sandhya Patel) fui ft€i cti g.fr fr?i ff?i a*E qt (g.T& zrrtt) T{*s€wiffeui q etrnai qlr (a.r.L trao) fud fiFrff €fu * qiq +tftro. B r fua * Eq, ufi, aier, wef or "r-{ erfte B-qr+ T{irr d. sds B rTETftT _ qrRfuier t - 2 errlt 3rTqier 3 e{Trr sfla+qier 4 a{Tat qqrmreftqier 1 a{Tarqiq +ift-6 rq *i qs aft ftrdtr fr 3rrd+q sier srFrd B r ft..i e]-dr+qff r fud 3{Fa-rre{ qr *qe{ efu -{5q e-eg B r fum Grrarcr cEET }, q6 qrfu +er$s d 3ifl@ *dr e, fro-w;gsil * qrgs Crtrd qcrd fr erg a fr tIEffiTT B 3h{a 3cr fr gar Br STTdEREI er{r{ TT|EIT-rJT-r: I q. ?.* 12/11) 31ft4, ftass{rqa eraf, tlerFa #* + Au A*f* o.q i s<f,Tqrdl, fu-€trqra rd ol ? r fua #d-d rg-#q er$E d fr "f€fl ga-q eirdr B I gErS ErcrSd3{F4 . ftr#d +}fr-+. e-d# fr aft scrn B r qa EIrEr, +q 3nR qd + aIT€Erar * -d "T{el+ efl-d-{ srrar B "1s sraqel.F<rT qs} qE *o srq} fuu gE+ srFa or Grqfsr aft o-s 101
  • AdI B | 6fftt &ftffi tnr er6 3TFa {iffia ols d er6 ftrd + errer uaar E rd--€Fq d qrar B r errg auerrg t e-a Er?T-r 6q i+ (urorFa-S A arfl-S) efi-a-saft t-aar B r e{Fd s*t fua + g"n zff gaar o-c} qs H * ftrd M c.o sn?-+q FaurBrfrffi - sfiaftaoe1 - Eqr4"f - ETT Ecf, AT E=fTEf _ 3IFT Eb-daier - gfr aia-aiu #tr fua gw arfuenr d e-g we d crr*rn fu fud qcr €dq fraoq 3Eer-6r srefqegsn fu srrd+q d-d + z{Ter rrrer fud d ang s*z geff raraf,a oraft s{fttrd err€ ?5q A frlgr€ qsar B I 5tft ks fuftr ao tEn sna}q E-q B *arercr (q-"ft) erSE fr sTFa + 6-€ 6-rd ozar B "irrd r fua s*{ srFa d gere; ss{T (aru) o} m-o} E r ** furr (q+-orFr/ q. fr. r sza) ffi Sfud qffi +1 M tl;rrq FdrS gru u-e-$ qs& qrq: s{rt R #c* qao M ffi B aerr H *q, 9B{T, 6rGd, elrER-TT snR drd H Grr} },t sro Hwr qr *q t oq $1 s{$-o ta or zqef of * SEIT EFT 3rgejl.I d-dr E I 3otrrTT 6rr€I dar qE fia-S srfug efta-r ge, fuqor, 3Tt-drerer, srra sh z+aft -erEs* # frEaTd ffi B rg$ arq-ffrqer" "iT * (aafme$ arElt IT zroar B r fuid fr€r-d 3]Fa (ar 321 sqrd =;qa aft 6-{A B s*E srcrff zrzr-qfuo b-qrs* + ft{u F€-+f sr}efi aft ss} B r3fia s+u sqr qFq, ?rrar-erref E r rrr€ sqr qErs.reffd B r 3rer: -6 fr enwz-6fr Br qer qaft B, tar*d fr "-dA B 3*{ sqf qr erfu fr q<-a aft drft Br gs{q"Frs er6 s.qa A-cI-{ qq ffi "-6ft B I strrTT s{Fa s*E fum * zia-d-a B, q-{€ T6-ftsraebr q"f uu ilfr B r qR q6 ssrr qr drrr srFa ffi + rqs fr sqr qr ariqa qr* qs srFa aft qa srfr qz-q g*r-d fu,q-$-d qs fr s{Farffrd dar ts r srft lrors 36srr qr s{Fa tr6 & ffi * srFtrffrd qrfu fr erSE +} T+€a* trg urT rrtr qEiqr }+ al5r * * cFl<fl aEr.]-{q-d q-{-€ ir{{r 6tdr a& B I g{{ rr(TTqrFr fr td e.q a+ q-sa B d s{Faitr}tr B Ed ffi gw frfDre dt B rrrzrer IEF" srrgd< d ft-d - srFa r s*r sd ?"""ffi.8ffirffi"*i", fud 3gtT sls srFa ffi 3ryo*+ B r fud sls srFa Eqo.q B d sgrTgaq;1 qftorrq, ftraiq:o-grg+A, :3lrw1., ft€or, EiElr 3rFI, Tr{, 6E, dg, fuq, srr*oieft,da, ftd, fta, Eer<, s+*ar snR gutr * gm +dr B Ie{Fd6o-5qr, aE;, Tlffi, ftqor, ssr, " frerq, sef,ar snR gun * gm 6)-cn B | 3rqre ftrdqr, ffi, zidrrl, erSE gqr qd ftffi or ord B r an=t srffrtti 3b-EFror: er6or$ ftraia-ufu srsrr qr 3rFa or B r ft-enq wi =qsr: c[gzb-{ srrqr$ + frd, ssrrrEd str-q rrr erqa{rer seTfqr 31 futa A fudr erftE fr sunr d-& qr$ qrft r fua qrs{Ff, d sr-r gq + zFrEUr erSq-eer ssIT ziars ts r dtd swr.[.[, Bwrqd or s]vqgrr +q ffgrsf,d d 3qft€rfr + orgor E, N fr sq€d ftkf, zft er$rser sqTErqr ?€n-d # sed ffi e I g-€ur A-s-r # sw-€.r fud arrqo-rFa q-ef, *ar ts rg{+s dtd .DT Ero-q tt6 & q-d-d *dr B r .r-rg ?Jffi, sro.sr dfrfd, =nEpT, qqq-€s-.n * d-d q"f ffi * ftffi 6-dcrI?IT B, d rorftre * fud EEi E€rftt(e-rm-roai) * sTFa Ero-Er e)-ar B r gsIEFr srd q6 gsn d er$lser srFa G-drBrd frB r {+e, aft{6-r, {E{, ofltrE e-a aft ftrd * zerra 6} B I gd zerr# qe rde drAft-a s*{ s{ffi (T{rd frrcrsfr fr e+ra l*) g.rq ge5q }; qiqa-}ft-6 +q-drtrro "* q-ffror i ararfrer rq d srr;*q e-@T + sft sr*eF Eq A zl-dt+ B s*{ "{E-efre-e gfudara B r (Prof. Kalpana Sathe) t02
  • Pitta, ushma and agni all these are different but due to ashraya ashrayi relation they areconsidered complimentary to each other in different context. Agni resides in pitta. Ushma ispresent in agni as all the conversion in the environment takes place due to ushma present in agni.Charak has included ushma as first ahar parinamakar bhava. (Dr. Sangeeta Gehlot)2.30. How do we interpret the jatharagni parimana in terms of tila praman or yavapramana in clinical practice? (Reft Bhelasamhita Sha. 4/16 & 17 and SharangdharSamhita) (Vd. Aniket Gitaram Ghotankar) E+g ercFFrrrlrrflToTrr: ze5a-c-rlE I e-t+E gfur*q-flrord,rr Bffidq"ing argar+s-afrrwfrr rr e]. eTr. 4/16 n The amount of jatharagni in sthul kaya and sukshma kaya is described here, whichappears to be in the context of yoga. In verses no. 10 to 15 it is mentioned that soma mandal is inthe centre of nabhi, surya mandal is in the centre of soma mandal and hutashan is in the centre ofsurya mandal. In addition-the following verse says that jatharagni is located in nabhi. a-gta1fttri qfti drd* arfDr+iftera, i r a. !n. 4/ 1 4 t tqrd$ a+ardraft-dfteq-$sa-sq qTzr-F: Ieraiffi u-twen-grldaqrqrt4fr.Td-d{r6-qrdz E-.qiE ri-d?-€E-{, a5r ard irrra;{: Iararorftft arere-qrh;qef, I €eas Efr srwrBeo*g.i g_fir; ira Ea1FTaqftgqi{ffi -derflrq-eal Tr€ad-r=T gevi, o-r*sq-aazrh I d€, qa,Brdeoz*q anan<d S*arsk a To, g1q-sq ar*r<q, ffi; slerorsFq, ffi;6,, *a, -rn*ema-6-drffi Awr Er EI?I Eft r*ewrq s@r rgrqdg"r€q I srr<ETEr Efr _qfrqrqj g{qql ftio5j +q erira €fr qfet#qd-* e-*+ls+ft a-qqro"ter+a ordqrgffis-samftr (g. E& 3s/2? q{ e-ew) o Agni cannot be seen, distinguished or perceived because of its minuteness. t Though it appears very difficult to measure the jatharagni pramana (parimana) Bhela might have observed this in the invertebrates, insects and moihs and humans after doing some experiments. Remember Pavlovs experiment on dogs (Pavlov, l92S) where conditional stimulus (sound of metronome) elicited salivation, which he measured. o Also this shows further enhancement of knowledge as Sushrut could not distinguish jatharagni, but Bhela has reported the measurement of jatharagni meaning that eitfr he or someone else (contemporary or predecessor) was successful in measuring jatharagni. (Dr. Sandhya Patel) Jatharagni parimana is described as tila pramana or yava pramana, which is so less due tosukshma guna of agni.Vayu is sahakari kara of agni to facilitate the digestion, metabolism andabsorption of nutrients through tissue. In presence of sukshma yava or tila pramana agni,ashukriya of pitta and vayu is also accelerated like secretin and CCK stimulates pincreatic juice(katu pitta), gastrin stimulates the secretion of HCl. Similar to this in presence oflnsulin, o*yg"nsupply to tissue isaccelerated. Bhallatak, Gajapippali, Guduchi, Pippali, Shatavari ut. lntrasayan aushadha, which are very useful in small quantity to enhance jatharagni and dhatavagnikarma. Also these are very useful in mandagni, amajimu, ,ururh"rhajima, mamsa-meda-pradoshaj vikar, vandhyatva, artav dosha, stanya dosha, klaibya, etc.Also, 103
  • €-AE zld:ril=r rrffTT?f: Ir:a-o-rlq E-aq TftHrr lFiFITsr?t: I-662-utllE" drgdr+sdtrrd r (*a =lGT) frame and small frame body size having as the large frame, middle ^fhis could be interpieted small portion ofdifferent prarnana & ugtri. This agnl is required to digest the large, medium,food and nutrients. Th[ knowlegJ will be useful in treating the patients of mandagni, alasaka,*rrr",-",.. In clinical practice decision of the drug of choice and aushadhi pramana will be easy. (Frof. KalPana Sathe)2.31. How better can we understand the physiology and physiological difference of agni andpachakapitta? (Dr. Devendrappa Budi)Nomenclatures of different agni in living body: are This agni or fire in living body o-cupies entire body as various bio-transformations out different functionsceaselessly .urri"d out in living Lody at all places. Parts of agni carrying*." as per their functions. Part of this fire, which converts all components of food into "*"isimple producis, i"f*ftuf.gni. Part of this fire, which remains in stomach (and allied digestivetube, duodenum etc.;, is jatharagni. Since digestion takes place in gastro-intestinal tract, "in"a ior rut* entity virtually. This converted food is to be absorbedprrt ut g* and jathaiagni stand part of food intoBhutagni is part of irre, which is responsitle to convert panchabhautikp*.frlUfr*tik putt of body constituents. Secondly, it has to maintain proper functions of senseorgaqs by replenishing indriy adtauy,a. to reach food At Achapitta is tiat fluid, which acts as vehicle needed.for ushna property contact with foodtime of dig.riion, it leaves its vehicle or fluidity and comes in direct Diatwagni is name to that part of fiie, which assimilates or synthesizes Dhatavah of living body. Tf,is needs particular environment hence these dhatwagni are located in srotas dhatu related to that particular ndividual. pachakpitta hold pachakgni Pachakgni differs in its digestive power in every individual Pachakpt in it and reveals it when needed at the time of digestion (Dr. Nandini Dhargalkar) -*d, dT wFrffrerqifl€gq t eqsei etrqai a.n taapraq5-asB E{ft a-q-tg dq-g delr ffi"#g+m"+q, rffi, - q#f;imi $qatfrng"Ida -qrT=i-eiqra-orftqq qfr t er-r: qrcn-<rerfrfu-q-qrsaaerea-srFaerq-orai qfuEi q, d-€lla-6-€ae I ---- r (sr. --*sog-a-q-€.,,rei!};;.- "f*,i-zrr+r€-ai qrgz€Il.ri srgqd-iq6-rc 6-$fr t ;;&,=: "Js;?#Jffi qTzrF-gq eg-q6qr€g zq=qr s{a?q q=rd, qz*r e+refrF-{tr{q, o-d r ffgei aq? e-eiaapra-o-A erefu derT,.qrffi@r^t*a {q-6-rs}errl fd Eft a-f,ct"i qasenftaq t a-"-ed-e-u.tra-u.tqr (sr.6. u1 12/1o-L? qz ffi) frft€rffftrEi ffrt #t #- e-arrua*qon "r.ElzF ftq-q-ar=i -I-""r-=*rro*-l| uq5fdr 21-€pi"i r (a. fr+. 2a/3. w q-owFr) . l",ft*;gni is located between u.uJuy and pakvashay (grahani according to Hemadri) . Becausi of predominance of tejas (agenya-- by A^rnadatta) it has lost its liquidity and become more viscid (more concentrated) 104 ;
  • a Due to its action of pak-karma it is called anal (agni by Arunad a - Like fire it digests food and separates it into saar and kiita parts atta &Hemadri) a This involves entire physiology of digestion from entry of food into GIT till it reaches the ileocecal valve [because beyond ileocecal valve the chyme (pakva ahar) moves into segmented and then later haustrated movements remaining water is absorbed (shoshyamana) of the lparipinditvat) and 111u.;*ity It stays there i.e. between amashay and pakvashay and favors (stimulates?) other four types of pitta by its samarthya In relation to digestion there is no difference between pachak pitta and agni, but in relation to the remaining types of pitta (ranajak etc) there is difference betweeir pitta and agni This agni should involve all the five bhutagnis as the panch bhautik gunas of food stuff are digested by bhutagni before the ahar rasa enters the circulation and is acted upon by rasadhatu agni. . ---- @ |iffiRafu_en -;14" 6.r$fr eefarelq; 3ralexp @ e-€ftatup| -d-; 2l /9 qs s6lor) #, 19 ; o Agni can be treated by treating pitta with rasa, guna, virya etc gunas; otherwise agni (which is devoid of rasa etc gunas cannot be treateJ). o However, a deviating opinion is quoted in regard to agni and that includes actions of agni in grahani and rasadi dhatus. For more detail please-refer to the r"pfy No. 2.2g. Thus a very big difference of opinion persisted in ancient days. (Dr. Sandhya patel) The questions No. 2.28 and2.31. have the answer, which as below. qea o-flb 2.2a fr EFr 3T s*E qsame ws&o-sur + isRp. AftE frw arql 31 #, + 3rgr{1-g "ieaf qrfta, tfte.r, ffia a<, edw1frft-q- zradq, M e-arFaeq gerFq5-a srfuoai znEft r*er"}er a-aFq-ffFd: qsarefa n-aneaa trE g-gorEf}-sb-fl-gra, r (-eurrg. z1 z 3q-+cm edr * q€r d-ff qra, E-m gg-d+ ,ft-;;F- s}c ftrdrs) tflrcq * siFrgra ftrqr "{rE B r Ea} "iq- d Efu-cz+r - - ergd< B r aTFa cfrfu €fu a o.rd rr-116 qc fud sfu s{Fa erq Erq5 fi sr+fisref -* s{rqT o161- t;+uT 6-r& B q-e ol-S erffia fua smm-rqffua *dr e 3<r6{uT?r: qrss{er.rr eEEr, €-rft, E11$-;rE** anro i aftenE$o srFd ftrala-afa B e-o oar B r "-f,ff srFqts erSt ffia:............ r (a, q r zrr t) li:rmraafa Eft E-{+d er$t t@deqa{rei qeiqftr (a-qtqrFr/q. ?I{ 12/.t.t) " qo-qrFi * fumra"to 6T frnaa o-ca T;arq ailFa o1qrfta 3Tercrr qr+o-r6-ao-r qf slz ere otr ftrdrwr srerh fua-rq sls - grffi ss+rrE"r qinru A q"h fu-qr B r =;tl-d =r--oto fua et- fue*qr o-ci rre Atcr 6ldr B fu qA srfta srafu z#$ er$ErarufraiFIr"Tr a-A e sQS qs srrolq srafq etrrerFo *g;ft + rra- qrprd c-61 .FrfrsTor Br + sflTF qrFlq Fdr €IT iErrqmo qrFr* Fa[ 3TerErT ffE ir{rr€rEr eeurdrdr sznrg t zrerrq-d-6 b-qrs* ersr srFa or ord o-c+ B fud frftr- _ge * qiqaift-- B r fua * oq, €, aier wef or er$E B-qr "iq-d r+ q-$Tr # sds B I 10s
  • fud- qrRfuier 2 m* _ ="ffi a{Trr qrqrorefterier- 1 eil-rr qiq fift-6 rq # qs aft fud fr srratq eier sTFrF B r3rp+s-drq fr-A ffi e^rtaa-gu-+rz, E;qAs-a-srFdfrftq €ffi6lfi-da3+ @ effiprara eerrail a sgna- }o-rqaelsffifr rr (g + zt re) qrzficr fr fud + si6$ 3rar s{Fd 3rusrcr a-fr ffi B r 115d * ergz+rtftrca srra.+q B r <-ga rrrd-a s{rR 6rd +_{e + cFr{sr fua or sqEru 3{Fa d a-t-e# -t- B; €.t- 3g fud erffia srfdg-d GTGIqqt4 *- ftd qi!fud er$s fr -.in-a -;l Br t;: sf-a -g"T drdr gB ffi B*n* a -.-?- * zrara gq"E-rA;; A+ q{ B6$warc # E r srF rn aft qfr 6-54 B r 3r.I: 3{rkt "tr-gksnF ng$rt .gg-d 6 futa d s{Fa fBra 4S E t-$r o-ar B I d65er gdq trnaqera=i s+ffiu{ "t-rc-S aaqraqefira-gE €dEtT aqrffiftao-gl r (seq q{. T& zt re) o-ar fu s{Fa + gr€rd d-6r} 6re ql fta d aft ftil€ e-6ri T{qfd-a tsgk ffi B q-t-E ff ora 6-{e- g fua EItr el+r;r- s*s s{F-d -+t gk ord *enstft ffi ts r,,€F,. 3rurT goq *i --=- -t +d-a E5-{e 11 ftrm-gk sfu sr6-errya B qs zrd s-€r6{"il * rE ft €r.--rr s-{e * fud q+}cr s*{ sTFa lrrya *dr B r "** fud tt6 ff B, q-d ar.r 61 Bi54 frTddr B 3fu er€t rqe d qrar E fu;,f- "ngfua s*{ srFa fB{d } | fra{. srraeqq ft-ta sTF-a;lrni * aia-g{ sfu E-{5q E-€ B r fttn .rrocrcr 6q | 6FT?lrqrFrs*s r e-a derSs fr s-- +- er *o-wqe* * qras Edq q-crefr fr qa q d Ba s;r fr rgar Br 3t6d fud + {il fu gaar o-c} rrz s. til ftra uo srrdr+q gil -trIE-q B r at fu ziqpfff{rr sfta "11q rft-d - 3IFdfuoer - Eqrfq - AI Gc[, TT eEf{€T - Srffi reaier - gft aizruier q-6 zrre 51 o1r+rn fu q- qq FEq ^o fto1.oer B=*;y*"fu- g"T drfu* * E-d + uTTzr T{rer futr fr snq- e*e ga{T- rgo*r e-a-gsn fu sfl?-+q a1. "I1lraqr c* q-E Baft s{frtrd- -o*--" * ftiE-€ qsar B r gtft ftTu ftrdf, lr-d5 t-{Tr sflal+q "t.fara" (qr"ft) erSq # 3{Fa + qroi 6-rd Tiq-fi +-sar sTFar f}r5-1 6-€ zft ftrif, 311{ ? rill*-=i"r+ * q-65 =r1-w 31 ts B r (Prof. B. H. ShYamkuwar) In physiology there are five digestive juices. Digestive juices contain various entities andjuice is coitectiuet/called as digestive juice. Any enzyme present in that juice is responsible forihe function of conversion which acts with the help of that dijestive juice Here the digestive juice can be called as representative of pitta and the enzyme can be called as representative of agni. (Dr. Kavita Indapurkar) Following points will be helpful for better understanding of the physiology and physiological diiferince between agni and pachak pitta 106
  • Pachakpitta Agni 1 Site Adho amashaya pakvannashaya Tatrasthamev, nabhi madhya, grahani agnyashaya, (bahyaeni) 2 Guna Dravashrit sasneha, amla sahakari Tyaktadravatvam karan kleda teekshna. ushna, laghu, tejogunotkarsha khapit visra, swra, peetam, neelam somgunam vayu sahakari karan katu, ruksha sukshma a J Karma Chaturvidh anna pachayati Anna dahan, parinam. vishishta purvokta bhinna sambhataha ahar rasa utpadyati annam, aharrasa sukhtarsheha jiryati, pachati,, shohyati pakvam pinditam vivechayati, prithak karoti dosha, purisham katu rasa marutam rasa, mutra, purishani. i.e. sara kitta utpadayati deha-dhatu, oj?, vibhajan karoti. Kuryat bala, vama, svasthya utsah, chavyamanam chyutam annam upchaya prabha heturup karma evam purisham, mutra svarup pitta karoti. Dhatu ashrit achintya sneha sthanm bhrajak, alochak, svarup antarushma janya for sadhak ranjakadi anugraham karoti. e.g. ghrit sthit agni- ghrit daghdhata utpadayati. Shesh agni sthanm- Sharirasya cha agni karmanam anugraham karoti- yatha nirdishtha adhi sthan karmagunaihi iti. 4 Dravya Amala pitta, tikta pitta, katu pitta, Jatharagni, bhautikagni accha pitta, HCL, bile intestipal kayagni, antarushma. juice pancreatic juice. Gastrin, CCK, Secretin, Pancreatic hormones. (Prof. Kalpana Sathe) Pitta devoid of liquid is called anala. Agni digests the food and divide it in to saar andkitta. Pachak pitta is present between stomach and large intestine. All GIT hormones,carbohydrates, protein and fat digesting enzymes may be included in pachak pitta. (Dr. Sangeeta Gehlot)2.32. Are tikshnagni, vishamagni and mandagni fypes of pachakagni or its disorders? Ref:Cha. Chi. l5/50 (RAr) Samagni is only type found in healthy person maintained by daily regime of eating foodquality and quantity demanded by agni of a person.4f{t $;t: sTFdcrdr+MAmount and quality of ahar should everytime be decided with judgement of Agni If food isheavy day before, the food should be taken light next day till Agni becomes strong again todigest food. The other types like tikshagni etc are affected by dosha and are prone to diseaseswith little wrong diet. (Dr. Nandini Dhargalkar) t07
  • 3r*qfiaerurafD{€rrq 3{Ff,Aq-d€wTflr6-frq-fl EsItrr (a. E. 1s/so q-s a@qrFr)iMDrqa rto,; Efuqrflrq-€R=€it erdft-lM qr+d, ffe-r, ftlda, tl<: eaqorT,agef, (9. z& 35/24) "rff: "TfsrffrRftr3ffiq ? eq frq, orarftouqd-at goqrqi utolEe)qlarllrq-€Ei arTcIfA, d a Fdfu-qrortrqerd-ftfr rTikshna-, visham- and manda-agni are doshas (disorders) of agni, not types according to Charak.Sushrut and others have also summed up three types of agni as afflicted by doshas (vikriyamapann?) while the fourth one is normal type of agni. Persons having vatadi prakriti have littledushti (better to say little deviation from normalcy) of agni but not vikriya (abnormal function).Visham-, tikshna- and manda-agni are vikirya (abnormal function) that produce featuresaccording to the involved dosha e.g. sometimes nornal pachan and sometimes adhman, shula,kujan etc are features of vishamagni. So these are disorders of agni and not types. (Dr. SandhYa Patel) affia, ?ft€unF-d s*s ftrqanFq tn1 s-€fr * i:iilffi * 6* :rrS E r JTGI cTtF3d-fr @rf} 3ro@ 6-{e d EfrE-F€-dI a-S } rtcr d-F trEl srFa + lttrr€ 6}qrtri I qig gft-d gsn s+Fa qo aiqrF-a, fteunFa qr frrq-qrFq 3E@t o-Ear B, €ITgd q-€ft-E€r -s{Fa -+ ggil c* s+f-er6 cratcb? ftr€fr 3ro@r zb?clr e * sS s{Fa otftreft-qi zl-d-{dft anBs rqr€d sfiq cTqrul- BTrEtr eai eqrzeq-ara+rffi qe+r r s*fus;aq: qrsre"*mr, t€ffidst tl ffi, are+s-re J#-.* @rr Fiz *sroar+iq, F.R. g_d t tsrz,+) {"a-dtrqzazfllRF d{qrq ffi_ fterr+< srrgeofffi+q:tlr€rTa ql+{srft@ef, Ers-q* eft freq#q} l (a6qrfu) srrgoof oa, ?trru€g, gelTd, gqE-d QrS{, qfir eiq, *q r ?ry - * q- tqr+ 6rA 5 s-a-+l srFd sr€d ela{dr qrBs q6 6IIrr starEr s*z qftt-o @rfu *gem Erslqq qrftd futrol slFa qr€d E 3-4-A srrgffR a+rq sr* Bqftto qrfu- - fud-6r s{Fd srt€a il& B r s# srrgffi arrs sr+ a-& e}-} I Iom u-qft * effi * FF cIewt q-trr+ aru B r$zrErd-dII5l?TT, 5raf,arg<F-€rcIr€ITcr€n, elTTgi6afer$g, qaa <QT;fiEri, 3ffi4,, 3{rgqEf Iga-fr srrgtrfr +nq sr* qr+ qr} B E-d-denffi-ur de, r (sr.g. e1 1/8 3rg"sr<<.rT)scrt ftd a.u qzrr€r * d e-g s{Fq qr€d aIIEtaIT qrtrssc1-t gu qffiq nrq-d I *aTlFoera-de.il a-<rsrtr-a z{*: sa: r r (sr,6. * 1 /8) orffi-r fuqa, ftr#fur ffqot, rt<: trffi€@efqfrfd, El-fr: Ie15r 4qrffi3i qr zr-S+d r{rf-e-qr s@qr €relr qr-affi afl<: IE5qftffi-+€ffiS srr6;Rftelq-qerre+-<rftrffiesl o-€rftq a< 5ft r (srsurca) z16 -d} qqft 3rur<zF N * qa+rfua srFa + trdBrd Ero.cr Bd * s{ra Errsra+rfu+-ar eqfr € ErarrE,r (a. fr. a/1! e-oqrFD srffi q€fr ftrd s-€fr B €rT ffi q-€ft a-S ard-ff qrtrs tg+rs-drs z{Fars* fr sr+6 -rrrd q{ kdr B I qr-rcrT:, ftmar, eaqcTTQa sru-qftT€fl-{g t *qr ll (q. fr. att z) q{ qq -TeF gd q-€ftr$ * qfrm$ d qrfb 3ida a-S *A crtr d6 q6@fuffifro-car*tsr q-€ft s}r ftrqft 6"r f}la 3-deffqr BT{-6 a aft ffien "i<i* I ruflrergr qft€Yd q-qfraea, ftrqftaea, zJTurreq, (q. fr. ete+) 108
  • g{r } d ffi ?rs{ d T" fu^€ft _Er ft-qrg a]-dr B * e-a q-€ft a fDrd .F-r 3{dE r -*S fr- e-€ft * sarrfua aiqrFa, *eorFd, ftqarFa fr ** i- @rtrr sidar6rA 6t Efu6-d-€-.F-dr a-fr B ?TcF -Tcr a-F qr€-rr srFa * z+sq fi dre -teE*rftil+ d sTFa fid S + 6p"il or s-e;g. a-ro i p-qr B "rf3u; sraffifre+o1-rq fr*-arerarE I r ggrc@ gueffiserl{ge$Ear{ I frt.6 tr.#ararq furodqrqr terorar$s-erq a"nqi e frrrrsrft r gq-dqrFd e+ gdsa a dq qqrft aefu rr 3Tcrqffrd gffi..i qre*i ftvsuanqrr (a. B t sr+z_+e)E-{ft Rfuir 3tFa * aawrsaE rr sq-}ffi sea d fuqr s-ds srrqr B r @ arct=ercil o-nft fru-+i qcftrr €rrEtq-rd I -errg-{ Nerq|Mo r F. E r s,,so) ?fte+ flFa fid a-dr 3rFa +t ffi ts s*s Es-sqftuna-{d-*;.q d aiqrFa3aqET datr cr6 fuq-sq 3rrar +) 3rcEr- 6trn, srrr{ 6rF g-€ft crr aiqrFa a&en3rrar J@=a .F??rr u* 3{Ta a d sr*o qrfdreil rFrTT -FT q-€fr + qfu e-crffi qr$ qra q{ tu{r d-Sdi-r FrT6r aT?TcTcr er6 rqff B E r 5:€-B "ft"r*ai<rF"a {&r ai<rFd * fbrd B I F{fr a-t-a qfud ffeurrFa ar{+TzF +rI .* raar *ar B r s}s fie-n5- fr e}gl-dq-qfw arrrr fr ;r t * a6 rTg EFr rrr{d futr q-€ft + arftrs d ffqrffi 3rrsrt-dflEn^qrq?T B r d6a ar.sq-fi*rr 6bn r qrffi -"rrat-{ ar*r urqa a& -o-+* r gEft fr ff5d -ru- q gq" qo a-o qrflr o-r al?rcrq fud q-€R -rqr€dErd E r ftrq-drFa aft B .t*"rn- argqo * B.sa aS o-sar dq dE. 6B r (Prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar) Tikshagni, vishmagni and mandagni are types of pachakagni. These are due to thedominance of pitta, vata and kapha dosha over pachakagni. (Dr Kavita Indapurkar)Four types of agni described in cha. 15/50 chi.r. ftrqarFa - fuqai q_trft qrgxq"{i o-Sftrz. ftesnFa - a-e-.tl-+ €rrR Ee.iffi rg. a<rFa - ftrd-eft sr-i a-zanq sed sr€i srfu qr qrftr+. =rqrFa - g-€i Ud e-+i q+ €rrEzlrsd "t*aa, Of all these agnis vishamagni, tikshnagni and rnandagni cause vitiation of dhatuswhereas samagni digests the food in proper way and in proper time, and creates or establishesdhatusamya. In the same adhyaya Charak has said that above three types of agni (except samagni)cause grahani roga and called them grahani dosha. qqqrFa Ef-€@ ffi agftfu r d qrfr u-o"ffdai Trfi-Eni qqeqa r rThe types of agni which causes grahani is a grahani dosha which cannot be prakrut svarupa. Although vishamagni, tikshnagni and mandagni are found in vataj, pittaj and kaphajprakriti people that is why vataj, pittaj and kaphaj prakriti are said to be sada-atur by Ctrarak.lt isonly when agni pradesh is vitiated by dosha in above conditions.Vataladi purusha are very muchprone to such type ofdisorders. agftfw eftr@i.raq q-Eftfelrdi gE qrur131 r (a. fu. o)As said, ftror$ €rrEtq-€i Aq-c+r*i sr}lrar rThree types of ugil Uy vitiation of tridosha creates dhatu vaishamya which cannot be called asprakriti. Prakriti is avikari dosha sthiti. Chakrapani has said while describing three types of agni that - 109
  • 1, 3]-6ffi dersrflf}{eTrq BnffiS-delut-frrd -:--2. s{Fd+srq-q d-d"ft3. dt-dardi aTdrflTafA 3rfaq*er: furwarFa, t ftna-arqi ftr.f,Ifb{efh sfiaqter *esnFq r edwarcrt eMra$ s{lffier, ai<rFa: rTreatment point of view (Su. Su. 35) -Vishame - snigdha, amla,lavanamTikshne - madhur, snigdha, shit, vivechanAtyagne (bhasmak) - mahish kshira, dadhi, sa-rpiMande - katu, tikta, kashay, vamanSamagni is one of the states in svasthya Er€er gfr srf-arfEr+* r"ralTFdeqtikshnagni, mandagni, vishamagni are the disorders of pachakagni.Therefore (Prof. Kalpana Sathe) Tikshanagni, vishamagni and mandagni are the types of pachakagni due to increasedpitta. vata and kapha respectively.2.ss- sr) rvs& fuatrsr zb?IT aelr qaoft fr wr z{aiq ? z fuder€r oar fr u-flftB r fr*+a sI+f&rd B Iq) qa"ft Er E€Tra wr E a (Dr. Rakesh Thamman) Name grahani is given to that part of gastro-intestinal tract where food is supposed to getretained for a longer period for the purpose of getting digested and absorbed. Only acceptance offood is not intended in word grahana. Food is primarily accepted in mouth. Yet oral cavity is notcalled grahani because food is not retained for a long period. Mouth just accepts food, teeth chewthe food and it is matter of few seconds that saliva is mixed with food. Food within a very shorttime of l0-30 seconds is swallowed.srd-;qRrwrad@€q q6qrq q_Fft a-crr r (a. E. I . sa* srz+ 3rart=q qEunq ga u-Aoftuiar r (sr.zi.)*a u-qaffi E ftaelzraaqr r (sr.6. eTT. a)qd frtaertr EIT.fi"ry o-ar qffiFfcn eIT r u-d"ft en qdffiarrr (9. s. 40)Location of agni is grahani.e-"i dtzrT: ffi sr s@ erSt a-ffi1 (sr.ei. elr.s)araffie+r@lqei3{rrd errt-e-eqai q-qft qrefa tt (q. E. t slsz"se)u$ fuaerer araT q"ElfiRTerqaeqten, zrr ffis1d-d-+d fr€Ird ft16au-e{r sffi, qqft, q-fii a frqffi, ffirfuar gdffiEr a* srl+ 3{@req qerrq g4 u-dsffTGtr r qd. ?rFIr:ftra-ii:rqrlqflrerrdad: e+r srffiu{GM*qr er$i qffi r (Dr. Nandini Dhargalkar) a-<fErsra-e-a-cq qe-n{u-g"ft aar t ilE era-affi oar fua€rzT6en I I srrgerMffi anrercuFagvlt ft€r-dr qmrere-orR gmflrulfrrtrE sI r r 110
  • gffiaryeri eesr zrr frcnq Ef€r€rar: I d@ar4eq frqffiil (sT.g. erT. zrso-sz) ErcTcrclcrctT ang-sro-+qrdE?q, s#-Egrei gneri, e-fl;fi errffisfu, q-€luTrira-.iliflr ryaofrft ar.rr I srrflrerqs€fr frRrsA erqzftfrelq gwef, I +d q6oft =rrs@rtqcFcIT fuaergr efrifi oeq* I ------ | qtEnererlq EIr: qEEJTerelET:, d{qi frerar t zrrE-46"ft, T-"o= qftIrerglTffiurler$Er;ft | err qrafiiq-qerr grRo-qleanafitls-dar ftj"*,"t-d+n gF 6ree-E-€ri 6u-a6r$gfui -F1-gr{q a-arFaa*ei _ ?rerr+iffi q-6uft rJ-eiqrs-dFH I 3rErcdt qrr:;i!grt#+r fqmi er*, q-€rer$qj?frt sr<T cffi*frerar qmrerqarfr gm-ararfarfiio zrrl, gfrr (sr.6. en. z/sl qr3T5urqfl) g*i-sr+e-a6me-i, s{Tarer}-srrffrerq{€rre q{rd-d@i ffi, z{r-ar6uft,E-qcn-3lereav, srei a-qfr1 ffi qar ? frqrq",-Fd6+: q.FR: o-?F+ I e-a-o-ftftqm-{ft gf frTqr€} aqft r srtlcIr U6I t{ft TTT 3fl8#+a--3rq-Eod+a" r ruaft I dg,G-rc-srF-d-{-i Tduft{€i qqfr, a qa"ft r ?rarea 6?r€ffid ? "s[ ftqra 4qfrE-,,, Efr,3r?iq+ r sffizrerrrr*qanla fr€r-d-drgw-d p-QdAEg{ r qa"ft @ae{r€rp: I -r"rT qgT{ffiq (ed o)-"o-ar F-de;-{r€i-qr" Eft r ft..i a aQa I ?rerr aig+a oeqfr (erfr. ^reo)-"fr-i sQa" q*tfrr al.i q-{"vrilg- eIT EFErr r{r#lclf,edrelT??r{IT UtoffilaqTFa: qrO*.n"rsrtnreif arqft, arerrt-ryatsr -+q:-tr Utr Id+d-fi"-qrETTtpr u-du-€rrsrq qrtnGrffii qfr 6-d..i gzm-++ft I 3rrr: "TTT ftqrqefErelsl:" gdasrilId+q r srF-aen-err*grerrsr*qa+r+a-qrs-ft€rrflq arrq, ?ftrs{rarerFsr6- (sr.6. en. z/sz q-{ s]-srr<-fl) u-6u-qr e-aaffi T{ qrfu qEpftqa, r Rfraso-drE-d $sI q-6"ft ffisl s3n E e-EqrEd I _e"flrqu6E-drr +qeai-z+raed, -r5r furFa r erffi q6ls-dnTcl@ I - Tr q1qft4g16uffqq4:, U-6uft EEi €nRnd+: T{ Edq I sTfuerqtaffiaqr gq{, _ q-gue.=.o#dqr 3rd *$Msa-* ger qi"ft ffirfis-E-fl} r geeq z+sfr ;ffi E{-e-st r (3r.€. eTT. sis s q-{ sr*uref,) o The site of agni (atharagni - Arunadatta) is grahani (pittadhara as called by Sushrut) since it holds the food. o A vishishta dhamani in amashay is grahani (? - Arunadatta). o At the entrance of pakvashay it works like a bolt so that the consumed food does not enter pakvashay directly. o Luthita: rolled, rolled down, rolling on the ground o Consumed food is rolled down (churned?) by kanthanadi, brought down the lower part (rnahanimnapart called koshtha) and is held by grahani (Arunadatta) o It holds the food in amashay; after its digestion the food is brought down further. (The food gets digested in grahani). If grahani is weak it will allow undigested food to enter pakvashay. o Pakvashay dvar could be ileocecal valve (prevents backflow of fecal matter from colon into small intestine) or ileocecal sphincter (which allows slow emptying of ileal contents into cecum except immediately after a meal, when a gastroileal reflex intensifies the peristalsis in the ileum. (Textbook of Medical Physiologlt, by Guyton & Hall; Page No. 734) o Grahani and agni are bala to each other so if agni is disturbed grahani roga can be developed. o However, some comments made by Arundatta appear conflicting with the present " knowledge of human GIT physiology e.g. amashaystha vishishta dhamani. Probably this reference denotes function of pyloric sphincter (which is not a dhamani) i.e. prevention of stomach emptying into small intestine. (The distal opening of the stomach is pylorus. 111
  • Here the thickness of circular wall muscle becomes 50 to 100 per cent greater than in the earlier portions of the stomach antrum, and it remains slightly tonically contracted almost all the time. Therefore, the pyloric circular muscle is called the phyloric sphincter). The constriction usually prevents the passage of most food particles until they have become mixed in chyme to an almost fluid consistency o Otherwise, the location and functions of grahani resemble that of small intestine. o Pakvashaya dvar could be ileocecal valve. srd-dfErgrafi-il{q qEqr.-drEoft ffdr r ar rr arqwi errr-e-i q-fti q-qfr. ar€f.r: I gdarFa-d-dr ger drflr+q fugak r I (q. E. 1 s/s6-s7) U-gunftft €TrluTrq, araffiacq errssnEsef, I ffiqr arffi srd+Eeffia e-HqitiDrdr sw{Fdr a r{ft 3rcrF-drd errrqfr, qfti q qref,a gratfift qraqre*a gi;rfr; ekr: ffi"fi*g* aralTaqf8r*, +a €rrfr rrred qfti q-s-Sft g-dd{ r gq?aFerdr Efr srFa-qr ftarqrqrr-+-r*a srga7fr6p, rq{fr*fr e{Fddr s+erffi€ar. ffi-dr smjFar, 3{5r qA Jrr&r+s{rrrerrzi q-68-qr s{r6r (a. E. 1sls6-sz q{ a-€qrFr) qarrorei ordrdffiq ae.orqesa<<rFag t (9. eTT. 4/1s qE seor) q6 fudreruI, eIT a-gtr@ u-€?i qmrereffiqti qru-qftr (g. eTT. 4/ 1 A) qdcqrftr @t sfl.rnererrq q-€.i owrererqarse, qwrelffierci qmrerqarqarffierd ftkffi€lEi dgrki, errt-oft qr6-ref Efr elsr (9. eTT. 4/1a qs s€ut A-6-r) cEclT: g@fu erqt ar-dfu elr(qrerenqcrs aqFcr, I --- r <erfffr errd-d 2, omfdgffi qr€-drfr ea-o-don cerfffr €[T-[€[:, *qrfi?reT 3rtr{€rrdq*eTT €Jrdrerqr, Arqrd-dtE aerF<r *arapr Ereef, rr (g. eTT. 4/s q{ sew) e-€ errarer+ra ffis-qftn$ r{ ueneaqwfDfifwm Frgeaqq-{rg@: EFrE gE s{r} errgraeNscq€r{ 6c"rujE: lt (sr.zi. eTT. 5/) q6 fuaersr arar q€rflrer€En€q?€Jl, ztT R srazF-a sTf-€rgradqr s|mqqdrerq+d€+ a-gtr€rd-i E-+d fr€rrd ffiqsr eirsqd qqft r r (sr.zi. err. s /) All these references imply that small intestine (mucus membrane of the small intestine) is grahani. (Dr. Sandhya Patel)I ) q6 fbaersr -rrirr ErT a-gtr€ffiqqragffi-drerqrE 9€d, qererffierd qr{, errcoft rerqfrsnRT-i urR"i ff"i # +}wl=i Euilq Ia#fr qerrcnai eilRd ftratqEnrr (g.eTr. 4/1a) €r& fumersr ararF o-ar B, * srrarerq * E-oa-o-g, rIEEnerEI zft sfu qre+ hu srr+ gu sq-gq ar$ q6rt d sraqra o1 errtor 6-{ft B r qsY q{ e*6 #,a-Ed d sffifr fr qgqr gen srftra, Enfa?T, d-a sfu *a srd 3fud ora # fuad +q * ff fr wren B, am etfua aft A qnn BrT€II;I - dwrd, e-sfr dE of qrFd gd-fi srf,fo $, aenfr s-€-+ q+}rr + zider fr qaIreF 3iar + ftru rgm *dr B slc rs{ sirr or freqq + 3rg{{r{ m-c AarqrBs r e-ei q-{ zfrs * grra srfbr}a B r "ieefT€nEr BRa-ft- lt2
  • ffi- qrEItF + E rd * *d-d- .r<reif str ar+6 srg*FroT fr# +t b-ql dr gt$r ErT qqa o-CiF "-{fr C" Bedqtrr E rftrafto-rn- qr+o t-tf fu b-fl A ft-ffi a+Fa-oq # + rnr{ur +6il er< EET q-+rrfu-qr ra-rar E reift-d- itTtr 3{aer d} E}> dFr6l fr Bedfua &n e, .T6r s*cnr e}qr 3{rd uftA-dr-m d edewa s+E S dar B rqerrordzt- 3F*r ora d znargurtrqr AEa- fu-qr Fsil st@r rrfid-d slE eifu.T d-6-{a-a * o.q i+ ee5ara d z{re-u-rt d> t 6rr< sn*r B r sreria qrzra s}s eilqor *fuu r{A-dlz dt ol s**ra ora *trr B r srrgt< d qrqa s}z e}qur 6rE{ 3 -6 d}qarqr B r qrqaei a a*tm-ai qr-d-gaai a ciqla qra-a*@rr r (+urt-€r6-{fumersroar or qoFa srwiar d,q-d d qgd wsdr A fu-ff E q6 fuaersr ETTa qrrcn€rq aes-E€Tr I z+r @s+TTererta Iq+qr€r+q1u-n-i d-+d EerrS ftrml1-e{r e1qq6 qaft q-fti q fr€qfriadsc{rdarq ar6uflq gd-ffi zigr r (sr.zi. err. s) tr< srfErgrd-fftrH uewr_<-a-eun 6t?JT: I *o era-affi o-ar fura€rer{iln (er.€. qrr. 3/so) gE+ ft-d-{q A €rd ?qE 6}trr fu fumersr crc,rr rff qqfcr 3rrryrerq AqeElTerq tT6 dff B r gerd qqqrq ararcrtr +t a-€ifqr qr.ia+ ffi B r fu..rercr cb-c,trsi.rdd U-d"ft cFr zranleT Eldr B r U-A"ftEer zFc,rT -DT Org5sr fumerfl- q5-f,T A +6 Bdfu o-ar qrt errarerqrf,rd-qF{r B ru-6uft "fi_a- sro-qrflrq-+aagq- qtoflq ua"fr a-ar r ar rr (.r. f. r szso) sratq q6"ft 3rFa E5T 3rrs{q B s*z qa sr* gu 3r@r EFr u-aor o-ffi B, ^q6 d6sft qrflr + 3q{t aTTar # ssft B r rr-Err?rr?reFH€qgerr q6"ft z+r qdffi(rrr (g. 3. aot.tae)qcFrTerq s+E sTrdrerer * deer{q ord"ft 6r zerra E r a-<rflsera-aree-lrq uaunqua"ft aar r (sr.€. err. 3/s o) erTs66r€r q6nnq d-€if,r udsftfr al-dr I3l@I tEr a;-5w Or* cITaIT 3l"rEIEr UA"ft B r fr€rdr qmrerqgrft a4m-arurfuf*a znrr (sr.€. err. azsr) q€fefer5q €fET: qzEITeTq=f<T:, atqi Refaf f zrr F ordoft, u-*tz=r q-8refler€rrccl,q]erifdlff I "Tagr q+r qrai&o - ercrr arfr orrrsaruhls-$dr fter6p, (ffi a-6r) 4r5"ft qercn€rgrdrE q-c ft€raT B r slt gm s{T6rE rnr qq.rrerEr d frer *era o-cr+qrdrsffs-{ B r ful+ crt-d * rrct q*er (6-uuq+er) 3{rarerq s}z Efs + d-q zFr grs B=-eft aw * ot6"ft er€r qEmrerel crr ers B r 3qied z+aft zieafr * q6 3rgqrd drrrerr qr rro-ar B 6t s{Tarer€r 3{Tat 6.raf,d r€rTn F *i 3{ra ardcT6r 31q-6- rrr sr€fErem 3{r6t-E (e-6i ftrg;ft ef €fu * srraerq a-S fuqr aren B) I ge+ EIT?r * q-6 eqw B 3{Tflrerq fr* v+a ?I- *ar B rsngfroT S srge+rr qrcrer q€a+ ?GrcF z1 *ar B r q-Fnerq A 6A ard giffi zFr q6sr 6tdr B r eilfu qqq- srf,+en d 3T-rqai t-sar B r qmrerq o.r gqff Ert a{rrr qr} eqra gew€a *dr E r gfrrffis q-6r"ft* rqra €ar€€d vr* s-gsffia-a, tg,,a-,r, Efuq-ff er6 3r{q-d o-r u-a"r *an rqtETTQTETsrd q-rm-srffi-zerrtzrhsftstrafr qwrcrrd_rlwrerq: r (sr.e eTT. r zzrerafui{i<rrE-6l)wdi qE sra q@ 3rcr{€rr +1 grw *dr B, qa rr-ererq B rFunction of large intestines:Formation of feces 113
  • After the absorbtion of nutrients, water and other substances, the unwantedsubstances in the large intestine form feces (Essential of Medical Physiologt,K. Sembulingam) gc{ !r-Fr{ qererq cd an-d g+:tu€a fr 6rd T{rEd B eR+fru q"ETer€r6 drd EeF€€d B + qffirerq 6r sq8 ert d sst qran 3{crercr 6rcr e*sertoE r srd, ??6rreren Efu * u-6"ft ?€rrd ?iflrEr g*ezrf,a B r (Prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar) qd fuderrgoi Err .F?TT qffiffiar qEErTerer a€sz€r zrr qffiFfcn rGrahani is the organ situated between pakvashay and amashay and where the sixth kalaa i.e.pittadhara kalaa is situated. Grahani is the main seat of agni. Small intenstine can be called asgrahani because it is situated between stomach and large intestine. Most of the digestion takesplace in small intestine. It is the seat of multiple digestive juices (adhishthan of agni) at the endof small intestine. Most of the references about grahani can be applied to small intestine and so it can be calledas grahani (Su. Su. 2116; Cha. Ch| 19153; C. Chi. 19154). (Dr. Kavita Indapurkar)3T) rys& fuf,€rzr arfr err 6cTT qftotfttar I qauft z+r qqffffitrr u g.3. 4o/"1 69 qub-ETflTererdIeqr ftaersl o-ar o-d"ft # snlara B r u-a"ft errarerq cd qFrd or Ftzn e E-dfqg qrqofrd, sr€ftrd ttci qra-+lF-a (srrflrerq .FI sr*a+rur) <Fr fuarerq, Ezi3lo-alTerq + sff *dr e I 3rcr: gS s{Errcr€Errerenfl€Er s{ercrT qar.flrErrerq aft o-ar B r{duft g:+ 3{zr{rq of eraafu gqar fraersr o-garft B, d fud +} errtor m-gff B rq-& qerra sra d aft qa.r .F??TT E gg+fu+ u-d"ft o-garar B I 3rer: fuaersro-dr fru-d"ft ts re) su-*m ftr+a-d i zrre B 61 3naTTerer sreilarrq uq gdiT .Fr qetFr a+r-ur qei q-{3116rg tnr q-dut uei qEa *dI B, d-d q-duft o-garar B r 3{rffqffirerq H€Er erd u-cruftq-T a€rra B IThis can be greater curvature of stomatch and dudeonum. (Prof. Kalpana Sathe) Sixth pittadhara kala is itself grahani, which acts upon four types of food (asita, pita,lidha and khadita). Food is propelled from the stomach in to koshtha (intestine) where it isdige-sted and absorbed in due course of time by the action of pitta. The site of grahani is betweenstomach and intestine. (Dr. Sangeeta Gehlot)2,.34. Please explain the physiological confirmation of sthan of pratham, dvitiya andtrutiya avasthapaka. (Ref: Cha. Chi. 15/6) (Vd. Vaishali Veer)3ta-{qUffi-ffra-{+fr I ---- | !rqr-b?I: €fr geEFrEITeb?[:, qer< snRt6ffiv 1igqreare+ s{Fse:+fr ffg{r€I:; fu-dr aguq grq ob} a{rirrd Efr qra 1 #aanr gfrfrrgeilsq-d 6ruef, I ---- ad E[: eals+rqads;eT 3tr6lTfltr: deenaaG-+ar -rEr6rs{qag{.rrflrqrs edqr"i fte}*q q-a-q-eft r @. fu. t s/s-t t q-{ d@-qrfu) o In the beginning pratham pak of ahar is madhur pak or because of madhur pak, phena- like kapha (which is ghan) is produced. o Large quantity of mucus is secreted in the stomach to protect the stomach wall from hydrochloric acid action 114
