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A COMPARATIVE PHARMACEUTICO – ANALYTICAL STUDY OF SAMAGUNA AND …

A COMPARATIVE PHARMACEUTICO – ANALYTICAL STUDY OF SAMAGUNA AND
TRIGUNA BALIJEERNA RASASINDOORA, REVATI.G.HUDDAR, DEPARTMENT OF POST GRADUATE STUDIES IN RASASHASTRA, TARANATH GOVT. AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE, BELLARY – 583 101

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  • 1. 2009 “ACOMPARATIVE PHARMACEUTICO - ANALYTICAL STUDY OF SAMAGUNA AND TRIGUNA BALIJEERNA RASASINDOORA” Dissertation submitted to the RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, KARNATAKA, BANGALORE. In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of AYURVEDA VACHASPATI (DOCTOR OF MEDICINE) In RASASHASTRA DR.REVATI.G.HUDDAR DR. SHANKAR GOWDA, MD (AYU) TARANATH GOVT. AYURVEDA MEDICAL COLLEGE, BELLARY – 583 101,
  • 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I express My deep sense of gratitude with profound respect to my venerated andbenevolent guide Dr.Shankar Gowda MD (Ayu),, Assistant Professor, Department of P.G.Studies in Rasa Shastra, T.G.A.M.C., Bellary, for indefatigable and indefeasible guidance,his constant inspiration, Co-operation throughout my study. It is great pleasure for me to express my gratitude toDr.M.S.Doddamani,MD(Ayu),,professor, Head of the Department, Department of P.G. studies inRasashastra for valuable suggestions and co-operation throughout my study, that gave meconsiderable impetus and making this work success. I am extremely grateful to my respected and honourable principal Dr.K.ViswambharaMD (Ayu), T.G.A.M.C., Bellary for all the facilities made available for my present study. I express my profound gratitude to Dr. Shobha.G.Hiremath MD (Ayu),Dr.Surekha.S.Medikeri MD (Ayu), Dr.Ravi.C MD (Ayu), Department of Post Graduate Studies inRasashastra T.G.A.M.C., Bellary for their moral encouragement and inspiration in my work. I am highly grateful to my beloved and respectable preceptors Dr.G.R.Vastrad, Dr.S.K.Hugar, Dr. V.L. Yadahalli Dr.H.Saraswathi, Dr.L.N.kundaragi, Dr. ShashikalaC.Biradar, Dr. Madhav Diggavi, Dr. Hankeppa Rathod, Dr.Rajashekar Ganiger, Dr.Sreevatsa,, and Dr.Mohammed Hussain, Dr.Ramacharya Joshi, Dr Laxminarasimha for theirguidelines and valuable suggestions and kind co-operation during the study. I am very much thankful to my senior friends, Dr.Veerendra, Dr. Anuroopa, Dr.Nischita, Dr.Manjula, Dr.Shubhadha, Dr.Nagarekha, Dr.R.V.Gudi Dr.Guruprasad.K.V,Dr.Usharani, Dr.Mamatha.B, Dr. Vasanthi, Dr. Ajit Narayana, Dr. Eshwar Koulgi,Dr.Srimukunda. S.A., Dr.Abdul.H.Kareem, Dr.C.M.Joshi, Dr.Lajana.N, and Dr.Sunita.S fortheir kind co-operation and valuable suggestions during the study period. I express my sincere thanks to my friends Dr.Sanjeevgowda.Patil, Dr.Naveen.K,Dr.Sandeep.Sarode, Dr.Manjula.C.V, Dr.Pallavi.K, Dr.SarithaRani.M.R. for proper co-operation and timely help.
  • 3. It gives me pleasure to thank personally my juniors Dr.Shreekant, Dr.Rohit,Dr.Brahmanand, Dr.Poornima, Dr.Prajnami, , Dr.Shriraj, Dr.Manjunath.Yadav, Dr.Kishore,Dr.Shweta, Dr.Ajay, Dr.Sunita.M.L, Dr.Manjunath.Pujari, Dr.Sunitha.G.S and Dr.Shrinidhi. I express my gratitude to Prof. Subramanian, Prof. Subhod, Prof.Deshapande andMr. Krishnamurthy, Dept of materials Engineering, IISc Banglore, for XRD analysis andparticle size analysis. I express my sincere thanks to Ganesh consultancy and analytical services, Mysorefor conducting chemical analysis. My heartly thanks to D. Vaman rao, chemistry professor, Bellary, for valuableinformation that enabled the success in my performance. I wish to express my Sincere thanks to, Mr. Linganna, Mr. Umapathy, for their help inthe practical work. I am very much thankful to Mr. Girish, for neat and timely printing of this thesis. I am sincerely thankful to all Teaching staff, Physicians, Staff Nurses and Non-teachingstaff of T.G.A.M.C. Hospital, Bellary, for their generous and kind help for making this worksuccess. I express reverences with all my heart and soul to all my family members for their wholehearted support and enthusiasm they fed in me during my work. I am ever grateful to those who have helped me directly and indirectly in making thiswork a success. Dr. Revati. G. Huddar.
  • 4. ABBREVIATIONS1. Ananda Kanda AK2. Ayurveda Prakasha AP3. Ananda Kanda AK4. Bhasma Vijnana BV5. Bhava Prakasha BP6. Koopipakwa Rasa Nirmana Vidhi KPR NV7. Namburi Phase Spot Test NPST8. Potassium Iodide KI9. Indian Institute of Sciences IISc10. Rasamritam RA11. Rasarnava Ras12. Rasa Pradeepa RP13. Rasa Ratna Samuchaya RRS14. Rasa Tarangini RT15. Rasa Paddati R.Pd16. Rasa Kamadhenu R.K17. Rasa Prakasha Sudhakara R.P.S.18. Rasendra Chudamani R. Chu19. Rasa Chintamani R.Chi.20. Samaguna baliyukta kajjali SK21. Samaguna balijeerna Rasasindoora SBJR22. Triguna baliyukta kajjali TK23. Triguna balijeerna Rasasindoora TBJR24. X-Ray Diffraction XRD25. Yoga Ratnakara YR
  • 5. ABSTRACT Title: A comparative pharmaceutico-analytical study of Samaguna and Triguna balijeerna RasasindooraBackground: Rasasindoora is prepared by Kupi paka method, with different proportion ofGandhaka, where in the preparation time and efficiency of drug changes according to thequantum of Gandhaka.Objectives: Upto date review; Preparation and Physico-chemical analysis of SBJR andTBJR.Materials and Methods:Pharmaceutical study: Shodhana of Gandhaka was carried out with koormaputa method,Parada was extracted from Hingula by urdhwapatana procedure in damaru yantra. SBJR wasprepared by kupi paka method in 15 hours, using Samaguna baliyukta kajjali; yield was52.67%. TBJR was prepared by kupi paka method in 39 hours, using Triguna baliyuktakajjali; yield was 24.67%.Analytical Study: Physical and chemical tests were carried out by gravimetric, volumetric,XRD method and NPST method; particle size analysis by Laser diffraction method.Results: Total mercury in SBJR and TBJR was 82.40% and 84.82% respectively. Freemercury was nil in SBJR and TBJR. Total sulfur SBJR and TBJR was 16.16% and 14.43%respectively. Free sulfur in case of SBJR and TBJR was in traces. XRD pattern of both SBJRand TBJR were compared with the XPDF No-06-0256; compound identified as Cinnabar(HgS), with Hexagonal crystal structure, having primitive Lattice. In SBJR and TBJR, 50%of the sample was having particle size, < 4.96 µm and <5.34 µm respectively.Discussion and conclusion: In case of SBJR, duration of paka was less but the yield was more. In case of TBJR,duration of paka was more but yield was less. From the Analytical point of view, nosignificant difference was observed among SBJR and TBJR, as quantitative analysis, XRDanalysis and particle size analysis of both showed slight variations.Key words: Rasasindoora, Parada, Gandhaka, Samaguna, Triguna, XRD
  • 6. CONTENTS Sl. Page Contents No. No. I. Introduction 1 II. Aims & Objectives 3 III. Review of Literature • Drug Review 4-33 • Pharmaceutical Review 33-53 • Analytical Review 54-65 IV Materials and Methods • Pharmaceutical Study 66-91 • Analytical Study 92-107 V. Results 125-130 VI. Photos 131-136 VII. Discussion 137-152 VIII. Conclusion 153 IX. Summary 154-156 X. Limitations 157 XI. Scope for further study 158 XII. Bibliographic References 159-170SL.NO LIST OF TABLES PAGE NO 1. Development of Rasasindoora in various Rasa texts. 5 2. Classification of Rasasindoora with different proportions of Parada & 6 Gandhaka. 3. Preparation of Rasasindoora in different texts. 7 4. Different Anupanas for Rasasindoora according to various diseases. 11 5. Dosage of Rasasindoora according to different authors 12
  • 7. 6. Dosage of Rasasindoora according to age. 137. Different proportion of Gandhaka jarana and their specific indication 13 according to different authors.8. Classification of Hingula according to various texts. 149. Synonyms of Parada 2010. Varieties of Parada. 2011. Yougika doshas and their effects according to different authors. 2112. Showing Kanchuka Doshas and their effects according to different 22 Rasa classics.13. Types of Gandhaka according to Rasa Classics 2614. Types of Gandhaka, their qualities and uses 2615. Comparative study of allotropes of Sulphur 2916. Weight changes during extraction of parada from hingula 6917. Weight changes during Samanya Shodhana of Parada 7018. Observations during Gandhaka Shodhana(I batch) 7119. Observations during Gandhaka Shodhana(II batch) 7120. Physical changes during Gandhaka Shodhana 7221. Weight changes during Gandhaka Shodhana 7222. Different phases of Samaguna Kajjali during preparation. 7423. Physical properties of Samaguna Kajjali 7524. Different phases of Triguna Kajjali during preparation. 7825. Physical properties of Triguna Kajjali 7826. Observations during the preparation of Samaguna balijeerna Rasa 84 Sindoora.27. Showing observations during the preparation of Triguna balijeerna 89 Rasasindoora.28. Showing classical Parameters for analysing SK and TK 9329. Classical parameters for Analysis of Samaguna and Triguna balijeerna 93 Rasasindoora30. Results of Mercurous and Mercuric Mercury 9831. Results of free sulphur and sulphide form of sulphur 10032. XRD of Samaguna baliyukta Kajjali. 10133. XRD of Triguna baliyukta Kajjali. 10234. XRD of Samaguna balijeerna Rasasindoora 10335. XRD of Triguna balijeerna Rasasindoora. 103
  • 8. 36. Comparative pharmaceutical study of Samaguna Kajjali and Triguna 125 Kajjali.37. Comparative observations during preparation of Samaguna kajjali and 125 Triguna kajjali.38. Comparative pharmaceutical study of Samaguna balijeerna 126 Rasasindoora and Triguna balijeerna Rasasindoora39. Comparative observations during preparation of Samaguna balijeerna 126,127 Rasasindoora and Triguna balijeerna Rasasindoora40. Comparative Results of physical and chemical tests 12841. Percentage of probable mercurial compounds in SK, TK, SBJR and 128 TBJR.42. Comparative XRD results of SK & TK 12943. Comparative XRD results of SBJR & TBJR 12944. Comparative NPST STUDY 13045. Comparative particle size analysis 130 PAGESL.NO LIST OF GRAPH NO 1. Hours v/s Temp of Samaguna balijeerna Rasasindoora 87 2 Hours v/s Temp of Triguna balijeerna Rasasindoora 91 3 Comparative pharmaceutical results of Samguna & Triguna 126 kajjali. 4 Comparative pharmaceutical study of SBJR & TBJR 127
  • 9. PAGESL.NO LIST OF FIGURES NO 1. Ashodhitha Gandhaka 131 2. Shodhana of Gandhaka 131 3. Koormaputa 131 4. Shoditha Gandhaka 131 5. Ashoditha Hingula 131 6. Hingula bhavana with Nimbu Swarasa 131 7. Damaru Yantra for Extraction of Parada 131 8. Samanya Shodhana of Parada with Haridra 131 9. Shodhita Parada 131 10. Initial stage of kajjali 132 11. Intermediate stage of kajjali 132 12. Final stage of kajjali 132 13. Vatankuras 132 14. Vatankura swarasa 132 15. Vatankura swarasa bhavana to kajjali 132 16. Weighing of Kajjali 132 17. Filling of Kupi 132 18. Placing of Kupi in Valukayantra 132 19. Filling of valuka in valuka yantra 132 20. Completed valuka yantra 132 21. Bhatti 132 22. Hot shalakha insertion 133 23. Sulphur fumes 133 24. Copper coin test 133 25. Sindoora test 133 26. Suryodaya laxana 133 27. Corking of kupi 133 28. Corked Kupi 133 29. Kupi after swangsheeta 133 30. Kupi after scraping 133 31. Breaking of kachakupi 133
  • 10. 32. Collection at the neck of kupi 13333. Residue at the bottom 13334. Samaguna balijeerna Rasasindoora 13435. After powdering of SBJR & TBJR 13436. Triguna balijeerna Rasasindoora 134 st37. NPST of SK 1 phase 134 nd38. NPST of SK 2 phase 13439. NPST of SK 3rd phase 13440. NPST of TK 1st phase 13441. NPST of TK 2nd phase 134 rd42. NPST of TK 3 phase 134 st43. NPST of SBJR 1 phase 13544. NPST of SBJR 2nd phase 13545. NPST of SBJR 3rd phase 135 st46. NPST of TBJR 1 phase 135 nd47 NPST of TBJR 2 phase 13548 NPST of TBJR 3rd phase 13549 X-ray diffractometer 13650 pH meter 13651 Turbidometer 13652 Laser Diffraction Instrument 136
  • 11. Introduction INTRODUCTION Rasa Shastra is a mysterious science with many facets to see and understand. Thisscience developed by the application of the discoveries of Alchemy to the relief of humansufferings. Solution to stubborn and challenging illness lies in age old alchemicRasaoushadhis. Rasa Shastra means the “science of mercury”. It refers to the science ofmaking minerals usable for the body so that they can be used as medicines. Kupipakwa Rasayanas are unique pharmaceutical procedures in the field ofRasashastra, where in mercury along with other minerals, metals, is sublimed by subjecting togradual increase in temperature for specified time. Kupipakwa Rasayanas are more potentand quick acting even in smaller doses. Rasasindoora is one such imperative Kupipakwa Rasayana, referred to be Elixir oflife. It is formulated by two fundamental substances of Rasashastra i.e. mercury and sulfur. Itis said to be prepared by same process but with different proportion of Gandhaka, andaccordingly various forms of Rasasindoora are named viz Ardhaguna, Samaguna, Dviguna,Triguna…..Shadguna balijeerna Rasasindoora, where in, the preparation time changesaccording to the quantum of Gandhaka. Samaguna balijeerna Rasasindoora is said to be prepared with equal quantities ofParada and Gandhaka in twelve hours. And Triguna balijeerna Rasasindoora is prepared byusing one part of parada and three parts of Gandhaka, but exact duration of kupipaka is notmentioned but referred to prepare till complete Gandhaka jarana takes place. Hence with apositive hypothesis to evaluate gradation of temperature and total duration of paka,comparative pharmaceutical study of both Samaguna and Triguna balijeerna Rasasindoora isunder taken. With the hypothesis of whether the variation in the proportion of Gandhaka in thepreparation of Rasasindoora has any significance or not is an area of research work. Hence inthe present study Comparative Physico-Chemical Analysis of Samaguna and Trigunabalijeerna Rasasindoora has been undertaken. 1 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 12. Introduction Thus the present study entitled with “A Comparative Pharmaceutico- analyticalstudy of Samaguna and Triguna balijeerna Rasasindoora” has been undertaken andcategorized as under:1. Introduction-Deals with general introduction of Rasa Shastra and the need of the present study.2. Aims and Objectivess3. Review of Literature- upto date review of drugs, pharmaceutical study and analytical methods.4. Methodology:a. Pharmaceutical Study- Purificatory method of Gandhaka, extraction of Parada formHingula, Preparation of Samaguna baliyukta kajjali, Triguna baliyukta kajjali and Samagunabalijeerna Rasasindoora and Triguna balijeerna Rasasindoora.b. Analytical study - It was carried out by Ayurvedic (organoleptic), N.P.S.T and modernprotocols5. Results - Comparative Pharmaceutical and Analytical results of Samaguna baliyukta kajjali, Triguna baliyukta kajjali and Samaguna balijeerna Rasasindoora, Triguna balijeerna Rasasindoora was presented.6. Discussion- Discussion of the entire study was presented.7. Conclusion8. Summary 2 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 13. Aims And Objectives of the Study AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY• Upto date review of Samaguna balijeerna Rasasindoora and Triguna balijeerna Rasasindoora.• Preparation of Samaguna balijeerna Rasasindoora and Triguna balijeerna Rasasindoora as per classical reference.• Physico-chemical analysis of Samaguna baliyukta Kajjali, Triguna baliyukta kajjali and Samaguna balijeerna Rasasindoora, Triguna balijeerna Rasasindoora.• To compare pharmaceutico-analytical results of Samaguna balijeerna Rasasindoora and Triguna balijeerna Rasasindoora. 3 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 14. Review of the literature REVIEW OF LITERATURE Classical literary review and collection of relevant data lays the foundation for newresearch work.Hence in this section all necessary literature regarding Samaguna and Trigunabalijeerna Rasasindoora is reviewed in following headings. • Drug Review, • Pharmaceutical review, • Analytical review Drug review is done under 3 headings i.e. compound drug review, each ingredient andco-drug review. DRUG REVIEW RASASINDOORA Rasasindoora is one of the important preparations among Kupi Pakwa Rasayanas. Ithas its own significance in the field of Rasashastra as it is reputed to be panacea for variety ofills.Etymology of the word Rasasindoora:Rasasindoora is a compound word having 2 components – Rasa and Sindoora.Rasa1: The word Rasa has been found derived from the root words. Rasati Rasayati Rasyati Rasasyati These all words have wide range of meanings like to taste, to radish, to feel, to high,to perceive, to be sensible, to get, to desire, to cry, to sound etc. But here the word Rasaindicates Parada on which the entire Rasa Shastra is based upon.Sindoora2: The word Sindoora is derived from the root “Syande samprasarananch” whichgives the meaning of movement. And “Raktavarna choorna vishesh” it means vermilioncolour i.e., Aruna Varna. As the finished product has Sindoora Varna, the product is knownby the name “Sindoora”. Thus the word Rasasindoora means it is the red coloured product obtained by theaction of Parada. 4 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 15. Review of the literatureHistorical backgrounds: There is no reference of Rasa Sindoora in prevedic, vedic and Samhita periods.Use ofValuka Yantra for the preparation of Rasa Sindoora was developed only after 9th CenturyA.D. The use of kachakupi started since 10th century A.D. Before this Rasa Acharyas havemade such preparation in‘Andha Musha’ made of clay with the help of Tushagni3.Rasasindoora in various texts:Table No 1: showing development of Rasasindoora in various Rasa texts. Rasa Century Context TextsR.H.T4 10th Jarana procedure which closely resembles the preparation of Rasa Century Sindoora is mentioned using loha Samputa .Ras5 12th No reference of Rasa Sindoora, but different types of Gandhaka Century jarana and Parada Marana process have been described.A.K6 13th Totally 31 types of Parada Marana methods. Century Two types are prepared using kachkupi and valuka yantra In three types, Sindoora or Rakta Varna Bhasma obtained by using different yantras.R.Chu7 13th Rasasindoora preparation is not mentioned. century But the Pisti of Gandhaka and Parada and Kajjali Valuka Yantra are mentioned.R.R.S8 13th Valuka Yantra and Kachakupi are explained, but not specified century anything about Rasasindoora.R.P.S9 13th Udya Bhaskara Rasa, which resembles the preparation of century Rasasindoora, is mentioned.R.S.S10 16th Three preparations of Rasa Sindoora has been mentioned with century different ingredients other than Parada and Gandhaka by using same apparatus and Yantras for allR.Chi11 16th Much importance is given to Gandhaka Jarana and two types of century Sindhura Pakas are mentioned in connection with Rasa Sindoora preparation.R.P12 16th One type of Rasa Sindoora is mentioned. centuryR.K 16th No description regarding of Rasasindoora. centuryA.P13 17th Four types of Rasa Sindhura preparations with different ingredients. centuryB.P14 15th Single Rasa Sindoora preparation with the use of Amlasara century Gandhaka14R.Y.S15 19th Ten preparations of Rasasindoora have been mentioned15. century 5 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 16. Review of the literatureKR 19th Five types of Rasasindoora preparations, which are collected fromNV16 century different texts; Nighantu Ratnakar, Ratnakara Ausudhayoga and Rasendra Sara Sangraha.Y.R17 18th Many preparations of Rasasindoora are mentioned centuryB. V18 19th Several preparations of Kupi pakwa Rasayanas are mentioned, out of century these seventeen are either of Rasasindoora or resembling with RasasindooraR.T19 20th Seven types of Rasasindoora have been mentioned. i.e. from Ardha century balijeerna to Shadguna balijeerna RasasindooraOther names of Rasasindoora mentioned in different texts: 1. Chandrodaya Rasa20. 6. sindoora Rasa23. 2. Hara Gouri Rasa21. 7. Sindura Nama Rasa24. 3. Madana Kamadeva Rasa21. 8. Udaya Bhaskara Rasa9. 4. Raja vallabha Rasa21. 9. Viravikrama Rasa21. 5. Rasa parpatika Rasa22.Table No.2 Showing Classification of Rasasindoora with different proportions of 25,26Parada & Gandhaka . Name of Rasa Sl. No. Ratio of Hg : S References Sindoora 1 1 : 1/6 Shadamsha 01 2 1:¼ Chaturthamsha 02 3 1 : 1/3 Tritiyamsha 02 4 1:½ Ardhaguna 04 5 1:1 Samaguna 31 6 1:1¼ Sapada Samaguna 01 7 1:1½ Sardha Samaguna 02 8 1:2 Dviguna 10 9 1:3 Triguna 05 10 1:4 Chaturguna 03 11 1:5 Panchaguna 01 12 1:6 Shadguna 01 6 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 17. Review of the literatureTable No. 3 Showing preparation of Rasasindoora in different texts.Sl. Preparation Ingredients and Color of Method of preparationNo with reference their quantity preparation1. Udaya Bhaskra • Parada – 1 part Prepare Kajjali triturating with Kamala Rasa 9 • Gandhaka –1 Nimbu juice. Fill the Varna part Kachakupi with kajjali and • Jambira – Q.S. tikshna agni (3 days) is given Swarasa through Sikata yantra. • Purified Parada 92. Rasa bhasma Kajjali is prepared Rakta Varna (Talastha) – 1 part. Kajjali heated with kupi paka • Purified method in Valuka yantra by Gandhaka – 1 applying tushagni for 36 hrs. part.3. Rasasindoora10 • Parada – 1 part Kajjali of Parada, Gandhaka Bandhuka • Gandhaka – 3 and Naga. Fill this in pushpa varna. part Kachakupi and seal the mouth. • Naga - 1 part Then apply Kramagni for 3 days through valuka yantra.4. Rasasindoora10 • Parada – 1 part Prepare Kajjali and apply Tarunaditya • Gandhaka – 1 Bhavana with Vatankura varna. part Swarasa for 3 times. Then fill • Vatankura theKajjali in Kachakupi and Swarasa – Q.S. apply Mandagni for 4 praharas through valuka yantra.6. Sindoora Paka11 • Parada – 1 part Prepare Kajjali and fill it in • Gandhaka – 1 Kupi. Then kupi is heated in part Valuka yantra.7 Rasa Bhasma27 • Triturate Parada with Nagarjuni Balarka • Parada-1 part and Kakmachi each for 1 day. Sannibham. • Gandhaka-1part Then add Gandhaka and Navasadara-1 part Navasadara and fill it in kachakupi • Nagarjuni-Q.S. and cork it well. Apply heat for 8 Prahara. • Kakmachi-Q.S.8 Rasa Sindoora13 • Parada – 20 prt Prepare Kajjali out of the 4 Arunabha • Gandhaka – 20 ingredients and fill in a (red colour) prt Kachakupi paka is performed • Navasadara– for 3 days following Kramagni 1/40th • Sphatika – 1/20th9 Sindoora Rasa14 • Parada – 1 part Prepare Kajjali and fill it in Kacha Darada • Gandhaka – ½ - ¼ Kupi, Paka is performed for 8 Samam part praharas following Kramagni10. Rasa Sindoora17 • Parada – 2 part Prepare Kajjali and apply Bhavana Sindhoora • Gandhaka – 2 part with Nimbu swarasa. Then fill it in Sadrisha • Navasadara – ¼ Kachakupi and apply kramagni for 7 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 18. Review of the literature part 8 prahara through Valuka Yantra. • Nimbu Swarasa – Q.S11. Rasa Sindoora28 • Parada – 3 tola Prepare Kajjali out of the 3 • Gandhaka – 3 tolaingredients and fill it in • Narasara– 1masha Kachakupi. Paka is performed for 3 days following Kramagni.12. Sindoora Rasa29 • Parada – 1 part Prepare Kajjali and fill it in Sindhoora • Gandhaka–½- ¼ Kachakupi, paka is performed for Sadrusha. part 4 prahara Krmagni tapa. • Parada – 1 part 3013. Talastha Rasa Prepare Kajjali. Then fill it in • Gandhaka – 1 part Kachakupi and core it well. Apply Kramagni through Adhah Saikata Yantra.14. Ardha Gandhaka • Parada – 8 part Prepare Kajjali and apply Hingulabham Jeerna Rasa • Gandhaka – 4 part Bhavanas with Bijora Swarasa. Sindoora31 • Navasadara – 2 Then fill it in Kachakupi and part apply Kramagni through Valuka • Bijora swarasa – Yantra. Q.S.15. Samana • Parada – 8 part Prepare Kajjali and apply Bhavana Rakta Gandhaka Jeerna • Gandhaka – 8 part with Nimbu Swarasa. Fill it in Kamlavat. Rasa Sindoora32 • Navaradara – 2 Kachakupi and apply Kramagni part through Valuka Yantra. • Nibmu swarasa – Q.S.16 Dviguna • Parada – 8 part Prepare Kajjali and apply Bhavana Rakta Gandhaka Jeerna • Gandhaka – 16 with Rakta Karpasa pushpa Kamlavt. Rasa Sindoora33 part swarasa. Then fill it in Kachakupi • Rakta karpasa. and apply Kramagni for 1 day Pushpa swarasa – through Valuka Yantra. Q.S.17. Triguna • Parada – 8 part Prepare Kajjali and fill it in Rakta Kamlvat Gandhaka Jarita • Gandhaka – 24 Kachakupi and apply Kramagni Rasa Sindoora34 part for 1 day through Valuka Yantra18. Shadguna • Parada – 8 part Prepare Kajjali and apply Bhavana Sindhura Gandhaka Jarita • Gandhaka – 48 with Kumari Swarasa for 3 hours. Samam Rasa Sindoora35 part Then fill in Kachakupi and apply • Kumari Swarasa- Kramagni for 7 days through Q.S. Valuka Yantra.Various processes adopted for Rasasindoora preparation:1. Antardhooma – In this method Kupi is sealed from the beginning and smoke is not allowed to escape.2. Bahirdhooma – in this sulphur fumes are allowed to escape completely and then kupi is sealed.3. Kantastha – In this process, Rasasindoora gets accumulated at the neck of the bottle. 8 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 19. Review of the literature4. Talastha – Rasasindoora is collected from the bottom of the bottle. Among all these, Antardhooma and Talastha procedures are comparatively difficult.In the present work Bahirdhooma, Kantastha method is adopted for the preparation ofSamaguna and Triguna balijeerna Rasasindoora.Varna of Rasasindoora –Depending on the proportion of sulphur, method and duration ofpreparation, the colour varies.Similies for colour of Rasasindoora: 1. Manikya nibham9 – Like ruby 2. Raktavarna9 – Red like blood. 3. Aruna Bhasma13 – Vermilion colour ash and luster like. 4. Indragopanibham21 – Like rainy insect of red colour. 