  • Tt-fr :rrs-flq|.ITfirdsq r ft-qotrs+fr q-FrcrercrE€r | @crsiloru€r sreiarrui q.rg-dr di-{ffrd-Jq, sr*4 a fua:errazftl*i fueoerrorzrq- <elqfr r sr€Ffr 3T€rcrfl ea qsBTreaa; srai q tudilda-{e{rrr<r6*{€r scq.r €fr g*+-l 6 r fq. 1s/1o a-o-wFr) =l9_ first phase the food is partly digested, has got amla After the bhava, and is released from amashay. a Gastric chyme released from stomach is highly acidic o This partly digested food enters pachyamanashay a The pitta released from amashay is aghan and is called acchhapitta. a qcnerei g ure-tiR aTc,rsq?rerT qmrerei rrcruq I eiqflrure:q dRaifr - e-aqodaraer$ aQa, dens€rEqretrrT?r€r oRa-dr eiqarolei q:qreqrrdfqrgq@E r qaear*rrsi zl@a-dRa-qrqr$ arftn, 3rir: .rt€rdrr6pq, Eft qE qRe-q €itilflF rtq, €ft q-dq r .rnftpeaqqEeh qftftls-fsrrdqr ara;RilI?rgn qtFRq I cfrg: €Tq Fft @ orq}s-a-str Eqaftger @ -g*-- aroftr- The digestion process is over and the remnant entering the pakvashay is fecal in nature (malarupa) Since agni vyapar is urdhvagami the remnant entering pakivashay is not called pachyaman; instead it is called shoshymana.o It is paripindita and malarupa (fecal)a Vayu is formed because of katutao These functions are carried out in large intestineo Digestion is nearly complete by this time.o Water is absorbed; movement of chyme from ileocecal valve through the transverse colon requires 8-15 hours and during this time chyme becomes fecal in quality and becomes a semisolid waste instead of a semiliquido Gas is produceda Movement of chyme is in haustral form (combined contraction of circular and longitudinal strips of muscle ) unstimulated portion of large intestine to bulge outward into bag-like sacs called haustration Pyloric sphincter constriction usually prevents passage of most food particles until they have become mixed in chyme to an almost fluid consistency (Tertbook of Medicat Physiology; 10th Edi. Page # 732) Inhibitory effect of enterogastric nervous reflexes from the duodenum: These are especially sensitive to the presence of irritants and acids in the duodenal chyme. Whenever the pH of chyme in duodenum falls below about 3,5 to 4 (this is highly uridi.;, the reflexes frequently block further release of acidic contents into the duoienum until the duodenal chyme can be neutralized by pancreatic and other secretion (Textbook of Medical Physiology; l0th Edi. Page # 1- i2t. Hormonal feedback is also responsible for slow rate of emptying. Both these slow stomach emptying when- o Too much chyme is present in small intestine o Chyme is excessively acidic, contains too much unprocessed protein or fat, is hypotonic or hypertonic, or is initating fudd-{qr+g srrarerq €fr 3TTdrer€r 3Teil+rrar,, edv-+er+E srrarerer srrdrer*edelTar: | (q. e* 2o/a qE aoqrFr)o 3fTaIT€I€t: fumrereT$qffiEr{ | (g. z& zt rt z)a sTfu<o€f, 6c6, ffi Fdd,-drl:, tlzrd g4:1 zl-qFaq-ftil E-*rrz 3{T6r{: uft,sjEft r r (g * +orszz) I t5
  • Sthan of first, second and third avastha pak: . This means the site of first, second and third pak is amashay (stomach), pachyamanashay (small intestine) and pakvashay (large intestine) respectively. o Stomach content in the form of gastric chyme is released through pyloric sphincter only when it is almost in fluid consistency. The end result of first pak is phena-like aghan (almost liquid) o In the second pak the content is partly digested (pakva-apakva) and very amla, but the digestion process still continues, because when the chyme reaches pakvashay the digestion is over. So the second pak takes place in the small intestine. o Pakvashay is large intestine as by this time almost entire digestion is over (no samyak vahni vyapar), the matter enters as waste (malarupa) and absorption of water (to a maximum of 5 - 8 liters of fluid - fulfilling the quality of shoshyamana) and majority of the gas (vayu utpatti) that enters the colon occurs through the colon. Moreover, the bacterial activites also produces gas here. The movement of the chyme (which is now fecal matter) is by haustration (paripindita). (Dr. Sandhya Patel)ga * d-o-g sed gEFTTerq - qeral 3{zr€ettttrer - agr 3rr{€rrqrcFsJe} sTrflrel-el / rr€rdTl.TTerer - ftre-eq 3{-{{€]TqT-5 - 3Ift;I 3{€r{qTgT-FqzmT€rq - % 3rzrgqrqr-F - E-aftq 3rcrE€ITqr6 - 3rFT 3{"rg€lTqrerdIgT 3Icl-{€ITqTEF3{E|{q gffi-fftt-{q q-5{T5gI qEITeFtt: Iagersrq-o+1*qr{ tatf- sff* r r (-. F- 1 5/e)qg-21-gffi 3n6rl ai + .i**tq strznr agffar+a *trr B r erfr tntn .Fr s-&{q zerra B - r6ftffiu a srgtr 3t1.r1Terer * era 3r€rr€trcr-D qarqr B r g$-dr acTc"rcr sd 3ITffIQrer-riF dgT 3l"r{qTqTtF Or gerra B ts{Terenq s{Tarrer+tq | @-d;fiTer{€r sreia+ror qrg-dr d-e-ffrrq 3r+4 q ft-a-s€rrd-{i6t€TFd-<-d€rrdi"-s qefufrr (a. E. 15 /1o q@Enuft)-rg a iilq 3{16r{ srrarerq d sr€}errar fr srrar B ao serfr frta zftier * fueoerararrff B rqrrn?qTergr edrsazerra-gmr 6fr4 qesa-<efua;5 ! (g. T* 2 o / 1 2 se-r &o)argufq ftpgra fuftl€r a*oq r srrqreri rfar.ift efrqr agz eftaa t I (g.T{. zortt)srfueo€} arg"rdr{: om urftg5aq s{fter+;Tr (g. zl 46/527 g-€ur A-d--r)in6r dr6 .n*rg fr 3rfr<a€riTl B ao rrcF agz 3{cr{sTsTeF arBs IWhen food is chewed it is mixed with "lafl4r saliva, which contains the enzyme ptyalin secreted mainlyby parotid glands. This enzyme hydrolyzes starch in to the disaccharide maltose and other smallpoty-*r oiglu.our. Starch digestion continues in body and fundus of the stomach. Every small amount of protein and tryglycerides is dig-ested in stomach 3{rdnerq fr 3{z.r aeT agffa{d-d sngFaa al-a * aft zqe B t aan a+gc 3rrc€nqtr a;rs€rra gsd srranerq B 3r€r 3rtr{€rrrr.F- 3{Er srsi srrarerrr fr srr+crg srffi sttrc€Trqer *dI B I era gdg rJq-fufl ag" 3rcru+-trclltn fr fu-fl arqr B r sr* srr+nirs @] fr rrqffraTer€r o-ar B r rr{ g q-azr+fl.l-€I fagael-Iq 3{dde{Td?t: I 3Trqrsn-cqa-d{T;ass ftlnf -aIif, :r3-dttt (q. ft. r srr o) tr<.rafl;rrqrEl dt rc;tft ? ftiz+ ar* 3T16rg zrr qzra *ar B r {r;E-rgtdag6.i l.}?tsoi tl.r{irner{FflrqEei ft.-i a-gtr€rfi-dtfl.i q-dfr ftrffi q I (9. ll.2 1/tal rl.Flr.nr?rr;Fit::Ti;) gti:r anfbrcarraq r (s,cevt) 116
  • fua zar*g 3{TflTerer gft srrarerqrc}a+ror, r dft{.F-r g6+-{q fusrarrur r (qo-qrFr d.zo re) "lst-i q-dfr Frffi ffi at q6 q-6"ft .Fr q-€a 6rd B, * d sngtrr+T +srgT{r{ c4EI@t d *ar B rStarch: Within 5 to 30 minutes after chyme empties from stomach into deodenum and jejunumand is mixed with pancreatic juice vertually all starch will have digested.Protein: Most of the protein digestion occurs in the upper part of small intestine in the deodenumand jejunum, under the influence of proteolylic enzyme, pancratic enzyme, trypsin,chymotrypsin, cirboxyploypetidase and proclastase.Fat: All fat digestion occurs in small intestine by emulsification of fat by bile acid and lecithin.Digestion of triglycerides is by pancreatic lypase. Most of the absorption takes place in smallintestine. dEId, st* 3{rflrerer, qarflTarerErcTeIT cr u-6sft uo q€} * qqfq B r e-S 3rrcr or zerra B3{"FJ€lrctT-F rq-#q 3rtru€n-qrqtqarerei g qrrd-t-q aGaarq rqftftFs-d qtrcreq srg"qtq EbEsrrer?r:n (q. f. r szr r) fr qa s+{ 5&Ea-drgd orq"Fnerer -bE 3ftr{qrclltF cFT TeIIEt } I E6<ra e}qur A-.F-{qftftfSa aa *qrs 6]-n E qa frrg B, sfu e-S qeqrerq B I (Prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar) After considering the histology, structure and function correlation of stomach, smallintestine, large intestine. The first avastha pak starts from mouth and ends in the first part ofstomach. Dvitiya avastha starts from lower part of stomach and ends in first part of smallintestine. Tritiya avastha starts after dvitiya in small intestine and after that sara kitta vibhajantakes place.Physiological conformation (in short): o Histologically stomach shows gastric glands devoid of peptic and oxyntic cells at cardiac end, and they secret much mucus. o So madhura avastha pak starts from mouth with the help of saliva and ends up to first part of stomach. e Lower part of stomach shows gastric glands with peptic, oxyntic cells so we can say that amla avastha pk starts here only. o When the gastric emptying begins, in small intestine the bile and pancreatic juice are collectively poured through Ampulla of Vater in the first part of deuodenum (This can be correlated with acchapitta that will ooze out for its function. 3frererT@tnflEruq ffi sffi r o Small intestine shows villi. Large intestine does not show villi. The saar bhaga i.e. digested food material gets absorbed through small intestine with the help of villi. o Large intestine is the part of purishvaha strotas. So avastha pak completes at the end of small intestine and kitta vibhajan is the process, which takes place in large intestine. rhe consept of avasthapaka is itself an explaination of physiot"lhftlJ,i!1J:,tffi"J[?digestion and in whole body during the process of digestion of food in gastrointestinal tract. Theconfirmation of the sthan (sites) of the three stages of digestion i.e. pratham, dvitiya and tritiyaavasthapak can be done with the help of the description given in Shrangdhar Samhita asfollowing-1. Patham avasthapak - <{ tcEt I qt l<t <{ qt I c)t <; qd urontrrdEa r tI7
  • argd +-dend q q-{tifi aata z+, t Therefore, the site of pratham avasthapak is amashaya, because orally admistrated(bhuktamatrasya) food is stored here temporarily. Mucus secretion (kledak kapha udbhava) bythe mucus glands of the stomach starts. Kledak kapha is madhur, picchhila prakledak and shitaldue to audak guna (watery property). A mixture of food and mucus produces foam due toimmulsifiction (fenbhut svarupa) by the mechanical churninig action of stomach (saman karya). 2.Dvitiyaavasthapak - Chronological (kramashah) second part of stomach (amashay adhobhaga) and duodenum(grahani) are loaded with acids, enzymes and hormones when the mixed food is propolled(chavyana) in lower part of the abdomen (annavaha srotas). This is the sthan of dvitiyaavasthapak, the second stage of digestion. In stomatch peptic acid (pachak pitta) mixes with thefood; curd-like (vidagdha) sour test and consitancy develop. This chemically changed foodresults in realease of some digestive juices and hormones like bile juice (pitta), pancreatic juice(katu and acchhapitta), CCK, secretin etc. in the duodenum (grahani) with the help of gastro-iliacreflex (saman vayu karma). Therefore, from lower stornach to grahani is the sthan is confirmedfor divitiy avasthapak. 3. Tritiya avasthapak - Third stage of digestion i.e. tritiya avasthapak is seen inrest of the small intestine and large intestine, physiologically called as pakvashaya in Ayurveda,where the pakva anna (digested food) resides. According to Sharangdhar pakva ahar rasa is katu till the katu pitta and agni are mixedwith it after proper digestion. If the food is not digseted properly it will remain aam (amla due toapakva anna amsha). We can expirience this in indigestion. At the tritiya avastha paka inpakvashaya paripindit svamp of mala and passing of flatus (maruta) are the indications of properdigestion. Therefore from the second part of small intestine (illium) to the end of large intestinei.e. up to the rectum is the sthan of tritiya avasthapak. Also Chakradatta has explained thelocations of pratham avastha paka at hridaydurdhva where the madhur rasa is located, which isobivously near the location of its sthan (amashaya). Shelshma samvardhan, sharir balavardhanare seen here. He has described nabhi hriday madhya sthan as the amla rasa location in the bodyof human being. This location is also obivous for the pitta pravartan for dvitiya avasthapak. Katurasa is located adhonabhi and therefore accumulation of vayu is always seen here in tritiyaavastha paka. Chronologically these three are known as madhur avastha paka, amla avasthapakand katu avastha paka. (Prof. Kalpana Sathe) Sthan of pratham avasthapak is stomach whereas dvitiya avasthapaka is small intestine.Large intestine is the site of tritiya avasthapak. Breakdown of carbohydrate takes place inpratham avasthapak which leads to formation of glucose. In dvitiya avasthapak protein and fatdigesting enzymes act along with carbohydrate digesting enzymes. End product of proteindigestion is amino acid while fatty acid and glycerol are the end products of fat digestion. Up tosecond stage all absorption has taken place except the water. Due to formation of glucose andamino acid these stages are known as madhur and amla avastha paka respectively. In third i.e.katu avasthapak there is only absorption of water and electrolytes. Due to absorption of waterundigested substances beco me hard, which is known as feces. Due to bacterial activity in colonmethane and ammonia-like gases are formed After completion of digestion in GIT rasa undergoes further metabolic changes, which isknown as vipak. (Dr. Sangeeta Gehlot) 118
  • 2.35. In Cha. Chi. 15th chapter, Charak has described avasthapak and vipak in detail whiledescribing the process of ahar paka. Can we critically analyze avasthapak and vipak on thebasis of modern science? Can we fix any laboratory investigations for these concepts? (Dr. Suchetha Kumari M.)Avastha - paka in compendia:First stage of digestion:First stage of cooking of rice comprises of boiling water and formation of quickly expanding andspilling foam like uppermost laygr.3{El-€e[ Uffi-ffIT-{q q-_S€Tg IIcIT-b-if: Iflg"rdrq o*1 a+rora #aagr sfffr1l (a. E. ls/s)Pra is first. Papakatah is while digesting. Udiryate is kapha secretes or kapha is stimulated. Afterfood containing six rasa is ingested (bhuktamatrasya), foamy secretion of madhur kapha takesplace as a primary event in digestion. First stage basically occurs due to separation of prithvi mahabhuta and jala mahabhuta.This happens due to effect ofjathragni of food. Jatharagni acts on food, which is already grindedby teeth (dantena jarjarita); and breaks it into panchabhautik components. Breakage begins withprithvi mahabhuta and jala mahabhuta. They together constitute rasa madhura in context to rasa,and dosha kaph in context to dosha. So first stage of digestion gives rise to dosha kapha and ismadhura in rasa. Over here, first stage of digestion is needed to consider as digestion of food instomach till the food gets mixed with acid and becomes acidic?T5t 3{raTTQrer: frorerqtq sqft-dq d-q@d6arq slffranq *cr+r: zr< El-EsrrRs?q, z+ a-gftferuv s{T6r€q 3{TetT{:t (g.T& ztttz) In modern anatomy and physiology stomach is hrst receptacle of food, where food comesin mechanically digested status by grinding of teeth and contains salivary secretions. Cells ofmucous membrane of stomach secrete very strong acid HCl. Copious amount of thick and viscid,insoluble mucus is present here to protect the mucous membrane.3rrarerS edrqr ag{?ftera: rIt softens "iar_dft wraps it in such a fashion that even spicy food is unable to irritate mucous food andmembrane of stomachTr q d5t sffi gq 3{TEIT: qfuq f}r;a-tiqra: {ard?e? aardfr I (g. T& z t t t z)All these thoughts in certain aspects match concepts of Ayurvedic digestion - first stage.Why first stage should be called as a stage of sweet rasa, second one as a stage of sour rasa andthird one as a stage of spicy rasa when tongue is the only organ to perceive rasa? Tongue ispresent only in mouth. Once food traverses beyond tongue, how these tastes in terms of rasa arerealized? Following reference answers thcse questions. It is not necessary for rasa to submit itself to taste buds. Certain occasions call forprevious experiences. knowledge given by experts, or judgment by means of actions of unknownrasa. Hence manifestations shown on body can spell out rasa. Rasa in avasthapka is judged bymeans of manifestation observed on body. :erd errr-tnqa cq sefr a q6er*, 3rrrrirr?r: q @ha, ffifrE srgana;6 fift I (an.g.)When ingested matter is mouth, rasa is perceived by tongue. Once it passes beyond mouth, it isguessed by its effects on living body.Judgment of first stage of digestion as madhura: Suppose sweet food is ingested. It is recognized by tongue as sweet. When it comes tolocation of first stage of digestion, it remains sweet; rather its sweetness is accentuated due toaddition of constituents of sweet rasa, as a result of digestion process. This is manifested on bodyin the form ofaccentuated kapha. 119
  • Suppose spicy food is ingested. It is recognized by tongue as spicy. When it comes tolocation of first stage, it behaves as if it is sweet. What is meaning of food behaving as if it issweet? Spicy food, which burns tongue and mucus membrane of mouth, brings tears in eyes andmakes nose nm; should irritate mucous membrane of stomach immediately after reaching it.Individual eating spicy food should get burning sensation, till the food is excreted out ofintestine. However this does not happen. Once taste is reahzed at tongue, food swallowed is notthat irritant (vidagdha) and burning as should be expected. This is because of thick coverage ofmucus protecting mucous membrane of esophagus and stomach (amashaye sambhavati shlesmamadhura shitalah). In addition saliva helps to bind and wrap this food. Since this stage is non irritant to mucus membrane of stomach, it is called madhura stage.This is only rasa, which never produces any irritation. It is therefore proposed by Ayurveda that manifestations in terms of accentuated kaphawill vary in sweet and spicy food quantitatively. With heavily sweet food, satiety will be more;drowsiness and heaviness of meal will be more than spicy food. Yet, first stage is non-irritant stage (avidagda kapha). This is stage ofaccentuated kapha.Accentuation of kapha is responsible for madhura rasa and vice a versa.argeft ftfrmara sdRara*o q rarrffrer+ edwr agreftrrf,: ll (9. T& zrtrz) "+ardftThis sweet (madhura) and cool (shital) kapha keeps the food non irritant, in fluidly status and inviscous condition hence it is derived that first stage is madhura stage, generating kapha. Practical aspect if observed as per todays physiology dictates when food is received inreceptacle of stomach, it is churned and made soft and is mixed well with gastric juices. Thischurning gives semisolid appearance to food. Not only does it become foamy but till it is wellmixed with acidic gastric juice, it remains non - irritating due to covering of gastric mucous.Stage of.digesting food, till it acquires acidity, can be termed as first stage or madhura - rasaavaitha - put u. Food with any rasa taken in this stage will fill stomach to some extent and offersa little or more heaviness depending upon quality of food. If more unctuous food is eaten, itgives more heaviness. Dosha kapha is generated and nourished in this stage.ii. Second stage of digestion: Second stage of cooking of rice comprises of half boiled rice withless foam and severely rising steam above thicker water mixed with neither boiled not raw ricegrains.q{ g qar4Tl6rg€r fu<oqeqffi3{TEl-r: I3nerqr€rcr4Farq ftaq€d*rr (q. ft 15/1o)After this, half digested food-which is in the process of digestion is propagated downwards fromamashaya. (Since location of pitta is emphasized here, particular word is used.) Due to sournessof the food, achapitta is secreted here. Second stage basically occurs due to separation of teja mahabhuta and jala mahabhuta.This happens due 6 effect ofjathragni of food. Jatharagni acts on food, which is already grindedby teeth; and breaks it into panchabhautik components. Breakage in second stage is with tejamahabhuta and jala mahabhuta. They together constitute rasa amla in context to rasa, and doshapitta in context to dosha. So second stage of digestion gives rise to dosha pitta and is amla inrasa. Second stage is of sour rasa. A short time after ingestion of food, thirst is felt by individual eating food. Intensity of thirst could be indicative of type of food eaten. When more agni or digestive mechanism is active, intensity will be more. Hence in heavy or spicy or irritant food more thirst is experienced. Following manifestations indicates this tage.^ffi{arqqq -fu.rr-g+r qr+rq-:+re-daf-a *en e}efar6orRf}+ ftaq r (sr.z.{- Tt tq,:) 120
  • Individual due to generation of pitta, gets feeling of appetite (abhilasha) since food is beingproperly digested, (pakti) feels thirst (pipasa), looks nourished (prabhaprasadadarshan), likes toperform intellectual functions (medha) likes to perform deeds using his bravery (shourya). Allthese things are in fact felt by individual from peak of second stage to end of second stage wherepitta is dominant all over physiology of living body. Second stage of digestion is needdd to consider as digestion of food from first part ofduodenum till digested products are absorbed. This entire area comprises of mixed digested andundigested food (vidagdhasya iti pakwapkwasya). Hence it extends to second part of ileumalmost. Over here, pancreatic and hepatic secretions along with succus entericus, in form of Pittadigest all food components. This makes digested part of food to be separated from undigestedpart of foodrrtrcrr zlr{fuEeFd+e=i, (sr.€. {& r zre)This is grahani in Ayurvedic languagesraqftrsrcrarc.rgq- at6un{ u-A"ft aar raraffigs@rgrqd errls-€@i q-cFi q-6fr qref,o: rr (q. f. t stsz,se) This part of digestive system holds agni, hence it holds food for a long duration and thisaction gives it a name grahani. It holds food till it is digested and sends it down only afterdigestion.*o erqaffi e-ar fumertraaqr r (sr.6. en. s)q6 frdet-{r .rra err o-ar qffiftfar rqqqrirTTererdrerrr€rr q-6oft z+t qdfthr r r (9. s. 40)qS fud€rfl- ard qzrcrrflT?renrr€qz€fi, zrr ffi 3rrffrerqr(q€nx+ql"?q3rdqq*d fterrd ftra*q-c{r eiffi, q-dft, q-fti q ftqffi, Mrkr" <iMs r a-d srril 3{@r{q q-6unE E6r, u-a"n-+igr r eEi -r€rr:ffia+errorFfer: zn s@ffi*ar er$ri iffirThe same is also called pittadhara kala because it gives support to pitta in this area. As functionof this part is digestion, this pitta is digestive fire. Over here digested products are absorbed.Undigested products, once decided as undigested, piNS on to pakwashaya. Dosha pitta isgenerated and nourished in this stage.iii. Third stage of digestion: Third stage of cooking of rice comprises of well boiled rice whichnow is ready for ingestion. Water is evaporated and every grain of rice now is cooked.qryr:qrerci € qrca-gq effiqrrqftftF-sdqqdtq tng: ebga{T-rd:1 (q. E. 1s/1t) "=IT-r pakwashaya, it is absorbed with theWhen this digested food reaches help of agni (shoshyamanaagni). Absorption gives digested food its shape of container (paripinditapkwasya) due to katurasa over here vayu is generated here. Third stage basically occurs due to separation of akash mahabhuta and vayu mahabhuta.This happens due to effect of agni. Charak Samhita names this agni as shoshyamana agni(shoshyamana vanhi). Due to absorption of fluidly material bythis agni, panchabhautikcomponents are revealed. This begins with akash mahabhuta and vayu mahabhuta. They togetherconstitute rasa katu in context to rasa, and dosha vata in context to dosha. So third stage ofdigestion gives rise to dosha vata and is katu in rasa. Third stage of spicy or katu rasa is almost end of digestion of food. In Ayurvedic termpakwa food is mala (malarupataya pakwasya). This stage deals with excretory part of food. Thispart of food may be useful to animals other than humans, as their digestive systems are designedaccordingly. For humans excretory part of food, due to deficiencies of digestive system cannot t?t
  • be utilized. Part, which is unable for human digestive system to digest, is called Mala for humangastro intestinal system. Third stage of digestion is needed to consider in large intestine where undigested foodproducts in form of semisolid fecal form arrive (malarupataya pakwasya). Here, by absorption offluidly matter (shoshyamana vanhi), solid mass of feces is preparedqfrftrFe-aq-fr-{+fr qftfrFs-d-sq-d-qr aIcraEI?reIT q"Ertq rSince bacteria grow in this stage, noxious and toxic products, which are also acidic, are producedin this stage hence katu rasa is produced and by relation of dosha and rasa, vata is generated.When eaten, sour food is enjoyed by eater, it raises capcity of agni, nourishes body, offers somestrength, increases leaming capcity of mind, strengthens special senses, acts as carminativeagent, is good for heart, waters mouth, increases peristalsis, increases secretions, digests, heartilyaccepted, light, ushna, unctuous in nature. Dosha vata is generated and nourished in this stage. (Dr. Nandini Dhargalkar) srer{€rrcrro EFT q*rrerrefi-q q-Seror tn-{ €{-6-* B r frqt-6 ebr s-€-S d-C +3{TET{ rt{ 3TgifTToI c.rfiF€IT qr trcb-Ar B rag{ 3il-er€efiqr6 -sti*e* edwtera-gm a-#o qerryEefu-dr6r (g.T1* 2o/ts s-€q A-d-r)arfueaer arg{r-6r-{: oq qftEe+q sTfter+a | (9. z& +orszz) Grcf -T-F 3{T6r{ s{fu<oer B dq -rcF ag" 3{creetrsr-F B r g€-o.r ?€fi-d qTq3{Tarr€rq d ssda+rar d-dn B r 3{Errrerq trr ?€rTd arf]+ e+qia-e GrTI€n arqr B d zft zF1 eerra $ I g-tg * d-6-{ gTeF" 3il-ifiTerel cr.F age 3rzr+eITETTEF-6r r€TTd qrt r"37t"Fst-e g{ftei{ fr er#r or fraior dar E rLaboratory investigationl) Gastric function test: With the help of gastric tube or Ryles tube gastric content should becollectedTest for gastric acid secretion - o Assess basal output and maximal acid out put o Ratio of basal autrut and maximal acid output o PH and volume also assess2) Test for gastrin - Serum gastrin level.Er6 Er6r qr€-d arqr fr ff * ag-{ 3ftr{€rrqr6 urqd E rffiq s[GreernttF-u-r-g u-aarang.fugotrtq | (t._E 1 5/1 o) 3rft;ra{Ttrd: eq*i ft..i e-gffiera-aqr=i q-dft ffi qr (g .T* 21/10)fud-{€rr}g srr:rnel-er gfr- sn-ffreFTre]a{Fr, dfrr6-r s<"F"€r fuare+ror r (a-o-qrFr q. T&2o /e)sr€isfrailerq, {Foft, qarfiTarerq qR fue$-q srzr{qrElTfi tFI T€rTEr B r ug"ft fr*aft e+rq s{rt B qa qEECr, tB-qrd, r-ffid ds{ q6rfi srra B s*s gd T+rd +T sk8-dfua qrar qrar B rLiver Function test: o To assess synthesis and elimination of billurubin pigment, urobilinogen and bile acids. _,- Serum - Bile acid test Billurubin Pigment fr-Faeces - Bile salt test Urine - Urobilinogen test t22
  • Serum enzyfn assay - Serum transaminase ( Amino transferase ) and alkaline Phosphates. o Transaminase: o - SGOT Sqrum glutamate oxalo acitate transaminase. also called AST - Serum aspartate transaminase. o SGPT - Serum glutamate pyruvic transaminase . . 3) Gama GT - Gama glutamyl Trdrspeptidase o Other enzymes: o 5 Nucleotides o LDH lactate dehydrogenate o Cholinesterase.Test for metabolic function:1) Serum Protein Test: Test for albumine . Test for glolbuline Albumine - globuline ratio .2) Test for serum inmmunoglobulins3) Test for serum ammonia.Test for clotting facter: Prothrombin tromboplastin. In obstruction of srnall intestine or in obstraction of bile duct prothrombin time andtromboplastin time are increased; the cause behind this is vit K defficiency.Blood sugar levelLipidprofile-- SerumHDL - Serum LDL - Serum Cholesterol - Serum triglyceride - Serum vlor.Pancreatic function test - Serum amylase - Serum calcium - Somatostatin - Test for gastrin - Serum lypase. 56I sq Eft aiTrr gr€a d d 3r€I stqs€Trqrs qr€d g3Tr B qE qr4r utTTIoar E r sffi{€TrcrrtFJddd u-duft or d ffiq e+rlr A ser fr n ErEirrar d gErR€rd3r@ 6l TiTd E {d scrfr ft-drerq, ffiqrq + T{rq a*e tisrrgr +t sqfrqff crr*qr ero-ft E rubg 3ffiE€rrqr6- qryrerci tr grwcq efrqdrdeq dfudt qftfrFs-d rrc6pq qrgrqrq 6gelT-kr: I I(q. fu. I s/l 3) qrrcnerq d ileq sftrs€rrsTs +sr qrar B r eiqaTT.r{€T dkai * GrdT sfu@z or ard €e"-dr-{d fr eilqr Ei6-{ qfrffia te{r a-f, *qF{ *ar B gftw qpo* * aa +1 qBm-*o- ra-r* .n ero-S B r 3,rrgdE d qiwfu eft qmrerer d fr carg ar$ B r r g-{ qred o.q.* *qrt +e + fru ge; +t srqa-ar aft H B rRenal function test "{q}rr1) Test depending on blood analysis: Test per nitrogen constituent e.g. urea, creatinine etc. 123
  • 2) Test depending on urine analysis i) Volume, reaction, ammonia, coefficient concentration of normal constituents. ii) Specific gravity iii) Presence of abnormal constituents (albumin, cast, blood cells etc )3) Test for elimination of some substances i) Water elimination test. ii) Indigo carmine test iii) Iodoxyl test.4) Test depending upon both blood and urine analysis (clearance test) i) Insulin clearance (A mesure of glomerular filtration rate) ii) Urea clearance test. erel trq q$er.r qr€d A A qe Faftr aft urqa qrBu I cIeIT il,ff-"ala-{€rrrrTtr a-a s*z q* d sr€ddr d qraar qrBs r "ta-garfrqro o-dBsqr (a. E. zorao) frqr6 z* s-E{-S 6-d A E qrar rrr zro-ar B Io-dftels- o6@ (a-o-wrFr q. zaroa) "l ftqr+, e;ff, s16pqftqrff€ds BN6r Grwrk, Aq gogEuere-aerw aeITsqaaq* r (*Firarer *afuqro- ag{ - qEE"-€ ?1-+-d 3rFI - qwftd1qtr ?I@arerd EbE - E-€fld-dil{,- ?Jq:neT"F (ao"wrFr- q- 26/6t,az) *i A".o + # -sYfi-ra Pa$ftfrtera "t qtrr o-s zro-i E r sa # * ara{* q8ewl s}t go-rg q$en d qr tr-6-ff B I (Prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar) Critical analysis of avasthapak and vipak is diffrcult but not impossible. It maY not becritically identical but it is almost similar. Following points may help design research in thisdirection. Avasthapak is the physiological process or stages of digestion of compelx food into insimple form. vodem sciente has described digestion of food in gastro inteslinal tract mainlyseven ways. 1) Mechanical functions of digestive organs 2) Secretions of digestive fluids. 3) Conversion of complex food in simple form 4) Absorpation of nutrients. 5) Excretion of wastes and 6) Stimulatory functions, mechanical as well as chemical 7) Reflex function All the above functions related to digestion are well explained in avasthapaka and vipak concept ofAyurveda. 1) Mechanical functions like ahar gati, anna adankarma of pranvayu, anna gtahana in grahani, munchan in pakvashaya and mala-mutra chyavan etc. 2) Secretions of kledak kapha, pachak pitta and acchhapitta antim 3) Conversion of panchablhautik guna of ahar to sharir sama panchabhautik guna and rasa by vipak. paka 4) Absorpation of nutrients with the help of agni and sahakari vayu in tritiya avastha 5) Excretion of annamala vata (flatus) and paripindit purish (feces) - formed in tritya avastha paka. 124
  • 6) Stimulatory functions like udirna of kledak kapha, pachak pitta, acchhapitta and sandhukshana of jatharagni mechanically by saman vayu karya as explained by Sharangdhar and chemically by vidaghdha, amla rasa. 7) Relfex functions like prasek, kshudha - bubhuksha- are practically seen during avasthapak at the time of kapha udirna and agni vardhan. For pradhan avastha paka immulsification test can be appligd. For dvitiya avasthapakgastric pH can be determined and for tritiya avasthapak paripidit svarupa of mala can beexamined by darshan pariksha.For madhur vipak of any dhatu-updhatu Benedicts analysis is tobe done. (Prof. Kalpana Sathe)2.36. Please explain the physiology of concept of pilupak and pitharpak.(Neelakanthaprakasha on Pratyaksha Parichaya of Tarkasamgraha and Digestion andMetabolism in Ayurveda by C. Dwaraknath) (Dr. Devendrappa Budi) qro fua orcH-6-d{"f 6-d B r *ftd s}s sra-z-der 6rge qg ufruraa tffq_@tff tE+r qro or sref kerr B rfi-gqr+- fi-g 6r sref B q"arg I te]fuo <ela fr q"arE3ff qE ffi rrro qB-qr.or-o"ta ff-grrro qr< i fu-qr B r gs{- fr q-<ref t warE gerA dar sa qs *q of fu-qr *ar sfu fuq ir1-g-dTql TRrr a-.F-{ a-} qEref -ot FFfrff ffi ts r gsr# q<ref + E-EI, {{{ ri€nRh qea qsa * qr< utrttrnfr errgeffi BFfrft ffi ts r gtl-S srmer zrs+rcFrodqrsi6r urarter *dr B sfu 3rd@ ffi errg sru gs s{rdrg q<ref * Grdze+, ovrR g-itd E 1 figuro zrzrrqGren 6r<-dlcr * +d srar B I ld-6lsqr6 orE:- ft6grlr6 arq <efdT fr qdrql :tr€IT B r gs-S w-argsil q{ z{qrdsr"r{€rT fr fr *6-{{ * TSrr +dr B s*s q{ref d q<-ars 3{r EIr-Ir Br gtl-fr dordrrrftsra-a dilftro trcarq S zrrs zsar B r F€-S ot$ ifitn-a Grqc"nq a-S * qr* r3dr6{oTcr: srrsrridr 6t g+tqr a-gq ers{ d ad qrff B r ElrdlT-ru€n * e-6-{EI€rd-{ff -GF er${ d ffi d<-drd N of srfrer eft ds.UlTere€n -T.F gk,ggrq-{.rr d erqr grrrfr qro qB-qr * B qs srfr€r d srfte.r A gs-crr aT-rcTGtd-cc/q€ref a-S saar B r "}oftt . (Prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar)Physiological concept of pilu paka and pithar pakas: Ayuivedic science is based on phylosophical concepts of Nyaya-Valsheshika. Pilu pakais discussed by Vaishehikas. The term pilu refers to the parmanu or atom; paka refers to thechange brought about in the interrelationship between pilus (pl. of pilu) of a substance.According to Vaishehik philosophy pilus combine, seperate and recombine, under the influenceof tejas. Changes in original occur after the paka and changes can be in its (substances) color,consistancy etc. and are different in different paka by various agnis. Physiologically jatharagni,other agni prakar, pitta and pittabheda are responsible for the above types of paka; like indigestive system bolus formation, then sanghatbheda of ahar parnanu and formation of sharirsanjatieya dravya are based on pilupaka philosophy. a) These changes are dependent upon the nature of constituent substances in contact like vividh rasas, gurvadi guna, panchabhautikta ofahar dravya in prathan avastha paka b) The intensity or the degree of agni like amla pitta, katupitta, accha piua tyaktadravatwa anala in dvitiya avasthapak, which are responsible for mrudu paka, 125