21 5. Padmaraga Maniprabha – Like ruby 21 6. Sindoora Sadrusham – Like the powder of red lead. 24 7. Kumkuma pinjaram – Saffron like reddish yellow 31 8. Hingulabham – Carrying cinnabar type luster 9. Rajivopam32 – Similar to lotus. 10. Bandhuka pushpavarna36 – Flower of Hibiscus Rosa 11. Balaruna Surya Sannibham37 – Morning Sun 12. Sonavarnam38 – Blood colour. 13. Tarunaditya sannibham – Equivalent to color of rising sunPharmacological action of Rasasindoora39,40.Properties of Rasasindoora : Rasa - Shadrasa Guna - Guru, Snigdha Virya - Ushna Vipaka - Madhura Prabhava - Vajikara, Sarva Rogahara 1. Relation with Dosha – Rasa Sindoora acts against all three Doshas with different adjuvents due to its Yogavahitva, guru snigdha properties. 9 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 20. Review of the literature 2. Action on Nervous System – Being stimulating and Vigorating agent for the brain and nervous System it may be used in Mastishka Dourbalya, Nadi Dourbhalya and Vata vyadhi. 3. Action on Circulatory system – It has been stated to be Rakta vardhaka and Rakta shodhaka; thus used in Pandu, Amavata etc. Being stimulating and energetic agent for heart it can be used in various heart diseases and Hriddourbalya. 4. Action on Respiratory system – It is Kapha Vata Hara and hence used in all upper and lower respiratory tract diseases. Ex. Swasa, Kasa, Hikka, kshaya etc. 5. Action on Reproductory system – It is rejuvinative and Aphrodisiac and thus effective in sexual debilities and all other sexual disorders. 6. Action on Digestive system – Being Deepana, Pachana, Anulomana, Yakrit, Uttejaka and Pitta Saraka it can be used in Agnimandya and liver diseases along with different Anupanas. 7. Action on Urinary system – It has got diuretic action, so used in Muthraghata, Mutrakrucchra but it is contraindicated in Kidney disorders due to its stimulating effect.Anupans for Rasasindoora41: According to various classical texts different Anupanas are mentioned for Rasasindoora according to various diseases. The main ideal Anupanas used are : • Madhu. • Milk • Ghrita.Table No. 4 Showing Different Anupanas for Rasasindoora according to various diseases.SI. No Diseases Anupanas 1 Ajirna Madhu +Musta Kwatha, Dhanyaka + Nagara Kwatha . 2 Apasmara Vacha + Sankapushpi churna or Bharngi swarasa or Kalyana Ghrita. 3 Arsha Hrswa Haritaki kashaya. 4 Aruchi Matulanga swarasa. 5 Atisara Lavanga + Ahiphena + Bhanga. 6 Bhagandara Triphala + Vidanga kwatha. 7 Danta Roga Dantadhavana Sara. 8 Dhatukshaya Abhraka bhasma, Ardraka Swarasa. 10 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 21. Review of the literature9 Dhatu Vriddhi Vidarikanda Churna.10 Garbhashaya Kakoli churna + Narikela taila. roga11 Grahani Charngeri Swarasa + Shunti Kwatha, Bhrista Haritaki or Shunti.12 Gulma Ajamoda churna and Vida lavanga.13 Hidma Kulatha kwatha.14 Hridaya Honey. dourbalya15 Hridraga Arjuna + Vishanika + seeds + Madhu.16 Jirna Jwara Guduchi kwatha + Parpata.17 Jwara Jiraka, Pippali + Dhanyaka kwatha or Kiratha tikta + Haritaki + Jiraka.18 Kamala Trikatu Triphala + Vasa Swarasa or Daruharidra kwatha.19 Kasa (Vasa Swarasa) + Pippali + Madhu. Trikatu +Bharngi + Bibitaki + honey or Vidanga.20 Krimi Palasha phala Churna 2 Ratti + Guda.21 Kshaya Ardraka Swarasa.22 Kushta Bakuchi or Chakrabeeja +Khadira.23 Madatyaya Nimbu Swarasa + Sugar.24 Murcha Narikela Jala or Kalyanaka Ghrta.25 Mukhapaka Chandana kalka.26 Mutra Krucchra Mishri or Shilajatu + Ela .27 Mutraghata Dhanyamla + Saindhava.28 Nava Jwara Tulasi Patra Swarasa or Ardraka Swarasa or Nagavalli Swarasa.29 Pandu Loha Bhasma, Trikatu, Triphala, Vasa Swarasa.30 Parvabheda Changeri Swarasa.31 Peenasa Maricha Churna.32 Pittaja Prameha Triphala + Mishri.33 Prameha Guduchi swarasa or Haridra swarasa.34 Pradara Ashoka + Lodra or Daru Haridra + Ashokadi kwatha.35 Rajayakshma Ghrita.36 Rakta Pitta Draksha + Sarkara.37 Rakta Vikara Honey or Haridra + Mishri.38 Sannipatika Nirgundi Swarasa or Chandana + Agaru + Kasturi + Kesara. Jwara39 Shotha Punarnava Kashaya.40 Shukra Vriddhi Karpura 1.5 Ratti + Lavanga + Kesari + Jatipatra + Akara (Kadali + Karabha + Bhanga all 2 Ratti + Mishri 1 Masha or with banana. 11A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 22. Review of the literature Ikshurasa) 41 Swasa Vasa swarasa or Pippali swarasa + Madhu or Trikatu + Bharngi + Bibitaki + honey. 42 Soola Trikatu + Bharngi + Bibitaki + honey. 43 Trisna Sheeta Jala. 44 Udara Roga Triphala kwatha or Krishna Lavana + Haridra + Bhanga + Ajamoda churna. 45 Unmada Kushmanda swarasa 46 Vajikarana Musali choorna + Milk or Suvarna bhasma. 47 Vataja Prameha Honey + Pippali. 48 Vatarakta Kokilaksha. 49 Vibandha Chitrakamula + Haritaki + Krishna Lavana or Ela. 50 Visoochika Shunti + Jeera or Jati 51 Vrana Sugandhi + Bata + Guduchi + Shunti Kashaya. 52 Visphota Chaturjata.Dose of Rasasindoora42: Despite of different methods adopted for Rasasindoora preparations and the variousproportions of ingredients used, dose of Rasasindoora may be estimated between 1/16-5 Rattiaccording to various pharmacopia.Table No. 5 Showing dosage of Rasasindoora according to different authors Ayurveda Prakasha Upto 5 Ratti Rasa yoga sagara Upto 3 Ratti Yoga Ratnakara, Rasatantrasara, 1-2 Ratti Ratnakara Aushadha Yoga Rasa Tarangini 1/16 –1 Ratti Rasa Prakasha Sudhakara 1-3 RattiTable No. 6 Showing dosage of Rasasindoora according to age. 1 Year 1/16 Ratti 2 Years 1/7 Ratti 6 Years 1/3 Ratti 12 Years ½ Ratti 13 – 18 Years 1 Ratti > 18 Years 1-3 Ratti 12 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 23. Review of the literatureRole of different proportions of Gandhaka in Rasasindoora : In the preparation of Rasa Sindoora 1/6-6 times proportion of sulphur to mercury hasbeen mentioned in various classics. The properties also changes according to the variation ofSulphur quantity.Table No.7.Showing different proportion of Gandhaka jarana and their specificindication according to different authors. Sl. Proportion Rasendra Ayu Prakasha and Rasa Tarangini No. of sulphur Chintamani Yoga Ratnakara1 Samaguna Suddhat shata guna Rogaghna Samnya Rasah Gadanashana2 Dviguna Sarva Kushta Hara Rajayakshmahara Maharogahara3 Triguna Sarva Jadhya Kaminidarapa Nashaka Pumstva Vinashaka Prakashaka4 Chaturguna Valipalita Nashana Tejasvi, Sarva Mahotsaha Medha, Shastranam Siddidhah Smrithi Vivardhana5 Panchaguna Kshya nashak Sidha Bajith Ashesha gada Santhapa nasaka6 Shadguna Sarva rogahara Mrityujit Adbhuta Karyakrit Similarly the more the heating time, more the efficiency of Rasa Sindoora.Pharmacology of Rasasindoora in modern view43 Chemically Rasasindoora is considered as red sulphide of mercury. And in case ofsulphides, a great deal of doubt exist as to whether they are absorbed at all. But sulphides ofmercury in a fine state of division under go solution in 5.c.c. of 0.2% of solution of HCL at1000F in an hour. This is also true when these sulphides are digested with filtered gastricjuice obtained artificially from a healthy individual. If the sulphide of mercury is broken up inthis manner by the acid of gastric juice, it is likely that absorption will take place. Veryminute quantities are absorbed and excreted but the ordinary chemical tests are not sosensitive enough to detect its presence. Sulphide of mercury is not used in any of thepharmacopoeias of western countries as it is considered to be devoid of therapeutic activity. 13 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 24. Review of the literatureSide effect of Rasasindoora44,45 Rasasindoora is an example of Sagandha Murchhana, so even after prolonged use itshould never cause toxic symptoms of mercury. But if Rasasindura is prepared out of impuremercury, it gives rise to all the evil effects of mercury. These side effects can be relieved byusing clarified butter with powdered Maricha (Piper nigrum) for 7 days . In modern medicinealso sulphide of mercury has been stated as non-poisonous because of its poor absorption. DRUG REVIEW OF EACH INGREDIENT HINGULAHistory : The reference of Hingula is found in Kautilya Arthashastra in testing of Gold andspoilage of Gold46.Classification of Hingula: Hingula has been included in Maharasa varga, Uparasavarga as well as inSadharanarasavarga by different acharyas.Table No: 8. showing classification according to various texts. Class Texts Maharasa Rasarnava, Rasakamadhenu. Uparasa Anandkanda, Rasa Prakash Sudhakar, Bhavaprakash, Rasendra Sara Sangrha, Rasendra Chintamani, Ayurveda prakash, Brihat Rasaraja Sundar. Sadharanarasa Rasa Ratna Samucchaya, Rasa Jala Nidhi, Rasachandamsu, Rasavarga Rasa Hridaya Tantra.Synonyms Of Hingula 47,48 :Synonyms can be categorized under four headings:Appearance: Kapishirshaka, Chitranga, Chinapishta, Churna Parada, Makshi Vanga, Daitya Raktaka, Manohara, Markata, Shirsa, Rakta, Raktakaya, Rakta Parada, 14 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 25. Review of the literature Shukatundaka, Supittaka, Suranaga, Hansapada, Hansandhri, Hansaka, Hingulu, Hinguli, Hingula, Kuruvinda.Guna & Karma: Charmanuranjana, Maraka, Maniraga, Ranjaka,Ranjana, Lohaghna, Ratna Ragakari,Raga Dravya, Vishesa, Barbara, Sagara, Charmara, Charmaragandhika,Charmarabandhanam,Charmaravardhana, Uru charmaka.Constituents: Rasagandha Sambhuta, Rasa Garbha, Rasasthana,Siddhi Parada, Rakta Parada,Rasodbhava, Rasa.Habitat: Mleccha, Darada, Chinapista.Vernacular names: 49 Persia – Sinjraph English – Cinnabar Hindi – Sinjraph Gujarath – Hingalo Assami – Janjaphar Marati – Hingula Telugu – Ingalikamu Kannada – IngalikaGrahya Lakshana or Criteria for Selection:50Japakusuma Varnabha – It resembles the color of petals of red hibiscus flower.Peshane Sumanoharaha – When grinded its color becomes beautiful.Mahojwala – Reflects in sunlight.Bharapurna – Heavy in weightShweta Rekha – Having white or silvery streaks.Pravalabha – Resembles like that of pravala.Types:51On the basis of occurrence, two varieties of Hingula are available. 15 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 26. Review of the literature 1. Khanija 2. Kritrima.Khanija is again of 3 varieties, on the basis of appearance. • Charmara – Krishna or Raktha Varna. • Shukatunda – Peeta Varna • Hamsapada – Japa Kusuma VarnaHingula is of 2 types:52 1. Shukatunda 2. Hamsapada.Shukatunda is less potent whereas Hamsapada is said to be best quality.Ashuddha Hingula sevanajanya Lakshana:53 Consumption of Ashodhita Hingula causes Klama, Andhata, Bhrama, Moha, andPrameha. So shodhana is necessary for Hingula where it is to be used internally.Hingula Shodhana54 55,56 : Rasa acharyas have mentioned different procedures like Bhavana,swedana using different herbal juices.Pharmacological Properties: It has Ushna guna Tiktha, Katu Kashaya rasa, Ushna Veerya, Deepana, Rasayana,Vrishya, Balya, Vajikara, Medhakantivardhaka, Agnivardhaka, Sarvadoshaghna, Netrya etc. Cinnabar helps to harmonise and strengthen the relationship between breathing andcirculation. It is an effective remedy against chronic recurrent inflammatory diseases. It is agreat blood healer, stimulates the formation of blood corpuscles and detoxifies the body, aidsthe immune system, helps to avoid infections and effective in case of depression.Therapeutic Indications:57 Prameha, Kushta, Jwara, Mandagni, Hridroga, Aruchi, Amlapittha, Hrillasa, Kamala,Pleeharoga, Amavata, Garavisha, Sarvaroga. Matra – ½ - 1 Ratti Anupana – Maricha, Guda, Pippali, Guduchi swarasa, MadhuHingula Satwapatana:58 By Patanayantravidhi, Satwa can be extracted. 16 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 27. Review of the literatureImportant Yogas of Hingula:59 Hinguleshwara Rasa, Ananda Bhairava Rasa, Kanaka Sundara Rasa, Jwara MurariRasa, Vasanta Malati Rasa, Tribhuvana Keerthi Rasa, Hinguliya Manikya Rasa, ShothariRasa etc. HINGULA MODERN VIEW CINNABAR Cinnabar is the chief ore of Mercury contains 86.2% of Mercury and 13.8% of sulfur.When ground it becomes deep red coloured. When used as pigment it is called vermilion.Occurrence60: It occurs both in crystalline and massive forms. It occurs naturally in Spain,Italy, France, Germany, China, Japan, Russia and Iran. Artificial cinnabar is prepared in Suratand Kolkata but there is no natural source available in India.General Description of Cinnabar60: Category : Mineral Chemical formula : Hgs, mercury(II) sulfide Colour : Brownish red Streak : Scarlet Hardness : 2-2.5 Specific gravity : 8-8.2 g/cm3 Cleavage : Prismatic perfect Fracture : Subconchoidal to uneven Crystal habit : Rhombohedral to tabular. Granular to massive Crystal system : Hexagonal Luster : Adamantine to dull Refractive Index : Transparent to opaque Solubility : 3×10-26 g per 100 ml water. 17 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 28. Review of the literaturePreparation of Artificial cinnabar61 : Parada and Gandhaka are taken in 6:1 ratio, triturated well, kept in Iron vessel andheated on tivragni. Then red coloured compound is formed on the upper part is collected andis called cinnabar.Extraction of mercury from cinnabar. Consists of 2 stepsOre concentration Roasting and distillationIsolation of Mercury occurs as :2HgS + 3O2 → 2HgO + 2SO2 2 HgO → 2Hg + O2Pharmacological aspect of Cinnabar62. The solubility and bioavailability of cinnabar are quite low.Absorption: Absorption of cinnabar from the gastrointestinal tract is 0.2%.Distribution: Once absorbed into the blood, the mercury disposition from cinnabar follows thepattern for inorganic mercury salts and preferentially distributed to the kidneys, with a smallportion to the brain.Excretion: Inorganic mercury salts are excreted in urine and feces, with a half-life of about 2months.Toxicology: Little is known about toxicology profiles or toxicokinetics of cinnabar and cinnabar-containing traditional medicines. A study by Kew et al, reported symptoms of mercurypoisoning in a patient after daily exposure to 180-252 mg Cinnabar for four weeks. 18 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 29. Review of the literature PARADA Parada is considered as the nucleus of Rasashastra. Mythologically it is having divineorigin as shiva veerya.History: • Initially it was used for Alchemical purposes (loha vada) to convert lower metals like Lead, Tin, Copper, etc. into noble metals like Gold, silver etc. Later on its therapeutic use in curing the diseases has been recognized. • In Koutilya Arthashastra (325 cent B.C), it is mentioned that swarna can be prepared by parada63. • In Charaka Samhita there is usage of Parada with Makshika and Gandhaka in Kushta Roga and it is used externally64. • In Sushruta Samhita its external use has been mentioned65Vernacular names66: English - Mercury, Quick silver, Kannada – Paraja, Hindi – Para, Marati – Paara, Bangala – Paara, Telagu – Padarasam. Latin – Hydrarzirum (Hg).Etymological significance of Synonyms67,68 :• Rasa – As it digests all drugs. - Nourishes all Dhatu’s of the body. - Being ingested by human for Rasayanartha• Rasendra - King of all medicines or Rasa’s• Suta - Since used for Deha and Loha Siddhi• Parada - Gives an end to sufferings.• Mishraka - Properties of all metals are found in it. 19 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 30. Review of the literature Table No.9 Showing synonyms of Parada based on the following Darsha- Swaru- Dhrmika Gaty- Dehavada Dhatuvad- hika Vishista guna paatma Devatmaka atmaka tmaka atmaka Adyat- mikaGaladroupani Trinetra Kechara Amrita Divyarasa Ananta Jeevabham Trilochana Chapala Dehada Maharasa Kalikantaka JaivaMahavanhi Deva Chala Paramamrtia Rasa Sukshma DivyaMahateja Dehaja Dhurtaka Parata Rasendra Soubhagya. AchintyaSuvarna Prabhu Parada Rasesha Rudraja Mrityunashana Rasottama Rajasmala Rasayana Rasadhatu Shanta Rasayana Rasaraja Shiva sreshta. Rasaleha Shiva veerya Siddadhatu Skandha Soota Harateja Sootaka Harabeeja Sootarath Harareta Mishraka Shivabeeja Varieties69: The Varieties of Parada described in various texts based on following factors: • Depending on the colour. • Depending on the impurities • Depending on uses of Parada. Table No. 10. Showing varieties of Parada. Variety Colour Impurities Uses Rasa Rakta Which is free from all Rasayana types of impurities Rasendra Peeta Free from impurities Rasayana Suta Ishat Peeta With impurities Deharogahara Parada Shweta With impurities Sarvarogahara Mishraka Mayura With impurities Sarvasiddhidayaka. 20 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 31. Review of the literature Chandrika varnaDoshas of Mercury70: According to different rasa classics Doshas of Parada are explained as follows: 1. Naisargika doshas (Natural impurities). 2. Yougika doshas (Physical impurities) 3. Oupadika doshas (Chemical impurities in the form of coating).1. Naisargika Doshas70: Mercury, which is occurring in native compound form generally, attributes someimpurities due to its natural power of amalgamation. As these impurities occur due to nature,these doshas are known as “Naisargika doshas”. Naisargika dosha Effects. Visha - Mrutyukara Vahni - Santapakara Mala - Murchakara2. Yougika doshas70: The impurities mixed by the traders from the commercial point of view to increase theweight of Parada by adding some Ariloha’s. Ex: Naga, Vanga etc.Table No.11. Showing Yougika doshas and their effects according to different authors. Textual Sl. No. Doshas Effects Reference 1. RRS Naga, Vanga Jadatva Adhmana 2. AK Naga, Vanga, Jadhya Pootigandhatva Visha Mrutyu. 3. AP Naga, Vanga Jadhya, Adhmana Kushta.Kanchuka Doshas70, Literally Kanchuka means thin layer. Kanchuka doshas are the impurities of mercurywhich are seen as thin layer covering it. This is due to tarnishing of mercury. 21 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 32. Review of the literature There is some difference of opinion amongst ancient scholars regarding their nameand source but all of them considered as seven in number.Table No. 12. Showing Kanchuka Doshas and their effects according to different Rasa classics. Sl. No. Text Doshas Effects 1. Parpati Mrunmaya (Prithvi) Kushta, 2. Patini Pashanaja (Girija) Jadhya, Admana 3. Bhedi Jalaja (Varija) Vali, Palita, khalitya, Vaksangatha, Mala Bhedana. 4. Dravi Nagaja (Shyama) Mahakusta, Sweta Kusta, Udara, Kamala, Pandu, Prameha. 5. Malakari Nagaja (Kapalika) Dadru, Gaja Karna, Doshavardhaka. 6. Dhwankshi Vangaja (Kapali) Swara Parushyakara. 7. Andhakari Vangaj (Kalika) Marmacheda, Vastishoola, Andhatva.Grahya Lakshanas of Parada71,72: Parada is liquid in form, shines as bright as mid – day sun, white glaze exteriorly andbluish tinge interiorly mercury with these qualities is known as Grahya variety. Parada whichis devoid of saptakanchakas should be collected.Agrahya Lakshanas of Parada73: Mercury looking smoky, grayish and slightly yellowish or having various shades ofcolours is agrahya variety, incorporated with various metallic and elemental impuritiesbonded physico – chemically.Pharmacological and therapeutic properties of Parada74:Rasa : ShadrasaGuna : Snigdha, Sara and GuruVeerya : UshnaVipaka : MadhuraKarma : Yoga vahi, Rsayana, Vrishya, Balya, Vayastambhana, Pustikaraka, Deepana, Agnivardhaka, Deha sidhikara, Loha sidhikara, Shodhana, Ropana, Krimighna. 22 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 33. Review of the literatureDosha Prabhava: TridoshagnaVyadhi Prabhava: Vata roga, Valipalitha, Jara roga, Sarva Akshi roga, Krimi, Kusta, Sarva roga.Pathya75:Ahara – Ghrita Saindhava, Madhu, Sharkara, Ksheera, Yava, Godhooma, Tandula,Dhanyaka, Patola, Jeerna Shali, Ikshu Rasa, Hamsodaka, Shunti, Musta, Punarnava,Meghanada, Mamsarasa, Jeeraka, Haridra.Vihara – Pooja Shiva Aradhana, Japa, Sugandha Pushpadharana, Kastoori Dharana, GuruSeva, Satya Vadana.Apathya76:Kakarastakas like – Kooshmanda, Karkati, Kalinga, Karavellaka, Karkota, Kadali, Kusumba,Kakamachi are avoided.Others are Kulatha, Atasi Taila, Tila, Masha, Masoora, Badara,Chirabilva, Nagara, Kanchanara, Shigru, Kanji, Takra, Atikatu, Amla, Teekshna, LavanaPicchila are considered as Varjya. PARADA MODERN REVIEW MERCURY Mercury is a silvery white metal, liquid at room temperature with high (13.6) density.It is divisible into spherical globules, mobile, without having any odour / taste, cold to touch,slowly volatizing at ordinary temperature. . Low melting and boiling point is due to largeatomic size. The metallic shine of mercury is due to the presence of free electrons with a highplasma frequency. It is soluble in nitric acid and in boiling sulfuric acid.General Description77:Atomic Number : 80Atomic Weight : 200.61Atomic Volume : 14.8CCIonic Radius (+2) : 1.10Relative Atomic Mass : 200.50 gm/moleSpecific Gravity : 13.55Melting point : 39.80CBoiling point : 3570C 23 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 34. Review of the literatureOccurrence and distribution: Small quantities of mercury occur in native form but chiefly it occurs as sulphide(cinnabar). It is found chiefly in Spain and Italy. It is also found as calomel (Hg2cl2),Metacinnabar (HgS), Tiemannite (HgS), Montroydite (HgO) and also as amalgums of Goldand Tellurium in small quantities.Pharmacology78,79: The use of Hg and its compounds in therapeutics has been diminished from middle ofthe century due to toxicological effects rather than the therapeutic effects.Absorption: As the chemical form of the metal varies, its absorption, distribution and Excretion ofmercury also varies. The inorganic form i.e. mercurous and mercuric chlorides are freelyabsorbed from all surfaces like alimentary tract, skin, sebaceous glands and mercury vapoursby lungs. When taken into the system it continues with acids and fluids of the body. It is theneasily absorbed by the skin, the mucous membrane, lungs and stomach and passes into bloodas oxy albuminate, in the stomach it is converted into double chloride of sodium of mercury.It unites with the albuminous juices and is easily absorbed. The sulphide ion is very inert andit is clear that unless and until the salts are dissociated into its constituents ions, mercury willnot be able to exert its influence on the body tissues. Hence absorption of sulphides isdoubted.Storage : It is deposited in different organs like, kidneys, intestinal walls, in liver in the form ofalbuminates. Small amounts are stored in blood, bone narrow, brain, buccal mucosa &salivary glands.Organic mercurial compounds can pass or cross placental barrier.Excretion : Excretion of mercury immediately after absorption is mainly through the kidney andcolon and to a lesser extent via bile and saliva. Small amounts are also excreted in volatileelemental form through both lungs and skin. Most of Hg is excreted within 6 days afteradministration but traces may be detected for months, even years urinary excretion is slow atfirst but accelerates later. Fecal excretion is 8%, which is due to mucosal sloughing mainly asmethyl mercury, but bacterial flora convert about 50% to inorganic mercury. 24 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 35. Review of the literatureToleration78: Age, sex and idiosyncrasy greatly modify the action of mercurials, children as a rulebear mercury better than adults and males better than females.Therapeutic uses78:• Used as antiseptics, preservatives, parasiticides, fungicides, diuretics inorganic salts.• Externally as antiseptics, mercury salts are used.• Its solution is used for disinfecting surgical and obstetric practice.• Blue ointment and calomel ointment are used to reduce itching in prurigo, pruritis, psoriasis, lichen pityriasis of scalp and eczema.• As a stimulant and promoter of absorption liniment and various ointments such as oleate, red precipitate, scoltts and red iodide are used for promoting the absorption of inflammatory products as in chronic joint disease and periostitis.• Mercury is used in certain eye diseases like conjunctivitis, blepharitis and keratitis.Diagnosis of Mercury Poisoning : 80 Toxic Symptoms develops when Blood Hg above 20 mg / dl Urine Hg above 60 mg /dl.Fatal dose : 1-4 gmsFatal period : 3-5 days GANDHAKA Gandhaka is grouped under Uparasa varga by authors of different Rasa classics. InRasashasthra Gandhaka has got pivotal place next to Parada. In sagandha yogas theGandhaka is believed to impart many desirable properties to Parada by reducing its toxiceffects. Hence the sagandha yogas are considered safer than nirgandha yogas. It also plays aprime role in marana of dhatus.Origin:81 25 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 36. Review of the literature• Mythological Gandhaka is said to be the result of churning of ksheerasagara and is originated along with Amruta.Gandhaka is considered to be the Raja of Parvathi.Vernacular names82:Sanskrit- Gandhaka Hindi - GandhakaEnglish – Sulphur Bengali – GandhakaGujarthi-Gadhaka Punjabi- Gandhak, KibritKannada – Gandhaka Telugu – Gandhakamu Tamil –Gandhakam Malayalam-BalirangSynonyms:83Gandhaka Pamari BalivasaDurgandha Gandhapashana RasagandhikaShulbari Pootigandha GandhaSougandhika Atigandha GandhikaSugandhika Sarabhoomija NavaneethaKusthari Keetanashana DaityendraTypes of Gandhaka:Rasarnava explained three types of Gandhaka and remaining others explained four types.Table No 13. Types of Gandhaka according to Rasa Classics.84,85,86,87,88,89. Sl. No. Types RRS RA AP YR RPS R.Chu 1. Shukapichchanibha (Pita) + + + + + + 2. Sukla (Shweta) + + + + + + 3. Shuka Chunchanibha + + + + + + Shukatunda (Rakta) 4. Krishna (Black) + - + + + +Table No 14. Types of Gandhaka, their qualities and uses90: Sl. No. Types Quality Uses 1. Shukachunchanibham Sreshta Dhatuvada 2. Shukapichchanibham Madhyama Rasayana Karma 3. Shukla Adhama Loha Marana 26 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 37. Review of the literature 4. Krishna Jara Mrutyu Nashana 91Grahya Gandhaka The Gandhaka resembling the colour of Rajani, clean, bright, smooth like that ofbutter and unctuous is acceptable for all purposes and is called as Amalasara Gandhaka orShukapiccha Gandhaka.Doshas of Gandhaka92: According to Rasa classics, Gandhaka consists two types of Doshas: Shila Churna Visha(Physical impurities like clay, sand etc.) (Chemical impurities like Arsenical, lead etc.) Gandhaka should be purified before internal administration, other wise it will producethe disease like Kushta, Bhrama, Klama, Paithika Roga, Balakshaya, Shukrakshaya,Veeryahani and Kandu.Pharmaco-therapeutic properties : 93 Rasa : Katu, Tikta, Kashaya. Guna : Sara. Veerya : Ushna. Vipaka : Katu, Madhura.94 Karma :Deepana, Pachana, Shoshana, Krimihara, Rasayana, Vishaghna, Bala- veerya vardhaka, Sootendra veerya prada. Doshaghnata : Kaphavatahara. Rogaghnata : Kandu, Kushta, Twakdosha, Aamadosha, Krimidosha, Pleeharoga, Kshaya, Jwara, Netraroga etc. Bahya lepana of shodhita Gandhaka at the site of pain caused due to Aamavata and Gridhrasi will give relief.95 This indication hints about the analgesic property of Gandhaka.Matra: It can be given from 1 Ratti to 8 Ratti (125mg-1gm). In Ayurveda Prakasha andRasakamadhenu its Matra is mentioned as 1 Pala. 27 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 38. Review of the literaturePathya: Jangala Mamsa Sevana, Godugda, Goghrita, Godhooma, Rice, Saindhava, Mishri,Sheetala Jala are considered as Pathya.Apathya: Atilavana, Amla, Katu, Vidhahi, Patrashaka, Dwidala Dahnya, Kshara, and Kanji etc.aharas are considered as Apathya. Also Viharas like Teevra Yana, Stree sambhanda arecontraindicated. GANDHAKA MODERN REVIEW SULPHUR The name sulphur is derived from the Sanskrit word “Sulvari” through the Latinsulphurium.History96 : The ancients probably, due to its frequent occurrence in free state know sulphur.Aryans, Greeks, Romans and Indians used it for fumigation and as medicine. The Bible refersto be as “Brimstone” meaning “Burning Stone” Antony lavoiser placed it among the elementsin 1777, which was regarded as “principle of fire”. It is estimated as the Ninth most abundantelement in the universe.Occurrence : Sulphur is distributed in nature both in free and combined form. The sulphur is foundin volcanic regions in Sicily. Approximately 0.06% of earth‘s crust contains sulphur. Puresulphur contains traces of selenium, Tellurium and Arsenic some times mixed with bitumenand clay.Important sulphur containing minerals are:Sulphides : Zinc Blend (ZNS) Galena (Pbs) S Copper pyrites (Mfes2 ) Cinnabar (HgS) S Iron Pyrites (FeS) SSulphate : Gypsum (CaSo4 2H2o) Barites (BaSo4) 28 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 39. Review of the literature Epsom Salt (Mg So4 7H2o) Ferrous Sulphate (FeSo4 7H2o) Traces of sulphur occur as H2S in volcanic gases, organic substance as eggs, proteins,garlic, mustard, onion, hair and wool. It is an essential non-metal and is a minor constituentof fats, body fluids and skeletal muscles.Basic information of sulphur96 Name : Sulphur Symbol : S Atomic Number : 16 Atomic Mass : 32.06 Am Melting point : 112.80C Boiling point : 444.60C Number of protons / Electrons: 16 Number of neutrons : 16 Classification : Non Metal Crystal structure : Orthorhombic Colour : Yellow British Spelling : Sulphur IUPAC spelling : Sulfur Table No.15 : Shows comparative study of allotropes of Sulphur: Property Rhombic Monoclinic Plastic Colour Yellow crystals Yellow crystals Dark yellow amber Shape Octahedral Needle shaped No definite shape Specific gravity 2.06 1.96 1.92 Melting point 112.8 0 C 119 0C No sharp melting point Boiling Point 444 0 C 444 0 C 444 0 CTherapeutic use97 :• Sulphur has bitter astringent taste with a peculiar strong smell.• It increases bile secretion, acts as laxative, alternative and diuretic.• It stimulates secreting organs like skin, bronchial mucus membrane.• In larger doses it acts as purgative. 29 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 40. Review of the literature• Sulphur is useful in cough, Asthma, General debility, Enlargement of spleen, chronic fevers etc.,Biological importance of sulphur98:• Sulphur makes up 0.25% of our body weight, meaning that an average adult human body contains around 170 gms of sulphur, of which most occurs in the amino acids, cysteine, cystine, and methionine.• Sulphur is involved in the formation of bile acids, which are essential for fat digestion and absorption. It also helps to keep skin, hair and nails healthy.• Deficiency of sulphur is linked to the skin disorder eczema and also imperfect development of hairs and nails. Sulphur containing foods are vegetables (Radishes, Carrots, Cabbage, Milk Products (Cheese), seafood and meat protein. Inorganic forms of mineral-sulphide, sulphates and sulphites are not needed in the diet. NIMBU99,100 It is an important Dravya of Amla Varga. In Rasa Classics, it is explained forShodhana and Marana of various Metals and Minerals.Latin name : Citrus medicaFamily : RutaceaeSynonyms:- Amlajambira, Amlarasa, Jantumari Nimbuka Dantaghna Shodhana Rochana JambeeraDescription: Leaflets are elliptic, oblong, racemes short, flowers small, petals usually four. Fruitsusually small, globose or ovoid, rind thick or thin. Pulp pale, very acidic.Useful parts: Phala, Twak and PatraMajor Chemical Constituents: Fruit juice of Nimbu contains citric acid 10%, Phosphoric acid 4%, Sugar 10.9%,Cellulose, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Citrine 76%, Citrol 7.8% and Sulphuric acid. 30 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 41. Review of the literatureDistribution It is available throughout India.Pharmacological and Therapeutic PropertiesRasa : AmlaGuna : Guru, TikshnaVirya : UshnaVipaka : MadhuraKarma : Deepana, Rochaka, Anulomana, Pachaka, KrimighnaDosha : Kapha Vata shamaka, PittavardhakaVyadhi Prabhava : Agni Mandya, Trishna, Udarashoola, Chardi, Aruchi, Vibandha, Kasa, Shwasa and Krimi roga. In the present study Nimbuka swaras is used for Bhavana of Hingula. GODUGDHA Acharya charaka explained Godugdha under Gorasa varga101. It is much appreciatedfor the therapeutic purpose.Synonyms : Ksheera, Gavya, Gavyadugdha, Dugdha, and Payasa, DhenudbhavaPhysical properties: Cow’s milk is an opaque, white or yellowish white emulsive, faintlyalkaline fluid, a little more viscous than water with specific gravity in between 1.027 to1.037102.Properties: Rasa : Madhura Guna : Guru, Mridu, Snigdha, Bahala, Picchila, Shlakshna, Manda,Prasanna. Veerya : Sheeta, Karma : Jeevaneeya, Brumhaneeya, Rasayana, Ojo vriddhikara,Vrushya, Balya,Medya, Doshagnata: Vata, Pitta Rogagnata: Rakthapitta, Trishna, Kshata, Ksheena, Shwasa, Kasa, Panduroga, Gulma, Udara, Athisara, Jwara, Daha, Shotha, Yonirogas, Bhrama, useful in Gadavikaras. 31 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 42. Review of the literatureContents of fresh milk : Water : 87% Phosphorus : 0.1% Total Solids : 13% Sodium : 0.15% Fat : 3.68% Iron : 1-2 ppm Total proteins : 3.39 Citric acid : 0.2% Sugar : 4.94 Calcium : 0.72% In the present work, godugdha was used for gandhaka shodhana, through Bhoodharaputa method. HARIDRA103 In the present study haridra was used for shodhana of Hingulottha parada. It isconsidered under shirovirechana gana by Charaka and shleshma samshamana by Sushruta.Botanical Name : Curcuma longaFamily : ZingiberacaeSynonyms: Nisha Varavarnini Gouri Krimighna Kanchani Yoshitpriya HattavilasiniVernacular Names Hindi : Haldi English : Turmeric Bengali : Halud Gujarati : Haldar Kannada : Arashina Malayalam : ManjalChemical constituents:Volatile oil 5-8%, Curcumin, Vitamin A, Protein-6.3%, minerals-3.5%, carbohydrate-69.4 %.Pharmaco therapeutic properties : Rasa : Tikta, katu Guna : Ruksha,lakhu Virya : Ushna Vipaka : Katu Karma : Varnya, lekhana, ruchya, raktaprasadana, vedana sthapana 32 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 43. Review of the literature Doshakarma : Kapha vata shamaka Rogaghnata : Kushta, Prameha, vrana, arsha, raktavikara, sheetapitta VATA104 It is one among Pancha valkala dravyas. In Samhitas it is catogorised underNyagrodhadi and Mutrasangrahaneeya gana.Botanical Name: Ficus Bengalensis Linn.Family: MoraceaeSynonyms: Nyagrodha, Raktaphala, Skandhaja, Vaisravana, Sringi, Bahupada, Dhrva, Ksiri.Description : It is a very big tree possessing supporting roots and therefore may spread uptomiles sometimes. It is commonly found all over India. Vata Srnga (leaf buds) are famous fortheir utility in pumsavana kriya.Chemical constituants of Bark – leucoanthocyanin, tiglic acid, β - sitsterol – a D –glucoside.Useful parts: Bark, Latex, leaf, leaf – bud, hanging root, fruit.Properties :Rasa – Kashaya ;Guna – Guru, Ruksha;Virya – Shita ;Vipaka – KatuKarma – Kapha pitta hara, Mutra sangrahaneeya, Varnya, Sthambhana.In the present study, Vatankura is used for Bhavana of Kajjali i.e. a pre – material of RasaSindhura. PHARMACEUTICAL REVIEWIn present study Pharmaceutical process mainly includes three steps: 1. Processing of raw drugs i.e. shodhana of Hingula and Gandhaka 2. Intermediate procedures 3. Final procedure i.e. preparation of Kupipakwa rasayana.Hence in this section, review on concept of Shodhana, Satvapatana, Murchana and Jarana iscarried out. Also classical literary data of pharmaceutical procedures and Yantras related topresent study are reviewed. 33 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 44. Review of the literatureSHODHANA:Definition: ♦ The process which eliminates the blemishes is called Shodhana 105. ♦ Shodhana is a process intended for the removal of impurities in a substance by implementing prescribed methods like Bhavana, Swedana, Dhalana etc with prescribed drugs 106. Advantages of Shodhana: ♦ Eradicates visible and invisible impurities. ♦ Reduces toxic effects. ♦ Removes adulterants present in drug. ♦ Makes hard matter brittle which helps in easy incineration. ♦ Enhances therapeutical properties ♦ Suitable for further processing. Shodhana of Gandhaka: Shodhana is carried out by adopting various methods like: ▪ Swedana ▪ Nirvapana ▪ Bhavana. ▪ Koormaputa. ▪ Damaru yantra. Methods: 1. Pour the liquefied Gandhaka into the Bringaraja swarasa and do the swedana in the same swarasa. Repeat the procedure for 7 times.107 2. A cloth is tied over the mouth of the pot containing milk. Pour the melted Gandhaka and Ghrita over the cloth. Gandhaka falls into the pot. Heat this pot over mandagni for one ghati. Then wash it with water.108 3. Gandhaka is melted along with Tila Taila or Sarshapa taila or Tusumbha taila in an iron pan. Now the molten Gandhaka is poured into a pot containing milk covered by cloth109. 34 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 45. Review of the literature 4. A cloth covered pot is taken which is containing milk. Gandhaka churna is spread over the cloth. Now this apparatus is kept in a pit up to its neck. Close it with sharava and to this agni was given by Koormaputa110 5. Finely powdered Gandhaka is placed in Damaru Yantra and subjected to heat for four prahara. In the present work koormaputa method was implicated for Gandhaka shodhana.Shodhana of Hingula: • Seven Bhavanas of Lakucha Swarasa.54,55 • Seven Bhavanas of Ardraka Swarasa.55 • Seven Bhavanas of Nimbu Swarasa.55 • Seven Bhavanas of Meshi Ksheera followed by seven bhavana of Amla Varga Dravya55. • Seven Bhavana of Amla Varga Dravya followed by seven bhavana of Mahishi Ksheera.56Shodhana of Parada: Mercury is naturally consisting of earthy impurities, toxic chemical compounds alongwith it. So it should be purified by means of Mardhana, Swedana, Kshalana, patina etc.,specific techniques with the help of specific herbal extractions. Purification has been carriedout into two methods 1) Samanya shodhana – Vyadhi nashanartha 2) Vishesha shodhana – Rasayanartha Samanya shodhana: • Parada is triturated with Grihadhooma, Haridra Choorna, Wool Fibres and Istikachoorna for 1 day and then washed with Kanji and filtered through a four folded cloth. It is said to be devoid of Naga Doshas.111 • Parada is triturated with Nagavalli swarasa, Ardraka swarasa and Kshara traya for 3 days and then wash with Kanji. The Parada gets devoid of sapta doshas.112 • Parada is triturated with Sudha-raja for three days and filtered. Then add Lashuna equal to Parada & Saindhava Lavana ½ part of Parada when lashuna turns black wash in kanji.113 • Parada is triturated with Kumari, Chitraka, Rakta Sarshapa, Brihati and Triphala kwatha for three days.114 35 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 46. Review of the literature • Parada is triturated with Sudha-raja for 7 days and filter it. Then triturate with Griha dhuma, Haridra choorna & Ishtika choorna for 3 days & wash with kanji.115 • Parada is triturated with Guda, Trikatu, Ajamoda, Pancha Lavana, Chitrakamoola, Triphala, Trikshara, Dhattura and Sarshapa for 7 days. 116 • Parada is triturated with Lashuna and Saindhava Lavana on tapta khalva for 7 days.117Vishesha Shodhana: Vishesha shodhana are indicated to remove the specific and toxic impurities byspecific methods. These are called as “Samskaras”. There are 18 number of samskarasmentioned in Rasa classics for removing specific impurities and also for enhancing qualitiesof Parada.Ashtadasha Samskaras118:Swedana Niyamana JaranaMardana Deepana RanjanaMurchana Gagana Bhakshana SaaranaUtthapana Charana SankramanaPatana Garbhadhruti VedhaRodhana Bahyadruti Bhakshana SATVAPATANA: It is the process of extraction of metal or satva from the mineral. Nagarjuna was thefirst to mention the process of satvapatana in Rasendra mangala.Etymology of the word Satvapatana:The word satvapatana comprises two words ‘satva’ and ‘patana’.Satva: Means the existence of Supreme being, the true essence.119Patana: Means the act of causing to fall, laying low.120Thus the word Satvapatana means extraction of essence or active principle. The process of Satvapatana is carried out for dravyas like Abhraka, Makshika,Haratala, Manashila, Gairika, Hingula etc. Different procedures are explained for differentdravyas. 36 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 47. Review of the literature Hingula Satvapatana:121,122Aims: • To obtain the mercury which is free from all the seven Kanchuki doshas, so that it can be used for all purposes. • Properties of such Parada resembles with Astasanskarita or gandhakajeerna Parada.Dravyas Used For Mardana Of Hingula Before Procedure: 1. Nimbu swarasa 2. Nimba patra swarasa 3. Paribhadra swarasa 4. Changeri swarasa.Yantras: 1. Urdhwa and Adhapatana yantra 2. Vidyadhara yantra 3. Damaru yantra.Method: Fine powder of hingula is triturated with any above said mardana dravyas for threehours and chakrikas are made. The chakrikas are kept in Damaru yantra or Paatana yantra.Proper Sandhibandhana is done. This is subjected to Kramagni upper pot is kept cool byplacing the wet cloth. After 6 hours of Kramagni its allowed to cool. After complete coolingSandhibandhana removed, collect the Parada particles mixed with soot. In case ofAdhapatana yantra paste of Hingula is applied inside the upper pot.MURCHANA AND JARANA: While scrutinizing the innumerable Rasa Shastra texts, some Rasacharyas narrate thatthe manufacturing process of Rasasindoora comes under the Murchana process and othersclaim that it is a process of Jarana. According to Ayurveda Prakash Jarana and Murchana aresynonyms123. “Kim cha Murchana Jarana Iti Anarthantaram prayaha ||”Murchana123,124, 125 Murchana is a process in which mercury with or without Sulphur is converted intosuch a form which is suitable for internal usage. It is claimed that through this process 37 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 48. Review of the literaturemercury compounds develop a definite disease curing capacity, without producing anyuntoward effect. Murchana facilitates palliability of Mercury. Murcchana is a procedure of preparing an esculent chemical compound of Mercurywhich is distinct from Bhasma. Murchana is a process to transfer the Mercury into a Murchitastate by means of sulphur etc and after doing this process the end product can not beconverted into preceding state easily. Murchita Yogas are efficacious by all means and theend product can be used as it is for medicinal purpose.126Appearance of Murchita state of Rasa: When its firmness, unstability and liquid form are transformed into the softness,stability and solid form; appears like Kajjali then it should be claimed that this is the stage ofMurchita. Some times Murchita Parada may be obtained in various colours127.Murchana Vidhi and Lakshana128, 129: When Shuddha Gandhaka triturated with Suddha Parada it looses its gurutva andchapalatva and transforms into fine blackish (Kajjalabha) powder. Apart from black colour,of murchita parada may vary according to the ingredients used. Murchana done with Haratalagives yellowish colour, manashila gives orange colour. Without shadguna Gandhaka jarana, parada is not potent to cure the diseases. Heexplained murchana should be done by performing jarana in different Yantras. He mentioned2 types of Valuka Yantra for this purpose. He also mentioned Antardhooma, Bahirdhomashadguna Gandhaka jarana processes.Benefits of Murchana123, 124: 1. Murchita Parada with different Anupanas according to diseases it cures all the diseases. 2. Murchita Parada is beneficial for deha siddhi. 3. Murchita Parada is useful as Dehartha and for Amaratva.Types of Murchana123, 130, 131:According to different Rasa classics Murchana may be broadly divided into 2 types – 1. Sagandha – with Sulphur 2. Nirgandha – without SulphurBoth sulphurous and non sulphurous murchana is subdivided into 2 groups. 38 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 49. Review of the literature 1. Sagni – With the help of fire. 2. Niragni – Without the help of fire.It is again subdivided into 3 groups. On the basis of smoke – 1. Bahirdhooma 2. Anthardhooma 3. NirdhoomaSagandha Murchana is again subdivided into 5 types: 1. Gandha Pisti – Ex. Kajjali 2. Gandha Baddha – Ex. Rasa parpati. 3. Gandha Jeerna – Ex. Rasa Sindoora. 4. Rasa Gandha Kajjali – 5. Dhatu Pisti – Ex. Rajata pisti, Kanaka pisti, Tamra pisti, Abhraka pisti, Loha pisti. First and Foremost Kalpana of Sagandha Murchana is Kajjali, base of otherpreparations like – parpati, Pottali, Kupipakwa, and Karaliya Rasayanas.Examples of Parada Murchita Rasaoushadis132: 1. Khalveeya Rasayana – Ex. Kajjali, Tribhuvana keerthi Rasa etc. 2. Parpati Kalpana – Ex. Rasa parpati, Swarna parpati etc. 3. Kupi pakwa Rasayana – Ex. Rasasindoora, Rasa Karpoora etc. 4. Pottali Rasayana – ex. Hema garbha pottali, Hamsa Garbha pottali etc.Jarana: Jarana is the 13th mercurial operation. When mercury is turned into such a statethrough Bida Yantradi as to absorb any other substance swiftly it is called Jarana131. When Gandhaka etc are mixed with mercury get assimilated or absorbed into themercury. This process is called Jarana134. By various process of consuming Gandhaka etc in mercury through the Valukayantra, Dola yantra, Kacchapa yantra etc is called jarana Karma135.Signs of Samyak Jarita Parada: 39 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 50. Review of the literature“Jarana hi naama Galana Patana Vyatirekena Grasta Ghana Hemadi Rasasya HemadiRasasya poorvavasta pratipannatvam ||” The process in which Mercury is made to absorb and assimilate the substances likeGold, Mica etc as Grasa added into it (Hg). There will not be increase in weight of Mercury.It means that after distillation and straining the swallowed substances like Abhraka, Suvarnaetc do not remain distinct and Mercury remains in its preceding state and its weight does notalter. Thus state has been termed as Jarana136. Many types of procedures for Gandhaka Jarana are described in Ayurveda Prakasha,with the ratio between Parada and Gandhaka starting from 1:6 or even 1:100 or 1:1000 ratiosrespectively. During Gandhaka Jarana through Valuka and Ishtika Yantra if Agni is increased RasaSindoora is formed. Here Parada has to be separated to continue the process of Jarana.Types of Jarana137, 138:a) Bhuchari Jarana (Abraka Jarana)b) Khechari Jarana (Ratna Jarana)Gandhaka JaranaGandhaka Jarana is of 2 types i. Antardhooma ii. Bahirdhooma Antardhooma – Gandhaka Jarana through Kacchapa yantra or Bhoodhara yantrathrough closed Kupi or moosha or vessel is done. In this procedure Gandhaka Jarana is slow. Bahirdhooma – This process is done through Valuka yantra in a open vessel. Thisprocedure is very fast. First Gandhaka Jarana should be done on moderate fire. Then Abhraka, Swarnamakshika, swarna, Vanga, Naga and Ratna etc should be processed through Jarana. WithoutGandhaka Jarana, Parada does not posses the property of digestion. So dhatus can not bedigested139. There is a difference between Murchana and Jarana. Few Rasacharya’s claimed thatactually these are two stages of Mercury. Considering all these references it can be said that the process of Kajjali is SagandhaNiragni Murchana and Rasasindoora is Sagandha Sagni Murchana 40 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 51. Review of the literature KAJJALI Kajjali is a Sagandha, Niragni Parada yoga. The purified Parada and Gandhaka areintimately mixed and triturated without adding any liquid to convert it into a smooth, blackishpowder, free from any shining particle is called Kajjali.Definition: “Dhatubirgandhakadyascha Nirdravaihi Mardita rasaha|| Sushlakshna Kajjalabhaso Kajjali Ityabhidheeyate||” ♦ Shuddha Parada and Shuddha Gandhaka alone or in combination, with other uparasa and different dhatus is mixed and triturated without adding any liquid. This is called Kajjali. It should be free from any shining particles140. ♦ Any powdered pre-product that which is filled into Kupi, which is having Slakshnatva and sukshmatva like Kajjala is considered as Kajjali141.Synonyms : 142 Kajjali, Kajjalika, KajjalaProportion of Dravyas in Kajjali: 143 It is mentioned that Gandhaka can be taken in the proportion of ¼ th, ½, equal, double,triple etc., to that of Parada.Method of Adding Dhatus To Parada: Kajjali is to be prepared by adding any other dhatu to parada, for ex. Swarna, Rajata,etc should be in the form of thin leaves.Naga, Vanga etc should be in the druta form.Kajjali Siddha Lakshans: 144, 145 Krishna Varnata : Blackish colour Slakshnatva : Smooth to touch Sukshmatva : Subtleness like anjana Rekha purnatva : Settles in between fine lines of finger Nischandratva : Lusterless a pinch of Kajjali is taken and rubbed with water. This mixture when exposed to sun, should show absence of any shining particles. 41 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 52. Review of the literatureUses146: ▪ Kajjali can be used as a single medicament along with anupana or sahapana. Ex. kajjali with varunadi gana kashaya in Antra vidradhi. ▪ It can be used as a base material for kupipakwa, pottali, parpati and khalvi rasayana preparations.BHAVANA: The word bhavana literally means causing to be, effecting, promoting, steeping andact of producing147.Definition: The process, by which drugs have to undergo Bhavana, is powdered and triturated withsuitable liquids like Swarasa, Kashaya, Godugdha till the liquid portion dries up. It is knownas Bhavana 148Procedure: Bhavana process is clearly explained in Bhaishajya Ratnavali as the drug in thesuitable dravya is kept for one night and triturated and dried under shade on the next day.This process should be repeated for 3 to 7 days. Here the Drug is termed as Bhavita Dravyaand Drava as Bhavana dravya.149Quantity of dravya for Bhavana: According to Rasataranginikara, to a drug, liquids should be added in such quantitiesby which the drug gets fully mixed up with the liquid and become wet. This is quantity ofliquid used for Bhavana150. In case of preparation of Kwatha for Bhavana, 1 part of the drug in the form of coarsepowder is taken, boiled with 8 parts of water and reduced to 1/4th and it can be used forBhavana karma.151Uses:With the help of Bhavana, we can achieve1. Makes the particles finer by Sanghata bhedana.2. Purification of metals & minerals.3. It induces new properties to the drug and at the same time enhances the properties present in the drug. 42 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 53. Review of the literature4. It acts as poorva karma for Marana of metals and minerals by changing their chemical action.5. Makes the metal and minerals free from blemishes. In the present work Vatankura swaras Bhavana is given to kajjali. KUPIPAKWA RASAYANA Kupi pakwa kalpas are unique pharmacetical procedures followed in Rasashastra.Where in sublimated products of mercury is obtained by ladder step heating procedures forlong hours.Definition of Kupipakwa Rasayana152:“Kupi Iti Kacha Kupi, Pakwam Iti Agnina Pakwam Rasasya Paradasya Ayanam stanamArthathKupyam Agninam Pakwam Yadrasayanam Tat Kupi Pakwa Rasayanam ||” The process were Parada and other Dravyas are processed by heating in a specializedbottle to prepare medicine is called Kupi Pakwa Rasayana.History of Kupipakwa Rasayana: • Use of Kachakupi started after the 10th cent. A.D. Before this there is no reference available regarding the same. Invention of glass occurred in Misra, Arab, Mesopotamia countries and use of glass bottles, glass vessels also first time started there and there after it came to India Before the invention of glass, preparation of such type of medicine was done by using Kupis made up of iron, silver etc3. • Similarly references of Valukayantra are found from the 9th century. Because of non- availability of Kachakupis, Sharavas or Mushas were used for Gandhaka Jarana process. • Rasasindoora Kalpana was first time quoted by the name of Udaybhaska 9 Rasa prepared by using Kachaghati (Kupi) and SiktayantraClassification of Kupi Pakwa Rasayana153:I. On the basis of Ingredients:Sagandha – with Gandhaka: a. Parada + GandhakaEx. Rasa Sindoora, 43 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 54. Review of the literature b. Parada + Gandhaka + Anyadhatu –Ex. Tamra Sindoora, Rajata Sindoora etc. c. Parada + Gandhaka + AdhatuEx. Malla Sindoora, Tala Sindoora etc. d. Parada + Gandhaka + Adhatu +SwarnaEx. Poorna Chandrodaya Rasa etc.Nirgandha – without Gandhaka: Ex.Rasa Pushpa, Rasa Karpoora etc.II. On the basis of location of finished product: a. Kantastha or Kantastha – Rasa Sindoora, Rasa Karpoora etc. b. Talastha or Adhastha – Sameera Pannaga Rasa etc. c. Ubhayastha – Poorna Chandrodaya, Manikya Rasa etc.III. On the basis of manufacturing method: a. Antardhooma – Talastha – Rasasindoora b. Bahirdhooma – Kantastha – ShilasindooraProcedure of Kupi Pakwa Rasayana:The whole procedure of Kupi Pakwa Rasayana can be divided under 3 headings as follows. 