  • Madhya paka, khar paka, samyak paka teekshna paka, manda paka, vishama paka (ageerna) etc. c) It is described as vilakshana tejas samyoga. The tejas (agni) parmanu (atom) reacts with the anu (molecules) of ahar. The food molecules are decomposed and converted into atom. They finally recombine to form simple but different qualities of molecules under the influence of tejas, like carbohydrates in glucose, proteins in amino acid etc. for the assimilation of nutrients again to form different molecules of differenl dosha, dhatu, upadhatu and mala. Conversion of anu parrnanu of different dosha (metabolites), dhatu, (tissues) and udaka(water) in another form (vikruti visham samvaya), constitution, color, texture is pilupaka. pitharpaka is described by Nyayaikas. The term pithar means the union of cause and effect; that meansunion of paramanu under the influence of heat without changing the characteristics to form pithar(molecules or larger aggregates) of them like fat deposits, deposition of feces (pari pindit mala)in presence of etc. The change due to agni is merely physical in tritiya avasthapik. The pithara iistated to be composed of two or more anus (prakruti sama samvaya). (Prof. Kalpana Sathe)2.37. Please explain acchhapitta. (Dr. Jairaj P. Basarigidad)2.38. How can we better understand the concept of acchhapitta? (Ch. Chi. l5/9) (Dr. Devendrappa Budi) These two questions have the same answer, which is as below-qt-tF. i d srrfl-{ tlrEtar zft sr+{qrqr6} mr qsFa fu-qr B r fu-e{ # u-6"ft Efu-e+reqrqffiq sftr€qTEITEF fr sfrEd fud +1 E 316 ft-.f, ridlera fu-qr B r tr{dr rrrr€lErrEr{q freoemv 3rFrarT-rer: | 3{TersTq @qarrEr€€r frc(i 3rqi stra r F. E:1 5/l O)3{€, er< t srrgde erq+}q fr go aref Ee B r r. taaq - + g*d A, z. a-{ - d qaar d, e. Fdd{ - d e+a , aazFa d, 4. * qrcr ar-6r €IT a d, a<=irrE d6 q"b-rr g3{r 3{16rr F<oer d-cn-{ 3rrcr{-+r + Eq fr creiatp-s3{Tdrer{r * B+-a-o-s rr-Fnercr fr qre c,ruTrrr }, * 3lffirr*T + zFrsq 3tcs fudsfffr-d d qrar Br a-6-qrsft a q. fu. 3T r s # grs-o-r fr-.{ir zffi+-sor Eqr B q"q Efr 3{reFngqElTrrTocrfifl r F*eoerc+fr rrcrcrTrrcrcrtq I 3t-rcrafl?tE €fr r.JITdTFnkrsEr.r: I 3rrersnq 3flaleryTq | axzrdlTEr{€r sreilarrJt drgdr #e-dra-ts r sr+a qfumgerr++ieier fusoerranpq defuF r sr€Frft 3rEraq I sdldA- gft fr.-a-q Bs{A Efrgffi-+d r (qoqruft a. E. I s)q"q1 - 3rrer arg{ 3tzr+errqr6 t qr< rfuqaerg - 3la -FI qrErEI-Fr 1=5g,)EI I3rrcraiila * 3{a?f Ero.Er 3Tril- } |3{Terefiq - 3{T+IT€rer Iqqfrt=re€r - qrgd-{rrr Gr} fum-sarra * qr=n3rq - cilr Ecr aT e=Isffia - futr +t g-drk ffi tsr t26
  • rlrtlEt 4* gerfr 3ftr{srclTcF fr geff c-d 4-6redfld6 a+rfr oT rtrErcf +dr B, a<=irrsqcErcltltr 3d srrffrerq * trr* fuaEerra d acilenqraT +dr B r srr-d srffi{+r.Tr tEFrsUr fr sra, srsd furfi sffRd *dr E I (Prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar) In dvitaya avashta pak the gastric emptying begins; partly digested food comes in smallintestine. The bile and pancreative juices collectively poured in duodenum through ampulla ofVater. It is poured only after meal so it can be correlated with the udirana of acchapitta. So in myopinion bile and pancreatic juices collectively can be called as acchapitta. The pittadhara kalaa issituated in grahani so it secrets the pitta, which can be correlated with succus entericus, the mostimportant digestive juice of small intestine. (Dr. Kavita Indapurkar) Acchha means liquid. Accha pitta is produced during amla avastha pak. This is mala rupipitta. During amla avasthapak bile juice and pancreatic juices are secreted in to the duodenum.Bile is liquid and mala rupi pitta. (Dr. Sangeeta Gehlot)2.39. What is acchha pitta?What is its site? Please also explain its relation with pitta. Somemay correlate it with bile. Is it correct? (Dr. Lingaraddi M. Biradar) Achapitta is secreted at second stage of digestion called second avasthapka. Due tosourness of food it is secreted (amlabhavatah). Second stage basically occurs due to separation of teja mahabhuta and jala mahabhuta.This happens due to effect ofjathragni of food. Jatharagni acts on food, which is already grindedby teeth; and breaks it into panchabhautik components. Breakage of ahar in second stage is inteja mahabhuta and jala mahabhuta. They together constitute rasa amla in context to rasa, anddosha pitta in context to dosha. So second stage of digestion gives rise to dosha pitta and is amlaln rasa. Achapitta is that fluid, which acts as vehicle needed for ushna property to reach food. Attime of digestion, which is going to take place in grahani, this ushma leaves its vehicle or fluidityand comes in direct contact with food. Commentator Chakrapni states achham iti aghanam. Aslong as this agni is in conjunction with this fluid, it does not start its real fu.nction. When it leavesamashaya, which is in fact place for ama or apkwa food; this achapitta is secreted for the purposeof digestion. It can not have one to one correlation with bile. It is achham that is clear in naturewhereas bile has bile salts and bile pigments. (Dr. Nandini Dhargalkar) q{ g qaftflIar*€[ fuaocrEqrrysTTElir: I sITerrIT@TaIor{z[ fr-m-gqtr]r (a. E. 1sllo)q?Bft 3flaqg"qroIilffit{ | F€d€ru+fr q@rErertrczr I qildrr.rral sreiefl-ri qrg-dnffqara-ls, sr*a a fraeer+E{dei fueaerrorEs qefufr r sraRfr 3TsEq r stri gfrftrd-€d-sA; srci q fu;erraelrar<ranrsq sdrer €ft gffiAqt F. E. l s/t o .T"a-o-qrFr) o Acchhapitta is secreted from amashay after the first pak i.e. madhur pak o It is amla because amlata is formed in the chyme 127
  • o This pitta is not solid (semiliquid or semisolid) . The chyme that is released from amashay is partly digested {Rakva-apakva) food o This pitta is mala (Arunadatta) o Gastric chyme entering the jejunum has a pH < 2 ) secretion of cholecystokinin from duodenal and upper jejunal mucosa ) stimulates the secretion of pancreatic juice ) neutralizes pH of chyme near proximal small intestine. . Cholecystokinin also stimulates gall bladder contraction for the release of bile. However, the amount of bilerelease depends on amount of fat present in the chyme released from stomach. o Bile pH is alkaline i.e. > 7.0 (not amla) o Total daily basal secretion of hepatic bile is - 500 - 600 ml o Hepatic bile is concentrated by energy-dependent transmucosal atsorption of HzO and electrolytes. Normal capacity of gall bladder is 30 - 50 ml of bile . pH of chyme before mixing of pancreatic juice is acidic. Pancreatic juice contains enzymes, bicarbonate ions and water. o Considering above facts bile or pancreatic juice does not appear to be acchhapitta as both have alkaline pH. The gastric chyme secreted from stomach is having very high acidic pH and is almost liquid. (One should remember that the chyme is a mixture of partly digested food and gastric secretion). Moreover, Charak has considered lower part of amashay as pitta sthan. (please see the reply No. 2.34.) So in my opinion gastric chyme released from stomach is acchhapitta (or gastric chyme contains acchhapitta) rather than bile or pancreatic juice (Dr. Sandhya pater)sra fro qea @-ffi6 2.37 fr ftrcEd qof-a fu-trr B r sr6 ftea 6l eaITEr u-d"ft; zFr3T€r: arrdrerq B r sr€ fud or zi<iq qrtl-F ftrd-S cFn-€n .TT so-ar B r sr€ fudof gaar qt-+d * ze-rar arsa E r3T€-ftd 6r sfi-{ur srds€ffqro +f ffiq 3rerg€IT rrro fr *ar B r r. frrfr-c3rrlE 3{ErTTQrq gft sn-+nerwda+ror t edw-zerrfu srTarer€r srrder*eda{rdr,r (4. Td* 20 /a a-€qr"ft) 2. sra-eftreraq rar 3l@r{€I U-6unq q-Aoft I ar r(a.fr. 1sl56) 3. arf}rea-arzia-E u-*sr-flrq-q gfr eqa, r (a. E. 2/ 2a)aso * 3rrflrerq 6t d-{rfer arf}+ s*{ z-<-a * d-q fr e-ar$ B r srrarerq or sedarrar edwtcrra B, e*z srel, arror ft-ttrs€rra B td doqruft a3{rJTTerq + a a+w qaarg Br 3TF-d s{fcrgra ?relr srar qaur " o-g} fr a;-cl"ft o-elt e, efu drFr t =,Erug+TrFT T€Tr6f Gr-Iren B, qdi s{F-a tnr elT{or d€rr Ej6oI *ar B r 5;€T gtrrt =nrs RA aa-a-aiac * srq 3{T.rrrer€r fr ildtft } aen q-g sr€ fuffi6r qS eerra B r ftrcd-q 3rtru€rrqrelt fr ftffi or sftsq +dr B tzn tqs gds a-c;upfta6 3q. E. I 5 fr fu-qr ts r 3{TarqrE a-.liril.rtq ftdq sro sfft I 3rq gfr s{saq ts-trA eA faq jrqa, s.q-sA zqzg B r fum q otn A 6oerrg B, D-tr-r c,iq-q + zf<af fr r 3{@ fudsrrqr B r ow ftra* a* urg r+}A ds-d aEq I ftai q-qraen dr qcrcn:rrrerEr.qezrqifr | taaStrra-o-Asfr e€qsrgui<qrq r r erErffr-r rrr+-rftm-snsaaerRaq r q-<r€-i frarqa z+rcfuqd gercmen I I tr2g
  • a-r-{q-+d fuiTiar e}qrurTq sfu slgqgq r 6ifr e-m-€r+a qraa; ara aqaqrr z1 r zrt o-t z) (sr.€. qrzl-F fud qtruTerq -reIT 3{Tdrerer a€q z-6tb-E rrid+}ft-.F of Efu *,+q-E+ {"fr or snFr@ # "iq-d d ffim-d + 6-rS o*sdr B, 3rrdrg Fd a5r qr-r6r -b??rrB, sc{A ftru dffird-.q qre =el-+ qrc61tr q5-d A 3-s-E,} 3rdc"r -b-6r uilcrr B r d e+rsfu€ frarrqa cb-{ 3{ar fua or ,3rgaa .F?TT B s-$ qrzr.F fuo o-o} B r sr€ fuftT srqa !, qrqo fua aft e-mrae qr$ cn:fi A-6-{ 3rEIGf aq dq-rccT tb?cTT B r gc{ qtFrs sra fua E;r zftier qrzltlt fud A Errrrqr qr z{-+-ar B r Some may correlate it with bile. It is not correct because during digestive process in smallintestine not only bile but also pancreatic juice, sucus intericus present.There secretions occur in following ways -Bile: Bile is secreted by liver cells (hepatocytes). Secretion of bile from liver and release of bilefrom gall bladder are influenced by some chemical agents such as1) Acetylcholine, secretion of vagus nerve fibre.2) Secretin, cholecystekinin (CCK) acid chyme in intestine.Pancreatic juice: Pancreaticjuice is secreted by acinar cells ofexocrine part ofpancreas. Pancreaticjuiceis secreted in 3 phases.A) Cephalic phase: When food is taken in side the mouth (conditional reflex) due to sight, smellof the food (Unconditional reflex) there is secretion of pancreatic juice due to stimulation ofacetylcholine secreted by vagus nerve fibre.B) Gastric phase: When food enters stomach hormonal mechanism occurs. Gastrin is secretedby mucus membrane of stomach. Then it transported to blood while reaching pancrease andcause secretion of pancreatic juice by acinar cells.C) Intestinal phase: When the chyme from stomach enters the intestine. More amount ofpancreatic juice due to secretion or release of two hormone i.e. cholecystokinin, secretin bymucosa of duodenum and jejunum.Sucus intericus/intestinal juice: Goblet cell, enterocytes, intestinal gland i.e. Brunner glandsecrete enzymes, mucus, intrinsic factors. All these three secretion collected in small intestine, sothat collectively bile, pancreatic juice, sucus intericus may be correlate with acchhapitta. (Prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar)q€rflrdzq ft..i srd stra r @. E. t sro) This description is very much simillar to the secretion of pancreatic juice from pancreaticduct, bile through common bile duct and ampula of Vator during intestinal digestion induodenum (pachymanashya-grahani). This is clear like water (accha means svacchha) not likebile. Therefore pancreatic juice can be correlated with acchhpitta. (Prof. Kalpana Sathe) Acchha pitta is mala of rakta dhatu. In hemoglobin metabolism bilirubin is formedmainly in macrophages, enters the liver, conjugates with glucuronic acid and is released in smallintestine (second part of duodenum) through liquid bile. (Dr. Sangeeta Gehlot)2.40. How to we practically differentiate acchha pitta and mala pitta? Can we fix anylaboratory investigations for these concepts? (Dr. Suchetha Kumari M.) Achapitta is a secretory response to second stage of food digestion. Here teja and jalamahabhuta are principally differentiated from food and generated amla rasa brings about this 129
  • secretion. Raktamala pitta is pitta poshana. It replenishes dosha pitta and merging in it functionsas pitta dosha. (Dr. Nandini Dhargalkar) We practically differentiate acchha pitta and mala pitta, because the process of bothsecretions is different. We can fix laboratory investigations for these concepts only after theircorrelation with modern science. Details of acchha pitta we are discussed in above questions answer.Malapittas:orr ftci aa Se1 q-{H asia q rTSsftrcq ftenq sffi en-riai @-ff* acI: I (sr.€. eTT. ero a) zerr$ ?cffi €rrg, 3q errg frrsro-gsrzmfrqoier /---- "2ffid6*d-{{ aiz+ errg frqoier z-mft-a -________ tIcI fum, zlewfl-d EdE "€Kn qe smfrqoier q{ of b-qr T-+dq (e-€q-d-6r) d ffi B ".ffitrg "EdrFafr E.o zerr$urg z.m d, sftu suerrg ffissrdq a-di Ben qftoraa *dr B I sgrFrdfr *in B I qs{{T aiz+urg *s-6ier -r€IrE *dr B r frc€r "€Ki-d-f, fua=r BFfd*ar Br e€ hFfu ztrr.rror futr fr ara fua B r sr€ fud o.r gfur srei srrarerqu-eruft fr .ilar B r 3{TFrg * zela qrErar ErsE[ s-fi-{nr *dr } I Er6 fua ?Fr dqoierB r a-sfua q€+T qre-a €s.Er fuer qfturaa fr EFfu *ar B r ftdae z-merrg snBra ses-ar B r gs+frs a-afua "1a g-6 fud sd-et Crdftrqfu-qr den terrd fr fldia-tfi * orsq + Eo W{t + srtrrr } r According to Ayurvedic concepts we cannot fix any laboratory investigations foracchhapitta and mala pitta. When we corelate acchhapitta as secretions which collect in smallintestine i.e. bile, pancreatic juice and sucus intericus and also mala pitta correlated as bilepigments present in the blood we can fix laboratory investigations for these. In man, intestinal juice, pancreatic juice and bile present in small intestine are collected byusing mutilumen tube. The multi lumen tube is inserted through nose or mouth until the tip ofthis tube reaches in intestine. Intestinal secretions can be collected through middle lumen bymeans of aspiration.It can be investigated by laboratory test.Bile compositions:Water -97 %Bile salt - 0.7 %Bile pigments - 0.2 (bilirubin and biliverdin)Cholesterol- 0.06%Inorganic salt-0.7 YoFatty acid - 0.15 %Lecithin and fat - 0.1Yo each Out of these only bile pigments are correlated with mala pitta. According to modernscience, bile pigments i.e. bilirubin and biliverdin excretory products (mala) in bile are formeddue to breakdown of hemoglobin. Senile RBCs (erythrocyte) are destroyed by RE system (reticuloendothelial system),hemoglobin is released. Further Hb is broken into heme and globin (reused). Heme splits intoiron and biliverdin, which reduced into bilirubin. 130
  • Bilirubin released into blood form RE system by plasma protein, albumin (free bilirubin)within a few hours. After release bilirubin is taken into liver cells. In liver it is converted intoconjugated bilirubin by glucuronic acid. The conjugated bilirabin is excreted into intestinethrough bile due to bacteria. In intestine 50Yo of bilirubin is converted into urobilirubinogen.Remaining 50% of the bilirubin absorbed into the blood. This conjugated bilirubin comes into blood circulation. It is mala pilta. Serum bilirubin is0.5- 1.5 mg/dl. It can be investigated by laboratory test. (Prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar)Difference between accha pitta and mala pitta is as follows- Accha pitta Mala pittaSite Agnyashay (pancreas) P ttashaya (gall bladder) Grahani (deodenum) P ttadharakalaUtpatti Ashayat udeeryate Grahani (deodenum) koshthastha asrujaha pittam (bile) pitta(pancreatic iuice)Guna svacchha, colorless,tikta Greenish yellow, katu, hot, (bitter) pungentKarma Anna pachana (digestion of Anna pachana(digestion of fats 80%), sarakitta fats with pancreatic juice, vibhajan, sara shoshan urea,uric acid formation sarakitta chyutam punah- vimochana kitta parinaman andvimochanlab tests Urinary diastase Bile salt, pigment in urine, lipase level of blood and blood urea,uric acid urine (Prof. Kalpana Sathe)2.41. Please explain the concept of shoshyamana vahni with respect to its guna, karma andsthan (Ref: Cha. Chi. 15/11). (Vd. Aniket Gitaram Ghotankar)Shoshyamana vanhi: These words may confuse anyone as to why this vanhi or agni is notenlisted in agni of living body? Shoshyamana vanhi is term used to denote that usual reaction ofAgni is not expected in this respect. Commentator ChakrApnidatta states:eirslrqr"rs ERilefr e-aqef,aroer+il qRd den srft ersrefiara-s qQd-dr eiqqroraiq€rereprtreqrgqq@q r qaeqrffi ere-o-ffi arftd 3I?r: rrEr.rITER=r €fr q?iqEsq etqarors Efr qnqr (q. E. t/s A6r)Since usual expectations of digestion (samyak-vanhi-vyApra) are not fulfilled here, it is differentfrom its usual self. Agni is necessarily directed upwards. In context to food digestion;pachymanasya agni (pachyamanasya) is directed upwards since it is situated in grahani anddigests food from amashaya onwards. Completely digested food is in the form of semisolid fecalform; traverses from small intestine to large intestine or Pakwashaya. This is semisolid and isbrought to solid consistency in large intestine. This is done by shoshyamana vanhi, as suggestedin compendium. 131
  • aT5I erq3{Tarer€rcrErcrrerqff€Erg€i ad-dq-a-drftB-sqr d-c€rrFaerq fttnq rand is said to abide in Grahanisro-qfErsrary*Eq ardlnq qa"ft aar rIt is suggested that when it is brought to large intestine it looses its direction (adhogatiswabhava),hence its usual reaction also changes (samyak agni vyapro nasti). Routinely denoted work ofAgni is bio-conversion. In situation referred here, this agni is responsible for absorption(pachyamanasya iti pada parityajya shoshyamanasya iti krutam). Is this agni absorbing fooddigested in large intestine with its own power? Perhaps it is not so. Food is already digested bydigestive fire or by (pachakagni). Digested food is conveyed to entire body with the help ofdhamani3$aTrQreFkT; QTZ$ZFTT$TT: qr€I +-ddqI qzFr: zrqferei qeqr<iasfD+: Ircrtre I I F.fr.zrt a)srsd errrqe@i q-fii qqft qref,a, I (4. E. t szsz,se)Undigested food is brought to large intestine. Over here, absorption of water and other solutestakes place. Which dosha could do it? It is location of apan vayu. Why apan is not held."rpotriibl" for absorption? Hypothetical answer is that apan is meant to expel feces, utine,semen, menstrual flow, fetus etc outside body. This needs downwards direction. For smoothexpulsion of abovementioned matter from body; unctuousness is neededfra"er+nErq qrd€g*qrsri d€+ geT 4"Ir:Logically putting theie two facts together, apan vayu; as guessed by its functions must berelatively iess ruksha and less light than other types of vata-dosha. Hence some other factor hasto be considered. Agni seems to evaporate water. Bhavaprakashkara states pachak pitta isresponsible for helping apan to excrete the excreta. -i#"rd-deld{T€1o. qq} Uad. r ftin-qfr frset: tThus concept ofshoshyamana vanhi can ""lgffir get accepted. (Dr. Nandini Dhargalkar)Shoshymana vahni:qmrerei g qr<-rq eiq:rr.rus oQa-ar l_qfrftrs-s-dEq arg: er( -a-#c-dqr (q E eEga{Tzkr:u rsztr) -qqeTerei g qr;r{+h q-#rerci dr?rsr e@ e-dqa+{.rdfltdea,, ains.q+qr**"ra-eq qR4r eiqrTTtrlai q< qfueisq ;u4661g*- €ft rr@rqqrrd-{qr.cgqdq t qaearelturade#uoRaqlqT"i drfra, s{af: eilgqFsrgs €fr €Btffi*m-g-+A qfuqr ardrcrlErdqn qzEr{€r I il-g: €rq 6ga{"m €fr@ qrM r (a. fr. I s/l 1 q-{ 46qIFT) o Pakvashay is not the location ofagni. o The chyme that enters pakvashay is waste (mala-rupa) in nature. o Vahni digests above its location; so when the chyme enters pakvashya the digestion function i, o,r", and only absorption of the water (and some vitamins) takes place in the large intestine. Large intestine can absorb maximum of 5 to 8 liters of fluid and electrolytes each day. (However, much larger amount of water is absorbed through small intestine, but the small intestine contribute in digestion so it cannot be considered as pakvashay) o The malais in paripindit rupa. This is mixing movements (haustrations) in the colon. The combined of longitudinal and circular strips of colon muscles cause "ottl.u"iiotrs the large intestine to bulge outward into bag-like sacs called unstimulated portions of haustrationr. ih. haustral contractions reach peak in about 30 seconds and last about 60 seconds. After a few minutes new contractions start at other places nearby. This kind of contractions like chgpping and shearing the intestinal content. Because of this the fecal 132
  • material is exposed surface of colon and fluid and dissolved substances are to progressively absorbed until only 80 to 200 milliliters of feces are expelled each day. o Bacterial activities in the colon produce various gases especially carbon dioxide, hydrogen and methane. The amount of gases that enter the colon each day is about 7 to 10 liters, wherea5 the amount expelled through the anus is about 0.6 litres. However, it depends on the diet. Certain foods are vatakar e.g. beans, cauliflower, cabbage, onion etc. Hence, they produce more gas, so more gas will be expelled through anus. (Dr. Sandhya Patel)qmrerri g qrw{q eiqflrsrtq dQa-dr IqftftFsdcrrcrTq zrrg: En"r -bga{T-tar: n (q. E.t stt t) GIcr .rd 3ITFr{ ED-JIQT: q.Ener€r fr qdqr qrar B r s*z sTFd grgr €sr Fqr,dr-IT B r -TGt qzb-cb? fr-g EFt EEI elT{or tn? &Tr B, d-<=id-g gg+ 3{T6r{ aTc,I +6gs{rq e} srq # + tnruur fr qrg d gk A qrft B I swrfie-relewsere-{E€r< Eq-d-ga-Serc 3r6atrolq I zFgffi-.{{qrei fre}wae*effi zqarrqBft iueqrr (g.Tt +rr+) ETATT-T-T:5wr ueTIR g"T ?reIT oE: TE{ qAar B I e}q-+ Eiqr: I s{Fa t Eqr slsnft gwdqtrcner€ruT-r fu-Ce or rEier effia *dr B I g*r ?116 oQa-dr erret;flTor EFrd fr TrSrq"ITfrft Er fug+ -116 srrf, -ffr uu a-orr$ srFa 3rqff gwr EerIE gsil *, :r-d-+qeflzr €Yq + rEier or eilqor 6-{ft B "€ I srft .rr.6 €rd orS qererq d ftera s{Fd Ergr olar B r (Prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar)Shoshyaman Vahni (C. Chi. l5lII) The site of shoshyaman vahni is explained in connection with tritiya avastha pak. Tritiyaavastha pak is the last stage of digestion according to Ayurvedic concept. Last part of smallintestine is the site where the last stage of digestion takes place, which is the end of annavahastrotas. The shoshyamana vahni absorbs the absorbable digested food material immediately. According to modern science histologically small intestine shows villi. These are thefinger-like folds of mucus membrane, which are responsible for absorption and the movementsof small intestine, improve the circulation through walls of small intestine so that it absorbs thedigested food material quickly. This process can be compared with shoshana by shoshyamana vahni. (Dr. Kavita Indapurkar) According to Charak pakvashaya prapta pakva ahar rasa is absorbed through aantra inpresense of agni and vayu. Agni mishrit ahar rasa is katu and ushna due to which shoshit pinditsvarup of mala is aquired (agnina shoshitam - A.H. Sha 3/57). Actually shoshyman adjective innot for agni it is for pakva anna, which is in pakvashaya. Therefore, there is no concept ofshoshymana vahni. It is the jatharagni, which is responsible for the katu avastha and annarasashoshana. (Prof. Kalpana Sathe)2.42. tq6 futr A qft fr Ef}rq aa d p p v-q e-qaffiqail ftrd dfuq rq-+}sFqRfr =idr, s {*rer EtuFSrFr: r (g. %zr re) srrdrennerei fui ffi TsbdrEt (3T-€.?f, 12/1s)sr) srrarer+ura iq6 fum or o,d wr B ao) errs-aferc Errur fud Ebr EStrET p<+ e-art El €t efrfs B a (Dr. Rakesh Thamman) 133
  • Considering the function of ranjak pitta (ragkrit) generally it is assumed that it is referedto heme (a fraction of hemoglobin) production. Stomach has no role at all in hemoglobinproduction. However, intrinsic factor (IF) released from stomach is very important in absorptionof vit. 812, that in turn is required for maturation of RBCs. Liver and spleen (during postnatallife) have a favourable microenvironment for erythopoiesis in extreme conditions e.g. severehemorrhage. For further detail please refer to the book "Interactive Workshop on Ayurveda(Hepatological Disorders)",page No. 10-11, publiahed by RAV. Probably the role of stomach is observed by some ancient Ayurvedic worker/s in vit. Brzdeficiency anemia and Sushrut and/or others might have observed the cases of severehemorrhage where the liver and spleen had reverted to hematopoiesis during crisis. Modernconcepts are changing very fast. Molecular biology is revealing intriguing details about thehuman physiology. When we have not done any work we have no right to challenge someonewho has worked. So instead of getting confused about such points let us learn them as they arementioned in ancient texts. Some day in future the cinfusion may be cleared. @r. Sandhya Patel)ffi sffifrd rE+ 6r lrs{r6a"T{q "in"Falt ?.ter cb-{ sm d qffia tb?arr B 3-S 66} B r sqo ftrao1 gga * c-q-orFa o-ar B, efu-d Elrraire e "-d-6 o-sr B tq6 fud fr r =-S e-q e-qddq*, fta{ dft-dq zqdsFaftfr ziar, Et rer€r srct: r (9.zt zr ro) "Tdr€qT{ sg sn* 61 eeffi srcrr zra-€}fr rzffiqr+r arq, er$€+d *Earq r zci sTfD{Rrera r (9. {& t +t+s)3Tdrrq6rr: q-{{-+d trd 3flq d-6rud * sroa q€q ffifl fr qr+-c d-di ft€rtr fuftr d gI$IT* ggor # ""r q{ ser d q-m ziar rnq ffi e r ez+fus e-qq Edftgr fr ft?l-trfud fr} "-q-d .FEr crrar B| ".ttn fua eftioq srdsFa gftr (9. zf. ztre) a sg ggdrgq{rt aTrcrcr er$e # ftrdf, + srftkqffi 3rar srFa 3qc;r€r e-S ffi B rgg1rgg{re fud sfla-+q B r E6a qp+anR 6rd s-{+ * o,q.r fuo or sqEr{ 3iFd#t"T* fu-qr qrar B, ftrif, fr s{Fa t r gtrftru gg-d i z-e-ofua o} sqorFa erq* eidfta fu-qr B r srrafrefqr8r{i ft"i (sr.6. z1* 12/1s) -rrdajre; * "-d-d ""r"Garqr srrflrerq fr gE+ crr ?iirzr *trr B ttrr o-e-oz 3{Tar?rq +} fotrzFr T€IIzr tb-dr E5 t "-tr6 According to modern science hemopoietic function occurs in liver and spleen inembryonic life. Also after birth, in emergency condition when there is red bone malrowdeformity, liver and spleen takes part in hemopoiesis. Stomach also have an active role in the process of hemopoiesis, so Vagbhat andSushrut have said places (sthans) of ranjak pitta are stomach and liver spleen respectively. It iscorrect.srranergrrT.r sqo fuen or ord- lsrrflrerq e ft{ tqd tq-o fuea gm *ar B r According to modern science gastric gland i.e. parietal cells secrete intrinsic factor ofCastles present in gastric juice. This factor plays an important role in erythropoiesis which isnecessary for absorption of extrinsic factor Vit 812 from dietary food into the blood. Absence of intrinsic factor in gastric juice causes deficiency of Vit 812 lead topernicious Anemia This is hoemopoietic function of stomach.errs--aferc ft-d trt r€IrEt asq qrrri +r s+fus - Ergr en-qderu 6irtr rtr6 fud ffir r€rror e-€<T ?rerl 6eq ord*{ +1 €fu * qarqr6r 134
  • eilFrarq a erge-i ?E{z-trfl?I Erdrt-iil I q€q ffim-tq zerrd ttrrE€r zigrq, rr (en. grri. srez) q€E- TrrcF fu.tT EFT ?€n-d B, E-6i TE+errg -F-r Tq-d 6)6-{ fr qffiafu-qr qrar B r "rffi 6d?i qrfr zrrTTcr ars}fta Izfua qrEra) er: Er ftr*a s{rqrfr ttErarqu (en. g..ei. are)"-ei-{g3lrdl-{q@ T{l-{ {eT 3{eIcIT g{{ -bT lr{TrdiaT u-fiTd-qrg +t furn * ow oar d freraErsr-eraFreil fr zieifua urT 3{rdrcrT?r-A-6-{ 6e+ *=qgq-<rr Brur-g 6e+ fr uga o-rttr6. ftd s ersr ifurr uzi rrfid-d fr o-r =m # qE"rra a-6?"F= e ug;"n E rgztS 3lgarq crrrrElT GIT zrZbaT B fu ttr6 furf, cbr r€fl6r err*.orei-2" e eei GrdrsrrB r aen €{q sssr frrd 6-rd+{ } | (Prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar) Tq6 fud d zerrai fr uqq, td-6r, s{T.fiTerEr uti gc+ or srrgd< ziFarsil fr3-6+e 3rr€n e I ?.TtF fua m-r ord srrarE z-s{ 6} ffid -ad arer oJf or qaran B r3{r6rt rd or 3{rarerq d srffi fuf, + srar fum t ffi rq i} (+-tt-dEF{fl-6 "q6 *€{) uiq-d *dr B s*E snsrr fr =qruoo r[-tE (Hfl-qr) r* as6-{t Grffi6-{sr) gqq d-a s{r6rr ??T 3dqa *.rr B r srrt ueanq srrars t-gr rTcr q€qfr srrdr B tro q€ds€r tq6 fud frt Trorerdr * s-S zt-or sraiq ara qof qrq dn-B r qa tb-eEIIcTT B r z-m iir6r sg{€r €6q fr- srrar B ao rnrrfi rd (sie-tn-gv)A ?ffi ".FT sTflro M * d-6{ zW er$c fr qRarar EF"-rr B r srr$ *er"# rtm aft ffi sr+:ensff fr o-cdr B r s}g aft ara#qEerr + W-{t"{fud "qnqrqo ffi ars{ fr ara{ d zffi q€tr "ftr{Hffi Br 3rir: sq-A +u * ftstir& fr frftf}rdq 316 969*q fu6-rc{ t +d-tr B r e+eft zerrd EFr 3{cr6rr s}fus B r (Prof. Kalpana Sathe) As per Sushrut the pitta, which resides in liver and spleen, is called ranjakagni. Itperforms the function of coloring of rasa. Sushrut has considered the site of ranjak pitta as liverand spleen. During intrauterine life formation of RBC takes place in liver and spleen. Synthesisof clotting factors (II, VII, IX, X) takes place in liver. In Ashtang Hriday location of ranjak pittais stomach. Parietal cells of stomach secrete HCI and intrinsic factor. Intrinsic factor isresponsible for absorption of vitamin B12, which is needed for DNA synthesis of RBC precursorsin bone manow. Vitamin 812 is responsible for maturation of RBC. Pernicious anemia takesplace in case of destruction of parietal cells. As per Sharangadhar Purva Khand 5/31 the piua,which is in liver converts rasa in to rakta. (Dr. Sangeeta Gehlot)(Questions No.2.43 to2.46. share the same reply)2.43. According to Bhel Samhita alochak pitta can be classified into two fypes viz chakshu-vaisheshika and buddhi-vaisheshika. What is the base of classification of these pittas andhow do they function? (Vaidya Sonari viraj shukra) Chakshu is the organ of vision and buddhi is intellect that is based on smriti (memory).The memory is mostly visual or pictographic. When indriya-indriyartha-sannikarhsa happens theimage is transferred to buddhi for smriti. When the indriya is away from the indriyartha, thebuddhi can still see the image in mind. So Bhela proposed that there must be a variant ofbuddhirvaisheshika alochaka pitta to aid mind to recollect. In a blind person, if the blindness happened in the middle of life, the person can still oseethe images in mind. So the concept of alochaka pitta is unique to Bhela Samhita. But the 13s
  • practical value of this theory is questionable, except the fact that it has some historicalimportance. (Dr. P.V. Ranganayakulu)atd riFdr d aBlo 3rr*T6 fud-sr*qrq arororarlq: | ?ril-*cfd;rrar qqfeflamqqq€: r r{ Bfuu: aq}e}fuo,eifr d5r telMarq q e@ r s-qtErar ttA-tae srqrr€Errerzi=*<-q 3{orcrr siQaro, agqf aeG zizerra@ gqq-dq-{rqi affiaef ned TE+qr r-S zrileri crT garqqqFrqfrarai q{Xerr terrei s-sr<-qfr gft r r+ r I ^ gft<+elRroldrff e} _ qM€+ sjdnffi-{€r: g-{d€fl ?€rler sreThi 3rrettr€arqu1ryE, erJfrki errt-qft qrft?i e-€6r6"fr, s{frd -Tq"ft q-€ro-i qdr 3rarakrqqreffi, rdr-r+il=Ieq ga-{gqRg eaa+rei ffirg, ua-cq-ffErcrer}, €qte qafltTt Suar*igflatelei s-€rd-qfr gfrrrs u (a). eTT. +rz,+,s)+d + srgr{rt 3rr*T6 ftffi qqf, efi-a ud s{r-rEr + gk +} qr.a o-cdr B. e-d aqenrg or Br r. aqle)fuo,Eff gk "?ryft1q5" Q ge a * ziaiftra B B am z. gfede)fuo, d oqqeia "ftiRrd r aqle)fuo fud +{ fr arsr d 3rtr a+ror *. ft} ucar B r qa r*<q, 3isq,sqa{q, q-{rgd Ed qr$ qcr;re + qIffi d aqror, eizerra Erscr ud q"f .FT FrTqT3lretr uti ae * q+ffi * qrw 6-{r?rr B I zifta-oS d sqzi-a fud # ftr}qq o-sa-*g t EFr drcr 6?r?tr E r fu-E+ tna uai q-* + "$ ..fgA -qrnrr _go-r, "i"€rrd Ed iil tnT dTqr qgffier * A-dr B r ssft q.Frt qa fua qgcr€rur riTefi-d, &?nq€Fq * z:rr snft crr dtEr dar B r gftte)fueo ft-d M +{ + -adfl€q sjTrrdo. fr ftera ssar E I er6 fum zte+rsrd d q6q cb? errror o-Ear B, efu qrtor sref o1 E€ft fr arar B r gs{ fud fr}d rra u.r e* ETTr cb? Tqfr t aq # g- , iilraJ-d o-cdr B r ald ziFdr # srrailao fud + sq-*ftT d"ia + 3rrdtr6 fud + a-offen-$r *Ba snerrs qrq- qrft B r r. u€Trd atq T{-o. *q ailm-qi * zerrq fr sertorar-aqle]fuo fu"dBr. qarrs fr€rd i€?rnim * ren-a fr z-a*arar-gfEa te)fuen fum z. ord +€ *m. *q rtrdo * qr.a srrqfr, c.Ieror, qof, aoq tnr 3{Tdrr a}z a;r * zrrer z{Fe-od<b-{+, seT.Fr gra o-cr} qr& srr"+a-6 fud z* aq}e}fuo fum o-gr arqy } Iu. aglelRo fuftT * rlrqr aIEI +] errsq o-tr* orar, {a[fr # dr] qrar * 8jrrra.* z-erra fr ftera B, s* gffie)fuo fua a-sr arqr B r e. gfu dI6I efttrdr t srr€rru q?- -tn.. aq +1 M fr zrarqar 6-r+dril- - aqle)fuo fuma. "€Kr srefr 61 3tr.*reild 6-{e fr Trafqdr cr{+qrdr - gtrete}fuo futa grdearorS q-€F (Function):l. aqle)fuo fud- qs ** riltro fr fr€t-d +6T Efu A q"f, w, srrqfr aersilEFT AIET SilE+rTEr qd d erhod * gfEa o1 qr.a tn-{+ fr T{6r{rdT o-Ear B rsngHm ftrf,ra * E-tr Euf-a qrqr qrar B I The first step in the visual transduction is absorption of light by photo pigment. Photopigment is a colored protein that undergoes structural changes when it absorbs light in the outersegment of photoreceptor. Light absorption initiates the event that leads to the receptor potential.The single type photo pigment in rods is rhodopsin and that in cones is idopsin. Different typesof photopigments adapt the refraction angles of light as per intensity and help in increasingreceptor potential giving a clear vision.z. gfEadelRo ftritr - aqpe)fuo furtr d 3rr€rrr + +f, dilm-6 + Efu qa fr srq31-qfr, a-q, TjTerrEr snE 6r €nra ETzI{ o-r ss-rnt gB a-o q€"ri-crrdr, tS ara fr} 136
  • E, .16 a-c{ dr;T 3*{ Tqfr + 3{TET{.r{ 3rr€ft T{rtre a b ao aft i?r-E r zqEor dara o-cdr E r The visual signals in a retina undergo considerable processing at synapses among thevarious types of neurons in the retina. Then axons of the retinal ganglions provide output fromthe retina to brain, existing eye ball as optic nerve. The axons within optic nerve passing through optic chiasma. Some neurons cross toopposite side but other remain uncrossed; then they form optic tract, enter the brain andterminate in lateral geniculate body (nucleus) of thalamus. Here they synapse with neurons whose axons form optic raditations which project toprimary visual area in occipital lobe of cerebral cortex and visual perception begins. (Prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar) According to Bhel Samhita alochan pitta can be classified in to two types vizchakshuvaisheshik and buddhivaisheshik. According to their functions it can be stated that rupagrahan at the level of eyes is the function of alochak pitta, but to differentiate the things fromeach other, to compare with previous experience or to remember it for future use and to see thethings without opening the eyes are the functions of buddhivaisheshik pitta. (Dr. Kavita Indapurkar)aqpe)&o, *;r ersr atgsfr 61 +sE s strS d tr{r{rs f}t6dr tEr FTGf qr.a *ar B qaaqle)fuo 3rr*{dF fua ercr *fl- B 1 6q frer T€g 6r g€xq gerol 61t-6r, s-d-6T .r"f,3ffiFrc, frqft snR t 3t-rr{ rFr Fr.T aqile)fuo *-*ar * rgftdelRen, gkde]fu6* s{en1o ftrd gE} -a E r {""-T fr ssar B r grrs .nreur a-gq3relar zleu srefr +1 aft arar et{ *dr T* o-e.r fuu srgif efr eil-{ur tb-s uraTq qirsqfurd osar B r ef,d-6-rd # M g.€ argsfr +t T{trrd + 3{TerrE q{ e{ftq da-eftieft ara +1 ge-r ozar B rqjTrro ffd el*, (9. err. arzz) qftr6-r, -Fof,^+T, fu{dr or eiafor ozffi ftrgrs* t qeq Rjrn-tr ETrdT-Fftr* e+fuqra B r affi t qer^ # fter-a Rrsr+r"r (+o-ra-t-+ z+r+a-*+) ol- a-or eian-@ad- *q B r gc{ €}T zft srru eft e*c dftf,s rFr aFr:Ti*ft err€-#ffi d o*F€-S rr$q ar;riso z{rg+Hdz *s *ar B r aft+q; * gq *q <rcr gg6e}fuo+ 6-rd 6r ftrr B r @r+garu iils) aqpe]frg srrdtr€F fud rrr EF1d a+gsfr + ftFf-T 3{TEFTE, q61-g, q"f aerr "iqrE-qsre agulqu frrq-S EFT FTr6r oEar B rVisual purple sffi-e)fuo B{rd}q€ fuea or 6rd E fr E-€ S-T€fr e*e aeger aq a}t*t qE s$ qaqrqar B r g$ d-qsra +€z o-6 # B r -SQr+o..r -sr$rl euraffisrE erStftft +-*qrq <effia, offift s{a.r€il qar-{ s-q-A arqrF-a aq r i rrqfr r <effi;r o.qruri eefd o-$ft r ararFa ?lafigai q o-d o-ift raq$e)fuen - ceffiqg&de]fuo - ararFe a*r"ffi aral qqfefi-a-arqq-g€: I Er BFel: aq$€iM Iaqpe)fu+} anrrr er 3{r- E-carqqnrei@ a-Eurf ef,d-qrJrF rI 137