1. Purva Karma 2. Pradhana Karma 3. Paschat Karma1. Purva Karma: During Purva Karma following points are to be considered i. Collection of instruments. ii. Purification of ingredients. iii. Preparation of Kajjali. iv. Preparation of Kupi. v. Filling of Kupi with Kajjali.Collection of instruments: Collection of equipments for the preparation includes Kacha Kupi, Vastra, Mrittika,Valuka Yantra, Loha Shalakas, Copper coin, Agni bhatti, Pyrometer, Torch etc. 44 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 55. Review of the literatureSelection and purification of ingredients154 All the ingredients should be identified according to Rasa classics for their Grahya /Agrahya Lakshanas and it is subjected for Shodhana.Preparation of Kajjali 155 The preparation of the ingredients should be taken as per the reference and triturationshould be done without using any liquid till the mixture becomes lusterless. The term Kajjalican be used for pre-material or for the mixture, which is used for making Kupi PakwaRasayana. Generally, the Kajjali has appearance of black colour but still the colour of this prematerial depends on the ingredients used. Ex: Hinguliya Manikya Rasa– Deep Orange, Rasa Pushpa – Ash colour If Bhavana is mentioned, it should be given after the completion of Kajjali and it isdried and powdered finely.Preparation of Kupi:Preparation of kapadamitti (mud cloth): A cotton cloth is cut as circularly for the base and rectangularly for the rest of thebody of bottle. The white clay ‘Gopichandana’ is added with water, made it into paste formand then applied over the cloth.Application of Kapadamitti (mud cloth): First at the base, then on the circumference lastly on the neck & mouth region clothshould be applied, again one layer of semisolid clay should be given and keep it for drying.Such 7 layers of Kapadamitti should be given.Filling of Kajjali into Kupi 156 The Kupi should be filled up to the one third part by Kajjali so that there should beenough space inside the Kupi for melting and boiling of Kajjali and also for the sublimationof compound which is going to be condensed and deposited in the neck of the Kupi.2. Pradhana KarmaBefore going to start the pradhana karma some precautions should be taken, they are♦ Kupi should be covered temporarily with the cork while pouring the sand into Valuka Yantra. 45 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 56. Review of the literature♦ Kupi should be placed at the centre and at height of two fingers from the bottom of Valuka Yantra.Pradhana Karma Mainly includes:1) Temperature measurement2) Heating pattern3) Shalaka Sanchalana4) Observations of Fumes &Flame5) Mukhamudrana6) Swangasitikarana(1) Temperature measurement :Ancient Parameters -(a) Cotton, dried grass test - When cotton piece, or dried grass is kept on the Valuka andif it catches fire & burns then it is considered to be Tivragni.(b) Rice test - When rice put on Valuka it blows up.Modern parameters – Nowadays pyrometer, thermocouples, thermometers are used for measuring thetemperature2 ) Heating Pattern:157 Heating pattern should always follow Kramavriddagni i.e. gradual increase intemperature. It comprises of two aspects Heating in terms of Duration- indicates the time limit for maintainance of Mridu,Madyama and Teevra Agni. The duration of heating pattern differs for individual KupiPakwa Rasayanas.Mridu Agni kala - includes melting of KajjaliMadyama Agni kala - includes boiling of kajjali and shalaka sanchalanaTeevragni kala - includes sublimation of the product.Heating in terms of Temperature158- indicates the temperature limit for maintainance ofMridu, Madyama and Teevra Agni. It can be taken approximately as,Mridu Agni - Room Temp. to 2500C. 46 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 57. Review of the literatureMadhyama Angi - 2500C to 4500C.Tivra Agni - 4500C to 6500C. 47 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 58. Review of the literature °I stage- Mrudu Agni (125 - 250°c): Stage of Liquification of Kajjali. 1. In this stage of heating Sulphur fumes starts to come out of Kupi mouth. 2. Material in the Kupi completely gets melted which may be ascertained by inserting cold shalaka in to the Kupi. 3. This heat is maintained for the prescribed time as to allow chemical reactions to begin. °II stage – Madhyamagni (250 - 450°c):Stage of profuse fuming and boiling of Kajjali. 1. This stage commences from the complete melting of Kajjali and lasts till the starting of formation of Sindura compound. 2. In this stage profuse fumes of Sulphur from the Kupi mouth is obvious. 3. Liquified Kajjali starts boiling. 4. Deposition of fumes at the neck of the Kupi may cause chocking, which may frequently be removed by inserting Tapta shalaka in to the Kupi mouth. 5. Boiling of melted material at the Kupi is ascertained by inserting cold iron rod in the Kupi or by visualizing through torch light. 6. It is necessary to prevent the material coming out of the Kupis mouth by maintaining and controlling heat temperature to desired level. 7. Maintain moderate heat for the prescribed period to ensure burning of extra Sulphur in the product. 8. Same degree of heating is maintained till boiling of Kajjali ceases. °III Stage – Tivragni (450 - 650°c):Stage of appearance of flame and corking of Kupi mouth. 1.This stage commences from the formation of Sindura compound and lasts up to the completion of Jarana of Gandhaka. As heating persists, this newly formed compound sublimates and gets condensed at the neck and mouth of the Kupi. 2.At the end of middle stage Sulphur fumes catches fire and it takes a form of flame. In this end stage flame appears. 3.Slowly the height of the flame starts to raise. 4.When extra Sulphur burns out completely flame disappears and this indicates the completion of Gandhaka Jarana. 48 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 59. Review of the literature 5.Redness starts appearing at the bottom of the Kupi, which gets more brightened (Sooryodaya laxana).Sindura test becomes positive. 6.Almost disappearance of fumes / flame at the Kupi mouth could be observed which is ascertained by performing Sheeta shalaka test.Application of Shalaka159 During the preparation of Kupi Pakwa Rasayana Sheeta Shalaka (cold rods) and TaptaShalaka (hot rods) are being in use. Sheeta Shalaka is used especially for noting the state ofKajjali, whether it is in powder form, melted form or in boiling state or in sublimatingcompound state. Tapta Shalaka is used for burning the sulphur deposited at the neck region of Kupi,otherwise sulfur may block and ultimately breaks the Kupi.Observation of fumes and flames160:♦ Fumes: All the characteristics of fumes like Colour, Odour etc. must be noted. It differs according to the ingredients. Colour may be Yellowish, Orange, Bluish or White. Quantity may be Mild, Moderate or profuse; Odour like sulphur / arsenical Odour may be some of the observations.♦ Flame: It is also an important factor while preparing kupi Pakwa Rasayanas. Timing of appearance of flame, its colour and its duration are the important features. These features also depend on the ingredients used.Corking of Kupi and self cooling160,161 Deciding the proper time for corking is very important because it indicates thecompletion of Kupi Paka. So before Corking few tests must have to be done to confirmcomplete Gandhaka Jarana and those are: ♦ Absence of flame ♦ Absence of fumes ♦ Appearance of Redness in the bottom of Kupi ♦ If a copper coin is kept on Kupi mouth, it is covered by a white layer. But if the presence of mercury is found on it, then corking of Kupi should be done quickly otherwise complete loss of mercury may occur. 49 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 60. Review of the literature ♦ If a Sita Shalaka (Cold iron rod) is inserted there should not be adherence of white fumes and product sticking to the rod should be red in colour. But there is no appearance of flame in case of Nirgandha Kupi Pakwa Rasayanas. Before corking 2-3 inches of sand layer should be removed aside from neck of the Kupi, then corking of mouth of Kupi should be done with gopi chandana smeared cloth, while doing corking the temperature is reduced for some time. After that temperature is raised for specific time and left for self cooling. It is supposed that during this period, forming Sindura compound starts to condense in the neck portion of Kupi and whatever the temperature obtaining in this period is necessary for enhancement of quantity and quality of Kupi Pakwa compound by its complete Paka process. 3) Paschat karma: It is considered as Paschat Karma or it can also be called as final step. It includes the following.♦ Removal of Kupi – First sand should be removed from Valuka Yantra after that Kupi is taken out with care (some times it may be possible that Kupi is broken inside but remain intact due to the layers of cloth).♦ Scraping of outer coverings – layers of cloth smeared with mud is removed and Kupi should be cleaned with wet cloth, then mark the level of Rasayana inside the neck/ bottom.♦ Breaking of Kupi162 – A kerosene dipped string is tied around the middle of Kupi and set the string to fire and after the fire extinguishes, remove the burns of string with a Spatula, and wrap it with a wet piece of cloth, it then breaks into two pieces.♦ Collection of product – Kupi Pakwa Rasayana product which may be Kantastha or Talastha type, should be collected carefully from the particular portion. Then the product is analyzed to classical and modern techniques. Importance of Kupi Pakwa Rasayana: Kupi Pakwa Rasayana is having importance among other Kalpanas because of following properties: 1. It is the best Rasayana. 2. Potency of these drugs remains longer period. 3. It requires minimal Dosage 4. More potent as compared to other pure herbal preparations. 50 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 61. Review of the literature 5. When mixed with other drugs, it reduces the dose of other drugs. 6. Due to its augmenting effect – Yogavahitva. 7. Due to quicker action – Ashukaritva. 8. It can cure even Asadhya Rogas. 9. Chemical bond becomes stronger in the following order – Kajjali, Parpati, Pottali and Kupi Pakwa Rasayana. 10. Significance is to introduce properties of Gandhaka into Parada and to create a special medicinal compound. YANTRAS The yantras used in the present study like Khalva yantra, Valuka yantra and Koormaputa, etc are reviewed in brief here under.Khalva yantra: 163 It is a hollow, round or boat shaped apparatus made of iron, stone, glass or porcelainas per need. For mercurial operations, khalvas made out of iron are preferred while forpreparing pistis, bhasmas and formulations, khalvas made out of stone are preferred. Generally khalvas are of two types i.e. vartula and Dronyakriti Vartula khalva is madeof porcelain or stone. It should be 12 angula in radius, 4 angula in depth and 8 angula inlength. Dronyakriti or boat shaped khalvas are generally used for mercury processing andmade of iron or stone. Their height varies from 9 to 16 angula, length 16 to 24 angula,breadth 9 to 10 angula, depth 6 to 7 angula and thickness of their edges is 2angula.Uses: It is used for grinding, rubbing, triturating or mixing of drugs and liquids. In the present study, khalva yantra is used mainly for bhavana of Hingula with Nimburasa; to powder the shuddha Gandhaka, to prepare kajjali, to give bhavana for kajjali withvatankur swarasa and to powder the final products.Koorma puta 164: It is explained for Gandhaka shodana, where Gandhaka is kept on cloth covering themouth of pot containing milk. It should be covered by sharava and vanopalas kept on it andignited. Shodhita Gandhaka is collected from milk in the pot. 51 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 62. Review of the literatureUrdhwa patana yantra:165 Yantra is made with two earthen pots, where the upper pot is bigger than the lower pot.The upper pot’s pristatala should be broad enough (i.e. 16 angulas) to construct toyadhara.The mouth of the upper pot should be inserted into the mouth of lower pot in such a way, thatthe same should reach up to the neck of the lower pot. The joint of the apparatus should besealed air tight with the help of multanimitti smeared cloth or other sealing material. Thelower pot contains the drug which is subjected to sublimation and the outer part of the upperpart has toyadhara which facilitates the sublimation. In the present work, urdhwa patana yantra was used to extract Parada from Hingula.Kupi166:Synonyms -Kupika, Siddha, Girindika etc. Thinner glass bottles are better considered to thicker variety. Nowadays beer bottlesof green colour or amber colour are used in practice. If bottle is covered with mrittika whichis prepared in classical way then any type of glass bottle can be used for this type ofpreparations.Mrittika166: ♦ Mud which is pandura varna, obtained in mass, sharkara yukta or reddish yellow which sustain heat can be used. Valmika mrittika or potters mud can also be used. ♦ Preparation of Mrittika – husk-2 parts, cotton/cloth pieces-1 part, mud – 3 parts, all are kept immersed in water and titurated well. Again little quantity of human hair is added, trituration is continued till uniform mixture forms. It should not be allowed for drying hence kept immersed in water for seven days with frequent trituration. Such type of mrittika should be used for covering the Kupi. But now a days cloth smeared with gopichandana or multani mitti is used.Advantages of Kachakupi : The outer surface of drug becomes soft, the vapours do not escape out, it does notbreak suddenly during preparation of drug, drug can be separated easily and completely etc.Nowadays beer bottles of green colour or amber colour are used in practice. Valuka yantra167 52 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 63. Review of the literature • A loha bhanda having narrow base and wide mouth depending on the size of the Kupi (1” taller than Kupi) should be prepared with 2 handles. • The circumference of Valuka Yantra should fit exactly over the hole of the Agnibhatti. • It should fill 5 Adhaka sand and have a central hole of 2 to 2.5 cm at the bottom, which should be closed with Abhraka Patra before keeping the Kupi during heating. • The dept of the vessel should be 1 vitasti pramana. • Clean sand of uniform granules is taken. Bhatti 168 Presently the different varieties of Bhatti are in use: ♦ Bhatti using the fire wood ♦ Bhatti using the charcoal ♦ Bhatti using as diesel ♦ Electric muffel furnace ♦ Gas furnace.According to Acharyas Bhatti may be of any type but it should fulfill the following criteria. 1. The height of bhatti should be maintained so that the heat produced from the fuel should properly reach the kupi and the medicine inside the kupi. 2. Air should freely enter into the bhatti for proper blowing of fire (in case of fire wood, Charcoal is used as a fuel). 3. Smoke should not be formed inside the bhatti. It should be freely and properly eliminated through the chimney attached to bhatti. 4. Heat should be radiated in upward direction and should not be leaking out and sustained well. For this purpose recently fire clay is used. 5. The mouth of the bhatti over the top should hold the rim of valuka yantra exactly. When the fire wood is used as a fuel for the bhatti the points to be considered are: 1. An iron mesh is fixed to the bhatti i.e. about a foot height from the ground level. The advantage of this is, fire wood is kept on this mesh, so due to free entry of air, wood properly burns out & ash gets collected at the bottom over the ground. 2. An outlet for smoke should be made at the side of the bhatti. 53 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 64. Review of the literature 3. Over the top at the centre a circular iron rim was placed which is of the circumference equal to the circumference of valuka yantra. The advantage of this is fire will not escape from top and kupi is protected from the chances of fire catch. 169Cork : • In Kupi Pakwa Rasayana procedure after complete evaporation of fumes and cessation of flame Kupi mouth is closed with cork and is called Mudrana or Corking. • For this purpose any sticky substance which gets hardened with further heating and which can properly fit the mouth of the Kupi are used. Cork can be made out of stone, wood and mud. Nowadays cork is plugged into the mouth of the bottle which is wrapped with thecloth dipped in plaster of paris or Gopichandana. PYROMETER:170 In the present study, pyrometer is used for recording the temperature of kupi duringkupi pakwa rasayana. Pyrometer is a contact type thermocouple which is being used forrecording higher degrees of temperature. Pyrometer consists of K-type inconel thermocouple or sensor K-type with inconel S/Ssheath; compensating cable or extension wire and digital temperature indicator. Thermocouples are most commonly used thermometers in practical situations. It is made up ofdifferent combinations of metals and alloys. It consists of a pair of dissimilar electricalconductors joined at two junctions. One junction is maintained at a reference temperature,while the other is maintained at the unknown temperature (t). The temperature differenceproduces a thermal emf (Electro motive force) which is measured by a potentiometer, precisedigital voltmeter or indicator digital / analog which converts emf to temperature. Extensionwires are made from material having nearly the same thermal emf properties as the originalthermocouple. Digital temperature Indicator is basically an electric device used to display thetemperature by getting emf signal from a thermocouple. ANALYTICAL REVIEW Though Ayurveda is having its unique analytical approach towards drugs, in presentera there is a necessity of modern analytical techniques. 54 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 65. Review of the literature For analysis and standardization of Rasaoushadhis, knowledge of Analytical chemistry isvery much essential. So the Analytical methods adopted in the present Study and theirapplications are reviewed.Analysis means a detailed examination of substance in order to interpret or explain it.Chemistry is concerned with the properties and interactions of the substances of which matter iscomposed. 54 Analytical chemistry is a tool to gain information about the qualitative andquantitative composition of substances and chemical species, i.e. to find out what a substanceis composed of and exactly how much”.171Qualitative Analysis: Information regarding the presence or absence of one or morecomponents of the sample.Quantitative Analysis: Information which is finally obtained by measuring same physicalproperty that is characteristically related to the component.Methods of Analysis: 1) Conventional Chemical analysis by volumetric & Gravimetric method analysis 2) Instrumental methods of analysis by using analytical instrumentation. Advantages ofChemical Methods Instrumental Methods♦ Procedure is accurate and simple. ♦ High sensitivity is obtained.♦ The equipment needed is cheap. ♦ The determination is very fast.♦ Specialized training is usually not ♦ Even complex samples can be handled required. easily. Limitations of 55 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 66. Review of the literatureChemical Methods Instrumental Methods♦ Accuracy decreases with decreasing ♦ The cost of equipment is large. amounts. ♦ Specialized training is needed.♦ Procedure is time consuming ♦ The sensitivity and accuracy depends♦ There is lack of specificity on the instrument.Importance of analytical chemistry: 172♦ Analytical chemistry has its impact on pharmaceutical research, quality control and in clinical analysis.♦ Sensitive chemical and instrumental tests were employed to detect abnormal and normal components of body fluids, chemical changes occurring in the metabolic fluids.♦ In pharmaceutical studies, it is important to establish the properties and therapeutic value of a drug before the drug is available to public. The analytical study of Samaguna and Triguna balijeerna Rasasindoora is carried outin two steps i.e. physical test and chemical test.Physical test:1) Determination of pH value :173 The pH value of a liquid is determined by means of a glass electrode and a pH meter.Suitable glass electrode and pH meter of both potentiometer and deflection type are available. The pH meter is an electronic digital voltmeter, scaled to read pH directly, and mayrange from a comparatively simple hand held instrument, suitable for use is the filed, to moreelaborate bench models, often provided with a scale expansion facility, with a resolution of0.001 pH unit and an accuracy of + 0.001 unit.Mode of operation:The general procedure adopted for operating pH meter is • Switch on and allow the instrument to warm up. • If the instrument is equipped with a manual temperature control, take the temperature of the solutions & set the control to this value. Insert the electrode assembly into the same beaker, and if available, set the selector switch of the instrument and read pH. 56 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 67. Review of the literature • Adjust the “Set buffer” control until the meter reading agrees with the known pH of the buffer solution. • Remove the electrode assembly, rinse in distilled water and place into a small beaker containing a little of the second buffer solution. If the meter reading doesn’t agree exactly with the known pH, adjust the slope control with the required reading is obtained. • Remove the electrode assembly rinse in distilled water, place in the first buffer solution and confirm that the correct pH reading is shown on the meter.Application:♦ Determination of total quantity of acid or base in same substances.♦ pH measurement of blood.♦ pH measurement of in-aqueous solvents.2) Determination of Ash value174,175:.Definition of Ash: The residue remaining of incineration is the ash content of the drug. It Measures theamount of carbon-free ash present in a prepared sample which represents the inorganic saltsnaturally occurring in drug or adhering to it or deliberately added to it as a form ofadulteration.Method: Total ash is designed to measure the total amount of material produced after completeincineration of the ground drug at as low temperature as possible (about 4500C) to remove allthe carbons. 2 to 3gms of the air dried crude drug has to be accurately weighed in the taredplatinum or Silica dish and incinerate at a temperature not exceeding 4500 C until free fromcarbon, cool and weigh. If a carbon free ash cannot be obtained exhaust the charged masswith hot water, residue to be collected on ash less fitter paper, incinerate the residue and filterpaper until the ash is white or nearly so percentage of ash to be calculated with reference tothe air-dried drug.Applied aspect: Controlled incineration of crude results in an ash residue consisting ofinorganic material. The total ash usually consists of carbonates, phosphates, silicates and 57 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 68. Review of the literaturesilica. This test can give an indication of the quality and purity of a product, as all organicmaterial will burn off leaving dirt, silica, etc.3) Determination of Acid insoluble ash174,175:Definition: Acid insoluble ash is a part of total ash insoluble in dilute hydrochloric acid.Method: The ash has to be boiled with 25 ml of dil. hydrochloric acid for 5minutes, theinsoluble matter to be collected in a Gooch crucible or an ash less filter paper, wash with hotwater and ignite to constant weight. Calculate the percentage of acid insoluble ash withreference to the air dried drug.Applied aspect:A high value of acid insoluble ash suggests the presence of sand, dust, dirt, stones, etc. thatget mixed during processing or are present in the parent material as contamination. Thehigher value indicates inferior quality and low hygiene standards in the production process.4) Determination of Water soluble ash:175Method: Boil the ash for 5 minutes with 25ml of water; collect the insoluble matter in aGooch crucible or on ashless filter paper; wash with hot water, and ignite for 15 minutes at atemperature not exceeding 4500C. Substract the weight of the insoluble matter from theweight of the ash; the difference in the weight represents the water soluble ash. Calculate thepercentage of water soluble ash with reference to the air dried drug.Applied aspect:This acid insoluble ash particularly indicates absorbable percentage of any drug,5) Determination of loss on drying at 1100C: 176Method: Weigh accurately about 2gm of drug in a nickel or silica crucible and dry in an airover at 1100 till a constant weight is obtained. The difference is the two weighing gives losson drying calculate the % of loss on drying.Applied aspect: 58 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 69. Review of the literature This method is used to measure the amount of water content and other volatilematerial in a sample upon drying or heat treatment.Chemical tests:It has been carried out to estimate the concentration of elements present in it.Chemical tests are carried out basically by Volumetric, Gravimetric analysis and analyticalinstruments. A. VOLUMETRIC ANALYSIS177:Definition: Volumetric method is an analysis which consists of determination of volume ofsolution of accurately known concentration required to react completely with the solution ofsubstance to be determined.Steps in quantitative analysis by volumetric method: In volumetric method the steps involved in quantitative analysis are selection ofmethod of analysis, sampling, preparation of Sample solution, eliminating Interferences,calibration, measurement calculation of results, evaluation of results and their reliability.Classification of Volumetric Methods: Volumetric methods involve the chemical reaction depending upon the type ofreaction involved. Volumetric methods have been classified as follows:1. Neutralisation (Aqueous acid base) titration,2. Non- aqueous titration3. Precipitation titration4. Complexometric titration5. Redox titrationApplied aspect: Volumetric methods of Analysis are very Susceptible to high accuracy andfound to be a convenient means of qualitative and quantitative estimation of the elements.In the present study Volumetric method was adopted for mercury% and sulfur%estimation. GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS178Definition: 59 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 70. Review of the literature Gravimetric analysis by precipitation is the chemical analysis in which theconstituents of the substances in solution are determined by the measurement of weight of thecorresponding precipitate. It is one among the branches of qualitative analysis and involves the separation of asubstance from the solution of the weighed sample composition. This analysis may be carriedout by precipitation electrode position and volatilization.Principle:• Gravimetric analysis is concerned ultimately with the weighing of a substance that has been either precipitated from the solution or volatilized and absorbed.