  • gqs-dqrrsri u.qFdg_s"ffrF6-{q E-*{d-erF ri T{tr qT gdrq-sffidrdi qqsr$qlq€rureqftfr r r Skte)fu+) ara * g#s+ qidrr@-{q gzlewraufa€4rffi€drE d1q"nft 51r+d+.i arci €-.F-Mo@r+E <eiqfr r d.-drq drd-+{i alccn arci d;-{nft r aJGEi€rru-qft r qrftri q-€<r6-{ft srftd Td-{fr q-€dai q-.il 3{ETrord gpfqft, atrdirilEreqga"-EqRse wami aril€-€-flf}rcrqfr r eqr* s-sr6rt *q-dr€q gfutelw-gilr<-q-ftfr raaHFdr errSz-s€rra 3tte-;tq 4 / 4)Retina - optic nerve- optic chiasma- dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus- geniculocalcarine tract-primary visual cortex.Visual cortex: resposnsible for the perception of virtually all the aspects of visual form, color,and other conscious vision.Primary and secondary visual areaThoughts- cerebral cortex, thalamus, limbic system and the upper reticular formation of the brainstem.Memory - hippocampus a]-o-eiB-dr fr srr+ gu effi d argz+e S@ae]fuo fra oT zj<ier aar >&dI -qrg+c-ffi fi--gaa tr$qr d aan zr-o-t B rgk+e]fu6 fra or zi<af or aq eile ffi d zner aan so-* B r 3rrd{6 ftr.f, + <} T6rl d-dr+ B aq}e}fuo s*t gffie}fuo raqle)futn qr+ * srr?uTT aTEr + z+Ce-od drd d s&{q A .F? Rr.tr fr *<.r,sigq, s-<fDrw, d{rgil Ed 4 ef,d-{rff * cIerErr, eizerrd, w, quf, EtE (=are-trrat)de[r grrr, ..a-a, qq s+d uq * Cr{trtr t ftru trtn, a, fta qr e+aft gar + qr"ftt -g fr ftelq oq $ 3ro@I dar B r gffie)ftro srafq atfles fr sjrrr@ T€nd il t-dtdrdr fua geu q.f * gssrerrr#o ara q-€rur o-gtn B r g+r Eirur dT?r arar .FT q6q znt d Erzur fu-qr qnrrB r €rrcur fus gu f,rd 6] Ercffi EF?ar E, q!ffird-d dl.r o1 trEq ED"ar B,q-€ro-d H gs ard * d-d-drrd ara fr1 Er-€r -F?-Ir B r ffi qqdtr - g-dsrffft-a ?qeflq- * arq eae cft srfb+arqr oEar B r eqra *, ver€rrs *, eiltr4r*-Sffie)frrcF ara 3_ro-a *ar B r6l.c+ e}{ fr +T 3rrR of efu s{r+ qrfr derT d-6i * qre qrfr ro-a-orF+rs -reITritrro-r$ *ft B r (Prof. Kalpana Sathe) Bhela has classified alochak pitta as buddhi vaisheshik and chakshu vaisheshik on thebasis of their functions. Buddhi is the capability to differentiate. Buddhi vaisheshik can beconsidered as color pigment of cone cells whereas chakshu vaisheshik may be taken asrhodopsin present in rod cells. Rhodopsin is converted in to metarhodopsin II (activated state).The activated rhodopsin stimulates electrical changes in the rodes and then rodes transmit thevisual image to central nervous system. In this process knowledge is attained by brain and not byeye. In cone cells three types of pigments are present red, green and blue. By color contrastmechanism we differentiate different types of colors. The importance of color contrastmechanism is that they represent a mechanism by which the retina itself begins to differentiatecolors. Therefore color analysis begins in retina and is not entirely a function of brain. In thisprocess knowledge is attained by the eye therefore it is called chakshu vaisheshik. (Dr. Sangeeta Gehlot)2.44. Bhela has classified alochak pitta as chakshu-vaisheshika and buddhi-vaisheshika.What do we understand bY this? (Dr. Santosh N. Belavadi) t38
  • 3{rda-6 furf, cFr * +rpil e fua+rqa e}cr riG-fl- fr fu;sar B r gE+ * E-egru -^* +t atr$ q-€ft .Fr g"l€fl sraql-g1 +d €tr-dr d fu-qr artrr E +-t gfrqDraar E r 3rr€nd el-d a Fd1ur €a.ra EET qra d azcn srranfrfa fu-irr B, fu gfts qr€r"r.Fr 6r-d + +r an-d-6 * * *dr B q-{-g s+r-Er - Ener ararr o-s} d fuA "iqrf**aila-o # sraren Rirrriffi frer6 sr@ +q:-aft 6$ T{-driar tn--Tr } r furrd fuar e-qEE^ {61 o.r €na srtrr -b? d-S e-s-A E r srrg*€-+ uiB-dr d eft arfrasm fteragr+tr. d eteq dd or s{aq;g1 fu-qr urqr B r gsr-or erg sctrar s€rel-{q fuaar B r (Prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar)2.45. What is the relation between alochak and buddhi vaisheshik pitta? (Ref:Bhelasamhita) (Vd. Vaishali Veer) 3Tr*T6 fum +{ ftq-a fua or gors E r s*s e-g gfu or or6ur, srrzor, ?=rruurs{rR o.rd oz-ar B r eld fr sil-.ilEro fuiil A * q-on H 4-q Br aqpe)fuo a gfude)fuoretl-S e-s zqe dar B- fu SR+elk6 fud d 3rrdE-6 fud "6r es so ffi B, ail "iFirrs{rd{F ft-ea o-r o-rd sjanuEF t qerrq fr ugo-r gfu ffi, Td".r 6-r 4rd ;"dr$ I -lreraa ^€fu {6uT or$ ia-antro fr fre1.6 a$e}fuo ft_. ub".rT B 3+{ =*gfufte]fuo tr- d rrrc{ a}q *en B r fu-s s{r6r Ei""T Tq"T snR 6rd S6aefftofrea o-Ear B r qR ++ d * p6 aft qrnrg * fu.f, fr ztrS qterrdft A rr$ d ?il 3rr*q-€futr or ^ord Fpf a-s A F€ftil+ ffi lrFrz 3rr*tr6 fud + €fu ercsr snE 6rd fr sreia a-ataq:f ! "r.b?rr"+rtr I (Prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar)2.46. *a-rrgFrg s{rd}q-€ qd, fus6r sqrq o-d Efu B, + A etE qar$ BrEren ag te]fuo .n-o *e]fuo r qg te)fuo Sk t +{ # T6e qren fur kqr urqrB (rhodopsin, iodopsin etc) d *s+ d cren-qo B, q{g Etk te}ftro ftra o} wrstrsdr qrBs eFIE qe €fu ffi r{dfsa B a (Dr. Anupam Sharma)a-*eM ara qqfefta srrdq r{s: 1e+ Berraqle)fu+} gffielRzntfrrr 3 ua* aqle)fu+) ard €r srrary;rs* eitre-+d arzi =-ffisr fu<t fu.aqrerrqsisq s -Ef}rq a-E"rf ap-+rarat "i"+dq aocrq-of s€t.o-qrE-qraigqw-dq.n"n^ Eqfrdfu sr?F&6 Aqr rS r{tr ar garq-sFrqftrdrdi qgqrBrsqgqre-ofrrr 4ngktelfudard Eil Uq$en ljarra-eer gr{Sflraqf"rrtr€-dr{ a;awrft, dJki errlqft,efift-i u-qcrezA, srft-d z.+2fr, 9-€d66i EE-dr 3rErral<i rnffi, urrdirilEteqga-{-EqFe.€afl"i arg:Eqaf}1-mfA, €qre e-€n-drt qtq-dra gRAe)-e-€drrd-€rfr gft r I5ilIt is clear that chakshurvaisheshika is image formation on retina and budhirvaisheshika is therecall of already seen objects with above mentioned specificities. (Dr. Nandini Dhargalkar) ald riFdr e gffielFo fra o.r r€rTar qff€q Eera sjdn-@ qcTr{n arw } 1 gfE<*elM ara * q*aea ajarr-u-t+ r sjdrrd=o. d g5.r eiG-dr * zrer qF rFE trff fd 6r?rrerr arqr B r 139
  • spr@i Rr{rri ae} ftff z+bqra, sjarffirB drB a-drftaaffu d-{rfu a-a awr4r (9. ?TT. 6/2a) sirrr@ T€rTEr qe o"f- *q fuAqr drcn s+aft +] Tff-r osffi fr€r3fr .FTeiftaqra E r er6 qrq6{ 31-d B r sngftro a"I + aFaw 31m fr EFE-+g Uo-s€e-t-#?{ T{Tqcr+r"r€r ftrsr z{Faqra qd-tr *ar B araer r Each cavernous sinus is a large venous space situated in the middle cranil fossa on eitherside of body of sphenoid bone. In relations of cavernous sinus, superiorly we can optic tract andoptic chiasma. So from this reference we can conclude that buddhivaisheshik pitta is nothing but opticchiasma present superiorly to the cavernous sinus. All functions of optic tract and optic chiasmaare performed due to presence of buddhivaisheshik pitta. Optic chiasma is place where nasal fibers of each optic nerve i.e. right and left. Eachoptic nerve crosses to opposite side and mixes with uncrossed temporal fibers of optic nerve ofthat side. f Efu u-aw a; a;r$ + +{ rilea-o; * E A-dr ts- q-{-g- 3{e;rErdrdltrr5rl=r q25u1o-se d A+ ffia-o t 3{cncrT sjrn-dm ft€rd g@ #6 aft FA "iE ozar B rffi fudr Fff Efu a:-eur zbr 5la qp6 tn-{ afr sren-i B I (Prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar)2.47. According to A.H. Su. l2ll7 amla shishir priti is pitta kshay lakshana. It is observedthat in vriddhi or kshaya of the doshas, there will be desire for articles having opposite(viparita) guna. Ushnata is a pitta guna; when there is pitta kshaya there will be decreasein ushnata and there should be desire for ushna guna. Why would there be shishira priti inpitta kshaya? (Dr. Suchetha Kumari M.)Raktakshaya: hypothetical explanation 3rwRTRrtfrft r (s+.6. etr 1 1)"-d to waning raktadhatu person adores sour taste and loves cool season. He also acquires looseDue(unfilled) and dry vessels. Sour Rasa Is Predominant In Teja Mahabhuta. It is needed for wanedrakta to regain iis physiological status. This mahabhuta with the help of correcting bhutagni ofraktadhatu, which would naturally correct status of waned raktadhatu. This is the reason soursuch person desires taste. In cool season also agni increases. This is the reason person adoressuch season in waned condition of raktadhatu. (Dr. Nandini Dhargalkar) qe twgk Ed fuo or =i"F B1 €t frs ftrdgk di?EFr €rrg 3rye1q1e5$ aerrft-**-aa== saerq dar sriftra B r frig D-c+r *A a-€f ft;sdr g{i_.FT zq*o-eur uro-geffiara 3{€qrq * e-ofu-ecr A6"r d qrq *ar B r"o*i"r6o@ qg-gq a aVEf-a-erq Tarc^q-{e-{-qrsge eei- fu€ ergPrEnarfrqpwi, -r r€nru€r szrr< , Eft ftrdlfd@q sretrqcrT?TT +€rr-dq r (sr.6.fr. r auo zratrrliazr A-.Fr) ffiifo fr.dnqk sr+f1nr o-E zrai-h B, ftiE terr-a-&I *arr gy gu gtr$aq g"m Efr gE T{F a,gd*:t ait lreTr<trtcrtr fr srg$ drA B 3EGr qRsn"r#o.fu1€ $u fr nranfafu GrnfI a-d{ IrrTrE *-Y fr-roerrg3d@r ffi -S 3A B*** I 5-gr$ rlfron-q T<-5Er ftrmrfErs uzi q*ar cIefqbt qftfrerfrE 3rdr{tnr.rr ftie-F€ tar tt-- *" qk a 3-{ra ftrq-{td efi-a g.r qn rzi<af, errSc b-ql fuflrd - €qrff 140
  • errg frq-6 Gr.IT.Ir r errgs* d sraaq errarFa qrqrt e6 a-S *ar"-tr ers 3E@r *dI BBI 3rer: a€ rrerefr at dqw z1sls gair (effiar) ffi B I 5-S fr efl-a rsr*ar sft 6-64 E r qra errgerq d srazen d trr-da qrar aeror B r # qvn sfu qF6 qgd q€fl-d cr€rsr !, dfu -"-€-gft * zrrer frar gsn g-d-6 aft B-.F-d qrdr B, 3T.r: €ryTT 3i-dra ffi B r) z-mz)_zrrn I B6-d qr+ A *s6ier aft E-.F-d qr+ E, s*E €n-E*sFr 4S A w, rsr€fq€ errgu qrd scr-r m-crft E rs) Tffi t-srler6 E-.r-d HA * qrumrg d srrcra-Ircra fr qoerrd d qrar B, €No1 e-ga 6-fl grurdrg Frd-dr B, ffi mro-ga a-6 a-S d qrar r* <ra d qnnBr+) rm * z+rer # Eu aqq aft f-64 6ra B, ffi rcr zft 3as.ft+ qftB-qr** a-orft Br sfus-+E{ }dry *rrs qrar Bt <16 s*z qrson 3d@T ffi tsr teft3ftr+erT fr €-dr+d EranEG-d ?Terr sifrzrtra H a-gd srrqeqo E sfu ffi E +srr€rr{ qria+ 6-ca B H fr ffi or qra sfu eria d qrar B r (Prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar) zq*sw fnTRr$ffi Rrsre)ftrss€rdr r (sr.€. e* r r ze)Amala shishir priti is rakta kshaya lakshana and not seen in pittakshaya lakshana. Pitta is amlaand ushna. Therefore in pittakshaya there will be amla and ushna priti and in raktakshaya due todecrease in raktastha drava guna and amlaguna there will be amla shihir priti. In some corrditionswhere dravaguna of pitta decreases e.g. in agnivruddhi there may be a desire of shishir $rna liketrishna. This lakshana is also seen in pitta vruddhi. There fore amla shirir priti is said for raktakshaya and not for pitta kshaya lakshana. (Prof. Kalpana Sathe) KAPHA DOSHA2.48. Why is avalambak kapha mentioned only in Ashtang Hriday? (Dr. Girdhar Thakre)dflni"eqq T+ad +q!T E{urgd"r dfrr qa e**qq earsflr tiqerr qfuarm,s-{6-6-Srn 1s) (sr.z{. qr 20)Five categories of kapha are mentioned here - one working for stability of joints, one forsoftening food, one for protection of internal vital organs like heart, one for refreshing a personby realizing taste of food and fifth category for nourishment of special sense organs. (Dr. Nandini Dhargalkar) 3s,s 6-nfr r (tr. stztn+)It is not true that avalambak kapha is mentioned only in Ashtang Hriday. It is also mentioned inSushrut Samhita only difference is that it is not named as avalamak kapha. (Dr. Sandhya Patel)sd qera qz-o i qra t qiq *E a. fu. 2a fr e-ar+ 3 IM: s+ tiaen r (a. E. zats)u-rg era-oarod-+ 3{€Elrer fr s-d e +d-f, s*s 66 or q"Fq fu-qr B ar fus-d-S e-6r$ er r ggd + ftr.f, A s al< qdr+- or* B =-..id rqrorqffi€iwqftuai dqen qftareia s+l#ons-EqEi o-ift rr (s. s& 1 s/s)ow I qiq 6-d e-dr+ B afu-d s-d-+ ar$ 6r 3-ds a-fr fu-{n Brrifert+e r (8. {t r sra) t4t
  • clrdfid * om + qiq +< d-dr+ B IeAqr g .iq*n I (sr.6. z1 1 2)*d-6 qq, Selq s-q, srdaiqo og, 6f6 ow aci qes6 6F r Eeqq-S # 3{EiTr EKqtnrE i ow d e}< E-trr} g€ftil+ =-d e 3ftr.itcn ffi.Faft qarqr r ifu-a g€-+ srr& aft sqa.s ziFars*S ow d aY< qa-ar$ E r +* 6terrturerE ziFar r (Prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar) Basically Ayurvedic science is based on some principles and one of them is tridoshasiddhant. All the movements (kriya) in our body are due to vata. All transformations,conversions and pachan parivartan are due to pitta and the samayog is due to kapha. Theseconcepts are based on Lokepurushoyam siddhant. In Charak Samhita the types of only vata aregiven. In Sushrut, vata and pitta and in Ashtang all three. (Dr. Kavita Indapurkar) Charak has mentioned five names of vata dosha. Sushrut has mentioned five types of vataand pitta. After that Vagbat in Ashtang Sangrah and Ashtang Hriday has mentioned five types ofvata, pitta and kapha each. Therefore it seems that the period of Samhitas were different. CharakSamhita was written first and the Ashtang Hriday was the last amongst the Brihattrai. This alsoshows the gradual progress in the Ayurvedic sciences. (Prof. Kalpana Sathe) Avalambak kapha is not only mentioned in Ashtang Hriday. It is also mentioned inSushrut (Su. Su. 2lll4) and Ashtang Samgrah (A.S. Su. 20). In Ashtang Hriday, it is directlymentioned as avalambaka sleshma whereas in Sushrut and Ashtang Samgrah function ofavalambaka kapha is mentioned as Hridayvalamban (supportive or protective to heart) (Dr. Sangeeta Gehlot)2.49.How can we interpret avalambak kapha and its sthan? (RAr)eT g S€Qr: a-fi-Sur Fs-{s srqff-q q urd €-{s-{q a €M q eirssruerrarai?T5r€€r crs s{6-6-dsn 3{qds-6 E-€q}r (sr.zi. E*2o)3€€I: Et Btr-rg wffa r 6ewvraffia cr€eT E-.rr€6-drn r owerrqi qelqr"ri r sr*sftiq.F qaqr --- r (sr.€. {& 12)fu Rrlorg6q-{ienatr+R sc6ur: Ifuo gdr€rrfl-@frfr sr-5urccr I 6*a ffi rg-drft€rq6E-q-{ifErt€rrdfrfr a+rgaft r (Dr. Nandini Dhargalkar)B-o-zr=errerftfr fue; R@t (g. T& 21/14 q-{ e,€"r) (Dr. Sandhya Patel)EDTF EFT T€IIET- J{: erudftr{:dfi rrqftrqrarer$ gs{, t H qr"i a Srqgr q amb?€r qo-{i s{: n (sr.€. zI. t zrz)tFtF.6t q-5& T€rrd 3s: B t3lttc,I6I-F tFEF- sEs z+: Botq wdta t 142
  • €es-{q 3rad-qta -r€r Ercr 3ig6-Jfur[ Ewerrqi q elqFri qoffi srEaaaqtr (sr.€. ed* t zrt s) r ss:T€rcr # fr1a eaar srq$ er*- +erg#i€ft qr+ Bn ffi, sraqTfu T{E-ir srqff F-qd- erfu q 6d-q d, s+{ q-6i d =---d +edqs€Tr# EFI strrc.tftra oEar B r - "-dt =*, "r=; 3rdciry6 edqr 6t ft€rft s{: rr*er fr ors ar* B r s{+T srafq qrcr€f:T€re{ + efl-d{ eErr=r^ qrrr"ft- =-}g6rsrzrqE ftera E I ga e+aft d eM M Ere-s, E%T{rd-{sr, €6q, €(qr{{q 3rrE a-atqwf -"f,; B I eE srzrErftrcr .ao*t €--gro"+ +) gzRrd q-dr+ ssar B r "-6-dr Bo erq 6I qgartr sref orgftort #q E;r ers errar tsers zgar B r -sag+"iftr B i*ft "iflr + qs sffiadd B r er$s I gE+ s{Tsrq qE gant st)-g6r ks{ez5r{ +s +r sr-Rr ziFrqi edq errg d qer qi ft€; B"n*rrc qzrrt oa a-* .ifb -ft s-{ftss:T€rrdtq eiqr grsr fuelqsq * ia+rfua rs& B r stqcrer-F eauTr +1 gs{ B6 qs zg} qrar lreflq g{r +r<rrer lqe uq * "if}cTRffi frdr E I -TEr s"q eff qrfEr$ d gc+-+ fr-_€-d *i qu Eq3-u+ Er 6€q sft3{rrFTar *} B, s}E *rf or s-} *- gd; +* e, €rd 3{"IC.GkIEF edrWr B6 +}erercrcr, gga s*z ftel-r e-aru fr z{-6r,x-dr ocar B r "-e-e (Prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar) Site of avalambak kapha is urah, especially trika and hriday. Urastha avalambak kapharesides at phuphphusa, hriday and urarastha trik. These places are very active and require acontinuous supply of nutrients. Avalambak kapha, due to its o*tr uiryu, anna virya andsnighdhadi gunas, is all time readymade food available to above mentioned-sites. The rasa malakapha is produced at this site only. Therefore this sthan is also potential for kapha sanchaya andits vikara. (Prof. Kalpana Sathe) Pericardial cavity, pleural cavity and respiratory tract may be the anatomical site andtrikka is the meeting point of three bones. As per Dalhana junction between sternum andclavicle, behind which thymus gland is situated. Ambukarma may be referred to as lymphaticdrainage. From bone marrow lymphocytes are taken for preproc.sring in thymus and stored in tolymphoid tissue like GALT, tonsils. As mentioned in Ashtang Hriday it supports the sites ofother kapha by providing the immunity, bala or strength as kledak kapha; and-bodhak kapha isassociated with gut associated lymphoid tissue and tonsils. (Dr. Sangeeta Gehlot)2.50. With reference to avalambak kapha, which anatomical or physiological entity shouldbe considered as trika? (Vd. Pranita P. Joshi) 3rEciq6 om t o.rd # fuen or 3T€I: ho-tierrsurq 3{r6affia.1 =-c+s Herar B r 36;1qa1 T{C*-d o-}fr r r (g. q 21) a g s{gq F6-rs sl-qftgur a e-6 Ferq q e}qrori q edqrerqrara "rflSor?rrw rro seo-o-dn 3rdEiearq 3rcrci6rcF 5ft e-trr* ir (sr.zi. q* 20)f,df}rd eo-rore * srgzrrr Ao -n erfu- fu ft@ "srgz+rc gfr1 (g.Te 2r5€q A-6r)eo-ro-rs s-€ur d Bo ftrs- E-d AsilFrerrusan* F6 qttr€ d-etrsesr qtg"ffi€r-dq G ; zf.rra ts r A-6r) 143
  • scduT &or en. s/16 fr silFrorrsa+rur fr Bo E-a-srqr Br ffig s-{]-+ srr& 6-6rB fu qgr "fr srlRrd B, a-s qrgaq s*{ ofi-qr or zien-+zerra B rgwrfttl_orgg+eiftruerraq Efr f6r (ao-ca A-6-r)&o-rolz so-ea * o-ar ts fu gErft€T Eti qrg_gq + z€rrd 3{erclr zifEr eerrafr] B6 o-ar B r "iqrd+ftq qrg ffiera-e-dqrd B+-qrg r Fian gwerrtr@a1 gft r r (sr.€. Tt 1 2/ 1 s3I5.urcccr A-6-r)&orors t srgz+rr fuo org uzi ffier Fd fi-.il or zjqra B sro.ur-cftr rFio gwerrur@r (sr.6. rX.. 12/t s 3raurcafl A-6r) elFroie # B6 B, e-6i d sr+Rrd a-& B r dfu B-cn or q"fa 3t-Eciq6ow I"1q{Ter 3{T€Ir B r qai q-{ 3r"Id<rr orn erqe fffl"T Bo or srdEiqd o-sar B,q"a ?.ar B r rrs srdciqo tntr EFr r€rrEr s{: B Fsfids 6S J€€r E-o erga+ cdftrs 6r zierra r€rrEr +dr qrBtl I (Prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar)Meaning of trika -r ) geer{ qrgmqrR€l-t-q ziErr-T: IAnotomycally urastha trikasthi and pristhadhara means pristhavamshadhar near urah. Thoracicvertebral column is madeup of many vertebrae (trikasthi) and the interverrbral discs betweenthem (pristhvamshadhara)2) Bhahugrivasthitraya samghat- the area of two upper extremities and cervical junction at thelevel of C7 to L6 @riday urdhva sthan of kapha). Physiologycally baahu-griva-traya-samghat isthe site of lymph and lymphatic dranage, pericardial fluid, pleural fluid; while pristhadhar is thesite of nucleus pulposus (fluid of interveratrebral disc) .r) e&qr s{s€r: Fr+-s€r g€r€rrurq sr?rciqd 6-}ft z<-tn-dFr arq z+raezi s-srcqft I e& 12/1s 3ta;urean)(sr.€.z) dfug drgffieryq-{iqrcr Bo-arg r ?rE 3r-erer r furerqgq gwieneftEEerE r (Prof. Kalpana Sathe)2.51. How do we practically differentiate phenabhuta kapha and malarupa kapha?Can we fix any laboratoly investigations for these concepts? (Dr. Suchetha Kumari M.)EFrFr edqr ffi, trdF (T{t * qqfq Ers.Er B r s+# 6i-€ e}< a-fi B Iow: #a q-+d rl;-dfr Efr ow r srafq ffi s-€frir qa * ffi B s* ow tn-dA Bt @rEr-F Efursr * dd erSs 6t g{r$ rEIEfr tFtFTctrT-F B r ow erq 6T B-de q. ?I{ 24/4o d srrw } redrqr- ftaq srfr,ffi r (9. T& zrrs)gg-d * e*qr or erd crrrc,tretr ] Bu-+ar, frsolT, oN qr affiq-d +] qseqs *]TstETT I er6 o.rd edqr or B | 6.6 EFT q-qiff cflifl A eiqr B r edqr erq EFTs-ds tr. Ed{ 3T. r 2, q. T1, 3T. 2 o +rr d c-+T{ d srrqr B rEtclT€I- "{qefow end fr qa or sref erfts +1 qa *ar o-gr B r # <ier ft€rqci q ailz-o gercrr eci{ I crar eJfrr*oeq ow o-d ftor"iaq n (4. s& ters+)z{fftfe*qor earqr dqen qfra+mr r seeto-don3rg:rd o-$frrr (9. s* r sr+)F*rftru ow qri edqr 6] cart+ 6-64 B r qr€a-€ qei e*qr frr€ft aa sallt (q. z1 terr rz)qEo i rrr€d edwr e* qa e-gr E r 144
  • Eg+fhg 6.rt, eawr q 6rdru{ f}ra a A-6-{ tr6 (Ert + q-qfr* zqo.q ara B r (Prof. B. H. Shyamkuwar) Following are the points, which can differntiate malarupa kapha and phenbhuta kapha. Malarupa kapha Phenbhuta kapha 1 Sthan (site) Rasavaha srotas (heart, Urdhva amashaya (lesser blood vessels and curvature of stomach) lymphatics) 2 Utpatti and udirna Malarupa utpatti (drainage Udirna in pratham avastha (production and of large protein molecules paka (mucus secretion in secretion) in lymphatics and vein) stomach durins dieestion) 3 Sangya (name) Kapha/shleshma (main Kledak kapha (subtype dosha) (Large protein dosha) (stomatch mucosa molecules in blood plasma nurished by body fluids) lymphs and body fluids) 4 Guna karma Sneha (lubrication), bandha Snigdha, dravotkarshat (properties and (binding), sthiratva annakledana, phenotpatti function) (stability), gaurav (weight (immulsification and gain), vrishata (libido), bala sophonication) (nourishment, strength, immunity), kshama, dhriti, alobha (mental stability) 5 Vikriti (disorders) Kapha nanatmaj vikar e.g. Mandagni ajima sthaulya (obesitv) (indieestion) 6 Dravya-guna-karma Protein profile albumin test Gastric food + juce analysis pariksha (brihane sthirah). lipid by vaman, stomach wash or (investigations) profile, B-lipoproteins, suction (kledane dravah) triglyceride in venous blood (snehane snigdhah)Likewise we can differentiate other kapha types from malarupa kapha. (Prof. Kalpana Sathe) Phenbhuta kapha formed during madhur avasthapaka is similar to malarupi kapha. (Dr. Sangeeta Gehlot)2.52.|s there any difference in kapha, shleshma and balas? (Dr. Sanath Kumar D.G) They are the synonyms. Still they are used to differentiate the various actions of itsattributes in physiology and pathology. Where its fluidly function with more watery content isconcerned it is called kapha in many places. Its density (thinkness or picchhila) attribute isconcemed with shleshma whereas its power of pathology (disturbing its otherwise normalfunction) is called balas as a disease in urdhvajatrugata roga. 145
  • Nevertheless no hard and fast rule can be cited as many places it is casually replaced byeach other. (Dr. Nandini Dhargalkar) These three words allude to the bodily phenomena in different states. The word balas isfound in the Atharvaveda(6.14 and 6.127) as swelling (dropsy) in the body. Sayana equated thisword with consumption or tuberculosis. Others considered it as watery sore. However, theword balas gradually fell out of use. The words shleshma and kapha are often usedinterchangeably. Shleshma is used to mean saliva too (Sushrut on safeguarding of food anddrink). The word kapha directly means phlegm. The words kapha and shleshma are mostly usedto denote the extractable physical variant of dosha mala as well as one of three doshas inside thebody. (Dr. P.V. Ranganayakulu) dd d-+d ti;-dfr Eft ow, tThat which is derived from water is kapha. Property of kapha is drava, snigdha, adhoga, shita-like water. The effect is upashlakshatvam. The term Kapha is used by Vagbhat and Sharangdhar.Its sites and guna karmas are same as those mentioned in shleshma sthanani in Charak Samhita,Sushrut Samhita and Ashtang Sangrah. The term shleshma is also used by Vagbhat. Kapha andshleshma are synonymous but the meaning of shleshma is a sticky material ftaq $rft,iirrar *q effit (tr. zt 21/s) There might be some constitutional difference between the two. Kapha is more watery(ala karma, anugraha) and shleshma is more picchhila due to parthiv gunadhikya. rFEb-{q agurq:r (g.Tl 1s/1o 3riFit-r: =er) geff+w Qaqrr (sr.zi. z1 zott) effi €JTilr[: 3Tilqdrea r (e-d-o)Both are snigdha, shita, shukla, guru, shvet, madhur, shlakshna, picchhila butthe degree ofsneha, shaitya, gaurava, madhurya, picchhila, shvaitya is more in shleshma. The word balas is forvikrut kapha or shleshma, which is abnormally sticky and cannot be removed from the bodywithout applying force. qgerrq-d-qrdraqi qarE+, qFEeflt g rt 41/a (Prof. Kalpana Sathe) Kapha, sleshma and bala, all these three have been considered as synonyms. (Dr. Sangeeta Gehlot) ) t46
  • DHATU )
  • CHAPTER - 3 DHATU 3.1. The following shloka shows the panchabhautiktva of rakta dhatu. How can we understand the panchabhautikafva of other six dhatus? fuSdr G-scn zrJi s<Ei c,rg<TT -ren I (g. ut t +te) (Dr. Naresh kumar Jain)a-q srr.FrerqrF *d ailzd a Ian qBelqa zeg:i fta-u^dr urq srF qrtrfdqr (sr.6 eTT. zrz-+) (or. ararffierrSEzs)There are several such references which explain the sharir bhavas (phenotypes) that havedominance of one or more mahabhuta. Basing on this principle of embryotogy if one haF toexplain panchabhautikatva of rasa dhatu it will have following qualities.Dr av ata * j ala mahabhutaRasadhatu agni - teja mahabhutaSpandan - vayu mahabhutaExtreme minuteness (param sukshmata) to enter the tiny srotas akash mahabhutaMurtibhava (physical entity)- prithvi mahabhuta -Similarly involvement of all mahabhutas in the formation of other dhatus can be understood. (Dr. Sandhya patel) Other dhatus too, have panchabhutatva structure like rakta dhatu. This can be understoodby Drava, saumya, sneha, guru, shit etc gunas of rasa dhatu. Similarly mamsa dhatu is describedto be guru, sthir etc. Meda dhatu is again guru, snigdha, mridu etc. Asthi is ruksha, sthir etc.Majja is snigdha, drava etc. It too must be understood that drava dhatus are more prone to change in their character orguna than sthir dhatus like asthis, mamsa etc. which are not likely to be easily affected by diet orenvironment over shorter period of time (prof. y.K. Sharma)Panchaboutikata of o tadhat u:Dhatu Prithvi Ap Teio Vavu AkashaRasa Guruta Dravata, sarata Sukshmata Chalatva, sarata ShlakshnataRakta Visrata Dravata Ragata Spandan LaghutaMamsa Sandrata Snigdhata, Ushnatva, Chesta Mriduta, vivektva picchhilata ragalaMeda Guruta Snigdhata Sukshmata, Vikasitva Sukshmata, ushnata shlakshnataAsthi Sthirata Mandata Ushnata Kharata, Sushirata vishadataMaiia Sthirata Mandata Vishadata Kharatva SushirataShukra Gandha Dravata, Sukshmata Vikasi, ehalatva Mriduta snigdhata (Prof. M. Srinivasulu) 147
  • 3.2. Saptadhatus are formed during sukshma pachan try the action of dhatvagni overpancha-bhautik ahar. How does the actual conversion of ahar dravya into different dhatusiake place? No logical explanation is available in the texts. Development of someparameters is necessary to prove this important mechanism (Vaidya Sonali Viraj Shukla)?rr€g eqf}{afS qerr*i qq+sM}r: l^(3T.€. en su o r ) -z{rs: ga:-qr{r-rd-11 *pil, a1+ _z+wf}rztrafii: rrarA 1 36qfta-ar rffD+ea a1arffir qd -qz6r: €q vearczrrSald urffiar qaI?T €ft sftqr<-aref a6* g6tlq r oet qq+ ?qerr*i,-isq rrr{t-{r inRzr.*errgqenq dsfa, T{ 3{rdq, *a i-a er +t =trr: qal-.r q-akr €fr e{ret: I a-gtr€nsqrdr}sa+el.6d5- +, i *.r.gn*, T{rS zE+uhaar qrfr r d-fr E[: E{TT: qTIT<T@I:q-"zrFa-* .[iiT6rAa qzrEr: lili;qgtrrgai a Ed €-q .* ^ Sd-erTocr:Tebr @ria ftftrw-cfr-€€nf-a{ _ftrErfBr{eTfi4$qrfbr €< rrqdraterO-sgq-ffr* z-c+-rrgar r$6-di qrd zrr:rnqrerqeela dfta-ar eldrffia.,6-i;"fut aiz+errgz+r*a-+r qffi I alar€I uETET{T+I: 6}"r arafa-qr "drdunol-ffift r (sr.6. eTT. 3 / 6 t o- 312;oraa) o Jatharagni followed by bhutagnis act on ahar o These result in saar and kitta separation o Vyan vayu circulates the saar (also called prasad) thorugh out the body o Rasadhatvagni acts on this saar and as a result rasadhtustha saar is formed o Subsequent dhatus form in the similar manner by the action of preceeding dhatvagni on preceeding dhatusaar.yes, it is true that the physiology of formation of various dhatus do not match the modernphysiology. However, not all is known in modern medicine and so, may be true for Ayurveda.To prove or disprove we need to do a lot of work (Dr. Sandhya {ater) ) Ayurveda has got a fundamental concept that all the dhatus of body after theirorylin getnourishment from ahar or ahar rasa. There are different concepts as to how the dKatus getnutrition from ahar rasa like kshiradadhi, kedarikulya and khalekapota nyayas. Each dhatu getsits structure by the actions of its specific dhatvagni. Further cellular structure and functionalmetabolic state also depend on bhutagni. Almost similar understanding is there in tissueformation in modern bioiogy. However, these conversion, formation and depletion mechanismsalso depend on age, geneticstructure, ahar ghatakas, variability ofjatharagni, dhatvagni etc. (Prof. Y.K. Sharma) Under the jatharagni paka the food turns into its ultimate particles i.e. proteins to dhatvagni aminoacids etc. whln these get access into circulation they are subject to bhutagni and paka resulting in dhatus. The food material after jatharagni paka, in the form of chyle, reaches the liver through portal veins, and undergoes bhutagni paka after which it is delivered into circulation through irepatic veins. Bhutagni-paka, which undergoes in liver, is the chemical change i.e. turning of food material into endogenous. After becoming endogenous it is acceptable to "*tg.no,r, for synthesis of tissues (dhatus). Dhatvagnis are nothing but enzymes (pachakamshas) dhalvagnis located in the cells. According to their selectivity they take their required number of aminoacids to form a chain of their own tissue, thus ahar becomes dhatu. Thus it is explainable and all necessary modern parameters can be considered to understand. (Prof. M. Srinivasulu) 148
  • 3.3. eflg*qsr @-fi + frlcTq EqrS 6;rtr qu|a d wr |drqdr B (aovrnr, Rro-<rs{*;r o s6q) z ffi qr$ or ffio ffiqa etqr waS B r @r E@ era dqorar+ (aourca) ffi€sr arrEr tbr deilfua z{w-srr B a (Dr. Rakesh Thamman) Ekakalapos hana nyaya is nearer to khalekpotnyaya and looks to be more relevant thankshiradadhi nyaya or kedarikulya nyaya. The dhatuposhana nyaya is generalized concept ofdhatu poshana. (Prof. Y.K. Sharma) All the dhatuparin ama nyayas described in texts are the processes occurring in varioustissues and in various states during various processes of transition of food (exogenous) to sharirdhathus (endogenous) i.e. dhatuparinama. In nutshell they are as follows;1. Ekakala poshana nyaya of Arunadutta: It deals with circulation of nutrients (the end productsof digestion after absorption) through blood by heart (hriday). It reaches all the tissue with eachsystolic function of heart and nourishes all the tissues (dhatu) at the same time. Hence this isconsidered as ekakala poshana nyaya by Arunadutta. As per Charak{n?i ai-q€rrEai qfral-ffft q@aq r (a. E. I s)2. Kedarakulya nyaya: The circulating ahar rasa (nutrition) moves from one compartment toanother.lntravascular compartment ) extra vascular compartment ) interstitial compartnient)intracellular compartment etc. Thus the the circulating ahar rasa reaches dhatus by filling orflowing through one compartment to another, ultimately reaching cell.3. Khalekapotanyaya: It is nothing but selectivity of the cell. Afterreaching of the nutritiontothe tissue, the concemed dhatu (tissue/cell) permits its own relevant particles to enter them tobecome their own dhatu (tissue). This is because dhatvagni (enzymes) located in each dhatu.Enzymes are highly specific catalysts. Each particular enzyme affects only specific substratemolecules on which the enzyme acts. (Toratora Principles of Anatomy and Physiolog 8ffiedition, page No.46) After digestion a protein converted into amino acids. These aminoacids are basic units ofproteins, which form various dhatus e.g. a neuron, an osteocyte, mucous membrane etc. Differentnumber of amino acids ) thereby different number of chains ) different tissue. This selectivitydependsupon selective permeability of membranes under control of gene. qTdTEIE qFd IThe plasma membrane permits passage of certain substances and restricts the passage of others.This property of membranes is called selectivity permeability (Toratora).This is khalekapota nyaya. Khale means grains i.e. nutrients (amino acids etc.); kapota means apigeon i.e. a tissue. As the bird selects the palatable or edible food, so does the dhatu; it selectsits own nutrient. This is khalekapotanyaya.4. Kshiradadhi nyaya: This nyaya is concerned with neosynthesis of tissue. During formation ofnew tissue, the nutritive particle turns totally into new tissue like the milk converts to curd. Thisnyaya is obviously observable in formation of embryo e.g. ovum+spenn ) zygote ) morulaand so on. In formation of new tissue one undergoes metamorphosis into another. This iskshiradadhi nyaya. Thus 4 dhatu parinama nyayas (concepts) are obviously observable in the process ofdhatuparinama karma i.e. from ahar to dhatu. all these concepts are observable in human bodyconstantly at various levels. r49
  • Conclusion: 1. Ekakalaposhana nyaya * heart to tissue 2. Kedarakulyanyaya- intravascular ) extravascular ) interstitial ) intracellular 3. Khalekapotanyaya- selective permeability - synthesis of dhatu 4. Kshiradadhi nyaya - neosynthesis of tissue. (Prof. M. Srinivasulu)3.4. Different nyayas are explained with respect to dhatu poshana karma, but all do nothold right. How can this be correlated and explained scientifically? (Dr. Lingaraddi M. Biradar) Among all the dhatuposhana nyayas ekakalaposhana or khalekapot nyaya is most logical.We all know that food eaten by us is not able to give nutrition to every tissue instantly. The onlything that we get immediately after food is working energy, which is associated more withcatabolic phenomenon than anabolic one as we know food constituents, which happen to be thepart of body tissue like rasa, rakta etc. need to be burnt to produce ushma or energy. For realnutrition of dhatus or tissues, specific food constituents need to be processed at various levelslike mouth, gut, blood, liver or tissue it self to be part or structure of the tissue. Further, everyfixed tissue of body like asthi, mamsa has some fixed structures. While the fluid or semi fluids -aharare more labile and can be provided nutrition from and structure in lesser time than sthirdhatus. Ahar rasa, guna, vipak etc also influence dhatu formation. (Prof. Y.K. Starma) Two important physiological processes, digestion and metabolism, had attract)theattention of Ayurveda scholars in ancient days. Their gut-feeling and experience suggested atthare are three stages of digestion. Similarly, the process of metabolism eluded them for manyyears. The hypothesis of kedarikulya, kshiradadhi and khalekapota nyayas are suitable tounderstand both anabolism and catabolism in different states of the body i.e. while fasting orfeasting. The dhatus [six visible and one (rasa) invisible] respond to ahar. In a healthy person,kedarakulya nyaya is at work and in a diseased person khalekapota nyaya is instantaneouslysupporting the dwindled dhatu. In the fetal life kshiradadhi nyaya is helping the fetus to grow. In the liver too, depending on the quality of food, carbohydrates may be converted to fator vice versa. This analogy might have guided the ancient ayurvedists to propose these threetheories. Before explaining them scientifically, we need to have an objective view of the purposeof such explanation. If we believe in three nyayas, it is absolutely impossible to find explanationfor several concepts, like shukra as a product of bone marrow. Sushrut opines saraktameda(redbone marrow) is not amajja. Asthi originating from medas is another paradox. (Dr. P.V. Ranganayakulu)3.5. Supposing dhatus are equivalent to the tissues in modern anatomy then how can wejustiff the kshira-dadhi nyaya as none of the tissues get completely transformed into otheras been postulated in kshirdadhi nyaya? (Dr. Vaibhav Dadu) Kshiradadhi or krama parinam paksha nyaya, kedarikulya nyaya as well as khalekapotnyaya or ekakalaposhana nyaya are not alternative of each other but it can be established thatthe body tissue nutrition occurs through partial involvement of all these. As already explainedthe dhatuposhana is a complex phenomenon where ahar, agni, prakriti, kala, vaya etc. also play a 150
  • role. Similarly potential of ahar in form of its rasa, guna, virya, vipak also matter in dhatu poshana. However. the concept of ekakalaposhana nyaya seems to be most logic and scientific. (Prof. Y.K. Sharma) 3.6. The khalekapota nyaya envisages the nourishment of various dhatus through different pathways. What are these pathways and are there any methods or experiments to assess their physiology? (Dr. Vaibhav Dadu) Khalekpotn yaya canbe understood by the fact that once the ahar rasa is generated the specific ahar tatva, as per the guna or nutritional requirements of a dhatu, enters the fine srotas of dhatus where those are processed by dhatvagni and bhutagni component of dhatus to provide specific nutrition to that dhatus. This is what can be explained by anuloma poshan or anuloma kshaya in its absence. (Prof. Y.K. Sharma) 3.7. Please explain the physiology of dhatuposhana with the reference to a) Kshiradadhi nyaya (Ch. Chi.15/16) b) Kedarikulya nyaya c) Khalekapot nyaya and d) Ekakal dhatuposhana paksha (Arunadatta on A.H. Sha.3/16) (Dr. Devendrappa Budi) There is uniform acceptance among Ayurvedic scholars that all the dhatus of body get their share of nutrition from ahar rasa but the sequence in which they get their nutrition has multiple explanations. Principally they are three. a) Kramaparinamapaksha or kshirdadhi nyaya: Established by Charak and accepted by Sushrut, it primarily is concemed with the fact that the first to get nutrition from ahar rasa is rasadhatu, which is then gets converted to rakta dhatu. This happens just as milk is converted to curd, which is then converted to navnit. If we go by spirit of this hypothesis then we may observe that the sequence of nutrition of dhatus is from highly labile with shortest duration of tissue turnover i.e. rasa dhatu gets the nutritious first and the most stable dhatus like asthi gets comparatively later. However, here it needs to be understood that every tissue of body has to be provided nutrition for its repair, maintenance and sustenance, which is not possible by the application of this theory. Similarly it is not possible to elucidate as no time duration of nutrition of a particular dhatu is specifically stated by ancient scholars. b) The concept of kedarikulyanyaya usually illustrates that the highly labile and tissues with fast tum over trap their nutritional requirements early compared to the stable tissues. Otherwise it is1 difficult to explain this concept.$ c) As far as khalekapot or ekakalaposhana concept is concerned this is most scientific and isn parallel to modern metabolic understanding; entire body tissues derive nutrition from ahar rasaE simultaneously as per their needs. At the same time this concept makes it easy to understand theI Milization of specific foods or rasyana for nutrition of specific dhatu e.g. milk for shukra dhatu,f nilwnrsrasa for mansadhatu etc. It also explains the effect of a specific drug in body on specificIM*IIII (Prof. Y.K. Sharma)ErlI rsllII