• Traditional gravimetric determinations have been concerned with the transformation of the element, ion or radical to be determined into a pure another chemical form that can be readily qualified.• The mass of the element, ion or radical in the original substance can then be readily calculated from aknowledge of the formula of the compound and the relative atomic masses of the constituent elements.Steps involved in Gravimetric analysis: • Precipitation of the desired constituent • Filtration • Drying • Weight of the precipitateApplications:• Analysis of the standards which has to be used for the testing or calibration of instrumental techniques.• Analysis requiring high occurrence, although the time – consuming nature of gravimetry limits this application to small numbers of determinations.In the present study Gravimetric method is adopted for Sulphide estimation. 60 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 71. Review of the literature ION SELECTIVE ELECTRODE METHOD179 In the presenent study Ion selective electrode method is adopted for free mercuryanalysis.Principle: Ion selective electrodes measure ion activities, the thermodynamically effective freeion concentration. No oxidation reduction reactions are involved but involve ion exchangeprocess.Instrumentation: The construction of these electrodes is exactly similar to the pH responsive glasselectrode. They must of course be used in conjuction with reference electrode, and a silverchloride electrode is usually preferred. Inner compartment of this electrode contains anaqueous solution of known concentration of chloride of the metal ion to be determined; thissolution is also saturated with silver chloride and carries a silver electrode, which thus formsa reference electrode.Application: • Determination concentration of free metal ions in the sample. • Determination of metal ion concentration in the blood TURBIDIMETRY180 In the present study this method was used to detect sulphate in Kajjali and RasaSindoora.Definition: Turbidimetry is based on the scattering of light by non-transparent particlessuspended in a solution.Principle: Measurement of the intensity of the transmitted light as a function of theconcentration of the suspended particles forms the basis of turbidimetric analysis.Instrumentation:1. Sources: It is necessary to use sources providing high intensity monochromatic radiation of wherever possible short wavelengths are used to increased the efficiency of rayleigh scattering. 61 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 72. Review of the literature2. Detectors : In turbidimeters, ordinary detectors such as photo tubes may be used.3. Cells: Although we can use cylindrical cells, they must have flat faces where the entering and exiting beams are to be passed.4. Turbidimeters: Turbidimeter used is due pont model 430 which is more sensitive to low concentrations of suspended particles than an ordinary turbidimeter. Technique: The beam of light obtained from the lamp is allowed to pass through the primary polarizer. This causes the incident beam to be plane polarized. Thus the plane polarized light is passed through the sample. After passing through sample the beam gets splitted up into two parts and the half silvered mirror and then detected with two separate photocells. "A" shows maximum response, where as photocell be shows minimum or zero response for the sample solutions having suspended particles. The ratio of signal "θ" to signal "A" is considered to be a measure of the concentration of suspended particles with the increase in the concentration of suspended particles in the sample. The response of photocell "B" increases, while that of "A" decreases. Thus the ration of two signals is a sensitive measures of turbidity. Du pont model 430 turbidimeter is advantageous to use because it involves the doublebeam arrangement which minimises the problem of absorption by the particles of thesolution.Applications of turbidimetry:1. In Inorganic analysis.2. Bio-chemical analysis.3. Turbidimetirc titrations4. Phase titrations X-RAY DIFFRACTION METHOD181Definition: X-ray diffraction is a technique through which the special arrangement ofstructural units of a substance in the crystalline state is known.Principle: The distance between each set of atomic planes (i.e inter atomic space‘d’) isdetermined with the help of wave length (λ) of x-ray beam and angle of diffraction (θ).byapplying Bragg’s Law (n λ= 2d sin θ). 62 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 73. Review of the literature No two substances have absolutely identical diffraction patterns. The‘d’ spacings ofthe ten most intense reflecting planes of atoms are calculated and results are compared withthe data of x-ray powder data file and identification of the sample is done.Method: Different methods available for x-ray diffraction are Lane photographic method,Bragg x- ray spectrometer method, Rotating crystal method, and powder method. In thepresent study, powder method of diffraction has been adopted.Sample preparation: The samples are ground to a fine, homogenous powder then placed in sample holderor the specimen maybe mixed with a suitable non-crystalline binder and moulded into asuitable shape. As a result large number of small crystallites are oriented in all possible directions andwhen x-ray beam traverses the material a significant number of particles are expected to beoriented in such a manner that Bragg’s a equation for reflection from every possible interplanar spacing becomes satisfied.Advantages: ♦ Rapid and accurate method for identifying the crystal structure. ♦ Ease of sample preparation ♦ Large library of known crystalline structure. ♦ It is a non destructive method.Limitations: ♦ XRD cannot help in the case of amorphous solids. ♦ Trace element detection is often difficult.Application – ♦ Characterizing the crystallographic structure and characterizing heterogenous solid mixtures (such as our Kupi pakwa rasayanas and Bhasmas). ♦ Determining relative abundance and actual state of chemical combination. ♦ Only method available for determining polymorphs of a substance. The effect of polymorphism on solubility is particularly important from pharmaceutical point of view. 63 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 74. Review of the literature ♦ Differentiation among various oxides. For e.g. difference between FeO, Fe2O3 & Fe3O4 can be identified. ♦ Identifying the various hydrates. NAMBURI PHASED SPOT TEST (N.P.S.T.)182 In the year 1970 Namburi Hamumantha Rao from Andhra Pradesh perfected a newtechnique called Namburi Phased Spot test for the analysis of coded Bhasma and Sindoora.Principle: The basic idea of the spot test analysis seems similar to spot test orchromatography described in modern pharmaceutical chemistry, but Namburi Phased Spottest differs in measuring changes of colour and pattern at different time intervals.Procedure: Whatman paper No.1 was impregnated with a suitable reagent and driedcarefully on a clean glass sheet. About 0.25 gm of the sample (to be tested) was taken in atest tube and suitable reagent was added. The solution was slightly heated for a minute andallowed to settle down for 24 hours shaking vigorously at frequent intervals. A drop of thissuppressant solution was carefully put with the help of dropper on the above impregnatedwhatman paper. As the drop comes in contact with the paper on instantaneous characteristicspot begins to develop and changes with the time. The change of colours and the pattern ofthe spot at 3 different phases at 3 different time intervals i.e., 0 minutes, 5 minutes 20 minutesare to be recorded.Application :• In Namburi Phased Spot test sensitivity of reactions at different time intervals is measured unlike the chromatography of chemistry.• The continual chemical reactions taking place gradually between 2 chemical substances on static media at fraction of second are easily detected by their distinct colour changes the pattern of spot which is specific to each Rasa formulation, as the standard. 64 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 75. Review of the literature PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS (By Laser Diffraction Method)183Introduction: Many different techniques have been devised for determining particle sizedistribution, but for a wide range of industries laser diffraction has become the preferredchoice. Laser diffraction, can be used for the non-destructive analysis of wet or dry samples,with particles in the size range 0.02 to 2000 micron.Principle: Laser diffraction based particle size analysis relies on the fact that particles passingthrough a laser beam will scatter light at an angle that is directly related to their size. Asparticle size decreases, the observed scattering angle increases logarithmically. Largeparticles therefore scatter light at narrow angles with high intensity whereas small particlesscatter at wider angles but with low intensity.Instrumentation: A typical system consists of a laser, to provide a source of coherent, intense light offixed wavelength; a series of detectors to measure the light pattern produced over a widerange of angles; and some kind of sample presentation system to ensure that material undertest passes through the laser beam as a homogeneous stream of particles in a known,reproducible state of dispersion. The smaller wavelength of light (e.g. blue light sources)provides improved sensitivity to sub-micron particles.Particle Size Calculations: In laser diffraction, particle size distributions are calculated by comparing a sample’sscattering pattern with an appropriate optical model. Traditionally two different models areused: the Fraunhofer Approximation and Mie Theory. Mie Theory is considered to besuperior.Advantages of Laser diffraction technique: It is a non-destructive, non-intrusive method. It measure particles in the range from 0.02 micron to a few millimetres The technique is equally applicable to dry or wet samples, sprays, dry powders, suspensions and emulsions, Rapid data acquisition – a single measurement across the entire dynamic range can be made in 0.4 milliseconds. 65 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 76. Pharmaceutical Study PHARMACEUTICAL STUDY This section deals with preparation of Samaguna baliyukta Kajjali, Trigunabaliyukta Kajjali, Samaguna balijeerna Rasasindoora and Triguna balijeernaRasasindoora.Aims and Objectives: The main aim of the present study is to prepare SK, TK, SBJR and TBJRpostgraduate Pharmacy section of Taranath Govt. Ayurvedic Medical College, Bellary.The objective includes: i. Selection of Raw Materials. ii. Shodhana of Raw Materials iii. Extraction of Parada from Hingula. iv. Preparation of SK and TK, v. Preparation of SBJR and TBJR.Materials and Methods: The materials and methods used were based on Rasa Shastra literature and dependingon the practical experience.Materials: This includes i. Major raw drugs. ii. Associated Raw drugs iii. Major equipments and associated equipmentsMajor Drugs: The major Raw materials Hingula and Gandhaka were collected based on the GrahyaAgrahya Lakshnas mentioned in Rasa Classics. i. Hingula : 1000 gms Hingula was collected from Amrit Kesari depot, Bangalore, Which was dark red in colour, heavy with silvery white shining lines on the surface. ii. Gandhaka : 1000 gms of Gandhaka which was yellow, crystalline, with smooth surface and strong sulphur odour, was collected from Amrit Kesari shop Bangalore.Associated Drugs: 66 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 77. Pharmaceutical Study i. Nimbu: Collected from local market, Bellary. ii. Milk: Fresh cow milk was collected daily for Gandhaka Shodhana. iii. Vatankura: Fresh vatankura was collected from Bellary and juice was extracted.Equipments:The yantras required were Khalva Yantra, Valuka Yantra, Kacha Kupi, Bhatti etc.Associated equipments: These include earthen pot, gas stove, knife, juice extractor, utensils, spatula, beakers,multani mitti, wood, loha shalakas, match stick, mud cork, funnel etc.,Method: The whole method of preparation includes: i. Shodhana of Raw materials. ii. Extraction of Parada from Hingula. iii. Preparation of SK and TK, iv. Preparation of SBJR and TBJR,PRACTICAL NO: 1Name of The Experiment : Hingulottha parada184 [Extraction of parada from hingula]Date of Commencement : 18/09/07Date of Completion : 15/10/07Materials : Hingula, 800gms. Nimbu Rasa 150ml.Equipments : Damaruyantra, khalvayantra, juicer, knife, spatula, cloth, multanimitti, gas stove,cold water, cotton cloth. 67 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 78. Pharmaceutical StudyProcedure:♦ Hingula weighing 800gms was taken in a khalva yantra, powdered finely.♦ To this 100ml of nimbu swarasa was added, mixed well and trituration was started.♦ Further 50ml of nimbu swarasa was added as and when needed and trituration was done continuously for 12 hrs.♦ After getting the proper consistency, chakrikas were made, about the size of 3-4cm in diameter, 2-3 mm in thickness.♦ The chakrikas were then allowed for drying under shade.♦ Then only 150gms of chakrikas were kept in an earthen pot and another pot of same size and shape was placed over it invertedly.♦ Sandhi bandhana was done with a cloth smeared with multanimitti and dried.♦ Totally seven layers of sandhibandhana done after drying of earlier one.♦ Thus made damaru yantra was kept over the gas stove and mridu agni was given for 3hrs of madhyamagni and next 3hrs of teevragni. Mean while the upper part of the pot was kept cool by frequent changing of cotton cloth dipped in cold water.♦ Heat was given continuously for 6hrs.♦ Then it was allowed for self cooling.♦ After self cooling the sandhibandhana was carefully removed.♦ The two pots were separated and in the inner surface of the upper pot parada was sublimated along with black soot which was scrapped and collected. And filtered through the double folded cloth until parada appeared silvery shining.♦ The same procedure was repeated for three times.Observations:♦ After 15mins trituration with nimbuswarasa, the red colour Hingula became brick red and during trituration white streaks were appeared.♦ Chakrikas of Hingula after drying appeared dark reddish of Sindoora colour with smooth surface♦ After complete cooling of damaru yantra the two pots were separated, the mercury globules with the black soot were seen in the inner surface of upper pot. 68 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 79. Pharmaceutical Study♦ In the lower pot 30gms of half burnt Hingula was recovered. At the centre of the lower pot Hingula was burnt completely, but at the sides little quantities of red coloured material was still present.Precautions:♦ Hingula was finely powdered before adding nimbuswarasa.♦ During mardana with nimbuswarasa spilling of material was avoided.♦ The chakrikas of hingula were kept in damaruyantra only after complete drying.♦ During the whole procedure the upper pot was kept cool by placing wet cotton cloth frequently.Table No16: Showing weight changes during extraction of Parada from Hingula Weight of Hingula Unburnt Parada Date before procedure Hingula extracted 18.09.2007 200gms 32.5gms 123gms 08.10.2007 200gms 34gms 113gms 15.10.2007 200gms 37.5gms 109gms 25.10.2007 200gms 33gms 120gmsResults: ♦ Weight of hingula before procedure :800gms ♦ Weight of half burnt hingula :137gms ♦ Weight of extracted parada :465gmsPRACTICAL NO: 2Name of the practical : Samanya Shodhana of Parada185Date of Commencement : 28.12.2007.Date of Completion : 30.12.2007.Materials : Hingulatkrusta Parada-465gms Haridra Churna–30 gmsEquipments : Khalva Yantra,Procedure: 465 gms of Hingulakrusta parada was taken into a porcelain mortar and 30 gmsof Haridra churna was added & triturated for 2 days and allowed for drying. After complete 69 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 80. Pharmaceutical Studydrying, powder was collected and filtered through the double folded cloth for 4 times andwashed with Kanji.Observations:♦ Yellow haridra churna turned to brilliant green Asian paints at (208-4) on trituration.♦ Slowly parada turned into small droplets and mixed with haridra powder completely.♦ Powder was glittering on exposing to sunlight.♦ Little quantity of parada along with haridra choorna got adhered to the mortar and pestle.♦ Finally the collected mercury was white and silvery. Precautions: ♦ Throughout the procedure spillage of the material from khalva yantra is avoided. ♦ Filtration should be carried out after the complete mixture of parada and haridra.♦ Small quantity of mixture (20-30 gms) each time should be filtered through double folded cloth.Table No 17: Showing weight changes during Samanya Shodhana of Parada Hingulak Loss Parada Haridra Shuddha rusta during Shodhana Choorna Parada Parada Shodhana 1 465 gms 30 gms 458 gms 7 gmsPRACTICAL NO: 3Name of the practical : Gandhaka shodhana110.Date of commencement : 25-10-2007Date of completion : 28-10-2007Materials : Gandhaka – 1000gms : Godugdha – 12 liters : Hot water for washing.Equipments: Khalva yantra, Mrit patra, Cloth, Thread, Loha sharava, Camphor, Matchbox, Cow dung cakes – 98 in total.Method: 70 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 81. Pharmaceutical Study♦ 500gms of Gandhaka was coarsely powdered in a khalwa yantra.♦ 2 liters of fresh cow’s milk was taken in earthen vessel, mouth of which was covered with a single layer of clean cotton cloth and tied properly with a thread.♦ Powdered Gandhaka was then spread over this cloth and pot was kept in a pit having the sufficient depth to fit the pot up to its neck.♦ A Loha sharava was kept covered over the mouth of this pot, without touching the mouth of the pot.♦ 18 cow dung cakes were spread over this sharava and fire was set with help of camphor.♦ After swanga sheetha the pot was removed out from the pit, cloth tied over the mouth was removed, granules of shodhita Gandhaka which were immersed in the milk were separated, washed with hot water thoroughly and dried under shade.♦ This procedure was repeated for 2 times by using fresh cow’s milk.♦ For remaining 500 gm of raw Gandhaka, same procedure was followed.Table No. 18. Showing observations during Gandhaka Shodhana(I batch) No. of Wt. of Wt. of Shuddha Time taken Quantity of Date Vanopalas Gandhaka Gandhaka for Swanga milk taken used taken obtained Sheeta25.10.2007 2 ltrs. 18 500 gm 480 gm 4 1/2hrs26.10.2007 2 ltrs. 16 480 gm 466 gm 4hrs27.10.2007 2 ltrs. 15 466 gm 457 gm 4 hrsTable No. 19. Showing observations during Gandhaka Shodhana(II batch) Wt. of Wt. of No. of Time taken Quantity of Shuddha Date Vanopalas Gandhaka for Swanga milk taken Gandhaka used taken Sheeta obtained 29.10.2007 2 ltrs 18 500 gms 480 gms 5 Hours 30.10.2007 2 ltrs 16 480 gms 465 gms 4 hours 31.10.2007 2 ltrs 15 465 gms 450 gms 4 hours 71 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 82. Pharmaceutical StudyTable No. 20. Showing physical changes during Gandhaka Shodhana Particulars Before Shodhana After Shodhana Colour of Sulphur Yellow Pale yellow Form of Sulphur Crystalline Granular Smell of milk No Smell Smell of Sulphur Colour of milk White Yellowish whiteObservations:♦ All the mud particles and dust which was present in Gandhaka was separated out over the cloth during the first procedure.♦ Shodhita Gandhaka was in granular form and few were streak like, fully immersed in the milk. Few granules were seen floating on the milk.♦ Shodhita Gandhaka was of bright yellow coloured and shiny.♦ The number of cow dung cakes used were decreased from 1st to 3rd procedure, the heat of which was sufficient to melt the Gandhaka.Precautions:♦ Fresh cows milk was used for each procedure, Quantity of milk was sufficient so that Gandhaka granules were completely immersed in it.♦ Pit was dug sufficiently big so that the pot can be kept till its neck inside the pit.♦ Loha sharava was kept over the pot so that it was not touching the mouth of the pot/cloth.♦ After each procedure Gandhaka was washed with hot water till the remnants of milk was removed completely and after each procedure it was dried well.Table No. 21. Showing weight changes during Gandhaka Shodhana Weight of I Batch II Batch Total Gandhaka Raw 500 gms 500 gms 1000 gms Shodhit 457 gms 450 gms 907 gmsLoss after shodhana 43 gms 50 gms 93 gms 72 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 83. Pharmaceutical StudyPRACTICAL NO: 4Name of the practical :Preparation of Samaguna baliyukta Kajjali37Date of commencement : 20.11.2008.Date of completion : 25.01.2008.Materials : Hingulotha parada – 300 gms Shuddha Gandhaka – 300 gmsApparatus : Khalwa Yantra, Spatula.Procedure: ♦ 300 gms of Hingulotha parada was put in Khalva, to this finely powdered Shodhita Gandhaka was added and triturated. ♦ Trituration was done slowly with uniform speed till all the Kajjali lakshanas were observed i.e. the whole mixture converts into a fine, black, smooth, lusterless powder.Observations: ♦ As soon as trituration started, at the centre of the Khalwa, sulfur in contact with the mercury attained yellowish grey colour. ♦ After 5 minutes of trituration, smaller mercury globules got separated from central bigger globule. ♦ After 10 minutes yellow colour of Gandhaka changed to yellowish green. ♦ After 15 minutes of trituration mixture appeared grey coloured and tailing of mercury was seen. ♦ After 25 minutes mixture appeared super grey coloured with small shiny globules. ♦ After 40 minutes mixture appeared cement coloured between which yellow streaks were seen while triturating. ♦ No mercury globules were seen after 1 hour of mardana. Shining was present, mixture was Cairo dust colour (Asian paints premium Emulsion). ♦ After 2 hours mixture appeared blackish Grey coloured. ♦ After 6 hours of trituration, mixture appeared blackish coloured. Shiny particles were observed. ♦ After 18 hours mixture appeared black coloured. Tests of Kajjali i.e., Rekhapurnatva, Varitaratva and Slakshnatva were absent. ♦ Mixture turned completely into soft, smooth black compound after 40 hours. 73 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 84. Pharmaceutical Study ♦ After 55 hours Rekhapurnatva and Slakshnatva were observed in the compound. ♦ Varitaratwa and Unama were observed in mixture after 72 hours of Mardana ♦ Little quantiity of Kajjali as put on fire and observed, it burns with fumes. ♦ After 80 hours, Kajjali was taken between thumb and index finger made wet then rubbed and was exposed to sunlight, shining particles were observed. ♦ Shiny Kajjali flakes were seen adhered at the bottom of Khalwa Yantra. ♦ After 100 hours, shining particles were reduced in number. ♦ After 120 hours, about 8 to10 shining particles were counted. ♦ For better fineness and smoothness of Kajjali, Mardana was continued upto 130 hours. ♦ Average to & fro movements of peshani were 14-15 times/ minute.Table No.22: Showing different phases of Samaguna baliyukta Kajjali duringpreparation. Hours Observations At 0 minute Parada + Gandhaka After 10 minutes Gandhaka changed to yellowish green After 15 minutes Tailing of Parada observed After 25 minutes Grey colour with mercury globules After 40 minutes Dark grey colour with yellow streaks After 1 Hour Absence of Parada globules After 2 Hours It turned to blackish Grey After 6 Hours Blackish colour with shiny particles After 18 Hours Test for Kajjali was absent After 40 Hours It turned to black fine powder After 55 Hours Attained Rakhapurnatva and Shlakshnatva After 72 Hours Varitara and unama tests were positive After 100 Hours Shining particles were still present After 120 Hours 8-10 shining particles were counted. After 130 Hours Showed completion of Kajjali lakshanas.Table No. 23:Showing Physical properties of Kajjali 74 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 85. Pharmaceutical Study Color Black Form Fine powder Taste Tasteless Odour Sulphur Touch Soft and smooth Appearance Anjana sadrushPrecautions:• Khalva Yantra should be clean and dry before starting the process.• Shodhita Gandhaka was finely powdered, before adding to Shodita Parada.• Mardana was done carefully and in uniform speed to avoid spillage.• The pestle was moved entire length of Khalva Yantra in clockwise /Anti Clockwise direction.• Khalwa should be kept covered when the work is not in progress.Results: Quantity of Shuddha Parada - 300 gms Quantity of Shuddha Gandhaka - 300 gms Weight of Kajjali - 580 gms Loss of weight - 20 gmsPRACTICAL NO: 5Name of the practical :Bhavana of vatankura swarasa to Samaguna baliyukta kajjali37Date of commencement : 27.01.2008Date of completion : 30.01.2008Drugs used : Kajjali-580 gm, Vatankura swarasa-150ml.Apparatus : Khalwa yantra, Mixer grinder, Spatula and filter.Procedure:• Kajjali was taken, to this 150 ml vatankura swarasa was added, mixed well and left over night for soaking in khalva yantra.• The next day mardana was carried out till it gets completely dried, finely powdered and stored in a glass container. 75 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 86. Pharmaceutical StudyObservations:• Vatankura was greenish red in colour.• Vatankura was grounded in mixer grinder and swarasa was extracted by squeezing through cloth.• The Colour of Vatankura Swarasa was dull red or poppy (Asian paints premium Emulsion) and Kashaya rasa predominantly, non sticky in consistency, facilitated the easy trituration.• For complete wetting of Kajjali vatankura Swarasa required was 70 ml.• Trituration was carried out until the subhavita Lakshanas were observed.• After complete drying, it attained typical smell of vatankura swarasa.Precautions:• Khalva Yantra should be clean and dry before the process started.• Adding Vatankura swarasa in according to the need i.e., Swarasa must be sufficient to soak the Kajjali.• The pestle should move entire length of Khalva Yantra in clockwise / Anti clockwise direction.• Trituration should be carried out until the kajjali is completely devoid of liquidity.Result: Initial weight of Kajjali – 580 gms Weight of Vatankura swarasa Bhavita Kajjali – 588 gms Weight gained – 08 gmsPRACTICAL NO: 6Name of the practical : Preparation of Triguna baliyukta Kajjali34Date of commencement : 01.02.2008.Date of completion : 13.03.2008.Drugs used : Hingulotha parada – 150 gms Shuddha Gandhaka – 450 gmsApparatus : Khalwa Yantra, Spatula. 76 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 87. Pharmaceutical StudyProcedure:• 150 gms of Hingulotha parada was put in Khalva, to this finely powdered Shodhita Gandhaka was added and triturated.• Trituration was done slowly with uniform speed till all the Kajjali lakshanas were observed i.e. the whole mixture converts into a fine, black, smooth, lusterless powder.Observations:• As soon as trituration started, sulfur in contact with the mercury attained yellowish grey colour and mercury globules were started appearing.• After 5 minutes of trituration mercury globules were mixed with sulfur, leaving major quantity of mercury at the centre.• After 10 minutes yellow colour Gandhaka was started changing to yellowish green. After 15 minutes of trituration mixture appeared blackish yellow colored and tailing of mercury was seen.• After 25 minutes mixture appeared super grey coloured with small shiny globules.• After 40 minutes mixture appeared cement coloured between which yellow streaks were seen while triturating.• No mercury was seen at the centre of mortar after 45 minutes of mardana. Shining was present, mixture was Cairo dust colour (Asian paints premium Emulsion). After 2 hours, mixture appeared blackish grey coloured.• After 6 hours of trituration, mixture appeared blackish coloured. Shiny particles were observed.• After 18 hours mixture appeared black coloured. Tests of Kajjali i.e., Rekhapurnatva, varitaratva and Slakshnatva were absent.• Mixture turned completely into soft, smooth black compound after 32 hours.• After 45 hours, complete Rekhapurnatva and Slakshnatva were observed in the compound.• Varitaratwa and Unama were observed in mixture after 60 hours of Mardana• Little quantiity of Kajjali as put on fire and observed, it burns with fumes.• After 80 hours, Kajjali was taken between thumb and index finger made wet then rubbed and was exposed to sunlight, shining particles were observed. 77 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 88. Pharmaceutical Study• Shiny Kajjali flakes were seen adhered at the bottom of Khalwa Yantra.• After 100 hours, 5 to 8 shining particles were counted.• For better fineness and smoothness of Kajjali, Mardana was continued upto 110 hours and no shining particles were seen.Average to & fro movements of peshani were 20-22 times/ minuteTable No 24: Showing different phases of Triguna baliyukta Kajjali during preparation. Hours Observations At 0 minute Parada + Gandhaka After 10 minutes Gandhaka changed to yellowish green After 15 minutes Tailing of Parada observed After 25 minutes Grey colour with shiny globules After 40 minutes Cement colour with yellow streaks After 45 minutes Absence of mercury at the centre of the morter After 2 Hours It turned to blackish Grey After 6 Hours Blackish colour with shiny particles After 18 Hours Test for Kajjali was absent After 32 Hours It turned to black fine powder After 45 Hours Attained Rekhapurnatva and Shlakshnatva After 60 Hours Varitara and unama tests were positive After 80 Hours Shining particles were present. After 100 hours 5 -8 shining particles were counted After 110 Hours Showed completion of Kajjali lakshanas. Table No. 25: Showing Physical properties of Triguna baliyukta Kajjali Color Black Form Fine powder Taste Tasteless Odour Sulphur Touch Soft and smooth Appearance Anjana sadrush 78 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 89. Pharmaceutical StudyPrecautions:• Khalva Yantra should be clean and dry before starting the process.• Shodhita Gandhaka was finely powdered, before adding to Shodita Parada.• Mardana was done carefully and in uniform speed to avoid spillage.• The pestle was moved entire length of Khalva Yantra in clockwise /Anti Clockwise direction.• Khalwa should be kept covered when the work is not in progress.Results: Quantity of Shuddha Parada - 150 gms Quantity of Shuddha Gandhaka - 450 gms Weight of Kajjali - 555 gms Loss of weight - 45 gmsPRACTICAL NO: 7Name of the practical :Bhavana of vatankura swarasa to Triguna baliyukta KajjaliDate of commencement : 14.03.2008Date of completion : 17.03.2008Drugs used : Kajjali-555 gms vatanura Swarasa- 200ml.Apparatus : Khalwa yantra, Mixer grinder, Spatula and filter.Procedure:• Kajjali was taken; to this 200 ml vatankura swarasa was added, mixed well and left over night for soaking in khalva yantra.• The next day mardana was carried out till it gets completely dried; it was then finely powdered and stored in a glass container.Observations:• Vatankura was greenish red in colour.• Vatankura was grounded in mixer grinder and swarasa was extracted by squeezing through cloth. 79 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 90. Pharmaceutical Study• The Colour of vatanura Swarasa was dull red or poppy (Asian paints premium Emulsion) and Kashaya rasa predominantly, non sticky in consistency, facilitated the easy trituration.• For complete wetting of Kajjali vatankura Swarasa required was 100 ml.• Trituration was carried out until the subhavita Lakshanas were observed.• After complete drying, it attained typical smell of vatankura swarasa.Precautions:• Khalva Yantra should be clean and dry before the process started.• Adding Vatankura swarasa in according to the need i.e., Swarasa must be sufficient to soak the Kajjali.• The pestle should move entire length of Khalva Yantra in clockwise / Anti clockwise direction.• Trituration was carried out until the kajjali is completely devoid of liquidity.Result : Initial weight of Kajjali – 555 gms Weight of Vatankura swarasa Bhavita Kajjali – 565 gms Weight gained – 10 gms PREPARATION OF SAMAGUNA AND TRIGUNA BALIJEERNA RASASINDOORAThe whole procedure of Rasasindoora was categorized under 3 headings :1. Purva Karma (Pre-procedural)2. Pradhana Karma (Procedural)3. Paschat Karma (post procedural)1. Purva Krama : a. Preparation of Kacha Kupi b. Filling of Kajjali into Kachakupi c. Placing of Kacha Kupi in Valuka Yantra2. Pradhana Krama : a. Heating Schedule (Kramagni tapa) b. Observation and recording of temperature 80 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 91. Pharmaceutical Study c. Corking of Kacha Kupi and self cooling of the apparatus.3. Pashchat Karma ; a. Removal of Kacha Kupi from Valuka Yantra. b. Breaking of Kach Kupi. c. Collection of Final Product.PRACTICAL NO: 8 Preparation of Samaguna balijeerna RasasindooraPractical No- 8AName of the Experiment : Preparation of Kacha KupiDate of commencement : 07/02/08Date of completion : 15/02/08Materials : A green colored beer bottle, Cloth, Gopichandana, Water, ScissorsProcedure: • A green colored glassy beer bottle of 750 ml capacity was selected. It was washed and dried properly. • A cloth piece of 6 cm length and breadth; smeared with gopichandana was applied over the bottom of the bottle and dried. • Next the body of the bottle was wrapped with the cloth, measuring 116 cm × 4 cm length and breadth respectively which was smeared with paste of gopichandana. It was covered in circular fashion starting from bottom upto the mouth of the bottle. Allowed to dry well. • Next day, after complete drying, another cloth strip smeared with gopichandana was applied over the former layer. • The body of the bottle was wrapped totally with 7 layers and the bottom with 8 layers.Observations: • Kupi went on becoming thicker and thicker. • It took 24 hrs for each layer to dry.Precautions: • Glass bottle was selected in which there was no air bubble. • Each layer was put after complete drying of previous one. • Tight packing was done especially over bottom. 81 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 92. Pharmaceutical StudyPRACTICAL NO: 8BName of the Experiment :Kupi purana with samguna baliyukta kajjali156Date of commencement : 24/06/08Date of completion : 24/06/08Materials : prepared kupi, funnel, weighing Machine, samaguna baliyukta kajjali.Procedure: • A glass funnel was kept over the mouth of the bottle. • Kupi was filled slowly with prepared 150 gms of kajjali.Precautions: • Kajjali was again triturated for half an hour before filling the kupi. • Inner aspect of the kupi was cleaned and dried properly with a clean cloth tied over a stick. • Care was taken to spread the kajjali uniformly inside the kupi.PRACTICAL NO: 8CName of the Experiment : Placing of Kupi in Valuka yantraDate of commencement : 24/06/08Date of completion : 24/06/08Materials : Valuka yantra, sand, sieve, Abhraka patra, bottle filled with Samaguna baliyukta kajjaliProcedure: • A conical shaped Valuka yantra with the following measurement was taken: Height - 24 cm and Circumference - 93 cm at top, 80 cm at bottom • At the centre of the base it was having a hole of 2cm in diameter. It was having two strong handles fixed on both sides of its mouth which had a circular rim, which fits exactly on the iron ring of bhatti. • This valuka yantra was properly placed in the Bhatti. • The hole at the centre of base of vessel was closed with two abhraka patras of 4 cm width and 1.5 cm thickness. 82 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 93. Pharmaceutical Study • Now, Valuka which was cleaned, dried, filtered through mesh No.20 was poured in Valuka Yantra over the Abraka patra, for a height of two angula. • Kupi with kajjali was kept over it and tip of the thermocouple was placed at the level of base of the kupi. • Then whole of the Valuka yantra was filled with valuka up to kanta bhaga of kupi. The valuka yantra required 18 kg of valuka.Precautions: • Care was taken to avoid fall of sand into kupi, while filling sand in the valuka yantra. • Kupi and thermocouple were kept straight. • Valuka used was free from mud particles.PRACTICAL NO-8DName Of the Experiment : Preparation of Samaguna balijeerna Rasasindoora37.Date of commencement : 25/06/08Date of completion : 27/06/08Materials: Bhatti, valuka yantra, Karpoora, match box, wood, pyrometer, shalaka, cloth,torch, copper coin etc.Procedure: • After keeping the entire apparatus ready, Pooja was done, by chanting "Aghora mantra". • With help of karpoora fire was set by 10.30 am. • Temperature was recorded for every 5 minutes with the help of Pyrometre. • Gradual increase in temperature was maintained throughout the procedure. • For the first two hours mrudvagni was given. The temperature was maintained between 2000C - 2500C. • Next for 4 hours the temperature was gradually raised to madyamagni i.e, between 2500 C- 4500C. 83 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 94. Pharmaceutical Study • Next for 6 hours teevragni is maintained, temperature varying between 4500C - 6500C. During this period neck of the bottle frequently cleared by red hot shalaka. • Flames ceased after 10 hours. Sooryodaya laxana was observed after 11 hours, then sand around the neck was removed and burning coal was also taken out to reduce the temperature. • Mukhamudrana was done after 12 hours by placing the cork and then it was tightly wrapped with the mud smeared cloth. • Again teevragni is maintained for next three hours. • Then the apparatus was allowed to cool on its own.Table No26: Showing observations during the preparation of Samaguna balijeernaRasa Sindoora. Date Time Duration Temp Observations25/06/08 10.30am 0 hour 290C Agni started. 11.40 am 1 hour 1850C Light fumes started. Kajjali can be seen through the torch light. 12.30 pm 2hours 2440C Dense white fumes appeared. Unable to see the kajjali through the torch light 1.05 pm 2.30 hours 2680C Sheeta shalaka was inserted and to its tip dull blackish material got adhered, suggesting the initiation of melting. 2.10 pm 3.30 hours 3280C Slight yellow fumes were seen. 3.00 pm 4.30 hours 3530C Dense yellow fumes were persisting. 3.55 pm 5 hours 3990C Partially melted material was seen as the thick fumes were reduced. 4.20 pm 5.30 hours 5030C Liquification of the material started, material was in semisolid state. 5.00 pm 6.30 hours 5690C Material completely melted 0 5.50 pm 7 hours 581 C Material started boiling, hot shalaka inserted, flame raised to 3.5 inch height above the kupi, dancing of the mercury is observed, and blue flame persisted after taking out the shalaka. 6.10 pm 7.30 hours 6190C While inserting the hot shalaka flame raised up to the height of one foot. 6.30 pm 8 hours 5920C Blue flame still exists. 7.30 pm 9 hours 5790C Hot shalaka insertion continued to remove the choking of sulfur, blue 84 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 95. Pharmaceutical Study flame still persists. 8.35 pm 10 hours 5570C Blue flame was ceased. Small amount of product was taken out rubbed over a porcelain mortar and it yielded red color. 9.50 pm 11 hours 6080C Light fumes were observed. Sooryodaya laxana was present. Greyish discoloration was observed over the copper coin. 10.30 pm 12 hours 5600C Mukhamudrana was done. Teevragni was started.27/06/08 1.30am 15 hours 6680C Teevragni was stopped.Precautions:• Valuka Yantra should be placed firmly over the rim of the Bhatti.• The thermocouple of pyrometer should be inserted properly in Valuka Yantra.• The maintenance of temperature was done carefully with the help of pyrometer.• Steady rise in temperature was maintained.• Care was taken while inserting hot shalaka.• Corking should be done after cessation of fumes, flame and appearance of Suryodaya lakshanas.• Copper coin test, Sindhura test should also be done before corking to confirm Aushadhi sidda laxanas.• Mud cork was scraped properly in such a way that it should fit exactly to the inner surface of the mouth of the Kupi.• The sand was removed upto Kanta Bhaga before corking.• The Kacha Kupi should be taken out from Valuka Yantra only after it was cooled on its own.PRACTICAL NO: 8EName of Practical : Breaking of kupi162Date of Commencement : 27/06/2008Date of Completion : 27/06/2008Materials : Knife, Thread, Kerosene, Matchbox, Kupi containing SBJR, clean container.Procedure: 85 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 96. Pharmaceutical Study The bottle was carefully removed from the valuka yantra. The outer layer of the bottlewas scrapped carefully with the help of a knife to remove the gopi chandana coating. Thekerosene dipped thread was tied around the bottle, 2-3 inches below the circular rim of theproduct and was set to fire. When the thread burned, it was wrapped with the wet cloth thenthe bottle broke into two halves. Rasasindhoora was obtained as a whole block just bytapping the bottleObservations:• After taking out the Kupi from Valuka Yantra, the upper portion was black in colour.• After complete removal of layers the bottle was cleared then shiny and dark colour sublimated product was observed.• There was a thick collection of medicine in the neck region, where as the lower portion contained grey coloured residue.• Block of Samaguna balijeerna Rasa Sindoora was shiny greyish red coloured.Precautions:• The bottle was separated into two halves only after the breaking noise and no force was applied to separate the bottle.• The upper part of bottle should tap carefully so that bottle should not crack.• The Samaguna balijeerna Rasa Sindoora was weighed and procured in airtight container.Results: Total hours of preparation -15 hours The amount of Kajjali taken -150 gm The amount of Samaguna balijeerna Rasasindoora obtained - 79 gm The amount of residue at the bottom - 1 gm Loss of weight - 70 gm. 86 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 97. Pharmaceutical Study Graph 1: showing Hours v/s Temp of Samaguna balijeerna Rasasindoora Samaguna balijeerna Rasasindoora 800 700 650 668 650 600 608 590 615 575 592 593 550 Temp in 0C 500 510 517 400 421 347 300 311 244 200 176 100 29 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Hours Descriptive Statistics: Mean : 464.824 Std Dev :184.868 Std. Error : 44.837 Median : 540.000PRACTICAL NO: 9 Preparation of Triguna balijeerna RasasindooraPRACTICAL NO: 9AName of the Experiment : Preparation of Kacha KupiDate of commencement : 07/02/08Date of completion : 15/02/08Materials : A green colored beer bottle, Cloth, Gopichandana, Water, ScissorsProcedure: Same as practical no: 8AObservations: Same as practical no: 8APrecautions: Same as practical no: 8A 87 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 98. Pharmaceutical StudyPRACTICAL NO: 9BName Of the Experiment :Kupi purana with Triguna baliyukta kajjali 156Date of commencement : 18/03/08Date of completion : 18/03/08Materials : 150 gm of Triguna baliyukta kajjali Prepared kupi, funnel, weighing machine.Procedure: Same as practical no: 8BObservations: Same as practical no: 8BPrecautions: Same as practical no: 8BPRACTICAL NO: 9CName of the Experiment : Placing of Kupi in Valuka yantraDate of commencement : 18/03/08Date of completion : 18/03/08Materials : An iron vessel, sand, sieve, Abhraka patra, bottle filled with Triguna baliyukta kajjali.Procedure: Same as practical no: 8CObservations: Same as practical no: 8CPrecautions: Same as practical no: 8CPRACTICAL NO: 9DName of the Experiment : Preparation of Triguna balijeerna Rasasindoora34.Date of commencement : 18/03/08Date of completion : 20/03/08Materials: Bhatti, valuka yantra, Karpoora, match box, wood, pyrometer, shalaka, cloth,torch, copper coin etc.Procedure: • Preparation was started with pooja and chanting "Aghora mantra". • With help of camphor fire was set by 8.00 pm. • Temperature was recorded for every 15 minutes with the help of Pyrometer. • Heat was given by gradual increase in temperature. 88 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 99. Pharmaceutical Study • For the first six hours mridvagni was given. The temperature was maintained between 2000C - 2500C. • Next for seventeen hours the temperature was gradually rais ed to madyamagni i.e, between 2500 C- 4500C. • Next for ten hours teevragni is maintained, temperature varying between 4500C - 6500C. During this period neck of the bottle frequently cleared by red hot shalaka. • Flame was ceased after 26 hours. Sooryodaya laxana was observed after 28 hours 30 minutes. • Copper coin test, sindoora test and sheeta shalaka test were positive, indicating aushadhi siddha laxanas. • Sand around the neck was removed and burning coal was also taken out to reduce the temperature. • Mukhamudrana was done after 33 hours by placing the cork and then it was tightly wrapped with the mud smeared cloth. • Again teevragni is maintained for next six hours. Then the apparatus was allowed to cool on its own.Precautions: Same as practical No 8DTable No 27: Showing observations during the preparation of Triguna balijeernaRasasindoora. Date Time Duration Temp Observation18/03/08 8.00pm 0 hour 300C Agni started 9.30pm 1.30 hours 2180C Very light white fumes were observed inside the kupi. 11.00pm 3hours 1910C White fumes coming out of kupi19/03/08 3.30am 7.30hours 2970C Yellow fumes are started 0 4.30am 8.30hours 282 C Dense yellow fumes were observed 6.00am 10 hours 3080C Material can be seen through torch, liquification started. 12.30pm 16.30 hours 3510C Bubbles appeared one after other on the surface of liquefying material 1.30pm 17.30 hours 3570C Thick semisolid product adhered to sheeta shalaka 4.00pm 20 hours 4100C Bubbling still present along with slight sulfur fumes 4.35pm 20.30 hours 4450C Kajjali completely melted. 89 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 100. Pharmaceutical Study 5.00pm 21 hours 4480C Movement of the molten kajjali was appreciated through torch. 6.10pm 22 hours 4600C Dark reddish shining boiling material seen through torch light. 6.30pm 22.30 hours 4670C Thick yellow fumes inside the kupi. 7.00pm 23 hours 4690C Inserted hot shalaka. 5 inch height flame appeared. 8.00pm 24 hours 5150C Dense yellow fumes persisting. 8.45pm 24.30 hours 5100C Insertion of hot shalaka continued. Blue flame appeared at the mouth of the kupi & dancing of mercury is observed after taking out the shalaka. 9.00pm 25 hours 5090C After inserting hot shalaka 10 inch height flame emerged. 9.50pm 25.30 hours 4870C Little product rubbed in porcelain mortar which yielded red colour. Blue flame still persists. 10.15pm 26 hours 5000C Extinction of blue flame. Dense sulphur fumes still persist.20/03/08 12.45am 28.30 hours 5900C Sooryodaya laxana appeared. Fumes still persist. 4.50am 32.30 hours 6300C Grayish discoloration of copper coin. Sheeta shalaka inserted, light fumes emerged out of it. Product adhered to it was non sticky. 5.00am 33 hours 6200C Corking was done. 11.00am 39 hours 6310C Temperature recording carried out for 6 hours.PRACTICAL NO: 9EName of Practical : Breaking of kupi 162Date of Commencement : 21/03/2008Date of Completion : 21/03/2008Materials : Knife, Thread, Kerosene, Matchbox, Bottle containing TBJR, clean container.Procedure: Same as practical No 8EObservations:• After taking out the Kupi from Valuka Yantra, upper portion of kupi was black in colour.• After complete removal of layers, the bottle was cleared; shiny and dark colour sublimate was observed at the neck region of kupi. 90 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 101. Pharmaceutical Study• There was a collection of medicine in the upper portion of the neck region, where as the bottom of the kupi contained grey coloured residue.• Triguna balijeerna Rasasindoora was shiny greyish red coloured.Precautions: Same as practical No 8EResults: The amount of Kajjali taken -150 gm The amount of Triguna balijeerna Rasasindhoora obtained - 37 gm The amount of residue at the bottom - 1.5 gm Loss of weight - 111.5 gm. Graph 2: showing Hours v/s Temp of Triguna balijeerna Rasasindoora Triguna balijeerna Rasasindoora 700 629 631 600 607 592 579 545 543 515 510 500 Temperature 445 400 410 374 380 340 353 300 297 308 215 226 200 198 100 30 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 39 HoursDescriptive Statistics:Mean : 429.643Std Dev : 168.133Std. Error : 31.774Median : 416.000 91 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora -By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 102. Analytical Study ANALYTICAL STUDY Present study has been undertaken for physical and chemical analysis of Samagunabaliyukta Kajjali, Triguna baliyukta Kajjali, Samaguna balijeerna Rasasindoora and Trigunabalijeerna Rasasindoora by Ayurvedic and modern parameters.In the present study analysis is done for four samples. • SK-Sample No-1 • TK- Sample No-2 • SBJR-Sample No-3 • SBJR-Sample No-4Aims and objectives:• To study physico-chemical properties of SK, TK, SBJR and TBJR• To study qualitative and quantitative properties of SK, TK, SBJR and TBJR by Volhard method, Gravimetric method, Turbidimetric method, and X-ray diffraction method.• To study the colour spots of SK, TK, SBJR and TBJR by Namburi phased spot test (N.P.S.T).Materials and Methods: Physico-chemical analysis was carried out with Classical and Modern parameters.Physical tests:• The study of SK, TK, SBJR and TBJR was done at P.G Department of Rasa Shastra, T.G.A.MC, Bellary• Ganesh Consultancy and Analytical Services, Mysore.