  • 3.8. Sushrut has explained formation of dhatus in chronological order and has stated that ittakes one month to transform from rasa to shukra dhatu (Su. Su. l4ll5). How can weunderstand this phenomenon according to modern physiology? (Dr. Sanath Kumar D.G) It is difficult to explain this concept on basis of modern physiology. (Prof. Y.K. Sharma)3.e. €n-g Fry e-a * srelru q{ gq rq orS *$ ou} B e (Dr. Amit Kumar Tanwar)drdff6""-q-{E sfrqerq zoq-d-{W frta-d-d-Eq-gffir, g€ eftd frisqfu I I (9. Ttt+ttz)urtfOq*qerq,"uq<ffiq, 6lRaE €r{oiimrsfq, orftaq e-d-d-{itffiI1hl d5t, (9.T& r 4/t -t qr selut A-eF"r)Some drugs result in faster formation of shukra dhatu due to superiority of their own bala, gunaor both bala and guna (sva-bala-guna-utkarsha). Even in medadhikya dhatuparnam nyaya does not follow the chronological order (Chark). (Dr. Sandhya Patel) Vrishya dravya has a potential to enhance potential of shukra dhatu. It may be qualitativeor quantitative as far as shukra is concerned; or it may be the dravya, which increases maithunpotential or fertility. Used in the form of drug the action may be due to its specific prabhav.-Ho*.u.r, if used in form of ahar it may be giving nutrition to a specific dhatu by concept ofkhalekapot nyaya (prof. y.K. sharma)3.10. According to Charak and Sushrut one month is required for shukra utpatti. Thenhow do we understand that kshir is sadhyo-shukrakar? (Cha. Sh. 6/11) (Dr. Santosh N. Belavadi) The concept of Charak that kshir is sadya shukrakar is based more on vrishya potential ofkshira and its specific prabhav. Part of its efficacy rnay be due to concept of samanya vriddhikaranam. (Prof. Y.K. Sharma) Dhatuposhana and time needed to nourish a particular dhatu depend on available quantityof dhatu in the body. If rasadhatu is lacking in quantity (less than 9 anjali) the aharrasa fulfils thequantity of rasa dhatu. If shukra dhatu is to be replenished, when shukraskhalan has happened,the ahar does it according to the principle of khalekapota nyaya. This happens when the dhatusare balanced. After shukraskalana, because of imbalance, ahar immeadiately nourishes shukrainstead of other dhatus. Another explanation is from the modern physiology. The sperm is a component in thesemen. The rasadhatu certainly takes one month time to get matured into spermatozoa. But theother secretions into semen, like prostate secretion, fluid from seminal vesicles take less time. Ifmilk can increase the secretions from prostate and seminal vesicles, then, milk is recommendedas sadhyo-shukra kara. While sperm takes weeks for maturation, the secretions from the prostateand seminal vesicles are faster. (Dr. P.V. Ranganayakulu) t52
  • 3.11. How does ranjak pitta impart color to rasa dhatu and convert it in to rakta? please give scientific explanation. (Ref: A.H. Su. l2th Chapter) (Dr. Lingaraddi M. Biradar) Agni kriya is associated with guna karma changes of a dravya. This is why after ranjak pitta kriya a new dhatu (rakta) takes shape that is bound to have different guna, karma compaied to its poshak dhatu. Metabolic processes are basically designed to synthesize somethirrg n.* o. degrade the existing one. In both the cases the end products are structurally and functionally different than the products subjected to metabolic fire or agnikriya. (Prof. Y.K. Sharma) For complete maturation of the red cells i.e. to attain raktata, vitamin 812 is neeessary.The mucosa of the fundus of stomach secretes a substance called the intrinsic factor 3Trarerengrei fr.ri # Ttr"ddrqr (sr.6. u1 tzrtz)The function of the intrinsic factor is to promote absorption of vit. B12, which is present in food.Absorbed vit. 812 is the main antianemic principle in the liver s{ sdrl* €fr e-qeffiqff qrq I (g. T& t +r+) "rd-€QftVitamin B12 is stored in the liver and liberated as needed, taken by circulation to the bonemalrow, where it functions enzymatically to complete maturation of the red blood cell.(Kimber-Gray-Stackpoles Anatomy and Physiotogy, 16tn Ed. Amerind pubfshingCompany Pvt. Ltd. New York, page # 278) (Prof. M. Srinivasulu)s:12- Ig .!q FT-B^qi.g ssd scrg Effi errg 3rrr+q-ad Ea ss urg $ rm+t BEFa *ft B e#{ ffirgErc Erd .Dn:ur t-srguu *.fr # *ae ;rq6 B Fd qtr Ts errg rFlerE a slrs sfl6r a; qrd e errg r+ +q _,sdqrB+r "-€ # (Dr. Nidhi Khurana) The assertion that saumya dhatu should give rise to saumya dhatu only is not true. Agnikriya does change the guna dharma of poshak rasa hence every time agni works a new prodictwith different guna dharma is formed. This can be best understood in ihe concept of atrar pakakriya. This is why Ayurveda has concepts of virya and vipaka also. (Prof. Y.K. Sharma) Rasa possesses all the moieties of all saptadhatus since it does prinana karma i.e.nourishes all uttara dhatus. Hence basically it possesses both the gunas i.e. saumya and agneya.Ahar rasa in circulation, after getting subject to rasagni, becomes saumya. The rasa, after gettingsubject to raktadhtvagni, produces rakta of agneya nature. Similarly other uttara dhatus ixhibittheir nature after getting subject to their respective agnis. (Prof. M. Srinivasulu)3.13. As per Charak and Sushrut agnimandya and amla-, shita-padartha-iccha occur inraktakshaya (Cha. Su. 17165 & Su. Su. l5/9). Why do these happen? Please clarify. (Dr. Santosh N. Betavadi)elFrder+ @ ftrlrelFrei qrr (g. T& r szr s) srffieft.rurefefr €iFrder+ z{fr dffiildi endn+irn r #re-o-ffr*mrrq-meq@ Ewsql fg.T& isrts rrE seor) 153
  • r Vata vriddhi occurs due to shonitakshay, which leads to craving for amla rasa o In others opinion rakta is agni-somiya; hence in its deficient state there is craving for dravya having same qualities i.e. amla and shita dravyas. Neither Charak nor Sushrut has mentioned agnimandya. Charak has also not mentionedamla-shit-ichchha; only Sushrut has described this. (Dr. Sandhya Patel) The state of raktakshaya or raktalpata, associated with pandu avastha and agnimandya, isboth cause and effect of this state. In fact when there is raktakshaya there is lack of nutrition ordhatu poshana. Even the jatharagni does not get its nutrition hence there is agnimandya. Amla,shita padhartha icchha may be associated with specific type of raktakshya. While amla ispittavardhak and hence sama bhavaj with rakta; the shita icchha cannot be explained. However,in rakta kshaya or pandu features like mridbakshana or pica occur which too cannot be explainedwhich factors are responsible for that. (prof. y.K. Sharma)qN gk egE, ftrcr*a-gfreqr (sr.€. zt t zrzz)According to this concept in raktakshaya, the person will have agnimandya; to ignite it, thepatient will crave for amlarasa (so that it improves the agni). In raktakshaya in inner core theperson will have the feeling of heat due to increased catabolism in which condition craving forcool substance intake may take place. (Prof. M. Srinivasulu)3.14. How do we practically demonstrate shira purnata and shira shaithilata in raktavriddhi and rakta kshaya respectively? (Dr. suchetha Kumari M.) Shirapumata in rakta vriddhi can be demonstrated as high volume pulse in increasedcirculatory volume state and shira shaithilyata or collapsed torturous veins can be synonyms,which are commonly seen in low circulatory volume or rakta kshaya. (Prof. Y.K. Sharma) Rakta vriddhi in this context means increased volume of blood in which we fiund fullnessof the vessels, which we perceive as shirapurnata. When there is raktakshaya, there will bemamsakshaya ( hypoproteinamia) because it is uttara dhatu. In such condition the vessel wallswill lose its tonicity thereby sira shaitilyata is observed (Prof. M. Srinivasulu)3.15. Some of the vitamin deficiency symptoms and disorders match to rasa- rakta- dushtilakshnas. How do we assess the difference on the basis of sharikriya? (Vd. Pranita P. Joshi) There can be two types of rasa kshaya or dhatu kshaya; one is quantitative and other isqualitative. For example if it is raktalpata, it may be either quantified in anjali pramana or in theform of varna of hasta, netra, jihva etc. Similarly the vitamin deficiency only is associated withqualitative rasa kshaya hence very likely that some of the features of rasa kshaya resembleavitaminosis. (Prof. Y.K. Sharma) t54
  • Vitamins are organic materials required in minute amounts for normal metabolism i.e. forcertain enzymatic actions. Vitamins can be considered as bhutagni amshas or pachakamshasrequired for dhatvagni paka, hence the deficiencies reflects as dhatu dushti or kshaya or vridhilakshanas. These can be assessed basing on signs and symptoms e.g. vitamin K is a co-enzymeessential for synthesis of several clotting factors, which are related to raktadhatu because itsstorage and action are in raktavaha srotomulas i.e. yakrit and pliha. Hence vit. K deficiencies canbe assessed on rakta dushti lakshanas. (Prof. M. Srinivasulu)3.16. Plihavriddhi is explained in kshay of meda. In our routine practice we have nevercome across such a condition. How can we explain this? (RAv)3.17. Sushrut and Vagbhat have mentioned ptihavriddhi while explaining medakshayalakshana- *Eet+ dargE: I (g. TI t srs) ffi{ Eq.i rFsErT: ffi gk: €erbrarlr (sr.e. T1. t sts)How do we understand plihavriddhi? Please substantiate. (Dr. Santosh N. Belavadi)3.18. Sushrut and Vagbhat both have given plihavriddhi (enlargement of spleen) in thesymptoms of decrease in medodhatu. It is difficult to understand the reason behind this. *E,er+ ff}rgk, zifsegvar *eri +grfli"rqr+dr q, r (g. w. I s/e) ffi{ €q-i 6-aqr taft{* gfu qeriurart (3r.€. qd* r rzr a)We understand that due to medakshaya vata increases by its sukshma guna. Because thefunction of sukshma guna is to spread, the particular organ gets enlarged, but we cannotunderstand the reason behind the involvement of pliha; why is not yakrit or any otherorgan involved in it? Some others say that the main site of medodhatu is abdominal wall and due todecrease in medadhatu, we fee false enlargement of pliha. But again the same doubt arisesas to why only the enlargement of pliha takes place and not of any other organ. Kindly tetus know the exact and precise explanation behind this. (Dr. Hema Waghulade & Dr. Sarita Ohot)srro.rei tr-deffi sffi€Hrard€d-nffirqr+aft-q€ffir aeqH ou-arRgau-*<rarr (g elr. s/s o7 s6ur) Sukshma guna helps in penetration (spread), not enlargement. Enlargement involvesproliferation, which is not due to sukshma guna but is due to vibhajan karma of vayu, anal (agni)and akash.Plihavriddhi in medokshay: Plihavriddhi in this reference is certainly not pseudosplenomegaly, itis in the real sense splenomegaly. This occurs in the kshay of sarakta meda.zeSarfterE fteNor- ariiilT aaqasrflra rsrdtrtg r{dg ert-ni *e sqt I r (g. err. +r t z) E-dtE srwrfterE e+fu r (9. eTT. 4/ 1 z rrt sddur A-drr)*<-ttr eTft€r, a-5qEiEr-A-drz€dr ai=rr, --- |q-S-qr ffierur, ffi E zr-d@ q, a-6l-ag q aTdT aTqfrr (€. eTT.4/12) sr-ofterE sranfrerg 1 a€, ar,rlT 3I{€olTarcdaffi oei+e*a-<anftere.ff6ftFerR1 3p-ofrerg *E:, dF€ a-dftr (g. err. 4/12 qs s€sT) 155
  • T€f,drR€rq Ee}*or atGtT 6-g-q-EdzTBra[: 13TSiatg i,ilE Trt-.Fi fr< gq* rr (g.. .t. +rt z) -gatftrn rE z169 r a-g, ffi;1r.1rg-rs suerrgzr-otw t5 t (9.erT. 4/1s uz sew) =-€rr6-9ffi . The hypoproliferative anemias associated with marrow damage include myelodysplasia, some rare type of acute lymphoid leukemia yhere there would be splenomegaly (Harrisons Principles of Internal Medicinel l6n Edi. Page No. 617 & 625). . In some of the anemic conditions there may be hepatomegaly because the spleen lies in portal circulation. . Spleen may take up the function of hematopoiesis (extramedullary hematopoiesis) in some myel,oproliferltive disorders as a result it is enlarged (Harrisonos Principles of Internal Medicine; 16tn Edi. Page No.347). o In leukemias splenomegaly is observed because the course of the disease pathology leads ultimately to marrow failure. o Autoimmune hemolyic anemia with warm antibodies and gradual onset autoimmune hemolytic anemia associated with cold antibodies are some of the examples where the features may resemble medokshaya (plihavriddhi). o Splenom egaly is observed in hemolytic anemias e.g. some children with hereditary siherocytosii may remain asymptomatic into adulthood, but may develop splenomegaly later.So considering these modern medical views about hypoproliferation or failure of bone manowand Ayurvedic views of normal dhatu function there should not be any difficulty inunderstanding medokshaya lakshanas. pseudosplenomegaly does not occur due to medokshay. When the mesentericconnections are abnormally long they produce wandering or ptotic spleen. This is in most cases acongenital problem (not genetic). (Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, l7" Edi. Page No. 1675)(See the figure No. 5 and 6 of wandering spleen) (Dr. SandhYa Patel)To me it looks that when there is a gross wasting of meda or subcutaneous fat of body and bodybecomes very lean, underlying viscera including pliha may also become palpable hence thisfeature or.,rir. Similarly some chronic wasting diseases like cirrhosis, leukemias, kalazat,malaria, anemias and dyshemopoietic disorders are also associated with spleenomegaly only,hence this observation is noted. (Prof. Y.K. Sharma) There are several references to meda kshaya and plihavridhi in Ayurveda literature. Medakshaya is a process of inanition, i.e. the body gradually looses fat from the adipose tissue throughoui the body. Modem human physiology lucidly explains that the mobilized fat from adipose tissue ."u.ir", the liver and starts converting into glucose. In this process some fat accumulates in the hepatic cells known as steatosis. So the fatty liver is aq important sign in the fat loss or starvation. This phenomenon also happens in chronic alcoholism. These days we use the terms yakrit for liver and pliha for spleen. But the treatises of Ayurveda often use the terms yakrit and pliha interchangea-bly for liver and spleen. So the phrase plihavridhi really. t":q yakritvriddfri. yut rit is moitly used in physiological situations and the word pliha in pathological situations. 156
  • In ancient days, starving was common in times of drought and spells of famine. Fattyliver is easily felt by the physician. The spleen enlargement is not easily established, so theplihavridhi has to be considered as fatty liver. (Dr. P.V. Ranganayakulu) Asthi dhatu is derived from medhodhatu i.e. precursor. Cartilage bones are tender and notfully formed. They possess medodhatu, which is known as saraktameda as per Sushrut.According to modern concept this sarakta meda in bone is the source of erythropoesis. Whenmedodhatu kshaya is existing, there will be improper production of erythrocytes leading toirregular size of the cells, which are to be regularizedby spleen. In these conditions the spleen isput to more load leading to hypertrophy i.e. plihavridhi. Thus medokshaya leads toplihabhivriddi. (Prof. M. Srinivasulu)3.19. How can we substantiate ashrya-ashrayi bandha of asthi and vata? (RAV) In Ayurvedic fundamentals there is a tendency to focus predominance of a specific doshain a specific dhatu e.g. kapha in rasa dhatu, pitta in rakta dhatu and vata in asthi dhatu. Thefactors behind putting vata dosha with asthi dhatu may be that both are ruksha, khar, chala etc.guna karmas are common hence there may be direct correlation. (Prof. Y.K. Sharma) Calcium and phosphorous form part of the structure of bone. About 99Yo of calcium and80% of phosphorus are stored in bone and teeth. Both the minerals play more important roles inmuscle and nerve activity. Further role of calcium is in endocytosis, exocytosis, cellular motility,chromosome movement prior to cell division, glycogen metabolism and synthesis, and release ofneurotransmitters. Similarly phosphorous is involved in energy transfer (ATP), and is acomponent of DNA and RNA. All the above functions are of vata dosha only, which are based on asthi components.Moreover the maximum amount of calcium absorbed is through pakvashaya, which is pradhansthan of vata. This is an establishment of ashray-ashrayibhava of asthi and vata. In case of vata prakop the absorption of calcium is deprived there by leading toasthidhatu kshaya. Similarly in case of asthi dhatu kshaya, the calcium and phosphorus (mineral)deficiency hampers vata functions. This is establishment of viloma response. (Prof. M. Srinivasulu)3.20. Vagbhat has given roma or kesha as mala of asthi dhatu while Sharangdhar hasconsidered kesha as upadhatu of majja. Likewise according to Vagbhat, oja is mala ofShukra, but according to Sharangdhar oja is the upadhatu of shukra. What could be thereason behind this? What should the students and the teachers understand exactly? orn: frrd qdr: g€a* EnrrE*fl q I I #sfffioerrffi errddi e-aefr d.rr: I (er.6- en. ttoz-a+) (Dr. Hema Waghulade & Dr. Sarita Ohol) It is diffrcult to put co-relation and relevance of such opinions about appearance ofl-arious structures of body as is explained in Ayurveda. (Prof. Y.K. Sharma) r57
  • 3.21. Kesha is narrated as mala of asthi. How can we explain this? Has it any role informulating the treatment principle for hair fall (noninfectious typeX (RAV) Most of the times, features of asthi vridhi are non modifiable such as adhyasthi(osteophytesor osteomas), adhidanta (accessory tooth) or kasha-nakha-ativriddhi (excessivegrowth of hair and nails); hence it seems that one should not make effort of their medicalmanagement. (Prof. Y.K. Sharma) If kesha is a mala, it has to be excreted from the body. All the malas (purisha, mutra,sweda etc) do not help metabolism staying on in the body. The production of mala is differentfrom excretion of mala. Mala produced has to be excreted after certain time. So hair growth isdifferent from hair fall. Hair growth is production of mala and hair fall is excretion. Excess hairgrowth and less hair fall lead to abundant hair. Poor hair growth and excess hair fall leads tobaldness. So the principle in treatment of hair fall lies in snubbing the excretion of mala from thebody. Vata domination may stabilize the hair because excess vata causes malabandhana. . Kesha is considered as mala of asthi because there are several similarities between thesetwo tissues. Both are used by the body as dustbins for chemical waste. Metals like lead andradioactive elements are deposited by the body in bones and hair. Bones and hair from soilprovide good clues to dietary habits of ancient men. This sharing of hazardous material by boneand hair may have given some identifying features to Ayurvedists to consider them to have somephysiological bondage. So, asthivardhaka dravyas are useful in hair growth but for stabilizinghair we have to look towards vata , (Dr. p.v. Ranganayakulu)3.1. Asthikshay can be managed by vatashaman chikitsa. How can we manageasthivriddhi? (RAV) Asthi kshaya can be managed by vata shamak chikitsa like snehabastis, which are rich incalcium and phosphorus minerals. Moreover for absorption through pakvashaya, the snehadravya in the form of basti is effective. In asthi-vriddhi or -dushti nirhabasti is recommended,which takes away these mineral (excess) from gut and in turn prevents asthi-vriddhi or -dushti. (Prof. M. Srinivasulu)s.22. g@-rgratr tll.qrqAr @. fu. 1s/ls, Br.€. en. zroz)qefu er.li. eTT. r S srgz+r* *tu*sft g-€ s-apr* r tr-r arale F6fu€ o-ffifr a Fra} n* qa fusrcna+rsr d Ez{i qR d f go araffi + qld-q afi B, * orwE d Bag@ errE eqr B cfr ederM ! aql ffffi + erft{ fr ETflIET gq * qr€ritrrft B? (Dr. Nidhi Garg) Shukra as a dhatu should be considered as entire reproductive physiology including allfactors associated with sexual characters and virility where as shukra as bija should beconsidered as spenn the counterpart of which in female is shonit. (Prof. Y.K. Sharma) 158
  • As per Ayurveda, irrespective of any author, the word shukra dhatu conveys thefollowing comprehensively.1. Shukradhatu is one of the saptadhatus (primordial), which exist in all human beings withspread all over body. irrespective of sex differentiation, to promote health and reproduction.2. Shukra means that which comes out or is secreted through genital passages on zenith ofarousal or sexual act in either sex.3. Shukrabija means that which is causative and essential factor for reproduction of offspring orformation of embryo in either sex. As per the modern physiology the above can be observed as follows. 1. Shukradhatu - gonadotrophin hormones (follicular stimulating hormone and leutinising hormone) which are present in both sexes and deliver the functions of shukradhatu as mentioned in texts. 2. Shukra - seminal fluid in the males that consists of the secretions of the seminiferous tubules, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands (Cowpers glands), which is ejaculated through penis on orgasm during sexual act. This shukra possesses all the qualities mentioned in the texts for shukra. zqftmlai agaiftr a I Similarly profuse vulval secretions released during sexual arousal and at high peak of sexual act or orgasm. These secretions.consists of mucous secretions from paraurethral (Skenes) glands, which are homologous to the male prostate gland, and mucus secretions of greater vestibular (Bartholines ) glands, which produce small quantity of mucus during sexual arousal and intercourse that adds to cervical mucus and provides lubrication. These secretions also possess the qualities mentioned in the texts for shukra i.e. guru, snigdha, picchhila, and madhu, madhu gandhicha etc.3. Shukra beeja that which is actual (direct) cause of garbotpathi. Sperm - shukrabija in males. Ooclte - shukrabija in females.This is not corelation; it is the way to understand the Ayurveda in light of modern sciences. (Prof. M. Srinivasulu)2.2s. go zr#enft B aerr d E"i goq ffi # @rd aft sqra E r d qr qqe Bd qo eft go errg d qrc gF or zrofa fu-qr qrflT e ?il q6 #fl or E qoiafb-qr qrar B, + +{6T gEfr fr qrqr qrar Ea (q. fr. so/144, q. E. z(+)r+s,g. en. 2/11) (Dr. Nidhi Garg) Please refer to the reply No. 3.24. (Dr. Sandhya Patel) The answer to this question exists in my answer to question 3.22 (Prof. Y.K. Sharma) d fr g6 errg EFr rerr ssq Bz g€ €rrg 6r d * wr onf $7 qEs.24.d # g-€ srrg a art til d +1 ve-errarwo s*c go.q o1 Er<rerr€rffi artrqrqrffi. en r (Dr. Rakesh Thamman) ?r sg *F,r Eri ar+d rsr: ?Id ardft T*ri q wdaq r (g. Ttt +rr +) 159
  • 3rtr srrfoerdsei g-A E*A d g rdft+, z-d E "zlrdqEq r{q-esRd--rq;; qs*arfoerq, ?fd a #+ ga-n5-o-erfi ?rqr 3I* ?-€qsr -fi-dtq ."==@ FIQ; aFtr;ffi.r*,- gd -fr;,-.,a e^ "-ofu=- ffi- a-u:-rtr z4g6z-a6=u=56. *d=d or#4aeftm#a-ar.f"f dqr*fri,-"q6rr* ar*ar*aEq gq-.q-d drqAi-eftr srftaq -arulg*+rai#|-];ij"}1q "ffiaEzc.dGffifr i (g. "t 4/ 1 4-qz seur) "t ----?x-€?io..l--4-rraf eerrdtrt: (n E .r stra) ?t6rg dffit "-zrrrfti i*r=- ru. "rifr a{-ft, a-g --d-u-eti ffiftq r (q. p.- t s/16 qs a.@-qrFr) sr=q #-..q-d-q-3l3tr qffircq, sffirffii Tizti 9.TT ]**ta1arypdffi-..€e-{ -d g--€*} aen 51ori q s{r5=g._=..g srrtoer< q1o "riJ-"i-*raa "da ; g .-ftt, zcfr- G ffia-{ eHd qrqA a g €" $EIr$: I dEI!]=$, ffi g"I €-nrorA u{F ftrs{trsfr *G-Grqr s;f,ae1qr*. ffi, "-d"rrnrdzi sfoqrq TftraEItlT e-dfu arureqfuar-dft "ag€;""fr msr*.raq-* ararferqo-6-d ffi, ara+ferqqTftil{g n+e" erd-efr e-dr _ffi*dd *=dft qgredmq r std F EeqFr*or, - gft r ?T5rters-&€ren "q€fir: d-w-trn-E-ar, nr*,1 -if*=i E arsr=soFq q-tr; -" 61-qeld-g-fti dmt-marffisef r "G-(Footnotes on Su. 14t12)!|11"";;;; Su_. ffi r a*flq u-gr{*r*1u *-gerd;1*; Io.-gznudqr (a- QTT. s/3 €reIT derr srr5-u-Eefur6-;ft ;61 ?I6*d 6fi€wpift "E".ryt6sfi6ft,qr ao-qrFr) q 3r:€* aETT dtT: g-fg----dg, ..T+TTErRi d-*3/62) aiz+rffisfte.rq-qr.rlii" 1ar.6. en. ai"i gtqfrRrc Etrq sI g gg5rrt-"Tl --1 q 4ie-{h{oeei ^z+wry, eT. 5{{ sql ----lCrtrg1r sar$ifr?r;dd sr5-ur{f,) which is required for The summary of all these references is that females also have shukra dhatu, ejaculation conception. Male and female gametes are required for conception. Macroscopically which of semen usually means the rrlle is able to fertilize the ovum (there may be azospermia, generally denotes that would lead to infertility). Similarly in females appearance of menstruation the female ovulates *d ,* be fertile (there -uy U" anorulatory cycles, which leads to female and for all we infertility). Also, in children before p.tu..ty only six dhatus manifest. so once symbolic of ovulation in an should accept artavaas seventh dhatu in female (which is generally adult female) (Dr. Sandhya Patel) As explained in 3.22 shukra, as a dhatu, is existent in male and female sharir also However, some scholars shall like to name it as artav dhatu in female. However, it is logical to as a carrier of purush bija or speffn, similarly shonit or rasa can be called as carrier of call semen stribija or ovum. (prof. y.K. Sharma) 3.2S. A. As shukra dhatu is for male which is the last dhatu in females? Which is the last dhatu for ojas in femalest ,Dr. Mukesh Shukla) Same as3.24 (Prof. Y.K. Sharma) 160
  • 3.26. Artav is upadhatu of rasa dhatu, but il€rE 3rr+q er*a gF a-dAt (g. q. r+rr+)Please clarif the similarities, differences or relation between shukra and artav in femaleswith reference to the above-mentioned shloka. (Dr. Mukesh Shukla)3-2J.ggd q{ a-6r TEt_gu_+ovrtu fr 6Er B F6 ftilq fr g€ 6}dr B q-€s?s-$ araf d zerrq;n a-fr ffi (g. T& r+rrs)t araiffi ?il 3tr*d"+ Er{r ffi Bl(q-{-g 3[rda ?il sdk rFT rErsoT a-S B I s{rf,{ rfi gqur araf e+ Eerrcrdr qfi *i orqro BD (Dr. Amit Kumar Tanwar) Sushrut has mentioned rightly that only artava is not sufficient for garbhotpatti. Shukra inmale and artava in females are the dhatu (factors) responsible for physical and psychologicalaspects of sexual development. They are also responsible for virility in males and feminization infemales. They are the carrier and sustainers of physical form of bija shukra or sperrn and shonitartava or ovum. The two are really responsible for garbhotpatti. (Prof. Y.K. Sharma) As mentioned above profuse vulval secretions released during sexual arousal and at highpeak of sexual act or orgasm. These secretions consists of mucous secretions from paraurethral(Skenes) glands which are homologous to the male prostate gland, and mucus secretions ofgreater vestibular (Bartholines ) glands which produce small quantity of mucus during sexualarousal and intercourse that adds to cervical mucus and provides lubrication. These seiretionsalso possess the qualities mentioned in the texts for shukra i.e. guru, snigdha, picchhila, andmadhu, madhu gandhicha etc. According to Sushrut these secretions are considered as shukra as mentioned above.Since it is not having any bija in it, it is unable to produce or form embryo, which is appropriateto the statement given in Sushrut Sutrasthan l4ll5. (Prof. M. Srinivasulu)s.2a. v<r ar+fu*ar+i gs-q-d oeiq-al{aa @ qrq*1 (g.en. 2/4.r)+Ci arfraegv (3rdft€r) araf eT wr erd B a wn A g25S * sarur31 * ar+f eieraBz (Dr. Nidhi Garg) srfrer+a qr*a qo-arefr F€EI-di @i hfferqra-qffirs*+rai Tffi €qfur{r gqEqd} zarftfrdr amfte1B6-€q-6tr-aq, fr;n"qq+aTc1TRerr(9. eTT. 2/47 vr rer)This verse from Sushrut Samhita and Dalhana commentary on it denote two conditions: 1) Sexual act between two phenotypic females resulting in pregnancy (one is shandha as is meant by Dalhana commentary) 2) The fetus formed as a result is anasthi (not boneless, but having soft and less number of bones, nikrishta (physically and/or mentally retarded) and vikrit (dysmorphic) (see the images of various types of skeletal dysplasias in figures No. 7-20) o Both strishukra and pumshukra are required for conception. None of them alone can procreate. (There are several references in Ayurvedic texts, which state this.) Even 161
  • the modern genetics conhrms the same view that maternal and patemal genomes are functionally not equal (as is proven by phenomenon of genomic imprinting)----frd-qreq rrgcFr ucr, qi arl+i g-€ arerts+e{Ei a ars-ffi qFrcnRti uTq | (a.B. 1s/l6 qs e-oqrFr) trdi ftrg zrreFaer g-d; sffif}d araforstra1 L ----ng, "{e+6ed. dd ai"+aig+rffisfter a r sr{€* ar-,rr ?rcr: g-€ gcDr-(tref: qqrq} I t" (er.€. eTT. ztoz)gtwftRre C€q, 6r g E?I6r€r&f: .!rffel?r gcad F trq r ga+ffi q$is{-+{qezi z{werrgo,daagqar6rr@q, a 1iz+ tro r rrz r go-r&i E arafort"rq r---r $go E z*l*gmt arafm,rsurq r (sr.6. elr. 1 / s 3rour€f,) So in the above-mentioned verse one of the individuals (with female phenotype) shouldprovide male gamete to fertilize the ovum otherwise the conception will not occur. Thisindividual could be suffering from 5o-reductase 2 enzyme deficiency. This produces a conditioncalled familial incomplete pseudohermaphroditism type 2 (syn. pseudovaginal perineoscrotalhypospadias) a kind of male pseudohermaphroditism. The features include - o Blind vaginal pouch opening either into urogenital sinus or urethra o Testes with normal epididymis, vasa differentia and seminal vesicles . Termination of ejaculatory ducts in the blind vagina o Normal to decreased spermatogenesis . Female phenotype with normal axillary and pubic hair but without female breast development o Absence of female internal sex organs o Normal male plasma testosterone levels o At the time oipuberty the person may behave like a male, has erections, ejaculations and a libido directed towards female o At the time of puberty virilisation occurs. Clitoris enlarges and noticeable erection occurs in it (these changes are due to conversion of testosterone into DHT by the action of Sa-reductase 1). o Most of the patients are raised as girls but prefer to change to male gender at the time of puberty o If treated properly, fertilization has been reported o This condition can be called shandaa (Sushrut has described it and Dalhan has considered it responsible for anasthi garbha). r (Source: Harrisins Principles of Iiternal Mrdirior, 15n Edi. Vol.l page # 2293- 22es) o It is important to remember that the garbha formation is not due to lesbian relationship. Anasthi garbha could be a condition where the bones are less in number, extremelydelicate or soft (undermineralized) and so much brittle that becuse of intrauterine fractures orfractures during delivery the bones may not be perceptible. This denotes certain types of skeletaldysplasias (also called osteochondrodysplasias) where many bones are poorly ossified, soft andfragile or entire skeleton is undermineralized to such an extent that rnany bones are invisibleradiographically. Achondrogenesis, osteogenesis imperfecta type II, perinatal hyopphosphatasiaare a few conditions with these features. Hydatidiform mole and dermoid cyst cannot be called an anasthi garbha as the formerdevelops due to duplication of paternal genome and lacks bones while the latter isparthenogenetic in origin i.e. duplication of maternal genom. t62
  • i For detail reading please refer to rthe article *ScientiJic (Jnderstanding of Anasthi published in The Journal of Research and Education in Indian Medicine, vol: -Gybha" XIV:ln 2008. As stated earlier uniparental duplication does not lead to reproduction. Conception and pregnancy normally require fallopian tubes and uterus. Obviously for this and the reason mentioned earlier homosexuality (or even lesbian relationship) will not lead to garbha formation. (Dr. Sandhya patel) The fetus without bones in called as anasthi garbha. Some scholars co-related it with pseudocyesis. Some scholars feel it is a state where fetus mummifies before osteogenesis. Two real males cannot have potential of conception; this is known as basic biology knowGdge level. (prof. y.K. Sharma) 163
  • MAtA
  • CHAPTER. 4 MALA4.1 tr61 d er${ fr €I sqSF.rdr B ? aft4-A-6"vrr{ 3TreTtalt{drardrT: | (sn-g. q zott)-- ur*o # -fu; a;TA B I aeil u:r Fr€ir dfar srroequ; E r (Dr. Rakesh Thamman) +senqra-qei E erSt{ t This very definition by Sushrut says that malas of body are not only kittansha-ofagnikriya and need to be out of body but in their physiological form they are also "*p"ll"d considered vital for nutrition ofimportant in sustenance of uoay. Being mula or roo] -they are considered as body wastes and theirbody. If they get disturbed then Lntire b6dy suffers. Mala are expelled from body They should benatural tendency o, pruuritti is that they should be regularlyproduced as ideal ptoi""t (niram) ln ideal quantity for normal body function Their excess in are both disease states andbody (mala sanchaya) or lowered quantity in body (malakshaya) "rr.6-require management. various malas also perform useful functions for body. Fecal matter is important for and nutritionof.gut lining Regularregular intestinal movements and thereby it maintains-tone abdominal muscles. Urine, by expulsion ofact of defection maintains strength of pelvic floor and sweat, the mala of meda dhatu,metabolic waste from body, hefts in maintaining milieu-interior.helps heat toss rrom foay. 3i*iiurly hair over h-ead and skin play an important role in protectingil"i n."t especially l" i.*"a animals. Nails at their part are organorgals too playand helppart in of protection some mouth, geniial a.vital animals do minor functions. Secretion of nose, eyes, - maintaining health of specific structure and have anti septic, bactericidal properties; besides they wastes e.g urea can be considered prevent drying of mucous membranes. otherwise also tirr,r. as nitrogenous reserve pool of body and if required body_can convert it to tissue building Pitta or bile, considered as mala of rakta diratu, is very essentiai for digestion of food at gut level Kapha secietions, is also important for giving the mala of rasa dhat" and commonly iaken as respiratory trapped and disposed . moisture to breath air; it also helps bacteria or particles are sama or in right proportion Therefore ii i, ,ight to consider malas Ls dhatus tiif they In this proportion they too are known as prasad (Prof. Y.K. Sharma) Malas are the byproducts resulted during the process of ahar shoshana and dhatu parinama (digestion and metabolism). These are excretions; if retained in body they produce the they are malas. (Malinikaranat mala) on toxin substances, which are harmful to the body hence accum"lationtheycausesrotorodharesultingindoshaprakopaetc. Their uses are- Sveda: It is the produt of sudoriferous glands in the skin, which help eliminate excess heat, water, and COz plus small quantities of salts and ursa. Its main function is maintenance of body temperature and also skin texture Mutra: urine is excreted from kidney. Main function of mutra is kledavahana i.e. it maintains blood pH and blood pressure and regulation of blood volume and composition, regulates prakrita mutra is an essential one. Mutra kshaya means eliminates metabolic end products. Hence a toxic condition and vridhi is a prameha condition purisha: Feces i, tn. produt oi ut * consumed. It also maintains bodys water balance and large intestine. The purisha kshaya means the electrolytes depending on the absorption in the 164