• Particle size analysis of all four samples is carried out at Indian Institute of Sciences, Bangalore. Chemical Tests:• Qualitative and Quantitative chemical tests of SK, TK, SBJR and TBJR were done at Ganesh consultancy and analytical Services, Mysore.• X-ray diffraction method for crystallographic study of SK, TK, SBJR and TBJR was done at Indian Institute of Sciences (IISc), Bangalore. 92 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 103. Analytical Study• Namburi Phased Spot test of SK, TK, SBJR and TBJR was done at P.G Department of Rasa Shastra, T.G.A.MC, Bellary. CLASSICAL PARAMETERS The ancient Parameters were carried out for SK, TK, SBJR and TBJR at Rasa Shastra Dept. TGAMC, Bellary.Table No. 28. Showing classical Parameters for analysing SK and TK. Test ObservationVarna Black colourSparsha Smooth and soft.Gandha Slight Sulphur Smell.Rekha When fine powder of Kajjali was rubbed between the thumb and indexPurnatva finger it entered the furrows of the fingers.Varitaratva When finely powdered Kajjali was carefully Sprinkled into a test tube containing water, Kajjali was floating over the water.Nischandratva Luster less i.e., No shining particles were observed.Table No. 29 Showing classical parameters for Analysis of Samaguna and Trigunabalijeerna Rasasindoora Test Observation Varna Sindoora Rasa Not perceivable Sparsha Slakshna and Mrudu Gandha Not perceivable Rekhapurnatva When the Rasa Sindoora was rubbed between the thumb and index finger it entered the furrows of the fingers. Varitaratva When finely powdered Rasa Sindoora was carefully Sprinkled into a test tube containing water, Sindoora floats on water. Nischandratvam There were no shining particles in the finely powdered Rasa Sindoora even when it was rubbed in between thumb and index finger and made wet, observed in the bright Sunlight. Nirdoomatvam The Rasa Sindoora was sprinkled over the red hot coal. There was no emission of smoke. 93 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 104. Analytical Study MODERN PARAMETERSPhysical Tests:1. ORGANOLEPTIC CHARACTERS:a) Samaguna baliyukta KajjaliColour : BlackOdour : Faint.Touch : Fine powderTaste : Palatableb) Triguna baliyukta Kajjali;Colour : BlackOdour : FaintTouch : Fine powderTaste : Palatablec) Samaguna balijeerna RasasindooraColour : Reddish brownOdour : OdourlessTouch : Fine powderTaste : Palatabled) Triguna balijeerna RasasindooraColour : Reddish brownOdour : OdourlessTouch : Fine powderTaste : Palatable2. DETERMINATION OF PH VALUE.Materials:• Glass electrode• PH meter• Buffer tablet (PH - 4 ) Acid - 0.05H Potassium hydrogenphthalate, (PH – 8 ) Alkali - 0.05H Sodium tetraborate.• Beakers• SK, TK, SBJR, TBJR each- 1gm. 94 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 105. Analytical StudyMethod: Operate the PH meter and electrode system according to the manual instructions.Standardizing the meter and electrodes with 0.05H Sodium borate when measuring analkaline Solution. At the end of a set of measurements, take a reaching of the solution used tostandardizing the meter and electrodes. This reading should not differ by more than 0.02from the original value at which the apparatus was standardized. Now in 5ml of water 1gm of sample was put and PH is determined for the solution. Results: Samaguna baliyukta Kajjali -6.65 Triguna baliyukta Kajjali -7.74 Samaguna balijeerna Rasasindoora -6.20 Triguna balijeerna Rasasindoora - 7.853. DETERMINATION OF ASH VALUEMaterials: 1. Silica crucible. 2. Electronic weighing machine. 3. Electric furnace. 4. SK, TK, SBJR, TBJR – 2 gmProcedure: Two grams of accurately weighed sample was taken and transferred to the cleaned,dried and weighed Silica crucible and was subjected to ignition using electric furnace at4500C for an hour. Silica crucible was taken out from the furnace and was allowed to cool,and was weighed. After cooling from the weight of the ash obtained, the ash value of samplewas calculated. Result: Samaguna baliyukta Kajjali -0.13% Triguna baliyukta Kajjali -0.12% Samaguna balijeerna Rasasindoora -0.01% Triguna balijeerna Rasasindoora - 0.15% 95 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 106. Analytical Study 4. DETERMINATION OF ACID INSOLUBLE ASHMaterial:• Silica crucible.• Burner• Whatman’s filter Paper• Electronic weighing machine.• Dil HCl - 25ml.• Conical flask.• Ash of SK, TK, SBJR, TBJRMethod: 2gm of sample is digested with 25 ml dil hydrochloric acid for 5 min, then filteredthrough whatman’s paper and was washed with water.The residue was taken in a crucible dried and ignited, allowed to cool and weighed.Result: Samaguna baliyukta Kajjali -0.08% Triguna baliyukta Kajjali -0.08% Samaguna balijeerna Rasasindoora -Nil Triguna balijeerna Rasasindoora -0.13%5. DETERMINATION OF WATER SOLUBLE ASHMaterial: • Burner • Whatman’s filter Paper • Electronic weighing machine. • Water • Ash of SK, TK, SBJR, TBJRMethod: Boil the ash for 5 minutes with 25ml of water; collect the insoluble matter in a ashlessfilter paper; wash with hot water, and ignite for 15 minutes at a temperature not exceeding4500C, substract the weight of the insoluble matter from the weight of the ash; the differencein the weight represents the water soluble ash. Calculate the percentage of water soluble ashwith reference to the air dried drug. 96 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 107. Analytical StudyResults: Samaguna baliyukta Kajjali -0.01% Triguna baliyukta Kajjali - 0.02% Samaguna balijeerna Rasasindoora -Nil Triguna balijeerna Rasasindoora - 0.05% 6. DETERMINATION OF LOSS ON DRYING AT 1100CMaterials: • Silica crucible • Electronic weighing machine • Electronic air oven • SK, TK, SBJR, TBJR each 1 gm.Method: One gram of sample was taken in a Silica crucible and accurately weighed, heated onelectric air oven upto 1100C for 3 hrs. Again weighed the difference and weight wascalculated.Result: Samaguna baliyukta Kajjali -0.59% Triguna baliyukta Kajjali - 0.70% Samaguna balijeerna Rasasindoora -0.05% Triguna balijeerna Rasasindoora - 0.02%Chemical tests:1) ESTIMATION OF TOTAL MERCURY BY VOLHARD METHOD:Reagents: 1. Conc Sulfuric acid 2. Potassium permanganate 3. Oxalic acid 4. Ferrous Sulphate Solution 5. Ferric ammonium Sulphate Indicator 6. Potassium thiocyanate SolutionSample preparation: 97 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 108. Analytical Study Transfer known quantity of samples to Kjeldal flask fitted with short stemmed funneladd 5ml of conc Sulfuric acid and mix. Add 0.5 to 1 gm of potassium permanganate in smallportions with vigorous shaking. Rince down with 5ml of conc Sulfuric acid. Shake the flaskfor 30 minutes. Then heat gradually to boiling. Remove from heat without cooling, add smallportion of oxalic acid until the manganous dioxide has been reduced and dissolved. Cool anddilute to 100ml.Method: A known quantity of solution is taken in a conical flask. Oxidise any Mercurousmercury or Nitrogen oxides by adding 0.1 M potassium permanganate solution dropwise withstirring until the pink colour persists for 5 minutes. Remove excess of permanganate byadding just enough 0.1 M Ferrous Sulfate Solution. Add 1.5 ml of ferric ammonium sulfateindicator, cool to 150C and titrate with potassium thio cyanate solution. Hg % = (V) (A) 100 W(1000)V= Volume of the thiocynate solutionA= Mercury equivalent of thiocynateW= Sample weight contained in aliquote.Result: Samaguna baliyukta Kajjali -40.42% Triguna baliyukta Kajjali - 30.56% Samaguna balijeerna Rasasindoora -82.40% Triguna balijeerna Rasasindoora - 84.82% 2) ESTIMATION OF MERCUROUS MERCURY AND MERCURIC MERCURY:To find Mercurous Mercury and Mercuric Mercury, further calculations are done on the basisof percentage of total mercury.Table No 30 : showing results of Mercurous and Mercuric Mercury Sample Mercurous Mercury Mercuric MercurySamaguna baliyukta Kajjali 14.17% 26.25%Triguna baliyukta Kajjali 12.32% 18.24%Samaguna balijeerna 14.36% 68.04%RasasindooraTriguna balijeerna 14.06% 70.76%Rasasindoora 98 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 109. Analytical Study3) ESTIMATION OF FREE MERCURY BY ION SELECTIVE ELETRODEMETHODMaterials: • Ion selective electrode • Beaker • SK, TK, SBJR, TBJR each 1 gm.Method: Take a known quantity of sample in a beaker. Add 100ml of water and filter. Collectthe filtrate. Aliquote of the sample is taken and analysed the free mercury by ion selectiveelectrode method.Results: Samaguna baliyukta Kajjali -Traces Triguna baliyukta Kajjali - Traces Samaguna balijeerna Rasasindoora - Nil Triguna balijeerna Rasasindoora - Nil4) ESTIMATION OF SULPHUR BY ESCHKA METHOD (Gravimetrically)Materials:• Eschka mixture and other reagants.• Electronic weighing machine.• Crucible• Whatman filter paper.• SK, TK, SBJR, TBJR each 1 gm.Method: 1 gm of sample is ground to pass 80 mesh sieve and 3 gm of Eschka mixture (2part of calcined magnesium oxide and 1 part of anhydrous sodium carbonate) is added.Intimately mix in a crucible and cover with another 2 grams of Eschka mixture. Ignite thecontent till all the carbon is burnt. Cool the crucible. Add 10% barium chloride solution with constant stirring, to precipitate all thesulphates and a small excess. Filter the Solution with whatman filter paper and collect theprecipitate and weigh it as Barium Sulphate. Calculation: Wt. of BaSO4 x 0.1373x100 = % of Sulphur. Amt. of sample 99 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 110. Analytical StudyResults: Samaguna baliyukta Kajjali -48.49% Triguna baliyukta Kajjali - 66.89% Samaguna balijeerna Rasasindoora -16.16% Triguna balijeerna Rasasindoora - 14.43%5) ESTIMATION OF FREE SULPHUR, SULPHIDE FORM OF SULPHURTo find free Sulphur, Sulphide form of Sulphur, further calculations done on the basis ofpercentage of total Sulphur.Table No.31: showing results of Free Sulfur and Sulphide form of SulfurSamples Free sulfur Sulphide form of sulfurSamaguna baliyukta Kajjali 22.34% 20.06%Triguna baliyukta Kajjali 40.80% 18.91%Samaguna balijeerna Traces 15.19%RasasindooraTriguna balijeerna Traces 13.51%Rasasindoora6).DETERMINATION OF SULPHATE BY TURBIDIMETRIC METHOD.Materials:• Due pont-model 430-turbidity meter.• SK, TK, SBJR, TBJR each 1 gm.Method: 1gm of sample is added with 9 ml of hydrochloric acid i.e., 1:9 proportion and 1ml ofconditioning Reagent is added, to this add a spoonful of Barium chloride crystals. The turbidity is measured with the intensity of the transmitted light as a function ofconcentration of the suspended particles by means of turbidity meter.Results: Samaguna baliyukta Kajjali -18.27% Triguna baliyukta Kajjali -15.55% Samaguna balijeerna Rasasindoora -2.93% Triguna balijeerna Rasasindoora - 2.76% 100 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 111. Analytical Study 7) X-RAY DIFFRACTION STUDY Materials: • Brukars D-8 Advance X-ray diffractometer and is equipped with Cu K-alpha (Lambda-1.5 406) radiation and graphite monochromator operated at 40KV/30mA. • SK, TK, SBJR, TBJR each 1 gm. Method: Sample was well grounded to 200mesh and air dried. The X-ray diffractometer scans were made on randomly oriented Samples form 3-650 2-theta (d=29.42 to 1.43angstorm) with a step size of 0.020 and one second time per step. The 2-theta value and intensity of the peak (counts) are represented on X and Y-axis respectively. Higher the value of counts represents higher the crystallanity of the phase. For identification of each phase, minimum 3 strong peaks were chosen and compared with standard X-ray Powder Diffraction file (XPDF). Table No.32: Showing XRD of Samaguna baliyukta Kajjali. Identified Standard Peak Angle 2 θ d space Intensity d space Intensity No 5 26.249 3.395 100 3.390 99.9 8 30.4 2.94 23 2.9358 28.9 18 43.606 2.076 33 2.0759 36.1 22 51.7 1.768 26 1.7703 25.8 23 54.26 1.691 10 1.695 4.4 25 63.32 1.469 6 1.4679 3.5 XPDF No:73-1593 Name of standard : Metacinnabarite (HgS) Crystal structure: Cubic Lattice : Face centeredNote: Totally 29 peaks were identified in SK sample at different angels (2θ) ranging from 15.26 to 86.28. 6 strong peaks were chosen as strong with their relative Intensity and compared to standard X – ray powder diffraction file (XPDF). 101 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 112. Analytical Study 5th peak with relative intensity of 100% was considered as significant at 26.2490, having 3.395 d space value. The d values of standard Metacinnabar (3.390, 2.9358, 2.079) were almost similar to identified SK values (3.395, 2.94, 2.076). The intensity % of Metacinnabar (99.9, 28.9, 36.1) was approximately matching with the intensity % of (100, 23, 33) respectively. Table No.33: Showing XRD of Triguna baliyukta Kajjali. Identified Standard Peak Angle 2 θ d space Intensity d space Intensity No 8 26.273 3.392 100 3.390 99.9 11 30.4 2.94 22 2.9358 28.9 22 43.647 2.074 31 2.0759 36.1 26 51.66 1.769 25 1.7703 25.8 29 56.7 1.623 7 1.695 4.4 32 70 1.344 8 1.4679 3.5 XPDF No:73-1593 Name of standard : Metacinnabarite (HgS) Crystal structure: Cubic Lattice : Face centeredNote: Totally 33 peaks were identified in TK sample at different angels (2θ) ranging from 11.36 to 86.22. 6 peaks were chosen with their relative Intensity and compared to standard X – ray powder diffraction file (XPDF). 8th peak with relative intensity of 100% was considered as significant at 26.2730, having 3.392 d space value. The d values of standard Metacinnabar (3.390, 2.9358, 2.0759) are almost similar to identified TK values (3.392, 2.94, 2.074). The intensity % of standard Metacinnabar (99.9, 28.9, 36.1) is approximately matching with the intensity % of (100, 22, 31) respectively. 102 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 113. Analytical Study Table No.34: Showing XRD of Samaguna balijeerna Rasasindoora. Identified Standard Peak Angle 2 θ d space Intensity d space Intensity No 2 26.422 3.373 100 3.359 100 3 28.094 3.176 30 3.165 30 4 31.121 2.874 98 2.863 95 6 43.526 2.079 25 2.074 25 8 45.71 1.985 21 1.980 20 12 54.54 1.683 18 1.679 25 XPDF No:6-0256 Name of standard : Cinnabar (HgS) Crystal structure : Hexagonal Lattice : Primitive.Note: Totally 24 peaks were identified in SBJR sample at different angels (2 θ) from 24.64 to 88.5. 6 strong peaks were chosen as strong with their relative Intensity and compared to standard X – ray powder diffraction file (XPDF). 2nd peak with relative intensity of 100%. was considered as significant at 26.4220, having 3.373 d space value The d values of standard cinnabar (3.359, 3.165, 2.863) were almost similar to identified SBJR values (3.373, 3,176, 2.874). The intensity % of Cinnabar (100, 30, 95) was aproximately matching with the intensity % of (100, 30, 98) respectively. Table No.35: Showing XRD of Triguna balijeerna Rasasindoora. Identified Standard Peak Angle 2 θ d space Intensity d space Intensity No 2 26.348 3.383 92 3.359 100 3 28.021 3.184 32 3.165 30 4 31.048 2.88 100 2.863 95 6 43.449 2.083 21 2.074 25 8 45.6 1.989 20 1.980 20 12 54.477 1.684 19 1.679 25 XPDF No:6-0256 Name of standard : Cinnabar (HgS) Crystal structure : Hexagonal Lattice: Primitive. 103 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 114. Analytical StudyNote: Totally 23 peaks were identified in TBJR sample at different angels (2 θ) from 24.62 to 88.36 6 strong peaks were chosen as strong with their relative Intensity and compared to standard X – ray powder diffraction file (XPDF). 4th peak with relative intensity of 100%. was considered as significant at 31.0480, having 2.88 d space value The d values of standard cinnabar (3.359, 3.165, 2.863) were approximately matching to identified TBJR values (3.383, 3,184, 2.88). The intensity % of standard Cinnabar (100, 30, 95) was slightly varying as compared with intensity % of TBJR (92, 32, 100). 8) NAMBURI PHASED SPOT TEST. Date of commencement: 20/09/2008 Date of completion: 24/09/2008 Materials: ♦ 10% potassium iodide papers, ♦ Centrifuge test tubes ♦ Aquaragia ♦ Dropper ♦ SK, TK, SBJR, TBJR each 1gm. Method: 1 gm of sample was taken in centrifuge test tube and 2ml of aquaragia was added drop by drop. The mixture was allowed to react for 30 minutes. It was then heated gently for 1 minute. The reactants were allowed to react for 48 hrs, by shaking the test tube now and then. A drop from this prepared solution was dropped on 10% potassium iodide paper and the colour changes on the papers were observed in 3 phases. 1st phase - 0-5 min. 2nd Phase - 5 min-20 min rd 3 Phase - 20 min-1 day. This procedure was adopted for 1gm of SK, TK, SBJR, TBJR. 104 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 115. Analytical StudyObservation and Result:1. Samaguna baliyukta Kajjali:1st phase (0-5min): Immediate drop was of brick red colour. It developed dull grey coloured spot at thecentre which was gradually turning to white colour. This centre spot was covered by brick redcoloured circle which was darker near the centre spot, lighter at the periphery. Further it wasencircled by dark brown periphery.2nd phase (5-20min): At the centre of the white spot very dull brown ring was developed. Intermediatebrick red colour faded and encircled by red ring. Outer brown periphery slightly faded.3rd phase (20 min- 48 hours): Centre white spot remained as it is. Red ring became very dark and prominentforming the outer margin of the spot. Brown periphery completely disappeared leaving whitecolour in its place.2. Triguna baliyukta kajjali:1st phase: Immediate drop was of brick red colour, within no time brown circle startedappearing. Central spot was of brick red coloured. It was having white margin encircled bybrick red coloured intermediate circle. This brick red colour not reached upto periphery.Outer brown circle was very prominent.2nd phase: No significant changes were observed during this phase. Colour spot was same as in1st phase.3rd phase: There was complete disappearance of outer brown circle in place forming a whitecircle.And remaining colour spot appeared same as before. 105 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 116. Analytical Study3. Samaguna balijeerna Rasasindoora.1st phase: Immediate drop was of brick red colour. Drop was slowly spreading; developed brickred coloured centre spot having white coloured margin; surrounded by brick red colouredintermediate circle. Dull brown peripheral circle was forming around the red ring.2nd phase: Central spot, intermediate brick red circle remained unchanged; peripheral red ringwas much prominent, while outer brown periphery was diminished.3rd phase: Central spot remained the same; intermediate brick red circle was bright near thecentre and dull at its periphery; encircled by prominent bright red ring. Outer brown circlewas completely disappeared.4. Triguna balijeerna Rasasindoora.1st phase: Immediate drop was of brick red coloured. Suddenly it developed central greycoloured spot having white margin, encircled by thick brick red rays which were notextended upto periphery and surrounded by dark brown peripheral circle.2nd phase: Central spot was replaced by white color; very dull brown coloured ring was seen inthe centre spot on keen observation. Intermediate brick red circle reached upto peripheralbrown circle.3rd phase: Central white spot and intermediate brick red circle remained same which wasencircled by bright red ring and outer brown periphery was completely disappeared leavingwhite circle in its place.Note-In all above tests brick red colour was identified as ‘Sianna’ colour by ‘what color’mobile software. Brown colour was identified as ‘brown’ by ‘what color’ mobile software. 106 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 117. Analytical Study9) PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS (By Laser Diffraction Method):Material: Malvern Mastersizer instrument. SK, TK, SBJR and TBJR each 1gm.Method: Laser diffraction method Sample passes through the laser beam as homogeneous stream of particles and it leadsto scattering of light over a wide range of angles. Based on this scattering pattern of sample,particle size distributions were calculated comparing with appropriate optical model.Result:1. Samaguna baliyukta Kajjali: 10% of the sample was having Particle size less than 2.74 µm (micrometer). 50% of the sample was having Particle size <7.15 µm 90% of the sample was having Particle size < 16.41 µm2. Triguna baliyukta kajjali: 10% of the sample was having Particle size < 3.89 µm (micrometer). 50% of the sample was having Particle size < 9.38 µm 90% of the sample was having Particle size < 21.02 µm3. Samaguna balijeerna Rasasindoora: 10% of the sample was having Particle size < 0.22µm (micrometer). 50% of the sample was having Particle size <4.96µm 90% of the sample was having Particle size <12.93 µm4. Triguna balijeerna Rasasindoora: 10% of the sample was having Particle size <0.22 µm (micrometer). 50% of the sample was having Particle size <5.34 µm 90% of the sample was having Particle size <18.68 µm 107 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 118. Analytical Study SAMAGUNA BALIYUKTA KAJJALI 108A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 119. Analytical Study TRIGUNA BALIYUKTA KAJJALI 109A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 120. Analytical Study SAMAGUNA BALIJEERNA RASASINDOORA 110A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 121. Analytical Study TRIGUNA BALIJEERNA RASASINDOORA 111A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 122. Analytical Study 112A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 123. Analytical Study 113A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 124. Analytical Study 114A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 125. Analytical Study 115A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 126. Analytical Study 116A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 127. Analytical Study 117A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 128. Analytical Study 118A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 129. Analytical Study 119A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 130. Analytical Study 120A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 131. Analytical Study SAMAGUNA BALIYUKTA KAJJALI 121A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 132. Analytical Study TRIGUNA BALIYUKTA KAJJALI 122A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 133. Analytical Study SAMAGUNA BALIJEERNA RASASINDOORA 123A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 134. Analytical Study TRIGUNA BALIJEERNA RASASINDOORA 124A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 135. Results RESULTSA) COMPARATIVE PHARMACEUTICAL STUDY:Table No 36: Showing Comparative pharmaceutical results of SK and TK Contents SK TKTable Weight of shuddha Parada 300 gms 150 gms Weight of shuddha Gandhaka 300 gms 450 gms Total hours of preparation 130hours 110hours Weight of Kajjali 580 gms 555 gms Loss of weight 20 gms 45 gms Colour Dark black Dull black Smell Altered sulfur smell Altered sulfur smell Taste Tasteless Tasteless Appearance Anjana sadrush Anjana sadrush Form Fine powder Fine powder Touch Soft Very soft Quantity of vatankur swarasa 150ml 200mlNo.37: Showing comparative observations during preparation of SK and TK Time duration Observations SK TK Whole of Gandhaka changed to yellowish green After 10 min After 15 min Disappearance of large mercury globule from the centre After 30 min After 25 min of the mortar Absence of mercury globules After 11/2 hrs After 1 Hour Completely turned to black colour After 21/2hrs After 3 hours Very fine powder After 45 hrs After 32 hours Attained complete Rakhapurnatva After 55 hrs After 45 hours Varitara and unama tests were positive After 70 hrs After 62 hours Complete nischandratva After 130hrs After110hours 125 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 136. Results Graph 3: showing comparative pharmaceutical results of SK and TK600 580 555500 450400 300 300 SK300 TK200 150 130 110100 45 20 0 Qty of Parada Qty of Gandhaka yield loss of wt total hrs of prpn Table No 38: Showing Comparative pharmaceutical results of SBJR and TBJR Contents SBJR TBJRS Weight of kajjali taken 150 gms 150gms Product obtained 79 gms 37 gms Residue at bottom 1 gms 1.5 gms Loss of weight 70 gms 111.5 gms Length of the conical block of Rasasindoora 7 cm 3 cms Thickness of the Rasasindoora block 2.5 cms 2.5 cms Total duration of preparation 15 hours 39 hours Table No 39: Showing comparative observations during preparation of SBJR and TBJR Observations SBJR TBJR 0 0 White fumes coming out 244 C ( After 2 hours) 191 C ( After 3 hours) of kupi Appearance of yellow 3280C ( After 3.30 hours) 2970C ( After 7.30 hours) fumes Complete melting of 5690C ( After 6.30 hours ) 4450C ( After 20.30 hours) kajjali Insertion of hot shalaka 5810C ( After 7 hours) 4690C ( After 23 hours) Totally 12 times inserted Totally 20 times inserted. 