  • patient is either on poor or no intake of ahar that in turn leads to balakshaya. If there is nopurisha in the intestine it leads to nurogenic shock condition, fuither leads to atrophy ofabsorptive surface of intestine and leading further to dhatu kshaya. Apart from that vatanulomankriya will be affected because of absence of intestinal movement. Hence the importance ofpurisha is stressed. o "The feces normally are about 3/c water and t/o solid matter that itself is composed of about 30Yo dead bacteria, 10-20% fat, l0-20o/o inorganic matter, 2-3% protiin, and 3 0%undigested roughage" o "The large amount of fat derives mainly from fat formed bvy bacteria and fat in the sloughed epithelial cells" o "Numerous bacteria, especially colon bacilli, are present even norrnally in the absorbing colon. They are capable of digesting small amount of cellulose, in this way providing a few calories of nutrition to the body each dayi o Other substances formed as a result of bacterial activity are vitamin K, vitamin Bl2, thiamin, riboflavin, and various gases." o "Vitamin K is especially important because the amount of this vitamin in the ingested foods is normally insufficient to maintain adequate blood coagulation." (Gayton & Hall Text Book of Medical Physiologyo W.B. Saunders Company, gth edition,lgg6,p.8a3)The above quotes from modern physiology indicate the importance of purisha mala. It pirformsthe action of avstambha purishasya, malayattam cha jivanana in normal human. Especially inrajayaksma purisha becomes bala (purishayattam balam pumsam) by providing a few calories ofnutrition to the body and providing necessary vitamins for strength and vitality. (Prof. M. Srinivasulu)+.2. god 6r qd g€ tfti d-d-a ad qc Fef{ oEtrr B r gorqei qc,i lisi aareai q *qaa r f$.r.)F{T a"t 61 gfu *ar srrEeqo B r (Dr. Rakesh Thamman) As explained above mala is considered as waste of agni kriya and above a critical level itneeds to be excreted from body. However, its very presence in body in physiological amount isessential to support healthy body structure and function. For example yakrit pitta, the mala ofrakta agni, is essential for ahar paka. Similarly annakitta or fecal matter is essential forfunctioning of gut lining and maintaining its tonicity. Urine is waste produced by selectiveabsorption of renal filtrate and electrolytes. Their balance is restored by body as per bodyrequirements to maintain homeostasis. As far as Shukras significance for male power isconcerned it should be linked to male virility and physical strength of male, which has somedependence on sexual hormons. (Prof. Y.K. Sharma)4.3 qrirere Eirgr sfrq o1 go rrr aTET ardr Grrar I (Dr. Rakesh Thamman) Isolated reference by Vagbhat making oja as mala of shukra, in fact does not mean thatoja is mala of shukra and hence it needs to be excreted from body. It simply tells us theassociation ofoja and dhatus. (Prof. Y.K. Sharma) 165
  • 4.4. 3ffi*i+r: gfiws IHow does purish mala support human body? (RAV) As already explained purisha mala or fecal matter supports human body by the way ofexcretion of ahar kitta as well as mala generated by jatharagni kriya. Its retention in body couldlead to fermentation of residual food contents leading to various local and systemic ailments.Purisha, besides eontaining food wastes, also contains various chemicals, electrolytes and gutenzyme wastes which need to be expelled from body. Ahar mala, by keeping the bowelsdistended, improves peristalsis and thereby gut tonicity, circulation, absorption etc. Act ofregular bowel also helps in maintaining pelvic floor muscles and abdominal muscles healthy. (Prof. Y.K. Sharma)4.5. How does purisha vegarodha caurse pindikodveshtan? (RAv)pindikodveshtan (muscle cramps) besides other vata features like shula, nidra nasha. Voluntaryretentions of urges over a long time increases sympathetic activity and parasympathetic activityin body. Muscle cftImps can be seen in both these states. (Prof. Y.K. Sharma)People who too often inhibit their natural reflexes are likely to become severely constipated.(Gttyton.s p!.lsiolo* Page # 812). Severe constipation means vataprakopa, which in turn causespindikodveshtan (prof. M. srinivasuru) i4.6. While explaining the root organ of mutravaha srotas, Charak has given basti andvankshana as root organs. =---{trgFri q}rsi_ ffii d€TttTt q, ----- I fq. fr. sze) ag*qe i, aeffia offi€ q, ---- r (9. QTT. s/1 2)a) We cannot understand why vankshan which is not the organ but the region is mentionedhere. What can be the function of vankshan, which is related to mutravaha srotas directlyor indirectly?b) Why pakvashay is not mentioned .here even though it is directly rolated to urineformation (Su. Ni. 3118-20)?c) It is not mentioned anywhere in our Samhitas that vrikkas are related to mutravahasrotas. Even while describing the symptoms produced due to srotas injury at their root,Sushnrt has not mentioned vrikka, but the relation between vrikka and mutravaha srotasis very much obvious. Please let us know the exact reason behind this. (Dr. Hema Waghulade & Dr. Saritr Ohol) Various scholars of Ayurveda have described mutra as drava mala of ahar, which isabsorbed from large gut ol pakavashaya ard ultimately percolates from numerous siras in bastior bladder from where it is excreted out,through Inu$endriya. There is a description of gavinis,which are identified as ureters. One can make eonslusion that there is an organ where rlrinepercolates from siras and is transported to basti or urinary bladder. The organ where siraspercolate mutra is none other than wikka called as mamsapinda. Perhaps our ancient acharyas t66
  • could not make inference regarding functional anatofny of vrikka or kidney and sensing it likemeda or adipose tissue and linked it to meda dhatu and called it its muia. This anoilaly ofstructure and function was corrected by later authors like Govind Dass in his book BhaisiuJyuRatnavali where he has mentioned diseases like vrikka roga. Inclusion of vankshan as mula of mutravaha srotas again points out to site where vrikkaare situated and from where gavinis outflow. Our ancient scholars have perhaps linked thisstructure with urine formation because large gut is a major site of fluid absorption ior body and amajor portion of this absorbed water is excreted in urine perhaps. Further they must have felt thatin diseases where exsess fluid is passed in form of diarrhea e.g. vishuchika tirere is mutrasada orsuppression of urine formation hence there is natural linkage of gut with formation of urine. (Prof. Y.K. Sharma)4-t. 3{rgil+ffi q*.furf* If6yr wr Ba*srrgihm ag*_ffir qfu-qr d q-tr6€re( tnT F*err aS Br %il Erdfur rrfuqr fr Efu rrr;,=f wr p aerr qfu-orrr6,q wn E a (Dr. Rakesh Thamman) Part of answer is explained in answer 4.6. Basti, being mula of mutravaha srotas, storesmutra prior to its actual mass excretion. (Prof. Y.K. Sharma)4.8. Please explain the process of mutrotpatti according to Ayurveda. (Dr. Devendrappa Budi) Please refer to the reply No 46 Grof. y.K. sharma)4.9. Ayurveda has highlighted bladder (basti) more than kidney. How do we understandHdney and its physiolory according to Ayurveda? (Dr. Jairaj p. Basarigidad) Please refer to the reply No. 4.6. (Prof. Y.K. Sharma) Kidneys were considered as supporting organs for medas (fat) in Ayurveda. This is oneaspect which highlights the limitations of the knowledge of anatomy in Ayurveda. Once again itis emphasized that the knowledge of anatomy and physiology in Aygrveda is the ."snlt ofpractice of medicine and surgery, not the other way. On dissecting the body, the basti is clearlywitnessed with its connection to shishna, so basti has assumed nnrch importance in Ayurveda asa collecting reservoir for urine. Kidneys are covered by the fat and theii links to urinary bladderis a recent discovery. As a matter of fact, Kriya Sharir is a recent topic and it is unjust tomticipate all the modern knowledge of anatomy and physiology to be discovered in the treatisesof Ayurveda. Once again, it is the time to remind that the knowledge of anatomy and physiologyin Ayurveda is the (eventual) result of medicine and surgery not the other way round. So theconcepts of human physiology in ayurveda are the spin-off of practice of medicine. In themodem medicine, anatomy and physiology are basic to growth of medicine but in Ayurveda it isnot. Let us accept this truth. (Dr. P.V. Ranganayakulu) 167
  • 4.10. Please explain the differences between udaka, kleda and mutra according to theirformation. What is their role in urine formation? (Dr. Jairaj P. Basarigidad) Udak is synonym ofjala or water. In Ayurveda it is also designated as ambu. Its primarysource is daily intake by a person, though some of it is also generated in body by agnikriya ormetabolic process. It is considered important for all digestive and metabolic processes in body.One is advised to take small quantity of water repeatedly. Excess of water intake with food isconsidered to slow the process of digestion in body and same is case with intake of less amountof water with food. Thii is responsible for drava contents of the body and its amount is regulatedin body by intake as well as loss through mutra, sveda, shvas, purisha etc. It gives fluidity to,uru, .uktu, etc. and is primarily responsible for structure of dash drava dhatu of body. Practicallyit plays a major role in maintaining body temperature, circulation and excretion of metabolicwaste. Ayurveda considers udak as vayasthapak, and that its appropriate amount in body delaysjara.It makes index for hydrated state of body. As far as kleda is concerned it includes all those activities and body components whichproduce mriduta in body. Incidently most of these body components are aqueous or fat rich. Allitt. body structure with guna like snigdha, shita, manda, mridu, picchhil, guru, sandra etc. aremardavkar and hence kledakar. For example shleshak kapha is kledakar but it is not purewater. That is how we distinguish udak from kleda. Kleda prevents jadatva, rukshatva andstambhan and often has madhur , amla and lavana rasa while udak is free from any such rasa.While we consider udak as a part of ahar, kled is a functional requirement of ahar pachan. In anutshell while udak is hydrant state of body, kleda refers to unctuousness of body. Kleda is more fixed and plays fewer roles in mutra formation while udak contents in body are directly responsible^ for mutra formation. Prolonged loss of udak component from body ultimatelyinfluences kleda state of bodY The concept of mutra formation in Ayurveda is more due to the fact that it is formed ofdrava content of ahar from the annavaha srotas. This is correct to the extent that the major watercontent of mutra is based on water absorbed from gut to maintain fluid balance in body.However, mutra as mala is more so justified as it contains majority of water soluble andfilterable crystalloids, colloids, amino acids, proteins etc. which are either in overload incirculation as metabolic end products or pass through renal capsules as a result of defect overthere (Prof. Y.K. sharma)4.1 . 3{rgdfu {d q$e{r (*orr-ar+$ or ffio 1 3{rerru -rerT 3{rcr + # "{ci€rg€-d sq-eiiFrdr wr B a (Dr. Amit Kumar Tanwar)4.12. please explain the ancient method of mala-mutra-parikshana. Is it possible now tofind out the disease by this ancient method when the modern technology has developed somuch? (Dr. Thakur Prasad Sahu) The techniques of mala-mutra pariksha were rudimentary in the ancient treatises of Ayurveda. Howevei, in the medieval ileriod the so-called ashtasthana pariksha, which included thl examination of mala and mutra, have entered Ayurveda. These tests are relatively recent in origin. They might have entered Ayurveda perhaps from Unani or Siddha tradition. The mutra p*ikrhu in Ayurveda is basically prognostic in nature while the urine tests in modern physiology 168
  • are diagnostic. The signs and symptoms explained under Prameha adhyaya too are useful todiagnose certain conditions like diabetes mellitus. proteinuria etc. These techniques may notcompete with the modern techniques in terms of accuracy. Ayurveda has based its epistemological support on pratyaksha, anumana, yukti and aptavakya pramanas to test the veracity of knowledge. ttre mbaein technology is the result ofpratyaksha and anuman pramanas. So how can we disprove the results rho*n by modernlaboratory tests are inferior to those of Ayurveda? Another difference between these twoviewpoints is understood from the principles of physics and chemistry. The laboratory data ofallopathy emphasizes on chemistry, while the description of characteristics of mala and mutra inAyurveda is based on physical properties like texture, viscosity, surface tension etc. Ultimatelythe intemal chemical structure is the root cause of manifestation of physical properties i.e.physical properties vary depending on the chemical structure of the substance. So Ay.uiveda testsdescribe the physical properties while the modern techniques describe the chemical structure.Quantifying the physical properties must be our methodology to validate our theories. (Dr. P.V. Ranganayakulu) Ancient Ayurvedic physicians have developed mutrapariksha on bases of subjective andobjective criteria to diagnose diseases. For example in ashtavidha pariksha, which is designed toassess dosha state in body, pita-mutrata designates pitta predominance in body, shveL, avilmutrata denotes kapha predominance, aruna vama and very clear urine tells us about vata state.Prabhut and aavil mutrata is associated with prameha and raktamutratawith raktapitta. Similarlytaila varna mutrata is associated with shakhashrit kamla while pain during micturition isassociated with mutrakricchha etc. As far as objective examination of mutra is concerneci it is written that if mutra attrackspipilika it may be due to underlying madhumeha. Regarding taila-bindu pariksha it is advised toprognosticate the disease outcome. Different observations made on dropping of one oil drop onmutra surface are due to different grades of surface tensions, density or viscbsity of urine ,tnd.t examination. Since today better objective criteria to evaluate the urine are availablehardly any institute resorts to taila bindu pariksha to prognosticate the diseases. (Prof. Y.K. Sharma) t69
  • UPADHATU
  • CHAPTBR -5 UPADHATU5.1. Cha. Chi. 15117 and Chakrapani commentary on this define upadhatu. The structuressuch as kalaa, dhamani, jaala, kurcha and rajju (Su. Sha. 5/6) also follow this definition.What should be sharir kriyatmaka categorwation of these structures? (Vd. Anuja Vinod Shah) In Ayurveda the concept of updhatu is based on the fact that these are the structureswhich are associated with dhatus of body and get their nutritional support from prasad amsha ofthe dhatu agni of same dhatu. They as such have no agni of their own and do not have any malain body. As far as their turnover is concerned they are more fixed or less labile compared todhatus. Stanya, artava,kandara, sira, vasa, tvak and snayu are updhatus ofa few dhatus. Dhatuslike shukra, asthi etc. have no updhatu. As far as dhamani, jaala, kurcha, rajju etc. are concernedthey have structural and functional similarity with updhatus like sira, snayu, kandara etc. andhence should be understood as such. Regarding kalaas I have an opinion that they are no separatestructure but are germinative lining of a few structures or secreting surfaces like shukradharakala, pifiadhara kala, etc. and hence no need to consider them as a separate structure oruPdhat* (Prof. Y.K. Sharma)s.z. sqerrg +r gefta <nrl qztn 3 * arqr E I TSIE Era[ I (q. fu, t Stt Z)gs rrrc .nfr t* z,rr fr1 sqqq ryt "f"f B qrE ss sftc aTrdq f go aft srsar "qrg+r.r!rir:aA *A *t ss fts B aerr 3rrdq ailueq r (Dr. Amit Kumar Tanwar) , This is true that Charak has written that from rasa dhatu by the rasagni ktiyu, there isposhan of an upadhatu viz stanya and simultaneously there is generation of raktalike updhatu artava. Since Charak believes that rasa is responsible for poshana of rakta dhatu it is responsiblefor poshana of rakta-like upadhatu like artava. Practically artav is more rakta-sama than rasa-ru-u. Further since raktagni is associated with creation of poshak amsha for sthir mamsa dhatu itcould have been difficult to explain poshana of a sthir dhatu and drava updhatu by the same agnii.e. raktagni. Hence artav is more linked to rasagni and dhatu. As far as concept of rasa dhatu orstanya being saumya and artava being agarryais concerned this can be explained by fact that, thisis possible Uy ugtrit riya. After all meda dhatu is saumya but after agnikriya it is associated withcreation of poshak rasa for asthi dhatu which is not saumaya. (Prof. Y.K. Sharma)5.3. Stanya and artav are the updhatus of rasa dhatu. Stanya is saumya while artav isagneya; rasa dhatu itself is saumya. Then how can it produce agneya artav? - sal+ sflEi €B IThis siddhanta gets changed here. (Dr. Shweta)This is like asking that how Oz & H2, both of which are gases, produce water (a liquid). Oneshould not forgei that entire human body is created from two gametes (one male and onefemale). Upto certain stage the cells are omnipotent; after this they start differentiating into t70
  • different cell lineage. Again after certain stage the cell differentiation becomes very specific andis now irreversible. This means that embryonic omnipotent. cell can develop into any cell type ofbody. Pluripotent stem cells can produce cell types of some cell lineage. Cell differentiation isthought to be due to suppression of specific genes and not due to loss of genes. Several otherfactors influence the differentiation e.g. hormones, environment, adjacent cell etc. Rasa dhatu is saumya but after rasa dhatvagni pak, stanya and artav develop from prasadbhaag ofrasa dhatu.- -: "T{tq !a-d 5pgry6d, aen zefr"{fr "-6-{iFi "-{fi+{ IrzTrqe{rrT.tafiryss} strqe-aft zf,ewtrql ft+d qrrr+; %fti Egt-"*i ar*a zc{, qfUtaroA, rfrqiqrdaq" (9. % 3T. 1 4) gft r errgawefu gs*a ulqa uq, qt aqa-q--fi-€6aqr (a. fu. 1s/17 q-{ a@qnFr) These are feminine characteristics (strikar-bhavas) so they are obviously found infemales, but not at all ages and in all females. Menstruation occurs only during reproductive age,while lactation requires parturition. Reproduction life for a woman normally spans about 30 - 40years and lactation is observed for a few months to a couple of years after parturition in majorityof women (if they continue breast feeding). So barring these periods even the females have 5 or 6upadhatus. Sexual differentiation is a normal phenomenon so it should not appear like a puzzle. (Dr. Sandhya Patel) Same as 5.2 (Prof. Y.K. Sharma) Stanya and artav are considered as upadhatus of rasa dhatu because these two aremanifested only in women. It is obvious that the stanya is saumya and artav is agneya. After thetransformation of rasa into artav the traits do change as in the case of rakta; although rakta,which originates from rasa, is slightly agneya. So the same mechanism is responsible to causeagneya artava from saumya rasa. Another reason lies in location of production. Stanya isproduced by stana in urobhaga, which is the seat of kapha dosha, so the stanya is saumya. Theartav is produced from the udar, near pakvashay so its trait is agneya as in the case of mala andmutra. Several secretiond from the upper part of the body (saliva, tears, mucus etc) are saumya innature (Dr. p;v. Ranganayakulu) Stanya and, artava are upadhatus of rasa dhatu. It is evident that on rasakshayastanyakshaya as well as artavakshaya (amenerroehea) appear indicating that the production ofstanya and artava depend upon the status of rasa. This is the relation between dhatu andupadhatu. The concept of samanai sarvesam vriddhi appears in this phenomenon. Rasa alsopossesses panchamahabhuta components. The derivation of stanya is from prithvi and apcomponents where as artava is from agneya component. (Prof. M. Srinivasulu)s.4. 3rrdq +) ss cff sqqrg ed ardr B a ra-qb g4 ffi d +t$ TfiflrEt?rT afr BrTs ouf R-&d qrg B s+{ srrdq d q"f Fr ouh o,ri gg tr€ errdE 6r quf ererrm S uara I I fg. en. 3/s, g. q{ r +rt) (Dr. Nidhi Garg) 171
  • Please refer to the rePlY No. 5.3. (Dr. Sandhya Patel) at a particular stage We must understand that it is the agni kriya of a particular dhatu in structure, color, function etc of the product of agnikriyawhich leads to "otititt"ttiy, "trung" (Prof. Y.K. Sharma) Stanya and artava are derivatives of rasa dhatu; both are having opposite gunas likesaumya and agneya respectively. Rasa-possesses all the moieties of all saptadhatus since it does possesses both the gunas of saumya andprinana karma i.e. to nourish ali uttar dhatus. Basically itutnttutnen rasa is processed in stanyagranthi, it produces stanya of saumya nature when it is which in turn produce artava ie it becomesoror"rr.iiirrtiiiiirt"sha, it produces"hormonesiretu for artavautpathi, which is agneya in nature Rasa itself is not becomin! eiiher stanya or artava; stanya is produced after stanya granthipossessing ,u.r*yu g*rra, und aiava-is the iakta flown from garbhashaya, which is naturally ilpadhaiu p"rod*tion depends upon dhatu condition. Similarly it is evident that stanyaA;;il Stanya and artava are upadhatus of rasa and artava production depends ,]por, ,uru state. Hencedhatu (Prof M Srinivasulu)s.s. Tg+rffiai fuqr ffilaqcf: Ebusgt: Rrzr I qisr{ -;-;; t-+c-**1 Frg eiaorr g fu, tsrrt) gs -rrg ,u,1 sqqrg B t;1 "qg*. ei,. *qqr6; "fu B-r wrg *fu 34tr 3*dq otr qrft E? H;-=.tfr fr +-_d qiqA-{d ffi d =q€rrgd;6 "+€o$-e (Dr. AnuPam Sharma) q-dr€ u-qT B, * qq.r g6m fr5.6. uEr errg eff sqqrg qeit fr. Efq 3n-s 3rrfd 3fu 3rrdE tfr s+r zft suerrgss+ efi gqerrd -6- u-r-Surrft ? eR- t-ff e A ttr;erar*e or eftfue .*r B a (Dr. Nidhi Garg) differentiation between male and Since humans are heterosexual animal there is sexual female. when there is no uterus in male how would artav form? Similar is the case with stanya. (parturition) for stanyotpatti. This in modern Ahar rasa needs breast tissue at a specific time medical langUage is temporal and ,putiut "*p""ion of specific genes- under the control of und uft.r menopause do not have any of these two hormones. All the females before menarche functions(upadhatus).Thisi-snotastrangeorabnormalphysiology. +a .r-r**-*o-ea*-gq"r,61-i 6rA @friTaffi; &t ---- r (a. eIT 4/3o w aovrFr) *q*ftg^ff- I#3r"--.-n d-6a{rdil ar€"iarfr ffi -*=im ?ffi"rT:ffi," |$];5;t4*-ry. oo.g1 zrad d-da{r;lil SGrcfr-arftd-qatrrn: ft5yqy: gff+-er s454I: I (sr.zi- *r=-oi-aq-nensgeuaffi sq{rdtad "1"r6fl-{ra eTT. 2/"t 4 U-t 54 fti-dnfr I ?rerT a a s#a.izroaa-aca uqr .;JH;.. dqrd-q, zs 3{rctai te}ffi d-eren-g--.*-q. iia+ -r-g*q1.;; ;Ei"-frfr r srd-{frqi te}ft-tn-gura-a r srtr{aqiq .*--.*t- ft;ftsrrA e-A te]fro-rqi ffi.r.,*3-6ffib6i -aeld6Fi airoreatq a$nrra-a-{-e Rd-qr g6s-€q ffi$ra. ualaai c[T a{TI: I "a=-"=, r72
  • d-dr"f afr ffiqai, uen_a-gffiH d-di"g"E-dd Rrq, Ed ?I<F_flfraraffieef r [g. E& t sr+(r ) q-{ s-€r]qen E gq-€€d-{e} +fl-{r_qr<-qeq Ee}s;r drsunq I (tr. q& r +r t e) Tr sE TI-.€n E-{dqe-deTt €ge qtrdrdipilqFfrsdh ;r-fr r r:tiqrararrrFrerR E-ei qrarar-afr aqqF rr+rrgoqgarfifr e-Eff&Tr& arsfr*a-srqreqeih ftelqr ajlr-Ir av,ffi org*fu*, snEer<rq r?d-ffrfqre-q,, *a-srrsr<-qe+ft a-6rn drssri +e-r geal; +6T g€qprrafiieagra1a-* ";-6rt I 3t=r +tud TqE{ ffi er*, er*a-a-oraferq-#Brqkeffi- €fr q-efur (g. T* 14/1a q{ s€q) If a male (?) has these two upadhatus then the person would not be allotted male sex butwould be female (one should not forget that for lactation parturition is essential. The condition ofhyperporlactanemia is not considered here). Also it should be remembered that in children(whether male or female) the seventh dhatu is not expressed. Does it mean less importance of it? (Dr. Sandhya Patel) It may be true at macro level, but at micro or hormonal level the components like sexhormones responsible for these macrostructure exist both in male and females. (Prof. Y.K. Sharma)s.1. errd.zrqs * der oT awrerrq d suerrg sarrrr Br qro i *er +1 3{frqertgrrr arer Erarerr arqr E F.- fr. l*ur, s) i ga ard qd fr -rgEd3fisrr qz ter +i suq-g + 3ia-d-d +;rr qrBs Err arc,T d sidrtd z { "-r "ffi; $ (Dr. Anupam Sharma)Upadhatus are formed from dhatus while malas are waste products.elrgaqedqwrq+ ---- qi a cqe*€ffiqr (a. E. 1s/17 qc q6qrFr)It is difficult to call kesha as waste products though they lack sensation in the part beyondoutside the body. However, in humans when the hair are removed there is no harm to the body.This may be the reason why kesha is considered as mala. (Dr. Sandhya Patel) Kesha should be taken as mala of ashi dhatu in my opinion. (Prof. Y.K. Sharma) Hair is composed of columns of dead keratonised cells welded together (Toratora,anatomy and physiology). Because the hair is sthira dhatu of parthiva nature similar to asthidhatu, it might be considered as asthi dhatu mala. (Prof. M. Srinivasulu)5.8. Should sandhi be considered as upadhatu? (Ref: Cha. Chi. 15/17) (Vd. Anuja Vinod Shah) Sandhi as such is no structure; it is a functional unit created by asthi, snayu, shleshakkapha, kandra, mamsa etc. (Prof. Y.K. Sharma) The word sandhi refers to a junctional point of two consecutive structures. Sandhi joinstwo different structures. Upadhatus, according to prevailing concept, support the body if notnourish. Sira, snayu and rajju are considered as upadhatus. Asthi (including tarunasthi) is a 173
  • dhatu. So a sandhi is an amalgamation of snayu, rajju and asthi. So sandhi is a physical structure,which is a mixture of dhatu and upadhatus. (Dr. P.V. RanganaYakulu) Sandhi neerd not be considered as upadhatu because it is combination of various tissueslike asthi, snayu, kandara, rajju , jala etc. and is not similar to any particular dhatu. (Prof. M. Srinivasulu)5.9. What is the concePt of agni and srotas in relations to upadhatu? (Vd. Anuja Vinod Shah) Since the very concept that the upadhatus are dependent for their poshana on specificdhatus it links them to agni and srotas of that dha1u. (Prof. Y.K. Sharma)Upadhatu is not having specific agni of its own, since it is a by-product of dhatu. Concemeddhatvagni is responsible for production of upadhatu. Wherebs protas will be the same for bothdhatu and upadhatu. (Prof. M. Srinivasulu)5.10. Snayu are formed from sira. Is this an exception for gati vivarjit criteriop ofupadhatu? (Ref: Cha. Chi. 15117 with Chakrapani commentary, for definition of upadhatuSu. Sha.4/29) (Vd. Anuja Vinod Shah) q sm-"R{zpargw:rF.rqftr* atftfrrqftfidr t - elrgavqffi qi rlggEgEletTd-r: t" gft r 3l-mrft "E errgaveM Ele*a isrrrTd II€[, atr gts.g affiqryafrfur (a. E. 1s/17 qs aeqrFr) TtrRi- a-d zrm-a-qo: trtts{T fttsrt t "arE ai€{rd-++r aEt: srs ? *{EI: Frrg-€iaTq3 llWhy should we mix up ih. t*o authors (or ancient research workers) work? Charak hasmentioned formation of sira from asrij; while Chakrapani has quoted Bhoj and stated that sira,snayu, rajah, stanya and tvacha are gati-vivarjita. Bhoj had found some different result from whatCh;rak has mentioned and in his opinion both sira and snayu are gati-vivarjit. What I understandby gati-vivarjit is the differentiation is final and irreversible. (Dr. Sandhya Patel) S.11. Is there any rationality for not explaining upadhatus for asthi, majja and shukra dhatus? (Dr. sanath Kumar D.G) Why do we question or express suspicion irr others work without ourselves doing any work? If wL have done any work which is contradictory to previous work (but is reproducible) then only we should challenge it. We should respect others work. Formation of upadhatu basically means tissue differentiation (which is dependent on time and space i.e. location and so on the loe;sl environment). I do not think any scientific work is available other than what is rnentioned in presently available Ayurvedic texts. Not much is conclusively known in -,odem developmental biology. So why do we keep tendency to negativclt, our ancient science, which is based on thousands of years of work? "riti"irc (Dr. SandhYa Patel) 174
  • Upadhatu etymology is sq€rrg *rrg wgeH errg, I srq uend uq! zrgei urg r (er<6-e-gar)Upadhatu is that which appeers similar in morphological structure but will not do the samefunction as that of dhatu. In luch condition, there is no substitute for asthi, majja,and shukradhatus which perform similar function and possess similar structure. Hence there are noupadhatu of those dhatus (prof. M. srinivasuru) 175
  • orus
  • CHAPTER - 6 OJUS6.1. Rasadi sapta dhatu saara bhaga is ojus Su.Su.15/19. How do we understand ojus.Please justify (Dr. M.V. Aihotti) Concept of ojus is a unique and fundamental concept of Ayurveda. It shall be difficult tofind a material similarity of same in modern physiology. It is observational opinion of completehealthy status of body dhatus, and associated with it is the disease refractory status of body. Thereference, under review i.e. Su. Su. 15/19 is incontext of dhatusara, which leads to bala (orenergy/potential) in the body. It is proposed that this is due to teja or excellent metabolic status,which can also be named as ojus. In other word Sushrut means that one, who is havingexcellence in quantitative and qualitative possession of dhatus, is naturally going to haviexcellent metabolism which is bound to have excellent physical and biological status henceojosarta. This is further supported by commentary that shariroshma or body metabolic process canalso be called ojus. Similary the opinion of Dalhana that jivashonit too can be named ojus, andhe has linked ojus to circulatory process and blood in body, which is essential both for bodynutrition and immunity. This gives room to link ojus with neutro-immunological status of body.Charak has fuither linked ojus with rasdhatu due to rasdhatus role in neutron- immunologicalsustenance in body. (Prof. Y.K. Sharma)It is not surprising to read the idea that the ojas is the quintessence of rasadi dhatus. As a matterof fact every substance produced in the body must be the ultimate product of ahar undergoingseveral stages of metamorphosis. Ojas literally means power, vigor, vitality, strength etc. Thisstrength alone can protect the body from the diseases. So it is natural to accept the conceptproposed by the seers of Ayurveda to believe that the ojas is the ultimate product of ahar.However, it is diffrcult to find the parameters to measure the quantity of ojas. The descriptionunequivocally refers to some physical stuff as ojas. Several physiologists of Ayurveda equateimmunity to ojas. The treatises describe the ojas as a physical substance not as non-materialpower. As a matter of fact except atma everything else in the body are physical. Many Ayurvedicphysiologists tend to consider antibodies and white blood corpuscles as ojas. The quality of thesesubstances is more important than the quantity according to modern human physiology. (Dr. P.V. Ranganayakulu)6:2_.fl fr rrs ertq wr Ba 6eu fr srlBra qs 3*q ( q.+ eozo) q51 3ngpr€qRierr d wr arar crri aq) wr utr€i1 qw fr erSE d si-q B a (Dr. Rakesh Thamman)A) Charak in Sutra 30/6 has described hriday as seat of par ojas. Some commentators link it withvital force of life or consider that the description is made in association of hriday being seat ofchetna also. Continuing with chapter two other important references are also seen i.e. Ch. Su.30t12-13 ?Todr6dr ael-{_orcd-+q qFzefdl qftgrqf frehr a-d-€+ g:Er}a-E: t76
  • 6ei e-ru+r++e-*zi fu Erer+rreairy I *a-AA qq-Ad qer*flrdfrTq I This sometimes puts quqstion mark on the reference of para ojas being seated inurohriday (heart), or shirohriday (brain). When Charak writes that para ojus can be piurished byavoiding manodukha hetava (factors that stress mind) or when he advises that the hriday (the seatof ojus) can be protected or health-promoted by gyansevan he too means avoidance of stress ofany nature for over all well being. Further Charak, in Su. 30114, has written that behavior associated with ahinsa (non-violance), vidhya (knowledge), indryajaya (control over sense i.e. self c,ontrol), tatav gyan(rationality through knowledge) and brahamacharya (following of moral/social codes of conJuct)are associated with increased prana or life foree and longevity perhaps through better para ojas.This signals brain as seat of para ojus and the same is-responsible for mental hlalth andimmunity.B) Charak in Su. l8l1l7 has clearly mentioned that prakrit bal (natural immunity or nonproneness to sickness as well as physical strength) is due to prakrit kapha or shleshma. This ismore understandable as ojus too has shleshma-like gunas like snigdhu, rhrrklu, shita, sthira, sara,guru, mridhu, madhur etc. Having guna samya the ojus and shleshma have karma samya also. (prof. y.K. Sharma)6.3. s+q Ebl Brrg+s F grft errgsil rFr rrrs osr urql ! (g. q 1s/2o -ren 3r.€.{ t trrt)t ?il *rgsff + -iqg srsw sier s+cT + qr- sn? srqs t* A ,j;arf+ zrr 3{T€rrs eqr B sft-c ga-ffi A ir-d-dr 3tErar ear$ wr E a (Dr. Amit Kumar Tanwar) It is true that in Ayurveda the major component of ojus is considered to be apar ojus,which circuiates through out body with the help of hriday *d is responsible for kayak, vachikand mansik kriyas of body i.e. all the physical, mental and expression-related activities aredirectly dependent on this ojus content of body. Since content and activities of ojus are directlyrelated with agnis and dhatu sarata it can be considered as vital force of body which derives iisroots and activity from over all well being of body. Some commentators may consider apar-ojusas plasma, immunoglobulin, leucocytes etc. but in my view over all vitality and^diseaserefractoriness of body cannot be quantified and so is ojus. It requires somatic and psychiccomponent as well as environment and genetic components, which determine vitality of body.Had the ojus been linked to only physical component of dhatus in body it could not beconsidered to be present at the time of shukra-shonit samyoga. As far as para ojus (havingquantity of eight drops in body) is concemed one can directly link its presence in strirotiduy *Iprimarily responsible for psychic well being or neurological health. It can be compared with vitalneurotransmitters of biain which are essential for psychic and neurological balance in body. (Prof. Y.K. Sharma)6.4. Please explain the physiology of ojas according to modern science (A.H. Su. 1ll37, Su.Su. 15/19, Cha. Sha.7/15, Chakrapani on Cha. Su. 30/9-11 and Chakrapani on Su. Su.1s/l9) (Dr. Devendrappa Budi) Same as 6.2, 6.3 (Prof. Y.K. Sharma) t77
  • 6.5. Please explain the concept of ojus on the basis of modern immrrnology. Can wecorelate it with reticuloendothelial system? ryd. pranita p. Joshi) To compare ojus with modern immunology or reticuloendothelial system of body shall bea reductionisms approach. Ojus, when called sarvadhatu sara, means much more thanimmunology. It is expression of over all well being of body both, physically and mentally, aswell as having a stite where tissues are in perfect anatomical state and physiology- Themetabolism too is in right state. Physical capacities, disease refractoriness, maintenance of bodyvitals are many yardsticks to measure ojosarata of an individual. (Prof. Y.K. Sharma)6.6. What is oja actually? What are the parameters for its measurement? If it resemblesimmune system of body, can we do anything in AIDS, which can be proved on the scale ofmodern science? (vaidya sonali viraj shukla) As far as what is ojus and what can be parameters of its measurement are concemed thesame has already been explained. As far as association of AIDS with ojus is concerned we gansimply conclude that very rightly AIDS is called ojokshaya since ojus is responsible for,.yadilstramatva or immrmity; that is lost when one gets infected with HIV or AIDS. In.Ayurueda too, it has been written that rajnicharas (commonly understood as invisible bio-factors)are also responsible for ojokshaya or loss of immunity as is seen in AIDS. Further, AIDS is alsoa state of kaphaj bhav kshaya when infected person looses all the kaphaj bhav in body vizprakritbala and ghanatav or mass of the body with subsequent loss of all doshic functions anddhatusarata. (Prof. Y.K. Sharma) Several Ayurvedic treatises admit that the oja is the quintess.nc? of the sapta dhatu.Ayurveda also admits that the ahar nourishes dhatus in a sequence, which ultimately producesojas, which protects the body fiom diseases and imparts strength. The purpose of ahar is tonorrrirtt the body and give health and longevity. Thus the final product defends the body frominvading organisms and degeneration inside. A|quirea Immuno-Difi.irnry Syndrome (AIDS) is not a new phenomenon in the world.This new epidemic of the new world (west) is certainly caused by a virus, however, the oldworld (Africa and Asia) is familiar with non-infective AIDS. When the nourishment is lacking, just like in AIDS.the immune system shuts and allows opporhinistic infection into the bodyrTherefore, the deficiency of ahar (starvation) and resulting deficiency in ojas leads to (non-inirriir.lalDS. The nourishment is more important than medicliglAyurvedas approach innon-infective AIDS is simple - better nutrition. Infective kind of AIDS is new to our country. Simp.le ojovardhak dravyas may be tried experimentally. The criteria we ls? in Ayurveda to testthe resuli of treatment irave to be according to modern methods. All shukra vardhak dravyas trrri U. irstantaneously helping boost olas. ihe findings in the modem immunology are no way proteins that imparts comparaUle to ojas, because iti the structure of antibodies and other useful i**;"iiv against wide variety of disorders and infections. This kind of experimentation is not possible with ojas because we have limited scope to fine-tune ojas (Dr. p.v. Ranganayakulu) I78
  • 6.7. How can we explain ashta bindu pramana of ojas through modern physiology? (RAV) Ashta bindu parimana of para ojus is associated with ojus seated in hriday. Here we cantake hriday as shirohriday responsible for maintenance of chetana (or consciousness, awarenessor merely life)--Tlis is authenticated by Dalhana when he has commented that sflaqd{rrrri q-+gkqedd-di crcroruq t[-S-i r (Prof. Y.K. Sharma)6.8. The quantity of para ojas is said to be only 8 drops. Para oja is also said to be uttamapranayatan. How is this minute quantity cosidered to be uttama pranayatan? (Dr. R. C. Satish Kumar) I believe that to authenticate this explanation we shall have to associate para oja withfunctioning of shirohriday or brain and mind. This is more important in view of fact thatojokshaya is associated with murcha (syncope), pralap (delirium) and death or marana, which areassociated with disturbed neurophysiology. (Prof. Y.K. Sharma)6.9. Ojo vibhramsha and oja kshaya lakshanas are similar. Then why has Sushrutmentioned them separatery? (Ref: su sha 3/7) (Dr. Lingaraddi M. Biradar) Practically vibhramsha (destruction) and kshya (depletion) signify two stages ofprogression phenomena of extinction or death (prof. y.K. Sharma)6. r 1 r /7 2, g. q. 1s/2s) 61 3rqqd 6Ta + r#d o. s*qqrq * aeril (4. q6}dr A fu gs* trgw err$ft-o uq tft sr}€rT amRro uq * gfu6 serrfud *drE a d €r 3#q erq +) 6d errSEo +dr + srtr$d +n err arafuo *rr +sffid d-$ a (Dr. Nidhi Khurana) It is not so, features of ojoksha ya arcpredominantly associated with mano kshaya, vikritilike murcchha (syncope), moha (hallucination or illusion), pralapa. (delerium) and death etc. ButCharak in Sutrasthan 17 has explained features of ojakshaya like durbal (physical debility),avikshanam (loss of appetite), ruksha (dry lusterless) skin. Practically it should be understoodthat ojus is associated with both physical and mental well being. {Prof. Y.K. Sharma)6.rr. 3+q 61 goerrg +t sqqrg (err*urere), qr€qrg trt ffiI (s{.e. erT. s/6s),goqrg rrr =rrs (sr.r{. en. orzg} efl-s wqqrg tnt ttrc €. q. ts/ls) qarqr Br gq arfr # sngB-o rrfrier t 3{rerr{ qc a*q E# seut€, ErEr, goqrg @r=Trs ErT sqerrg EFr ?rrr rflgar ilEu a (Dr. Anupam Sharma) 179
  • 6.12. Oja has been likened to either shleshma (Ch. Su. 17/ll7), dhatusaar (Su. Su. 15/19) orupadhatu (Sha. Pu. Kha. 5/16). What exactly is oja? How can we understand it in modernParlance? (Dr. Naresh kumar Jain) Ojus should rightly be considered as sarava dhatusara. True some authors, as you havemerltioned, have given description of various origins of ojus. Practically all these are dependentupon quality of dhatusarata. In fact ojus, quantitatively and functionally, is related to onesphysical well being and influences both physical and mental refractoriness to diseases. It shouldrightly be called saptdhatusara (prof. y.K. sharma) 180
  • SROTAS
  • CHAPTER. 7 SROTAS7.1. Please justifY Etrqar: gae 4.fffi srrdftqlqr: drelod aarmq sld-s{i o.*gE€tqr. I F- f-5/1) (Dr. M.V. Aiholli) (entities or Whatever the number of specific varieties of murtimanta (structural) bhavasfactors are pfesent in the human body the same number of specific varieties of srotamsi(channels of circulation) are also present in his body. In other words the specific varieties ofsrotamsi are same in number as thi specific murtimanta bhavas in the body. This is the actual (Ch. Vi.meaning of the sutra proposed by Charak in the beginning of the sroto vimanadhyayasn.) Charak has stated in continuation that all the bhavas (structural factors or tissues) in thehuman body cannot get produced or continued to maintain their manifestations without thesrotamsi nor can thei gei diminished or destroyed. The matured dhatus will be transportedthrough the srotamsi to their destinations. after Chakrapanidatta, in his Ayurveda Dipika commentary, has opined that the ahar rasa fractions; i)the process ofaharapak is canieb by rasavaha srotamsi. Each dhatu is having two preceding dhatu, ii) poshak or unstable dhatufort yu or stable dhaiu, which gets nourished by the of srotamsi referredwhic-h provides nourishment to the succeeding dhatu. The specific varieties provides nourishmenthere are those which carry only such poshak fraction of dhatus i.e. which These areto the succeeding dhatus. Such dhatus are termed as parinamamapadyaman dhatusrasavaha, raktavaha, mamsha vaha etc.-and are limited to the-numb-er of dhatusffi a+Efu *dift-{ u (q. ft. s/3 q{ eoqrFr)srqar+4ft-{aam fr€rzruriThese srotamsi do not carry the sthira, stable or poshya dhatus. The The srotamsi, which carry aharya dhatus are prana, udaka, anna vaha srotamsi. The synonyms of srotamsi srotamsi, which carry malas are mutra-, purisha-, sveda-vaha srotas. srotamsi which (C. Vi. i/9; cannot be included under the description of the above-stated special carry parinamamapadyamana dhatus. The opinions of others are quoted by Charak . s{ft+6 ---- qffi ga-t-$r (a. h. sr+) These are not supported by Charak such as - o The combination of srotamsi itself is the human body o Srotamsi are innumerable o Srotamsi are numerable etc. (Dr. G. PurushothamacharYulu) eH+ eft er$sq gcr*ffi. s"FIz * erss q,t elrGn E,f "€ Bl ft-{f6r drfl-d q6 B fu fu{H-6r t q"arE B-sac ae d} G_{a_s erq *ar ; =* *r*. -aa x, o.rtq *.*s + ^sr5 E r 3r€I: .tA-u # *t.- Ag---u *at +, Fc{S ft+u- srrqee-F B b er$s fr o.q<r* zft =-eR ft-{-trg 3rrqeqb-cngr{rg ffi TA "-da ""-#=[ I *t =*fr, er&c fr"ffigT r€rra fr ffi B 3-jt daq qa ziar fr ar€ Bl "-"r-f 181
  • hffid E I erSE fr sr*o ara:r+r sreria srroreftq a+rE sqfr€rd erss de-d-6redd grurB r daq sd arejrer eIT s{roreftq +Tr& fr * g6 A, .a-6i er$r or errrr€r 6r-nu + frs srrdqo a+ro q6rd d g-sR *ft B r"-se erSs d a+rq q<ref 3t=6u E ad g-d-+t si{rF + fus r<"i.{ daq fr E I 9{16rdFd-d q€r ts fu rrft{ fr ffi of eft a+rcq-cretr t ,argaw Brd@ "{@rr ftts eft :l-a-# A aTEaWf +TI-d EiisrarFp6 3 3t?r: E-d-frl iffurar zF?EIT Swc B €ft BtrrA o-ffi ffi d arorar -ft "r€ Brgon =i"r+ # qro eiFdr fr r 3 ffi or qoFa fu-err arqr E r qro zfFar # @ 6r qufid a[ffi-flrd a+ro Ee]q * sraafa fto-qr urqr B r gc{gMsr * e-s uea gftaha-t +dr B A srqffi-ar-a s{rd: qqrd + hs 3rc.rrr ddqa-ff *A E r e-sfu er{t{ fr ffi, ei-6, artr, der, dr€d snfr arra-c{ }Trd d s-€frffi B r B-c sft sat 3rcrar Sdq aS d* E r gs{ qr<af # qra € da-q qraq6 B fu + e+aft srqffiarzr a{IcI qdr Ero.cr a-e B r F46r sraarfo aa + gtil e3r+rrr *dr B I (Dr. yeshwant Joshi) In an equipoise state, vata, pitta and kapha doshas conduct and control all thephysiological activilies of the body, since vata alone is capable of mobility, it is the force whichkeeps the other two somatic doshas, dhatus and malas in motion. This motile force of vata isexpressed through the contractions and relaxations of the muscles of the body. The dhatus andsome of the upadhatus take part in the structural development of the body. For this purpose theseare transported through their own specific channels in the body. The waste products producedduring dhatuparinatna are excreted through their respective outlets. Out of the sapta dhatus, rasaand rakta dhatus, which have the function of prinan and jivan kriyas, are continuously ejected into circrrlation by the heart. The food which provides nourishment to the body, is ingested,digestdd by the pachaka pitta and is absorbed as ahararasa from pakvashaya and the wasteproducts (mala and mutra) are excreted through the guda and basti respectively. The vitiatedvata, pitta and kapha doshas reach predestined target areas to produce the disease. It is evident from the above that different factors or substances in the body, effectivelyconduct their physiological functions or pathological processes, traverse from one place toanother. Since the function of these factors or substances, with possible opposite qualities, arequite different, it is assumed that the body provides separate pathways for their transport. Thesepathways are called_srotamsi. This justifies the staternent - goe {ffi qtFrt frelqr t "T* ,_ (Dr. Suresh Babu) afia-d Efr 3ffi,, s1_{rdr(rf€eTtlRdTrui E 4ftfe-*r*ra+rafuelqrgfr s-rofta-c-d ftelqr r --* a 6lfi+a*q ?ild-e+r fDr;a*erger$: +-IEr*IR=T raq{g qafr Fnqda a dei, aensfr a-catre-qqeeroraaref ffss+s r ?rataa,q-elffiFrqrsrt €--s4Fs erSt ffis-dfDr€nasfr er-ffis ard-qref qqqd,qeaBiarai g qltrrffi serrdagrr €tirt-dr: wda; r go.& E e;rqr{ *dtRl 3rfrtur F{qr sda+rqr ffi r go& E eETqffi{ fuar sda+rqr 4ffiaa erda+ror z-€rzErcTrqq: ?+Erqq:e@ qrflrEr# a Er erqqtrrortstrf,t ---r urqarfrfr zeraaqsrqardFd nrd-d-Ear r srrarsqfrpnffrn* E fu ks.Ei q-.errd fuaI aqi a etfrft,a q ffiEq+a rrd.i fuar rgd-{trrgd-"T qftprfift r sa*a:erra-& trM {ffifi-d o{TElr: go.& ?rr€lorr: ffia-dl qffirtfre}w €ha{Tq:r ( q. B. s/l ut aiorcrt) o Murtimanta bhavas are those which have finite size and shape (asarvagata dravya parimana). r82
  • o A11 murtimanta bhavas cannot be formed newly or removed without related srotas, which are required for their transportation. o p.oshak dhatu has to be transported to poshya dhatu for its production and proliferation ard waste products have to be removed from these places (of production) to the places of their excretion. This means that porosity in the cell which allows movement of different molecules across the cell membrane should also be considered as srotus or even the movement of negative or positive ions across the cell membranses is through ati sukshma srotas. (Dr. SandhYa Patel) I7.2. Srotas are different from sira and dhamani. How do we differentiate themfunctionally? ffi B{i fu*Eal@r (9. en. s/ls) (Dr. DevendraPPa Budi) According to Sushruts view srotamsi are different from sira and dhamani (Su. Sha- 9i3).The same opinion is concluded in the last shloka also which .6quoted in this question.;;ft=G.-ftrsrertrffio{rrT:, ftrsrfu-* -uo Il .;1dift-{ afr I trg aTI@q, 3{@T cq E u<FIE[: n+dift{ fr+zroq Iq ? ,?Fr-=r: 6TdrE eiuaregrq;pl"*uartq, --ia.t*tq, 3{Tdr:FrTa -r ry g.q{-€-{tlfrTqfE trgenaraa;danq$eo.- 6-*--6naqp0{rrr 54 o.Cg a{dft ll (9. efr otz) In the above sutra he has mentioned ihe opinion of others as sira, dhamani and srotamsi stated thatare one and the same and varieties of siras. But he has not accepted that opinion andthey differ in shape (vyanjan), (mula) origin, and (karma) function These are describedseplately even in th. r.iipt res. But people think that these are same because these three areinterrelated and termed u, ilrory-s by some acharyas, up to some extent they perform similarfunctions and due to their subtle nature cannot be identified separately. It appears that evenduring the period of Charak and Sushrut also differences of opinions existed regarding thesetermsl Charak has clearly mentioned all these three terms as synonyms (C. Vi. 5/9). There are differences of opinions on the subject among the subsequent experts like SriGananath sen (Pratyakshasareera), Sri Hari Prapannaji (Rasayogasagar - upodghata), sriGangadhara Sastry, dri B.G. Ghanekar. Even though Charak has mentioned these three terms as has ,yrro-ny*, in Sroiovaman in Sutrasthan 30th chapter. While describing ojas and hriday he girr.tt rr"ty pertinent features to differentiate them functionally as following. €FreTr€iffd:; EIzI,uIT{ *aift+; zrzonfrE+gr tt (q- zott z)ffi*A- #ef: rg|-onpft M -.:T.t terracararatq u (aourfr);;;;"+ g6_{arrd1g E?rrar 3l-a-A r sorrrc{rftsrdqE@rq dai€q-A I "arfldr-t nrcr E€qt ll (6fu{r-6 aiuners *a) -ean-rd umeq bqlq"i, #-i ?q<d, wg"i a1Ea-revr a-a-afrft I I (6tr€rd aidns€+4) "-tqIt is clear basing on these views of the above three stalverts of the subjects of 20th century, the functional differentiations of these three terms are as follows - (pulsation) Dhamanis are those which perform their function through dhaman karma filled with rasa and rakta forcibly an-d contain space inside to carry them. These can be regarded as arteries. Srotamsi are those which carry poshak (unstable) rasa, rakta etc through their channels to nouiish the poshya (stable) dhatus rto*tv. See the answer of the question No.7.1. Theseare either capillaries or similar to capillaries. 183
  • Siras are those which carry rasadi dhatus to other areas of the body and can be regardedas veins. (Dr. G. Purushothamacharyulu) ffi eft er$ss€T eflcr q-Eref d gtqft t frs 3lTereettr q&F, ffi set an-oqeief of g-ilR ffi B, r{r q@ errEr 61 fiq-6 s{t-q 6-dA E r ffi t ErgI gd mq-m, arrfr or a-€rd *dr E, zerrffdq arrfr or a-S r s-s* gt dq e+rd or daa ffi Ergr *irr B g-S daq uifl Er * gg, s-d fr€r, erffff, ars] snR zigrsil grur trdtrra fu-qr qrar B r gtft cltrusr daq d qrwr o-ca trtrq gga a fr{zT €rfi-ff ftrdffiaq r t-trr ftr}a-a ft-qr E I *d-zfr + Ertr +-fld +q-6 aTrd EFr E-ga *ar B r aro i gEr-or uq*o-zor gs{ q6r{ ft-qr B fu - *dift{ ug ffii €n{drdf}ldr$F araeerandfa 11 (a. fr. s/3)iffi # iifrrd a-S, qft.rrarqsara a+rd or a-aa *ar B U++r ancb" or aa B r (Dr. Yeshwant Joshi) According to Sushrut, the srotamsi are different from the siras and dhamanis (Su. Sha.9ll3); even though these resemble each other, these are functionally different. Dhamanis are sonamed because of their pulsation action. €drdkl €l?FfEI: I er{unq ftrEr tSiras have the function of simply carrying a substance from one destination to other. From thispulsating action one should differentiate them. Charak has not described this type of description. (Dr. Suresh Babu)7.3. Please explain the concept of doshavaha srotas (Ref: Cha. Chi. 28/8 with Chakrapanicommentary, Cha. Vi.5l7 and A.S. Su.2012 with Indu commentary). (Vd. Anuja Vinod Shah) Vata, pitta and kapha move all over the body. Hence all the srotamsi of the body carrytridoshas to cater to the needs of the body according to their requirements. The human body can be classified into two parts i.e. chetan (sentient) and achetan(insentient). Hair, nails etc. are achetan. Doshas can move all over the body including chetan andachetan parts of the body; sattv6 (mind) cannot moe in or reach achetan parts of the body.Sattva (manas) is prohibited fromreaching them.{ffiqr€qreB *irift-{ a-af}fu:3rarzr-AeErnef,Eer, zra*FaqarqE tt (a. E. zata) :Charak, while describing the functions of saman vata has stated that saman vata is seated indoshavaha srotamsi. Chakrapani, while clarifying on the above, has stated that the tridoshasmove all over the body quoting Ch. Vim 517 as follows-ffi q ffil eder{tza?ru}d, gmB erdftarArsarrurt U6r trder$c+erqie-ffiaieq-e-f,q[arft n (q. fr. s/7) (a-FqIFr q. ft. zare) a-6g-nft-qpri g-a e-ar&ai #od Mt-t-a-q-aqld-fltrrwrdq5iq n (a. E.s rz) Basing on the above it can be concluded that the functions of dhatus and malas arelimited whereas the functions of the doshas are more wider i.e. scattered throughout the body,unlimited and required to be moved all over the body. Hence they move throughout the bodythrough all the srotamsi in order to perform their innumerable functions. The importance of the doshas and their functions are discussed in detail by the acharyasin maintaining health, causing diseases and facilitating therapeutic measures. (Dr. G. Purushothamacharyulu) 184
  • daq 3rqPtidq B I er${ * frfbffi a+rq qcrd +t Bffrft + fuu sab srguu€riT daq B r s-d-fr fi a-f,d{"f er$sa+rd 6t Effffi 6-{+ qre ffi tff :rrorargertF s.Er i d o€ Br qlm eiFar fr rnoL gq6, 3{Er, sc6 urgs* +. Ed d-d + ddq g€T rttFrg r 3N d ar"rqr 6t rr€ B r *q d6cr t a+ro uo d* gu aft gd+ T<"iq ffitnr gerr qofid qs fu-qr arqr B r qr-o eiftar fufi-d ?€rTEr 3{€qrq s fr qz-o * gs{ qtnrt or frr}qa Eqr ts rarafuaedurr"rt g-q zrdeffi *"fT *atee-aagarAr F. fr. srz)t5;{r-crr sraf qa B fu Aq-d-s u}dq qFo-e-ar gelq :lqfrera } I rrt-q ?ftrq zl-fqfu*+ + crrsur sab ftRrE zerr# or q"lo 6?Elr 3ftb-elfrer" qr sT{r+e{q B r (Dr. Yeshwant Joshi) The concept of doshavaha srotas is very clear. The doshas move all over the body boththe sentiment and insentient (like hair, nails) parts to carry out the physiological functions in theequipoise state and pathological actions in vitiated condition through the all srotamsi (net work).Charak, while describing srostases has very clearly stated thatqrafrra-Er-&s-apri ga zrd en*z-"rerori erofh trr{ 3lercr alarh r Vata, pitta and kapha move all over the body, hence all the srotamsi (channels) of thebody cater to their need for the movement. (Dr. Suresh Babu) Srotas are the chanals where the materials rnove. Material could be liquid,semisolid/semiliquid or in gaseous form. Movements of some such material is experienced bythe individuals e.g. movement of apan, udgar, sweat, dribbling of saliva etc. Breathingmovements are visible. Certain movements can be judged e.g. movement of pachak pitta isnormal if the person can digest the food normally and feels hungry at an appropriate time.Obviously when there is movement there should be some channels to facilitate these. erfuedqri E-6rB tl-ffiaifr+ qnraeilrrB qFsrfu at*oqaq r (q. E.s/3 qr airn€R):--- Aqrqi d zr-der$re-e-+a verreeSa-ffis-afD{er+fi lr-ffis arq-qrd qeqd;qFflfusrc{rqi I al-cn-A-aran q€rraa[cil sirral: lrdEr e-gfti gg]-"are{i am"rtrdeer (g. eIT. 3r. z)" gerR r (a. ft. s/3 q? aoqq)eraffiearsal"ri ga wder$ruzruri u-ffiaizq-q-oanrrfffr, r (a. f. sr+) r Tridosha move through out the body and all srotamsi are their passages. o Take the example of apan vayu. 3r6l-g€L gfr srarFr qrrrrq*errcrheef: r (q. E. 2a/1o qc a€qrFr) Apan vayu implies intensinal gases, which would be expelled as flatus. The normal volume expelled through anus in human is about 0.6 litre while the daily production is about 7 tol0 fitres. Oz is absorbed and HzS, COz and methane are excreted through the anusas flatus. Barborygmis (aatop) is another example of movement of gas which is audible, (The source of gases is swallowing of air along with food, their production by bacteria and their diffusion from blood into GIT. Suitable mixture of methane, Oz and CO2 produces an aetually explosive gas which explodes on..cauterization during sigmoidoscopy.) (Textbook of Medicat Physiotogy by Guyton, L0th Edi. Page No. 769- o 3lr?,i*,, release of acchhapitta when food (chyle) leaves amashay (stomach) 185
  • . Obviously wherever the transporatation is there there has to be srotas (channels or openings). e-furri fka*ererqr (a. fr. s/1 q-s e@qrfu) All the five types of tridosha have their special location and major areas of their movement. so they need srotas for their movement (Dr. Sandhya patel)7.4. ltdoshavaha srotasa include all srotas then what is the role of saman vayu in prana-,anna-, udaka-, rasa-, rakta-, mamsa-r meda-, asthi-, majja-r shukra-, purish-n mutra-,sweda- and artava-vaha-srotasa? What is meant by avalamban of srotas? (Ref: Cha. Chi.28/8 with Chakrapani commentary & A.S. Su. 2012with Indu commentary). (Vd. Anuja Vinod Shah) According to Charak the role of saman vayu is limited to svedavaha srotas, udakavahasrotas and doshavaha srotamsi. Even though doshas are said to be moved throughout the bodythrough all the srotamsi, the doshavaha srotamsi are located and controlled by saman vata. Thereis no iole of saman vata in the srotamsi other than these three srotamsi. Basing on the view ofCharak and Chakrapani, it appea$ that the functions of saman vata are limited to control thesesrotamsi, but not the entire body and all the srotamsi (Ch. Chi. 2818 and Chakrapani on theabove). Please refer the answer No.7.3. Regarding the description of functions of five types of tridoshas Vruddha Vagbhat inAshtang Sangrah has either modified or elaborated some of them. Similarly he has made somemodifications and attributed additional functions to saman vata when compared to Charak,Sushrut and Ashtanga Hridays views. : qtEITarQ : ffiftrqrff?rqrcrc,rerartr err?urqrq?r frr+E-d fu-aeffiB-q, rr (sr.ei. z1 zoto) Indu; in Shashilekha commentary, has observed that Tr a TIiFflEr: rrwrer$ *qdcTrRqEr,, *d-{gqftra-{fr, afaaffiB-+raMorai sla-c{rd-d-d-FEi €rrs"i B-qr e-{aft r (sr.d. t1 20/6 rr{ g€) Basing on these views the site of action of saman vata is between amashay andpakvashay. So its action is mainly limited to adho bhaga of the body. The doshas situated inpakvashay and mutra-, purisha-, shukra-, artav-, udaka-, and mala-vaha srotamsi are influencedby it. The functions of doshavaha srotamsi pertain to the entire body but not limited to thefunctions and jurisdiction of samanvata. The doshas are situated all over the body. Probablysaman vata is located in the doshavaha srotamsi situated between amashay and pakvashay.Hence there is no overlapping of the functions of these two. It should be born in mind that samanvata is a variety of one of the tridosha i.e. vatal Tridoshas include all the doshas i.e. vata, pittaand shleshma. Avalamban means protection, help or support. Saman vata supports and protects thesrotamsi stated above Vicharan means moving i.e. saman vata moves through the above-cited srotamsi,Avalamban (protection), and dharana (sustenance) of these srotamsi and kitta adhonayana arementioned as the functions of saman vata. (A.S. Su. 2012). Kittas nourish vata, pitta and kapha (Ch. Su. 28/4) (Dr. G. Purushothamacharyulu) ffi Aq-d-6 fr srq e+aft ffi EFr Er+nler d qrar B, q-g TJtr-d A6-{ q6qea NsI arqr B, frF-€ q-€5 6II.r &dF z1S B I q€ilfu eqra +e +.t-q E16 erg B fudq-d-6 daq trd erSz-ura B r 186
  • qffrd qrg o.[ FrS srF4gig€ioT 6-{ q-rEr B-qr 61 z:r6rer E;z-ar B r qrunft. z+eftffi # e{-.r qEreff o1 g-€R+ Be ffi B r g€ aE Ernfur +. fuu Eerq "-{ff-gqQ sTFd -d- sraeercF?rr ffi E r sfu g.fr srFaefr an zigqpr urdra qrg eirtrsa sa ffi fr +dr ssar Br ffi + erdrrEr srffi ff srufuq qrFrs .ft arft "rg E r g{{ ?req 6) F€zr<ar b sraara rqra dr rgIeIT qrrds I (Dr. Yeshwant Joshi)M:gtiqent*g aza-er+ zl@q r€rraq@re?Teaqtr (a. E. zars)qprrcrffiar e-oar*ef Ei+q{efdqfui qprr€-ai errd 6-d qr6 t H d-"a-{T} Efrqru-qlr zerr*ffi aee-arurrffie-:err*gr (a. E. 2a/s qr qoqrFr)Though all the three doshas movg through out the body through all the srotamsi they havespecific areas where their movement and functions are more powerful in comparison to others. e-ar*s-a-tffiq-+er: d?I: E-€qtT,u-mrare@: dtilfffi-IdzrET@;Ir6 , t (sr.gf. q, zott)Saman vayu would carry out the same functions in other srotamsi as they are mentioned inannavah srotas since dharan, pachan, kitta adhonayan are its functions. For example during dhatuformation dharana, pachan, saar-kitta vibhajan and adholayan of kitta (i.e. movement of nttufrom its location of production to its excretory organ) of preceding dhatu (or pu*u dhatu) wouldbe.carried out by saman vayu. The same principle applies to all the doshas and their types.However, not necessarily all the 15 variations of three doshas function in all srotamsi e.g.alochak pitta would certainly not have relevant function in any of the srotamsi.Avalamban:The literal meaning of avalamban is help br assistance. The functions of annadharana, pachan,vivechan (saar-kitta vibhajan) and kitta adhonayan are attributed to sadhak pittu lnaucommentary) (Dr. Sandhya patel)7.5. What is the role of srotomula sthan in the process of dhatuposhana? Does it mean thatthe dhatuposhak amsha in ahar-rasa are actually carried to these srotomula sthan in theprocess of dhatuposhan? (Cha. Su.2815 & Cha. Chi. 15/2f-35) (Vd. Anuya Bhagirath Kulkarni) It is clearly mentioned in Ch. Vi. 5/l (for shlok refer to the answer No. 7.1) the dhatuposhak amsha of the respective dhatus is carried through their srotamsi to the poshya dhatu(subsequent dhatu). Whether the location of poshya dhatu is the srotomula or not becomes clearbasing on the description available in any of the samhitas. Srotomula can be regarded as origin ofthe srotamsi or controlling organs of the srotamsi After digestion of the food it reaches the dhatus through the srotamsi and nourishes them.In this process the prasad part of the dhatus enter the openings of the srotamsi and transport themto the dhatus for their nourishment and sustenance. ftfterdRr-i qqr€++qq erqF"otrq-alziffi q rermdEq +-drd er$;i @ (q. e1, zers)ererrdairwsn qrEi er$cr qrGd srrarr:*d-{fi a ererr{+a errg gwfu eil-g?r: n (q. E. 8/se)?enrm- -----frd-emq rr (q. E. r srzz-zs) 187
  • Basing on these and other references and in other classics no where it is mentioned whereactually the poshakmsha of the dhatus reaches whether the srotomula of the dhatus or therespective dhatus. There is no clear description of involvement of organs mentioned as srotomulas in theprocess of the dhatuposhana of the respective dhatus except the description of rasa carriedihroughout the body by vyan vata (C. Chi. 15121-35). Sushrut and Chakrapani have furtherobseried thatrckta also gets carried by vyan vata all over the body (Chakrapani C. Chi. 15121-35, Su. Ni. 1). Both Charak and Sushrut have stated that Yakrit and pliha are the mulas of raktavahasrotas. Sushrut and Sharangadhara have stated that the rasadhatu or aharrasa reaches yakrit andpliha undergoes paka and transforms into or acquire ragagata as follows;q q€"qft-d, n=t dfr3+{ ffiFag-a eiar, ?TT a "-€-tv "rar€tr sffi: ll (9. e*Atfisnd r-sn qqffi,yr* =, (errtoerr +i 1-5/40)q€qffid-{q . .ft rr (g. E* t+r.+) ztrrd EF"=I gstg t-tg".f-e-qfr qa fr=i aq e{ eilFni a}a rr (en. z{. t-srzz) VruddhaVagbhat indicated the role of yakrit in the formation of rakta while describingthe functions of ranjak pitta. In the description of the samprapti of raktapitta many acharyas haveaccepted the role of yakrit and pliha which are mentioned as mulas of raktavaha srotas. However, in spite of the absence of clear description of the involvement of thesrotomulas in the pro""is of dhatuposhana except in the context of rakta (as there is no referenceagainst it in any ciassical work) it is presumed that the poshakmsha of the preceding dhatus rbachtie mula of the poshya dhatu and undergo pachan by the respective agni and get transformed intothe subsequent dhatu. Moreover, the description of the process of formation of rasa and poshana of rakta carriedby vyan vata reaching the yakrit and pliha and undergoing paka by ranjak pitta can be consideredu, * .*u-ple of the description of the process of dhatuposhana. Hence basing on this it can beconcluded itrut thr poshakmsha of dhatus reach the respective srotomula sthanas and undergo;;;tht""gtt ttt iespective dhatvagnis to nourish the subsequent dhatus (Dr. G; Purushothamacharyulu) ffi or ftr;-+a o-ca erffq, E4 ffi * qa*errd znr eft -q"ia fu-qr arqrBr d"q + 2-2 a1et eqrfr rFr euFd fu-qr ?trqr B r ffi{m QIq Ebr "-i- o.-c} +fl-q qz-o &orors a3b-d=r * oar B fuEd6"qaEi Bfr qaftrE€ITaq r (q. fr. 5 t 1 A-FI)frRre-?""-** d snR EFr -rd EFi;€6r E-qa-a gtdr Br ff+[a Eildq d5 d tF E;t 37crfu 6}e t t5pry 5-S qarqsqra qbf eiErr ff a.€ B r uti T{-q"t"# uur p,-qr,1q5 G A*** *e + EFr{sr gS afa rerFr q€r tD-6r arql B I qEF-€To-rgi gs-en, s*-{ 3fEr6 w6+-sr o-+} gg -6t^B F- t (q. fr. sll 61-uur)€ir-rE g€n"ng-d u-.;n-ai dErgqqrfr o-ft Eft 65gcfi-era ttri ol-qT EFr 3gn ger cFr q€rr6r stqero B"r El-rft t gm _gst bE-d Frdftr:.,hr B--*ft ** d-i{- a;r a,rd d-gettf,et fr ftqft-6*i rrs ulf fr qq1 "rerr<ar# ; qrff a #*- a *o. grft qorcffi{- fr gp dH u-t e-arryf ddqdu a Br 188
  • 5:€* ftrdd ger zff srd trTF A gk + fus 3rrqeqo ts fu =-€Icbr {el saa d rEd €{ft trrttlt- g€r d gk + fus 3rrdeq6 rqrs Ed_ v_m _tf- T€xrEr qs fr u-g6 -qafu-+ B r 3# *ASfu *e q-{ ddt{ea qs orffi Bfu-rurr tnr q-+}ul-a tF?ffiEfu fr aw fu-qr qr zr-tn-ar B r (Dr. Yeshwant Joshi)Srotomula: The srotomula indicates that the organs stated as mula of a srotas are capable ofbestowing strength and efficacy or even influence that particular srotas.5lfrh qat-.ru€flEr I (a-oqnFr)iLis clearly estatlishes the role in dhatuposhana. The mula of raktadi dhatu vaha srotamsiacquire the relevant dhatu poshaka amshas from the ahara rasa. The ahara rasa enters the sevendhatuvaha srotamsi and nourishes the seven dhatus through the agency of the relevantdhatvagnis. (Dr. Suresh Babu) fr. sze qs qo-qFr){dfrft rre{"rt€rraq r @.gerr&di q€rr+flilqd q[ui u+tr tr a-ee-e-crrdi q@rRE _.Ffrq add{ r €relr,#rt rq,-a-d fudr aqi E@r+{Ts&rdTqr qsflr+o {ii erEfi*qlaq: FgTeftrTcf€Ict: I(sr.6. en. erz r)This means mula is origin of the particular srotas. This appears to have embryologicalimplication i.e. development of various srotamsi have specific origin (mula). Dhatuposhana is a physiologic event.q-€rr4cT E-sr qraerq, dqur- cro qfft r tmr<-eil E ararfoalffiarar zs{rRfh,drs*; r-tmre-$ B arafwagdo Mr (ao-vrFr)Not necessarily that all mulas have relation with physiology of dhatuposhana eg. mahasrotasindeed embryologically induces the formation of pranavaha srotas. However, after the inductionthe role of mahasrotas is over. While in case of raktavaha srotas progenitor hematopoietic stemcells produce both vascular system as well as different types of blood cells. If the question is asked in relation to Kedarikulya nyaya, the rasa nourishes to variousdhatus in chronological order. friqr C- t.*t qq-di qrrE-qft, ffi q "ffiTe[rftidaenq sE+ srgaraft,Tfii q ffi"{drAa sieta M; ffd Tfti 3lr€r€r ai"f snqrd-qft, ?rr *-fr o-ifr, HiT{EflEQe-di srgreft; E"i gq enqrqqfr-i*.i"-i qen "q ffir.*foft r, ffi €@1# u-sr€-Gai ffi adfuar @-froTsrrwr4qkr (a. E. 15/16 qt qoqrFr)Kedarikulyanyayaappears to mean proliferation and replacement of various dhatus in their ownplaces (but not in the places of their origin). AU the three dhatuposhana nyayas are difficult to understand. Chakrapani has nicelycommented - : eMElqreil U€[:, e-ifficaro-q-+g *t-t**"na-*** EIT "{drarar.Efe,r (a. fr. 1s/16 qc a@qtFr)manak: alittle bitdurghat = difficult--:- d;r rqraflFa, @ qqft, frtrrtnrEso-+r: EllEt g"n1qqqtra r s-ini q-"5ry6)p;Jft44t Ed €A €iqrda* qA - tiq Et Ei etFd, e-€Iua$" efr r sr-ei a annffi -errddfid-qrqri+r *-EE 3{fu- 3ifr1r, ng-E -srfr darynft 5/13a-* s{ft efarn-aqrqzeqq{ qoqrFT) 189
  • After the action of jatharagni each bhutagni acts on the dravyas possessing the same propertiesand produce the same gunas (in the dhatus). In simple words in each dhatu there is bhutagniaction. This explains that ahar rasa is not taken to srotas mula but is taken to various dhatus andthere in situ dhatu formation takes place due to action of local bhutagnis. (Dr. Sandhya Patel)7.6. How do we fix the anatomical boundaries of the srotases and srotomulas described inthe classics as per the modern anatomy? (Ref: Cha. Vi. 5th chapter). (Dr. Suchetha Kumari M,) In general it is very diffrcult to fix anatomical boundaries of the srotamsi and srotomulasdescribed in the classics as per nlodern anatomy. There are many differences in the descriptionby Charak and Sushrut. Charaks description naturally reflects kayachikitsa view, indicatingmula sthanas, dushtikarana and dushti lakshana, and dustichikitsa sutras for each of the elevensrotamsi. Sushrut has followed shalyatantra view and has described viddha lakshanas (not dushtilakshanas) though the clinical features of viddha lakshanas are different to each of the thirteensrotamsi the chikits sutra is broadly the same. Pt. Hariprapannajee and Dr. B.G. Ghanekar who are the great scholars of Ayurveda in the20th century and who had deep knowledge in Ayurveda and modern medicine particularly on thesubject of sharir have proposed the following regarding anatomical boundaries of the srotamsi.Along with views of the later expert of receht time Acharya Rama Raksha Pathak. S. Name of View of View of View of Acharya R.R. Pathak No. srotas Pt Hari Dr B.G. Ghanekar 1: { Pranannaii I Pranavaha l. Pulmonary veins l. Lungs of both the Respiratory tract, arteries and pulmonary and aorta sides veins, which carry oxygen 2.Two bronchi 2. Pulmonary capillaries 2 Udakvaha Alimentary and Lymphatics Palate, pancreas. lymphatics, water depots lymphatic systems. especially thoracic of tissues; Pharyngeal, renal, mesenteric duct and right and lymphatic vessels. Tubes of fluid lvmnhatic duct circulation. J Annavaha Esophagus and Elementary canal and Alimentary canal, gullet esophagus. duodenum small intestine 4 Rasavaha Vascular and Systemic capillaries Circulatory tract, veins, arteries, nutrient lvmohatic svstem ofthe bodv. vessels. lvmnhatics. 5 Raktavaha Veins and arteries Portal capillaries Splenic, portal portion of the circulatory of the liver and tract, hepatic veins, blood vessels of the spleen; portal genital organs and vaginal orifice; system of veins. pulmonary arteries and veins, coronary arteries and veins 6 Mamsavaha Blood vessels and Muscular capillaries Capillaries and nerve endings of the lymphatics of muscular fibres and tissues; ,muscles, surrounding cells ligaments and tendons ofthe body 7 Medovaha Capillaries of the Fat depot, supra renal gland. perinephric tissues and omentum 8. Majjavaha Medullary canals, marrow space 190
  • 8 Shukravaha Seminiferous Ductus deferens (vas Efferent ducts, epididimus, vas deference, tubules (structures deference) ductuli ejaculatory ducts. of the testis that efierentes and rete produce semen)- testis 9 Artavavaha Fallopian tubes l) Blood vessels and Ovarian duct, fallopians and uterine capillaries of the tubes, blood vessels of the uterus uterus 2) Fallopian tubes l0 Mutravaha Tubuli uriniferi 1) Rendl tubules Kidneys, bladder, ureters, all tubules of (the structures of 2) Kidneys with urinary tract the kidnevs) ureters il Purishavaha Sigmoid colon Appendix and large Alimentary canal, small intestine, large intestine. intestine. t2. Svedavaha Coiled tubular sweat glands and their ducts.The view of Acharya R.R. Pathak appears to be more acceptable up to some extent. (Dr. G. Purushothamacharyulu)7.7. Sushrut has mentioned talu and kloma as the mula of udakavaha srotas and injury tothese gives rise to severe thirst and death (Su. Sha. 9l 12 ). Charak and Vagbhat have alsostated the same (Cha. Vi.5/8 & A.S. Sha.6/16).One of the symptoms of kloma vidradhi is profound thirst making the patient to crave formore water (Su. Ni" 9122). So which organ can be considered exactly as kloma? (Dr. Hema Waghulade & Dr. Sarita Ohol) Kloma is regarded as the most controversial organ for many decades by Ayurvedicscholars in general and the experts in the subject of sareer in particular. The description of klomain classics is contradictory making its correlation difficult with any of the organ described inmodern anatomy which is the main reason of the entire controversy. Some of the important references of the classics and other works where in the location ofthe kloma is described are as follows ) d{qrertqrtrd, d€il Eros,q Rewrd Ex-€-dd q, d{ €ed fre}*r t+dar€€rraq | | (9. ?rr. 4/3o) In A.S. Sha. 5/71 also Vruddha Vagbhat has observed the same. 2) Adhamalla on Sharangadhar Samhita has observed as follows- Frei g eilFq-dfuEqafti eMri e-€d-S+ ffi ardfr I a) +ffi fter-drd+E €E"ffin Erozlq u (sr.€. err. 3/12) 4) ffi)ff Enrer€rus (e-q-dr<€rtqrq) ft€r"i ReilrTqre+{€i ftra-ofrfr qfu€{ I Itr€ur g. err. s/1a) References pertaining to physiological and pathological aspects of kloma are as.follows r ) =-<-oa* e @d- drgddT ?T5I q fusrq ftqrsr seil azoi (9. ?rr. q u8/12) 2) s<E-d-6rai*d-€t drg {ci dfl q I g s-ffii frehi u-gserdi frrflEiar-dft r a-sarr-@*d rr (q. fr. 5/7) fuqp+ aTfttr{c1-;1 While describing the clinical features of kloma vidradhi. a) corri e-€fr €wn q ftqrc{T effisfu+r n (9. F. s/22) While describing trishna samprapti the following description by Charak indicates that thelocation of kloma is near tongue and talu. l9l
  • 4) arff @, r tieiq E"rt eB €E=r{wli "T-.nG-*,qzzra)a-aroaH n (q. E.sj dFafr gqslq€d ftrqrc{r "€rrdq I I (a-galw-4r.fr. EIsn 6; Basing on the above it can be concluded that the kloma is one of the koshtangas but notpratyanga. Itls sitriated bellow yakrit and above vrikka but not near jihwa or talu. Its shape is,i*itu.Io tila i.e. gingly seed or a group of gingly seeds or covered with a layer formed with agroup ofgingly seeds. tiptays an important role in the maintenance or metabolism of water and electrolytebalance and in the physiological and pathological thirst and associated features. Its injury orgross damage may even lead io impairment of these functions and death due to excessive thirst. fhe-impairment of udakavaha srotamsi has been mentioned for which kloma is the mula sthana in the pathogenesis of trishna and udara directly. In prameha and madhumeha the involvement of ta"au had been mentioned; bahumutra pipasadhikyata have been mentioned in not directly the involvement of kloma or vaha srotas.purva rupas but on the descriptions pertaining to kloma udaka above one of- the following two cited tiuring organs are to be considered under kloma 1) gallbladder and 2) pancreas. Gall bladder is not having any role in the physiological and pathological aspectsattributed to kloma. pancreas suits to the description of kloma as regards to its location, shape,physiological and pathological aspects. Pancreas appears as a bunch of substances similar to the,t up" of-gingly r"Ldr and skin of firh, Hence it might have been mentioned as the tila or tilaka.The enzyir"-*tri"6 is secreted from pancreas plays i role in the pathogenesis of bhaktaja trishna.Another hormone well known as insulin secreted from the islets of langerhans situated inpancreas is reryonsible for glucose metabolism, carbohydrate and fat metabolism and.othermetabolic activities. Its deficiency or ineffectiveness causes diabetes mellitus the main clinical befeature of which is thirst and dryness of mouth. Hence the organ pancreas can undoubtedlyregarded as kloma (Dr. G. Purushothamacharyulu) *dq t qaeerra or q"fia o-ga zrffQf -ffi, ggg s]]E qrdare 3{rfr 3-q-€F,?-6*ng-a-or* e-dlg G A; + A eelT6r- crilTu Br ga * sr<e-{ -^tg {er Bqrar a&fr;i oef "rU* B orol erq tnr u-qtrr tto erq erSs srdq{ + ft{s B-qr tr$$-e-s s-e*d risrr qB, * m n* qeei * iinoa Br ffi sngHo :rre+ fr sfiR€rcfr or e+trwa afr E, a5 ;@ S er< €E 6rd a-tn" RreqaeT d".€ A I"5a*-tnrc,r fr qR qra-d of €{eta gsn B ?Icr 5:-cr Ferft -er F*q drga* 5-E{q$erur *= o,q#" snR a€T"il 61 &n-s-{ @ ,,n q+o-ar B r s{?r; it rya 9 ---tg :ca10-q" rr-e*n ffi +] o-sur fu-qr qrqr.qrBur erd *&e*# A E€ tr$= .dA E=5111"= s*e- t. aeq gqRera e+aft srqqfr cFT sarter argu*er fr EF?6TTsrffo sqgtm *trn Effid * zr<ef d srrg*< d qrfia 6-€ d,iT * dft-aqar qS en € Bl 3r+6 rErrc g+r fts{r qs ft-dr* ft-qef g3{r B, tr{€ sdrirrtr A@-{ frfeaE trTufu a qronTriroftr a-S A {rtrrl g{q lesa fr gE{ fsq- q{ GTrfierurs fr ffitff qftq-{ g€ * rffi ;,;.-"d + fr-dt*- i sE+ :ftG d s+Fqftro +.F-{ grqe 3rqa 4d e] e-€d & qrar Fr"fu EnrsftI S* Rr* eft *dq * qa renEr or fuqrs o-ce "rnq F-@ qrH qra lfr fra+ Br ;. 61dua- se+ daq 6r €dq 3rr€rEr *e + tnr{ur s€r$ aft arr-oq-drd ftt sflfr ; #i 5ar qrBsr E r qEl=r frdr e I 3ttT: qaeena fr eft 3-{{S 2. ?nq fr frvo;ier l"ftn *qoerrE er eTfrnA +4r qrBs I r92
  • 3. dd)-qd daq + 6rsil or fqa-a o-s+qrdr *dI B r 3rcr: ser q-{ 3{r€nd *i qsdaq + fr Agrdr EF"retr srr.ft qrFs r 3ncr6-d ftflrf, trrdr-# Ertr Ffi t zr-<af fr Ef}rf, sraqfr d sls fu€n "i+-ddrerr B r ererr *ft.ru+, Gfr€{, gtffialz+, :rndr c+e-{ snR r rrr<I s.crg 6.} ur}tr-q-drgr{rt Ea-fr * ffi e{t 3r.r+tr ai Edfi Tidr +dr 3Fd-d a-& i}"n rEdn qftq-d d srf-€roier fucira id A *+ +fidia 61 zffild Eigr d t qer * * rAfu-d eqra * da-q qra qa B fu gs+ qt aft zrffi tt Eq CTUfrq zenfua a-&fi rrmr en r (Dr. Yeshwant Joshi) Kloma has been the target of many opinions regarding its anatomical identification.According to Chakrapani, kloma is the pipasasthan (thirst center) is located in hriday(Chakrapani on Charak Viman 5/8). Based on the current available information, a thirst centerhas been identified as a small area located slightly anterior to the supraoptic nuclei in the lateralpreoptic area of the hypothalamus. The stimulation of the cells of this area causes thirst. Thesecells are stimulated by an increased osmotic pressure of the body fluids, which in turn isdependent on the amount of water in the body (W.F Gamong Review of Medica Physiotogt).Any factor that will cause intracellular dehydration will in general cause the sensation of thirst.Other well established factors like dryness of the pharyngeal mucous membrane causes asensation of thirst. It may be noticed from the above information that the changes in the qualityof both the avalambak and tarpak kaphas causes stimulation of pipasasthana located in mastishkaand generate a sensation of thirst. As such it is justified to assume that mula of udakavaha srotasis located in mastishka (ie siro hriday) (Dr. Suresh Babu)7.8. Hriday is mula of both rasavaha- and raktavaha-srotas. Is it one and same?Descriptions of hriday are given in Cha. Su. 17, Cha. Chi. 26 and Cha. Si. 9. To whichsrotas are these descriptions related? (Dr. Mukesh shukla) According to the nirukti of the hriday - 6*fr 66rfr gfr 6eeq r the main funciions of hriday are receiving or taking in and sending or delivering;perceiving, ordering. Hriday is not only the mula sthan of rasavaha (rasa includes raktadi dravadhatus also asstated by Chakrapani (on Ch. Chi. 15136 ) and pranavaha srotamsi, it is the seat of manyimportant factors of the body such as chetana sthan, adhisthan of manas and trigunas (i.e. sattva,rajas and tamas), sattva (manas), buddhi, indriya, ojas, rasa, vata, (Ch. Chi.24135), vyan vata,sadhak pitta and avalambaka shleshma. The functions of pranavata include hriday dharana (A.S.Su. 20), pranayatarta (Ch. Su. 2913). One of the three mailnas (Ch. Su. 2913), sira marma (Su.Sha. 6/10), sadyopranahar marrna (Ibid25) Regarding the references quoted in the question seeking clarification about whichsrotamsi the description pertains, the description in Ch. Cln. I7130-40 and Chi.26177-80 pertainsto the clinical features of the hridrog and its varieties. These descriptions pgrtain to the entirehriday but not limited to any srotamsi associated with hriday. In the description of the reference Ch. Si. 9/4 ?T5t €€+ der€ftffaf: qrolTsqrd a-erqf,drB q araelTauT gdsftffi 1 (q. ft+. or+) 193
  • Here dasadhamanyaha pertain to rasavaha srotas; prana-apan (Ucchhvasa-nihshvas basedon Chakrapani) pertain to pranavaha srotas; manas, buddhi and chetaira pertain to manovahasrotas.cTsr €dfDr6A t5r+rqEIT+I Erc{erer oo-aeiq5;ffi-or fuqa-;1qgaarge rr (q. fr+. ero)Similarly in the description of hridaybhighata (C. Si. 916) the clinical features described as kasashvas pertain to pranavaha srotas; while apasmara, unmade, pralapa and chittanasha etc pertainto manovaha srotas. Hriday has been mentioned as mula of rasavaha srotas by both Charak.and Sushrut. Noone has mentioned hriday as the mula of raktavaha srotas. (Dr. G. Purushothamacharyulu) 6e+ o1 -errsr T{Tdrd azi rmE-g N 6T {d ?€fi-d aFTIEttF? €rd ercITcr qor {qr B r qr-S d o-gr aft r.ra-a-e eiaq tnr {r-{€rra 6-d-q AS ear1 B r tm+A daq* qazen-a q€q, *6r s+{ zffiqr$ erqfi-qi E r 6ev t ^ersr ^fr *t-c{ ud zm o.rfte.rr 6rd fu-qr qrar E s*s q-fr qra qqArt fr eft 6-S qrtr E I dzzr z& 1 a,ffi fr sres;$ # Rrgs€r uti €qqrrtr qrftrS zrr g?ror-g"rq a.f-a B I T*F qrg fr{. s/12-1s # 3TErdra6 or qof-q fu-qr urqr Br ffi zq-dtruUil i q-€fud g3{rEn€l.r * sffi q)} qrq d-d-" 6<+ d q-da-dr B a"i 6eu fr fi-sr ss?I 6-{+ +qeqrE firs uzi ?izr s*er d €rq A-6T fi-q;a zn-cdr B r 5;s-* drro-$ e-6- gsn fuq-6i q-{ aft ftrt-eer 6a+ sr*Rra il$ B r qei aft sEs€T 6e+ d sr}erl d ts r "r€ (Dr. Yeshwant Joshi) Hriday is mula of both rasavaha and raktavaha srotamsi as detailed below. 1) Since the hriday is the rasasthana, it is also the mula of rasavata srotamsi. 2) Hriday is also stated as the seat of rakta and other fluids which are capableof circulating in the body. 3) Since the prinan and jivan kriyas are the functions of rasa and raktadhatus respectively. Both are essential for the maintenance of the life, and rakta is the nearest dhatu to rasa; they both circulate tog6ther. (Dr. Suresh Babu)7.9. How do we understand fetal circulation according to Ayuneda? (Dr. Jairaj P. Basarigidad) The fetal circulation has been described in detail (A.S. Sha. 2/31, Su. Sha. 3/31 and Sha.Samhita) is almost similar to that in modern medicine (see the image No. 1 e D.This is asfollows - affirc anaqi qft-d-gr ar$ ag-qraq-{r trrqi frr€Fq{ Ia-darE6e+rersrtzEnqaffflrz+-<-ar+su?rqgftldcI:m-qr*rflitrdeq-T{ga-falsq-mrel*"- e<-o-renF--a-qr q.qirilcr! g+IT< @ zr-ry-ert I -reITnm-daffi T+r ger q q-,Sq1a, tt (sr.ei. en. zrst) _ _ d€r a o-rqrF-+ar rr€q-attd: ?r€trr: E<-&frTffi r ar+ter$;i g zl-d U.I EIT{: qnfffr qr{reqrg@q arst{ uq -@afufrrr I (g er szsr) Fetal circulation and garbhaposhana accomplish as following. When the anga-pratyangadevelop gradually nadi or a cord attached to the nabhi (umbilicus) of the fetus follows throughaparu (placeta) and reaches the hriday (heart) of the mother. The ahar rasa, particularly which ispredominantly prasadamsha (essence) from qnatru hriday, reaches the syandamana (pulsating) 194
  • apara and to the fetus through the nabhi. Then it reaches the pakvashay ofthe fetus, undergoespachan by its kayagni, nourishes and accomplishes the growth of dhatu, dosha and mala. The sneha situated in the garbhashaya also reaches the fetus through its romakupasfacilitating dhatu pushti. Sushrut has fuither stated that before the manifestation of anga pratyagas includingnabhinala etc (since the time of garbhadhan) the garbha is nourished through the upasneha of thetiryak gata rasavaha dhamanis. (Dr. G. Purushothamacharyulu) @!-draftqrE+rgu{l€ E-g araf, @ @aqi d-rddE gsq mft@:ara+ferS E<"teef,aiutrcrelcn:, oRq*rf-ararssa*: tanaqi Erg ar& qrrcFIT, argqi arcnT, 3rErgr ar?ur arg: utror 6e*, ffrq-€d-ti €rt=qffi ffiT ?q<ffranf-ar:, ?I -r€[ e-a-oofo-g, ztm{t, Tf q "-{+adstrerararg r r*qi grw*+arfr+rfr+elT T*r: qFrq-dA wer$rgw*, d-fgg}qt T{ fficw-cr (@ qi:ffia,rr (a eTT. "fiarrzr otzz) drgrg e-g arsui araiarf}rar$ sftqeir, TTTse=T @ r+d sqr+6-{q 3r€r srf}rgfu, ar_dfr r sr€iurd 3iarEreirr qfr+rrai snGr&orq ualft ""r-d-drqierder$ro-e-orgrflftq-rai Tn-d-6rdi ftrEzlorarai E-d-dftdr€q?€ ffi r r (g. elr. szs r ) aratrq anaft argea 6Rar.& E-oq* I ererr z+ gffifr #6rs gtr €aqqr I I(sr.6. en. ttrsa)(See the images No. I and 2) ararferq fr araf +t sfirgk dffi rs$ B r araf eqei q[s Eei qrc{ * frrlB-d6tin B Ed +qn"J arr?rT rrr srrBrd *dr B r ardT 6r €Tq ararferq ftera srqsr *rm qrftff drur ggr ssar B r uzi ar+teq ftrg arfDrar$ argr 3rcrtr * ggr z;aart r gn anf-rar$ grsr araf t er$s fr q-gqr g3rr {tffi araf 6<+ 6irer serb el-qferSE # ftelfqa A-dr seTzrr tilqq or.n B rarar t ET?T +s6 or *qor *ar rcar B r fu-q fu-g a+rur srraru efr srca o-E arafzft frffffi aS ffi tsr d fuEq fu-g rref g trrdfq +dr sft B s*rcrr Bqlcra3rErtr eirzr arrar * er$E * fr rilr.n B r 3fir{t frtrffi A Ed uraf or dqor *q-q:TEirgr dra{ferq ftera. ara{ra-a * Jq-*d qrq EiEr *ar sgar B r e-c qra aft gu{fr eena ti *o-q 3, "T<a+ (Dr. Yeshwant Joshi) nr-€ci qrt€I €ed drq-€gM}rEidE* a+_dR ggrorftffif}r: Eidfffifb{:;a-Eqntrffia+affu ui?q-<Ar ----| (q. €Ir. +rt s) arqufrfr; arEorr-rordEuq rar@fdrfB{qftrd-€rft zc{qrmfb{, I ---- "-el-drB-dfhftfr | €fr "i"q-<darq6cqrErraf6f qrfr, ural6e+ra arE€<erHeef, r (a. eTT. 4/1s rrE aqqrFr) drg€ u-g arqrrt araffiDrarffiqgr, zrrszzi @r@affir ""{-d-6rdi 3ruidrrr g4q-6iur qBlnzrdrEreorq q€fta-derSrrrre-orgr{rffidi ftr*rrurarai Ea*dr€q"ffi ffi r r (g. eTT. au e r ) Ergrgrt-{qrft araicq q-& }E Bfferara-argffi r argaff}f-+r rers-grrri "-erzr6rdiarqqi araiarfi+arS qr sftqeir rnssq :ryf{q arq@ qrqqfteef, raaiarsr€ja-rrqffia{A araffi}rqr$ @, sfurei:rrg@ffierr.rrq Eftr?i arafgfu zqRtqrgsnffia+rurffi r aflfrtolq va1ffft 3{T Trfl-a-d+nd-d trrffi ffi ?l6-rq Gr$q.d, a-oaJfr ar+rferrci aqt&€d-d-d,;€ta-#ar{q-{ffi ffi, qeil-qf?{T ffi a-gEgrsrrET{ 6-}ftt ---t " gftu (9. eTT. 3/s1 uz s-eur) 19s
  • I t scrc*6: na-tqaq r sqslE sa+*E, r *3rr6rzFx-dr (sr.zi. elr. 2/so q{ F€)--- a-* --- u*anr r (3T."i. QTr. 2/31) . ----- I oref-cq araqi Eft-*io-gr arS ar-dfr -r*qi arwi qftrE-gt Kdtmrq-{r eraff srdfrrdrqi qfr-dEi arqGl{qql rtal an-g: daiWans{dbdfe{, gd ffifrr aF ffi arBrd-gqrqfr a-r-tfTr olqrFa-dr rr€FrIT.r: e-€IT{: Tq-ddsfr@ srn€r E 3{rar{: T{r} e{-dfrr araferSi g zr-d^q3T{T{: ;.frdft "ffir ?r"rT ararferqsqrfr # "q"fl<-dTg6qq r aralcq @, $tderr-ggb-* Tiq-€ra r a.n-oraFq qrazqrfr Er c=r arg"rdrt-r€ q-Saf,d €figgfu-{uiqalr (sr.zi. eTT. 2/st q{ €€)rr€neq ffi ?+d-si d-d€q.D-*fr araTor r -r*flq aa:.qz-ar&i a geu* I -t-r:de BTer: qftr€a-flq-{ffq-{ ffiqflrd-ffqirsrg u-rrgffi tl (sr.zi. eTT. 2/1o)ai a alq, "Trefr E.Ik drdilR{ rs{-tffi-d-6rfr t I qr$ +d z-tnfuo-r -tt".(g. QTT. 3/s1 q{ s€sr A-6I)"ffiTtr{rgeffiarelcq ar-fr argea 6e ar$ ftqeq*.. l gffifri-srro-eft I EF -g.r ? #<rs go €@rdn,-crgGrcn qai tradn A"<TTE€r:***nfrdensf}+cd*, a*E arq-6<rrrnrar ars-qr ar*rs@qaaraq q-*+rerdd q$a r (sr.€ QTT. 1 / s 6 q{ 3r5.4-4ttr A-.n.I)Abstract of all Ayurvedic references denote - o When the embryogenesis is over the supply to the fetus is through the placenta (maternal ahar-rasa ) matemal dhamani ) placenta ) garbha nabhi ) garbha rasavaha nadi ) garbha pakvashay) (see the image No. l) o Before completion of embryogenesis (asanjat avastha). it is by upasnehan through " dhamani (simile of trees standing on the bank of a lake get nourishment from the water in the lake) . Prasad-rasa nourishes the fetus, bui maternal and fetal blood do not mix (as is meant by simile of rivulet supplying water to Shali plants and commentary on A.H. Sha.2117 by Indu (see lhe image Na 2)---- Cre@r{ ualft ararferffi* qft-e-€r dr$ ddaql13l-ll {€r g.r q q*a1a: ll32ll (sr.ad @-da{rffidalrsrq araqi eTT. zts t -tz)"i. ;tA ;a{tqarff argeq €q} ft-qtqA-srgvoerreifQaw}t erEIr-aEEIT, Tr:-ilaf:, -q6F;1fr-arrer6fr I .F # a +4-1_g E-q qe-+r,-aga-*r crc.i Er6-trn #4r{-{et:"+"irrerftdensfbr+*t, 6$a aril,€qrf-q-d-qr arqqr ar*rs@q@ararq z*ar-- --:-:. d-d- erqfff)+€<znr-ilsq"r€nft I ---- I aerT nrq-qH6^a.q qfreTft r (# srr trcr q q$q6 13r-qrdEq) -- l; (sr.zi. en. sr.2/32 w gg &o-t)eq-ddftqrz+rggqrq --:- qMa t -(4. en- arza) -g.r$e, Be<, I ---- arartEeoerrqaroft rr (a. en. 6/2s w qoqrFr)Errrr6r ----l (Dr. Sandhya Patel)7.10. Can we say that hriday, which is mentioned as the seat of sadhak pitta, vyan vata andojas, is same? Or is there any difference in opinion? (Dr. P.M. Varrier) Hriday, which has been mentioned as the seat of sadhak pitta, vyan vata and ojas is thesame. There is no difference of opinion according to the classics of Ayurveda. See the answer tothe question no78 also (Dr. G. purushothamacharyuru) g6
  • ?TI€16 fua, qrd drg ud s+q gd ffi oT E z€rl=t €dq ddr{r arqr B I Ea oT * T€r-d sE+ u.i ?ffi 6r E*qq o-**orar s€€r eE.q q-S srdRrd B r gsr$o-t$ a-a ar.Trocru aS B r - /n-- (Dr. Yeshwant Joshi) Sadhak pitta is concerned with certain mental faculties and emotions like achieving onesaspirations, buddhi, medha, abhimana, utsaha etc these functions encompass psycho-physiological actions, the hriday mentioned as the seat of sadhak pitta can not be accepted as theThoracic heart. Dalhana used hriday and manas synonymously which lead to this controversytherefore, manas should be considered as the seat of sadaka pitta. , (Dr. Suresh Babu)7.11. Hriday is chetana sthan (Su. Sha. 4l3l), Can we explain this chetana with respect toconductive system of hoart? (Vd. Pranita P. Joshi) Conduction system of the heart means specialized nervous tissue in the heart thatconducts the electrical impulses throughout the heart. Hence the conduction system of the heartpertain to nervous system. Probably it may fall under the purview of pranavata the functionsinclude hriday mano Dhamani dharana. Hriday has been mentioned as chetana sthan which includes all the functions of manasand indriyas (mental faculties and nervous system) and not limited to exclusively conductionsystem of the heart.See the ans. 7.8 also. (Dr. G. Purushothamacharyulu) €<-q +1 +d-dr tnT ?€rra rb-6r arqr B r €TEI crt ErarAeT agrursrrq.rd fr fffu-qr arqr Br 6a+ t grcr S rm 6r frctqq zr-ryf erSs d *dI Br ?-ffi + fts d-E Eft fr€r-ft g{r wFrt zb-6r itr€n E r 6F-q arct ?.Er ol fr€}qoT g-.rTE u.q *"-triq *t qc fftra qs ftrqR en t r gd z+aft qrd znl eqre # trgt gJ Eg-q+1 +erfl 6 eefif arar "r6-ft arqi B r (Dr. yeshwant Joshi)+.rai z+<aqr (9. €Tt. +rzr)dE 6eq EeNr dM- aaq r ffii a-*sfr fre)$q €<-qrftrer=iddq r sraeaftaq 6e+ a-#{HFP+a T{r{A ffi a:trzTT T{fr, sffira s<-qFa rdeqr-Fru Eefu-qra-:issffir 6eei 6-fid-€€Tr.Frt-ff€}geqr (9. QIr. 4/21 qzserr)yes, chetanasthan can be considered as conductive system. (Dr. Sandhya patet)7.12, Tvacha is mulasthan of mamsavaha srotas and again it is upadhatu of mamsadhatu.Please explain this concept. (Ref: Cha. Chi. 5/8 & Cha. Chi. l5ll7) (Vd. Anuja Vinod Shah) aizrE-sroi a *.r€{i Tdrg{ct ErtF q I I (4. ft. sze) ffi i, a+{ai €r$qd "rF-.rdra[eq $:FIE[: r r (9. eIT. e t t z) ais{r€i-{Tr EA qq q *es{ ?firgtiafs, tt (q. E. 1s/17) t9l
  • Basing on the above t, acha is the mula sthana of mamsavaha srotas and also upadhatu ofmamsa dhatu. In addition to this raktavahini dhamanis are also mulas of mamsavaha srotasaccording to Sushrut (Su. Sha. 9) The mula sthan of mamsavaha srotas also includes snayu according t Charak and Sushrut.Snayu also is the upadhatu of medas. So it is common that some upadhatus and even factorsassociated with dhatus are described as mulasthans of srotamsi. These are anyonya asrita. It islike whether tree is first or seed is first. Hence there is no controversy in this concept. (Dr. G. Purushothamacharyulu) {e+ ?eil-d rft o-roar q{& fr urrs d at-S B r cdzlTd sefr daqtra-q aizl-d-g_ t .DTqa-+.rra Er gsrs *$ zier+ a-s Bt cdzlr # strft aiz{ errgA *A B r slE dqr u* fr aiu+ errg 6r sq€rrg ar-dt arqr E r st r* d-d-{ qS stnai€-fl6 *dq t 6rS or Heraa o-cft B r aqr b i* * E6 qrd slu aft tqra H qld-q ts I era eqefaErr q t<arqrs oTs{Grgra Br i-d-frr aqr * fuar srq* o-S aft a-s ffi Bt g+r Efu * tsr* c-6i rl-d a-{ar r6i a-6i aqr ttn cb-gr rrTT "rerdr ts r fro-a * drd-d a-qr fr Bg€-fr 6l-€ A ?rer a-S B I fu;g .crcIr # frs-d t 3rcIIcIT 3{a ersEro-qfr tnr aftrrarler +in B r ffi ftfrer 3ned b errr{or (€T, tfrdGre-fl, *fH.ftE+, tffi{,tfts*ftd{a snfr or aft zrar}er EIzIT fr fr cFzolr *m r 6-a z+aft d eraqas dqru-g q5q-* B r s-€qrfb of zl-ryrfra o-da ?firrq g5d a "aq: e-ga-treTe: €EET{frrdem-* q-d{ 6-Sft u". tz{r o-ar Br d fu tHFqa AftA fr qcn{qq qffudzbzcrT B, a fu qref aqr fr r aqr t 7 e-6r-{ crdrs arS Br Gr+d gdqr aqr * 7 Td-fr 4 d 6rft Bfr fu arsa Bl frs-d + 7 "d{ "lefi qrgdizs}fuo tsr srrgffiffi 7 rqqrs+ EFtqkflrur 1-2 mS aft 6r.IT€IT arqr B I zrg 6IT-I aft €?Tra H da-q B I erSs ft€rd3Tc"rerr 3{c.rirr q*efr d z-erffi aqr * S 7 sqtr{ B ir{{r *sr aa B r (Dr. Yeshwant Joshi)l.Snayu and tvak are stated to be the mulas of mamsavaha srotamsi (Cha. Vi. 5/8). Chakrapanihas not explained the rationality of tvak as mula here. Tvak is an upadhatu developed frommamsadhatu.2. According to Sushrut, tvak (skin) has seven layers and the deepest layer is known asmamsadhara.T*am aizrer* r (9. err. +r+)Perhaps, based on these two points, tvak is considered as the mula of mamsavaha srotamsi.Sushrut has added raktavahini dhamanis also as mula (Su. Sha. 9/12). (Dr. Suresh Babu) Mamsavaha srotas and mamsadhatu are different entities. Mamsavaha srotas carryposhak amsha (nutrient) to mamsadhatu.tdift{ *rg qRurrarq-d-flrardi tlrq-drflmror$a ara-aqarfa I (q.-fr. srs)ffi {ffia.q-dr qfrrqr}a s-a-ftn-s ?-emrFlFqai3{rEretifiraraT{ 1 31+ard a=nr< a ftertruri €rr{di srf}Tqr$F arqfu ffi, friEa.n-uo*qt efDror8F =6erdfu r (a. E. s/3 rre qoqrFr)Initially the embryo is a bilaminal disc ) ectodermal cell penetrate between ectoderm andendoderm ) trilaminal disc ) ectoderm forms skin while mesoderm forms muscles along withother structures. This is the embryological development of muscular system. 198
  • Mamsavaha srotas supply poshak amsha to mamsadhatu which helps to grow a child and tomaintain the mamsa in healthy state in adults. (Dr. Sandhya Patel)7.13. Why is viruddha anna sevana mentioned specifically as majjavaha dushti hetu? Does it not affect the previous dhatuvaha srotas (Ref: Cha. Vi. 5/18)? (Vd. Anuya Bhagirath Kulkarni) The definition of viruddha ahar as stated by Charak is tderrgq-€-fi=6q[drft d?qfiq *serrgftTffier-ailq-s-A u F. z* zare"t) The substances which are opponent to the normal dhatus and doshas and which possessqualities opposing the proper growth of such dhatus of the body are termed as viruddha ahar ordravyas. Hence any dhatu can get affected by viruddha ahar e.g. matsya consumed with milk ismaha abhishyandi and shonit pradoshak (C. Su. 26182). In many diseases like jvir, gulma, kushtha, amavat etc. viruddha ahar-vihar have beenmentioned as etiological factors (C. Su. 261102-103). But according to vyapadesastubhuyasasiddhanta the acharyas have indicated viruddhahar as etiological factor especially for mamshavaha srotas due to the fact that it is mostly likely to be affected by viruddha ahar. (Dr. G. Purushothamacharyulu) Majja dhatu, is directly responsible fot ones sound defense and immunity system. Itconsists of uncommitted pleuripotent and committed omnipotent stem cells from which all theblood cells are formed. Myeloid series which are progenitors of white blood cells account for7 5Yo of its cells. Erythroid series which are responsible for the erythropoesies forms almost 25Yo,since viruddha anna sevena is likely to affect this process of blood cell production it is stated asapathya. Majjavaha srotas also gets affected as it carries majja dhatu. Viruddha anna sevana isstated as one of the prime causes for disease production; hence it affects all the srotamsi in varieddegree. (Dr. Suresh Babu)3{TErgQq ftrgrgeq u: u+rfrwg*: EliF[: r€ngF{trgq€qfr fu (q. fr. srzt) ur q(rr.F: usrraF{qffidr z+rar*a ffiEfurgr (a. fr. s/2s rru aourFr)The food and behaviour share qualities with doshas and so they vitiate dhatus and ultimatelysrotamsi. These etiological features are common for dushti of all srotamsi (Chakrapani). Take theexample of viruddha ahar exhibiting vidahi, snigdha, ushna and/or drava properties. This willvitiate raktavaha srotas e.g. payas and chilichim matsya. gq qrarSsHffi qaiffirq fr@ ESfrr (sr.6. z1* 7/so-al q{3l-sEr€dA) (Dr.Sandhya Patel)7.14. Now a day many men, mainly youth, are suffering from swapna dosha. What is thephysiological cause? (Reft cha ch. ll5l4l42) (Dr. Thakur prasad sahu) It is mentioned in Charak Samhita as follows ereil €€agq{q garaefr d}qETaqA I aaqi ft-s-o.rz{g aerr gai E ?Gerq r r atr a oil=qnErqh ert-relT: qE* a q r r99
  • 3rrgs-ra+ az: t*f}+: ffi 6-fd-Sfr I I sTdqrd g=jq"fuderrg: futi quq I :rug*a *;# ast"T6q -ru-qt1a. fr. 2/4/sa-4t) The virya will not possess its proper qualities till the attainment of the age of 16 years(Charak). Then only the males are eligible to perform coitus after the virya (or shukra) gets years it may lead tomatured. If coitus is performed or virya is ejaculated unnaturally before 16shukrakshaya resulting into diminution of other dhatus and manifestation of diseases. Shukratipravrrrtii hur been mentioned as a clinical feature in shukravruddhi, which is notnormal (su. su. 15124). But if it is not associated with weakness or any clinical featuresindicative of dhatukshaya or disease it may be regarded as physiological i.e. over flow of shukradue to obscene thoughts when there is no outlet after attaining the age of 16 years- otherwise it reqriires treatment which include diverting mind from obscene thoughts, scenes,songs and atmosphere, which is not healthy for the future sexual life and is the main reason forabnormal svapna dosha nowadays, especially in youth In ancient India people used to pay their attention and mind on education and philosophical was no scope ofthoughts while beingirained under guru for acquiring moral values. Hence there think-ing of obscene activities. Hence, the problem of svapnadosha was very negligible at that get married. time. As soon as they completed education and reached proper age they used to (Dr G Purushothamacharyulu) s{TGT-Fc,r n gos fre}wa. g* a-d "aEl-aq. * ffE-d B r gs{+.^ga "{Gl* e-gdorror E r ffaa-qft:+qf qfd:"e<d 961 B I qr<eia ftr+ffr Ezi frfl+* q6rg de-"n "*o3u srrozur s*6 u,= il A afu !,, -=ft-f, eiguo-4 arql $ r t;1-& * 1t { z.q u+€I F{€-d Eroq a q&ff ="+ *-.1 qs iaft- .j-*= A "* E r ffi 3u errzr rITq 3Trdts fr aft q-gd* r + z+aft ".=r rr{ 3rrxErTcr u-cffi uuu"frq{ qeqer-frrEr& T$riftq+T Br znFq-o 3ITEr{ + T€ITEf E-s --6r t=mT.tA-r* "* 1} T6lr Br Argfi-s qEreff a; q-*ar aft ++6l-.T t Err # A "-€rr Bl er€ alt fr****"**E-**}5, Bn-a-qE eft srs-6r ffid qfrorra 1oa 61 ft-d 1rrB j1 eft gE+ rra;p a;r qt€Trh fr;e.€ ffi B r q6l-& lrcFn TGr:"€ e1="# €-#-Frdr 12-1s eTlcr ent d 3rq qen? 9-1o rTTdr d ar+r pr arftro zougR frafig61-dff B r wi =dftqfr t5r er+rdr aft srlerrqa a6eff srre a;n B r (Dr. Yeshwant Joshi) Around the age between 10 to 12 years the boys undergo the process of puberty. Canalization of the s-ex cords takes place, spermatogenesis starts and the boys experience ejaculations. During sleep their genitals may get rub against the cloth or they may stimulate them unkno*irrgly and is a result thlre is nocturnal emission. This is absolutely physiological and there is no reason to worry. One has to explain this to the anxious parents (Dr. SandhYa Patel) 7.15. Charak has described the medhra and virshan as shukravaha srotas mula, but these organs are present only in males. Thus, how can we understand the existence of shukra in females in the absence of shukravaha srotas mula? @r. Naresh kumar Jain) gqi N qd=i ffffi -ddai E$ d-wref arr (g.q. 15/5) Th"t. two categories of functions for shukra (sushrut). are (strength of r) The functions of this .u.t"gory of shukra like dhairya (courage), preeti, deha bala -b, the body) etc. are supposed-to pr"r.nt in women also due to shukra. According to modern *"air# trre prirrcipie testicular hormone testosterone is produced by the interstitial cells of 200
  • Leydig of the testicles in the males. This hormone is also produced by the adrenal cortex of bothmales and females*It accelerates growth in tissues on which it acts and stimulates blood flow.2) This category of shukra is located in the vrushana and medhra of the men after attaining theage of 16 y"ears which causes garbhotpadana (bijotpadana), harsha and chyavan in addition to theabove functions of the first category. :" (Dr. G. Purushothamacharyulu) qttu A go-oe *dq -Fr a1cE€rrEr +€ E"i €qur qarqr E t gE+ der fr sfl-d-d-E-6Saq cnr. erdrr + quFa d-S B r srrtd o) fr TS ?IrF Eb-6r IT scE?TT B r €{{srr#6 daq 6r {trJ€rr-T Ttter azi ararferq +dr sfud dan r q-ei ur+rferq ar< *qzr ararfer+ qFEr-E +dr +rn r aratfqrq, araffiq sj?ft, +B qra l+eft s*efr tnr a-flr}erorsferq erq + sraofa tn?ETT *ln r g5d a gm-{d efrdq + qcr or q"hqizt zrdTq ?d-a zbr qurd fuqr B r qa cIT-r €qFr d *o-+ 3; "€IIor (Dr. Yeshwant Joshi) According to Charak, the testis and penis are the mulas of the shukravaha srotamsi (Cha.Vi. 5/8). There is a discrepancy in this statement the human body is made up of seven dhatus andthe woman also should por."s the shukradhatu in their.body. Since the testes and penis areabsent in women, these shukravaha srotamsi also should not be present in women. There is nosuch indication in Ayurvedic texts. Therefore, shukradhatu, should not be misunderstood as thesemen which is ejaculated during sexual intercourse, but as the reproductive ability of the humanbeing the spermatozoon and ovum are only the external means for perpetuating the progeny. (Dr. Suresh Babu) . If we consider raja as seventh dhatu in female as discussed in the reply no. 3.24 the mulaof rajovaha srotas could be extemal genitalia (including labia majora, labia minora and clitoris),and ovaries . Labia majora and clitoris are analogous to vrishan and medhra in male. Summa-ry ofembryology of external genitalia: (also see the images No. 3 and 4) o Elongation of genital tubercle o in male ) phallus o In female (only slight elongation) ) clitoris (analogus to penis) o Genital swellings (a pair of elevation on each side of urethral folds): o in male ) scrotal swelling o In female ) labia majora o Urethral groove o in male ) penile urethra o In female ) vestibuleHowever, vrishana contains the andakosha (because they descend and settle there) while labiamajora do not contain female gonads (because the ovaries descend very little in comparison todescent of male gonads), so in female the mula of rajovaha srotas could be external genitalia andovaries. This in tum means the same as is observed in modern embryology i.e. mesonephricducts and urogenital sinus in males while paramesonephric ducts and urogenital sinus in females. (Dr. Sandhya Patel)7.16. Srotas are responsible for vahan of bhavapadarth (Cha. Ni. 7/4, Cha. Ind. 5l4l).What is the function of manovaha strotas? What is its importance? (Vaidya Sonali Viraj Shukla) 201
  • Only dhatuvaha srotamsi, which carry parinamamapadyamana dhatus are regarded asresponsible for carrying bhavapadarthas but not all the srotamsi. See the answer tq question No.7 .1. Though manovaha srotamsi are not separately described in Srotovimana it is mentionedin the same Jhapter that the manas moves in the entire body through all the srotamsi. Even thenparticularly the ien dhamanis (srotamsi) attached to hriday are regarded as manovaha srotamsi asitr" htiduy is the seat of manas. (Chakrapani on C..I. 5141-42)a-4tf,6rai u)d{flq u (q. e. sr+l)a-*e-orB qers.ffi, aenfu El.f€I: +dEi ffi+nlql (q. B. 3r.s)#fD;"=tq *t*,fr.*foilEi a36r*, fteN-rEg eer €rfl-Sfi+E-6r sffiffi n (aewPt) Hriday is the seat of atma, manas, sattva, buddhi, indriya etc. The functions of mentalfaculties, nervous system (both sensory and motor) functions are regarded as the functions ofhriday. See the answer to question No. 7.8 also. The following are described as functions of manas which can be regarded as functions ofmanovaha srotamsi. futri ft1-qr*€€i sffiq q qffie-a-e{,+{icr(-f{deref Tif,6 EGsrfDro-ao-d a-ac{ tqeqGr# s-& fuqruqq aa: u{.gfu: Frf} I I (a err t )al-al?I €fI-eI?I 3iEToI Er.r --t ,, The manas is that which is responsible for memory and knowledge. The functions of (hypothesis),manas are chintya (things requiring thought;, vicharya (consideration), uhyaJny.yu (aim or object), sankalpa (determination). Whatever can be known by means of manas(mind) is regarcled as its objectsAlso refer to the answer to question No. 8.8. (Dr. G. Purushothamacharyulu) q-+6 3rg q"-flrE fte ae *ar ssar B r s*{ Esfrg erSsa{rfr 6I er$s er qiq+ift-6fr** dar srrqeo- *---ts , .n{**+ ddrgr{rg da aft E6 uil s]f}rd-cr;Ta+roqcref a.-s B rs*{ E-{ft tFr{sT E*-t ft-s mq-r-iildTr s{rde;E B r d}aq-q i}ar Bqfturdaftil -, ofi, .tf-g a+rd or srafq Mer or *ar E r ar+a-6;-q fr Ea dq#eil or- a-aa pf s;ab grsr a=r tFr E-€ dwtr qfar ssen B r (Dr. Yeshwant Joshi) Manovaha srotas functions and its importance: The entire sentient body represents the ubod" of manas, therefore all srotamsi of the body.should - be considered as ihe manovaha srotamsi. Thesb are clearly associated through to the intercommunication with the sangyavaha srotamsi which extend frorn the sense organs manas and chestavaha srotamsi wnicn extend from themanas to the motor organs In short ;;;rils-tamsi are the information net works operating through out the length and breadth of the bodY (Dr. suresh Babu) 202
  • PRAKRTTI
  • CHAPTER - 8 PRAKRITIa.r. 1rqF drd d €r sqSFrdr_B? qE q-€ft srqRa-eefl-d E (g.eTT. +rtz)?il qlfr, |s1, zFrcr (q. g. r zs) srIR qtT q€fr qs rra+ro ffrde