126 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 137. Results Maximum height of the One foot One footflame after insertion of hot shalaka Duration of blue flame Three hours One and half hour. persisted at the mouth of kupi Cessation of flame 5570C ( After 10 hours) 5000C ( After 26 hours) Sooryodaya laxana 6080C ( After 11 hours) 5900C (After 28.30 hours) Mukhamudrana 5600C ( After 12 hours) 6200C (After 33 hours)Duration of teevragni after Three hours Six hours corking Graph 4: showing comparative pharmaceutical study of SBJR & TBJR 160 150150 140 120 111.5 100 80 79 70 SBJR 60 39 TBJR 40 37 20 15 1 1.5 0 kajjali taken time yield in gms residue in loss in gms in gms duration in gms hrs 127 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 138. ResultsB) COMPARATIVE ANALYTICAL STUDY:1) Comparative Results Of Physical and Chemical TestsTable No. 40: Showing comparative Results of physical and chemical testsContents SK TK SBJR TBJRPhysical Test :Colour Black Black Reddish Reddish brown brownOdour Faint Faint Odourless OdourlessTouch Fine Fine Fine FineTaste Palatable Palatable Palatable PalatablePH Value 6.65 7.74 6.20 7.85Ash value 0.13% 0.12% 0.01% 0.15%Acid insoluble ash 0.08% 0.08% nil 0.13%Water soluble ash 0.01% 0.02% nil 0.05%Loss on drying 0.59% 0.70% 0.05% 0.02%Chemical test:Free Mercury Traces Traces Nil NilTotal Mercury 40.42% 30.56% 82.40% 84.82%Mecurous mercury 14.17% 12.32% 14.36% 14.06%Mercuric mercury 26.25% 18.24% 68.04% 70.76%Free sulphur 22.34% 40.80% Traces TracesTotal sulphur 48.49% 66.89% 16.16% 14.43%Sulphide sulphur 20.06% 18.91% 15.19% 13.51%Sulphate sulphur 18.27% 15.55% 2.93% 2.76%Based on above quantitative analysis further calculations were made using atomicweight of mercury and sulfur to know the % of probable compounds present in thesamples.Table No. 41. Showing percentage of probable mercurial compounds in SK, TK, SBJRand TBJR.Samples Mercuric sulphide (HgS) Mercurous sulphide (Hg2S) SK 45.72% 26.38% TK 38.70% 24.28% SBJR 80.06% 15.70% TBJR 82.77% 15.26% 128 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 139. Results2) COMPARATIVE XRD STUDY :Table No. 42: Showing comparative XRD results of SK & TK Samaguna kajjali Triguna Kajjali Angle 2 θ d space Intensity Angle 2 θ d space Intensity 22.939 3.877 29 22.967 3.872 82 26.249 3.395 100 26.273 3.392 100 - - - 26.6 3.351 44 30.4 2.94 23 30.4 2.94 22 43.606 2.076 25 43.647 2.074 31 51.7 1.768 26 51.66 1.769 25Both the kajjalis are compared with XPDF: 73-1593Metacinnabar (HgS), with Cubic crystal structure, having Face Centered Lattice CUBIC CRYSTAL (Face centered lattice)Table No. 43: Showing comparative XRD results of SBJR & TBJR SBJR TBJR Angle 2 θ d space Intensity Angle 2 θ d space Intensity 26.422 3.373 100 26.348 3.383 92 28.094 3.176 30 28.021 3.184 32 31.121 2.874 98 31.048 2.88 100 43.526 2.079 25 43.449 2.083 21 45.71 1.985 21 45.6 1.989 20 54.54 1.683 18 54.477 1.684 19Both SBJR & TBJR are compared with XPDF: 06-0256Metacinnabar (HgS), with Hexagonal crystal structure, having Primitive Lattice 129 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 140. Results HEXAGONAL CRYSTAL (Primitive) 3) COMPARATIVE NAMBURI PHASED SPOT ANALYSIS: Table No. 44: Showing comparative NPST STUDY Phases SK TK SBJR TBJR1st phase Dull grey Saffron colored Saffron colored Dull grey colored centre central spot central spot colored centre spot turned to having white having white spot turned to white. margin; margin; white. saffron colored Intermediate Intermediate Intermediate circle fills saffron color saffron color saffron color intermediate circle bright circle bright circle is striated space near the centre near the centre & bright near completely, dull at the dull at the the centre dull periphery, periphery, at the periphery encircled by encircled by encircled by encircled by dark brown dark brown brown light brown periphery periphery periphery periphery2nd phase Dull brown Same as 1st Peripheral red Dull brown circle seen in phase circle seen in ring was white centre white centre spot. prominent. spot.3rd phase Central white Central saffron Central saffron Central white spot circle circle spot brown brown brown brown periphery periphery periphery periphery disappeared. disappeared. disappeared. disappeared. 4) COMPARATIVE PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS: Table No. 45: Showing comparative Particle size value of 50% of the sample. SK TK SBJR TBJR <7.15 µm <9.38 µm <4.96 µm <5.34 µm 130A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 141. Photos PHOTOS Fig. 1 Fig.2 Fig.3 Raw Gandhaka Shodhana of Gandhaka Koormaputa Fig.4 Fig.5 Fig.6 Shodhita Gandhaka Raw Hingula Hingula bhavana Fig.7 Fig.8 Fig.9Extraction of Parada Shodhana of Parada Shodhita Parad With haridra 131 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 142. Photos Fig.10 Fig.11 Fig.12 Kajjali at various stages Fig.13 Fig.14 Fig.15 Vatankuras Vatankura Swarasa Vatankura Bhavana Fig.16 Fig.17 Fig.18Weighing of Kajjali Filling of Kupi Placing kupi in valuka yantra Fig.19 Fig.20 Fig.21 Filling of valuka Completed valuka yantra Bhatti 132A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 143. Photos Fig.22 Fig.23 Fig.24 Insertion of hot shalaka sulphur fumes Copper coin test Fig 25 Fig.26 Fig.27 Sindoora test Suryodaya laxana corking of kupi Fig.28 Fig.29 Fig.30 Corked Kupi Kupi after swangsheeta Kupi after scraping Fig.31 Fig.32 Fig.33 Breaking of the bottle Collection at the neck of kupi Residue at the bottom 133A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 144. Photos Fig.34 Fig. 35 Fig.36 Samaguna R S After powdering Triguna R S NAMBURI PHASED SPOT TEST OF KAJJALI & RASA SINDOORA 1) SAMAGUNA KAJJALI Fig.37 Fig.38 Fig.39 First phase Second phase Third phase 2) TRIGUNA KAJJALI Fig.40 Fig.41 Fig.42 First phase Second phase Third phase 134A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 145. Photos 3) SAMAGUNA BALIJEERNA RASASINDOORA Fig.43 Fig 44 Fig45 First phase Second phase Third phase 4) TRIGUNA BALIJEERNA RASASINDOORA Fig.46 Fig 47 Fig.48 First phase Second phase Third phase 135A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 146. Photos INSTRUMENTS Fig 49 Fig 50 X-RAY DIFFRACTOMETER pH METER Fig 51 Fig 52 TURBIDOMETER LASER DIFFRACTION INSTRUMENT 136A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 147. Discussion DISCUSSION “Research is to see what everybody else has seen and to think what nobody else has thought”. Discussion is the key area of any research work, as new ideas are generated here. Inthis section Results of the study are discussed in the light of both classical and modernconcepts and reasoning is done in every step of the study.It has been dealt under 3 headings: • Review of literature • Pharmaceutical study • Analytical studyDISCUSSION ON REVIEW OF LITERATURE:Discussion on Samaguna and Triguna balijeerna Rasasindoora. Rasasindoora is a Sagandha, Sagni, Kantastha, Bahirdhooma Kupi Pakwa Rasayana.In the classics we get more reference regarding Samaguna balijeerna Rasasindoora, whereparada and Gandhaka are added in equal quantity. It may be prepared either by adding onlyParada and Gandhaka or along with other substances like Navasadar, Sphatika. Even thoughboth parada and Gandhaka are in equal quantity, duration of preparation varies from text totext depending upon method (Antardooma, Bahirdhooma) and other ingredients used. Regarding Triguna balijeerna Rasasindoora only five references are available. Amongthem three are similar Antardhooma methods, but the same shloka is commented in variedway by different commentators about the proportion of ingredients. Exact duration of paka isnot mentioned for preparation of Bahirdhoom method of TBJR, but referred to prepare untilthe complete Gandhaka Jarana takes place. SBJR is widely practiced Kupipakwa Rasayana;which has standardized, established pharmaceutical procedure and analytical results. HenceTBJR was compared with SBJR. Different types of bahirdhooma Rasasindoora preparations are mentioned only inRasatarangini with different proportions of Sulfur, starting with 1:1/2 upto 1:6 (Hg:S) andthere is no specific indication for each type of Rasasindoora. But specific indications are toldfor Parada which is jarita by various proportion of Gandhaka. But it is mentioned in the classics that ‘Samaguna balijeerna parada’ is having thecapacity to cure Samanya Vyadhis where as Triguna balijeerna parada is having the capacity 137 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 148. Discussionto cure Napumsakatva or Shandatva. All the Rasa texts have considered shadguna balijeernaparada as more potential and effective than ‘Samaguna’, ‘Dwiguna’ or Triguna….. BalijeernaParada’. We get this type of explanation in the context of Gandhaka Jarana but not in thecontext of moorchana or Rasasindoora. Hence to know whether this holds good even forRasasindoora or not comparative analytical and clinical studies are essential. The clinical study on Dwiguna balijeerna Rasasindoora, by Savita. K, 2004, et al186,showed significant result in curing Kitibha Kusta. Apart from this, no clinical orexperimental studies are carried out based upon these specific indications of Gandhaka Jaranafor Triguna, Chaturguna, Panchaguna Rasasindoora.Discussion on Pharmaceutical Study:Discussion on Hingulotta parada: • Hingulotta parada was taken for the study as it is considered to be devoid of sapta kanchuka doshas and this parada is considered to be equal to Samaguna Gandhakajeerna parada. • Hingula was given bhavana with nimbu swarasa, which contains 5% of organic acid. Citric acid disaggregates mineral grains and it can help in separating undesired elements like Pb, Sn from mercury. Mechanical pressure applied by trituration and acidic nature of nimbu swarasa disintegrates the mineral to finer state, thus facilitating sublimation of more quantity of Parada. • Paribhadra and Changeri patra swarasa bhavana is also mentioned apart from nimbu swaras. As nimbu swarasa is easily available and acidic, it was taken for the present study. • Damaru Yantra was used for extraction of parada as it is easy to construct. Two equal sized new pots were used. New pots facilitate escape of sulfur through its pores, which makes condensation and collection of parada easier. When heat is applied to cinnabar, the sulfur is oxidized and mercury is liberated.Further action of fire volatilizes the mercury; mercury condenses at the upper cool part of thepot. 138 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 149. Discussion Isolation of Mercury occurs as: HgS+ O2 → Hg +SO2 • By this sublimation procedure mercury will be free from physical impurities like sand, mud and dissolved impurities like lead, tin and zinc. • Totally 465 gms of Parada was extracted from 800 gms of Hingula by repeating the Urdva patana procedure for four times. Thus we extracted mercury by taking 150gm to 250gm of Hingula each time, by this more yield can be obtained. If large quantity of Hingula is taken at a time then more unburnt Hingula remains at the bottom of the pot. • This Hingulakrusta Parada was subjected to samanya shodhana by triturating with Haridra churna. Haridra contains alcoholic constituent tumerol (C5H12O6) and hydrocarbon Zingiberene. These may serve the role of Kanji and Grahadhum during trituration. These along with other constituents of Haridra may fulfill all the requirements of Parada samanya shodhana, thus it helps in removing remaining blemishes from Parada and makes it brighter than before. • For 465 gm of Hingulakrusta Parada 30 gms of Haridra was added. 7gms loss was observed. This loss might have occurred during the washing of Parada.Discussion on Gandhaka Shodhana: • Gandhaka Shodhana was carried out by koorma puta method using milk as shodhana media. Other medias like bringaraja, nimbu, ardraka swarasa, palandu swarasa and Karanja taila, are also mentioned. These can be used depending upon the disease conditions. But Godugdha is said to be best media because its sheeta guna, Madhura rasa, Sheeta veerya combat with the Ushna guna, Katu rasa, Ushna veerya of Gandhaka, making it bio-compatible. • In Koorma puta temperature reach upto 1600C, but the Gandhaka melts at 115.260C. When Gandhaka melts it passes through the pores of cloth and falls in milk. In this process rhombic form of sulfur might have converted to monoclinic sulfur, because monoclinic sulfur is formed when rhombic sulfur solidifies at the melting point. • In this procedure physical impurities like sand, mud are removed by filtration and chemical impurities like Arsenic are removed by adsorbing over to colloidal fatty globules of milk. 139 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 150. Discussion • Sulfahydryl (SH) groups are present in lactoglobulin of milk. Release of sulfur from these groups takes place when milk is heated. In koormaputa milk gets heat by upper burning cow dung cakes and also by melted sulfur mixed with it. Thus released organic sulfur from milk might have a role in detoxification of inorganic sulfur.Discussion on preparation of Kajjali: • SK was prepared in 130 hrs where as TK was prepared in 110 hrs. TK took less time because of more quantity of sulfur, as sufficient number of sulfur atoms are available for each of mercury atom to react with. • There was more loss (45 gm) in TK compared to SK (20 gm), because volume of TK was more compared to SK, even though weight of both the kajjali was same. Hence more spillage occurred during trituration of TK. • The color of SK was dark black while the color of TK was dull black. This indicates more amount of sulfur was in free state in TK compared to SK and quantity of mercury sulphide (β-HgS) was more in SK compared to TK.Discussion on Vatankur Swarasa bhavana: The purpose of bhavana to inorganic substances (like kajjali) using organic juices: • More uniform mixture of the contents will be attained in wet trituration than in dry trituration. • For particle size reduction • Make inorganic substances suitable for body by reducing the Gunas like Shuskata, Rukshata and teekshnata. • During kupi paka it has a definite role in proper sublimation of mercury. Carbon along with sulfur is having the capacity to adsorb the mercury. Hence it prevents escape of even minute quantities of mercury before complete Gandhaka jarana takes place. Thus more yield can be obtained. Vatankura swarasa bhavana is told for SK, where as specific bhavana is notmentioned for TK. As we are doing comparative study, the same Vatankura swarasa bhavanawas given for TK also. Quantity of swarasa required for TK was more, this was because morevolume of the TK. After bhavana there was weight gain of 8 gm and 10 gm in SK and TKrespectively. This was because addition of solid contents of swarasa to kajjali. 140 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 151. DiscussionDISCUSSION ON KUPIPAKWA RASA NIRMANA:Preparation of Kupi: • Green coloured bottle was selected as it has reduced heat and ultraviolet radiation transmittance which prevents inside material from untoward effects. • Seven coating of mud smeared cloth was done as it prevents breakage of bottle. If proper coating is done then product does not leak out even though bottle melts at high temperature. • Only ¼ th part of kupi is to be filled with kajjali as by large quantities there may be overflow of boiling kajjali from the kupi.Preparation of Valuka yantra: • Two Abhraka Pathras of the size of 4-5 cm with thickness of 0.5cm were placed over the central hole of Valuka Yantra which acts as heat resistant and helps steady rise of temperature, over this sand was spread upto 2 finger thickness. Pyrometer was placed in such a way that its tip should be at the level of bottom of the bottle. Remainig portion of valuka yantra was filled with the sand. • Maintaining continuous steady rise in temperature is bit difficult in classical bhatti, where in woods are used as fuel. In such cases valuka plays important role in maintaining steady rise of temperature around the kupi, so that kupi remains unaffected by the fluctuation of temperature.Theories behind kupi pakwa Rasayanas : Trituration of elemental mercury and elemental sulfur forms black mercuric sulphide.Where as reaction between mercury vapor (which is mono atomic in nature) and sulfur vaporat higher temperature yields red mercuric sulphide Viscosity of sulfur and even thermal expansion of mercury plays the key role inpreparation of kupi pakwa rasayanas. In kupi pakwa rasayanas mercury does not vaporizeeven at temperatures more than its boiling point. This is due to high viscosity of the sulfur, ashighly viscous sulfur contains long entangled polymeric chains with more than 500,000-800,000 sulfur atoms per chain.Transition state theory or activated complex theory: 141 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 152. Discussion Reactant molecules acquire extra energy to form activated complex upon collision.This activated complex has high energy and hence extremely unstable and converted intoproduct. Hg + S (kajjli) [Hg++….S--] HgS (Raasindoora) reactants activated complex product A chemical reaction takes place only when reacting molecules collide. Products areformed only when the colliding molecules posses a definite amount of energy. In case of kupipaka, steady rise in temperature results in increase of number of activated molecules whichhave sufficient energy to form product. Thus at higher temperature reaction will be very fast.Suppose Rasasindoora has to be prepared in lesser time, then mridu agni is maintained forlesser time and madhyamagni , teevragni stages are attained at earlier.Theory of lattice energy: The theory of lattice energy is one novel scientific method of explanation.Lattice energy: The amount of energy released when cations and anions are brought frominfinity to their respective lattice site in a crystal, and is expressed as “U”. - A+ B (solid) +U A+(gaseous) + B- (gaseous) In order to occupy minimum space the ions arrange themselves systematically in analternating cation and anion pattern. Lattice energy depends on electrostatic forces ofattraction, which arises due to the opposite charges on the ions. Mercury is electropositivewhere as sulfur is electronegative. Hence both will react to form an ionic crystal. It is aknown fact that the stability of the compound is directly proportional to lattice energy. So it isobvious fact that our kupipakwa rasayanas are very stable formulations.Law of conservation of mass: An element carries with its weight entirely unchanged through the most complicatedchemical transformation. This theory can also be applied in the preparation of Rasasindooraas there will be no reduction in the weight of mercury.Law of definite proportions: 142 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 153. Discussion The proportion by weight of the constituents is always the same. It is evident by thefact that, in the preparation of different type of Rasasindoora with varying proportion ofsulfur, the end product in all types will be having the same proportion of mercury and sulfur. Mercuric sulfide (232.66) mercury (200.6) + sulfur (32.06) The compound (HgS) formation takes place with the fixed ratio of 6:1 of mercury andsulfur respectively. Stichiometrically HgS contains 86.68% of ‘Hg’ and 13.78% of ‘S’.Discussion on comparative pharmaceutical study of SBJR & TBJR Time duration mentioned for the preparation of SBJR is twelve hours, but exactduration is not mentioned for TBJR but told to continue till complete Gandhaka jarana takesplace. It is also mentioned that 6 hrs, 12 hrs, 24 hrs are required for preparation ofArdhaguna, Samaguna, Dwiguna balijeerna Rasasindoora respectively. On this backgroundwe planned to prepare TBJR in 36 hrs. Even though it was a comparative study, these twopreparations were carried out for different time durations, so that impact of long periodtemperature on end product can be ruled out. Temperature pattern for SBJR: Type of Agni Temperature range Duration Mrudu Agni Room temp. – 250oC 2 hours Madhyama Agni 250 – 450oC 4 hours Tivra Agni 450 – 650oC 9 hours Temperature pattern for TBJR: Type of Agni Temperature range Duration Mrudu Agni Room temp. – 250oC 6 hours Madhyama Agni 250 – 450oC 17 hours Tivra Agni 450 – 650oC 16 hoursInference made during the process of SBJR & TBJR:• White fumes (2500C in SBJR &1900C in TBJR) were seen with sulfur smell which indicated evaporation of SO2 which gets slowly increased, along with rise of temperature, this temperature is more than the melting of sulfur (Melting point of sulfur is 1150C) but at this stage kajjali was in the state of dry powder. 143 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 154. Discussion• Dense yellow fumes (3280C& 2970C) were observed with the perception of irritant sulfur smell, may be due to more quantity of sulfur coming in contact with the O2. at this stage melting of kajjali can be easily appreciated.• Choking of sulfur was seen when kajjali starts boiling (5810C & 4690C), at this stage liquid sulfur converts to vapor state rapidly, increasing the pressure inside the kupi, hence to prevent choking, sulfur was made to burn off by insertion of hot shalaka. By this sulfur catches fire and starts burning by its own, thus forms burning blue flame at the mouth of kupi.• Bottom of the kupi appeared red ( 6080C & 5900C) may be due to the reflection of red hot bottle as the product in the Kupi already glided towards the periphery leaving control clearance. Sindoora test was positive indicating that the compound Rasa Sindoora was formed in the Kupi. Copper coin test was positive suggesting escape of mercury vapors; sign for immediate corking. Cold Shalaka was introduced; no flame or fumes were seen, indicating the complete burning of extra sulfur and condensation of sublimated product. In SBJR all the Laxanas like emission of fumes, melting of kajjali, sooryodaya laxanaappeared at higher temperatures compared to TBJR. This is because in TBJR heat was givenfor longer period, there was enough time for reaction to occur even at lesser temperature. Hot shalaka was inserted for more number of times in TBJR as compared to SBJR.This is due to more quantity of sulfur in TK. Blue flame persisted at the mouth of kupi forthree hours in SBJR and one and half hours in TBJR. This is because in TBJR sulfur vaporswere allowed to escape out off kupi by steady rise of temperature for long periods. And muchof the sulfur was made to burn off by frequent insertion of hot shalaka. By taking expert’s opinion, after corking teevragni was given only for three hours inSBJR. In case of TBJR, after corking teevragni was maintained for complete six hours.Because total duration of paka is not mentioned in classics. Hence planned to maintainteevragni for six hours after corking. Yield was 79 gms and 37 gms in the preparation of SBJR and TBJR respectively. Thisis because mercury percentage was more in SK compared to TK. All extra sulfur burned off,sulfur required for the formation compound remained. 144 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 155. Discussion Residue was 1gm and 1.5 gm in SBJR and TBJR respectively. Increase in 0.5 gm ofresidue in TBJR, might be due to quantity of bhavana dravya was more for TK compared toSK and frequent hot shalaka insertion might have lead to addition of ashes adhered to it.DISCUSSION ON ANALYTICAL STUDY: Physical appearance of both the kajjali and both the Rasasindoora were same, asingredients and method of preparation were same.Kajjali : The obtained Kajjalis were black fine powder and possessed Slakshnatva andsukshmatva which indicates the fineness of Kajjali attained by doing pressurized, uniformand continuous mardana. Rekhapurnatva denote the fineness in particle size i.e., size has beenreduce so as to enhance bio-availability. Nishchandratva denote the absence of free mercurystate in KajjaliRasa Sindoora: SBJR & TBJR were obtained as greyish red shiny conical blocks. The colorof finely powdered Sindoora was reddish brown. Nishchandratva indicate absence of mercuryin elemental form. Varitaratva confirmed the fineness of the product.Physical Parameters :Discussion on PH: pH of SK and SBJR was 6.65 and 6.20 respectively, indicating mild acidic nature ofthe sample. pH of TK and TBJR was 7.74 and 7.85 respectively, indicating mild alkaline natureof the sample. According to pH- partition concept, weak acids are better absorbed from the stomachand weak bases from the intestine. Hence Absorption of SBJR may be early compared toTBJR. Difference in the pH of SK and TK is might be due to more amount of free sulfur inTK. Even though there was no much difference in the qualitative and quantitative estimationof SBJR and TBJR, pH of both was varying; action of sulfur vapor and temperature forlonger period might have brought this difference.Ash value: 145 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 156. Discussion Ash value of SK and TK were 0.13% and 0.12% respectively. This much of ash mightbe due to bhavana to kajjali with vatankur swarasa, other wise there is less chance for ash toremain in the sample. Ash value of SBJR and TBJR were 0.01% and 0.15% respectively. These are innegligible quantities and within the permissible limits. Purity of SBJR is 99.99%. Ash valueof TBJR was slightly more compared to SBJR, this might be due to frequent insertion of hotand cold shalaka, which might have added sand particles and ash adhered to it.Acid insoluble ash: Acid insoluble ash value of both SK and TK is 0.08%. Acid insoluble ash value ofSBJR is nil and acid insoluble ash of TBJR was 0.13%. There was proportionately decreasein the acid insoluble ash values from ash values of both SBJR and TBJR samples. As theseproducts possess negligible amount of acid insoluble ash which signifies the genuinity of theproducts. To know the drug availability this test is helpful.Loss on drying at 1100C: Loss on drying value of SK, TK, SBJR and TBJR were 0.59%, 0.70%, 0.05% and0.02% respectively. This test is to detect the moisture and volatile content in the sample. Thisvalue was comparatively more in both the kajjali; might be due to Vatankura swarasabhavana and free sulfur; where as this value is very negligible in both the Rasasindooraindicating stability and more shelf life of Rasasindoora. Among both the Rasasindoora it isleast in TBJR as it was prepared applying heat for 39 hours, making it more heat resistant.Chemical tests: Salts of mercury exist in two states of oxidation- as monovalent mercurous salt (i.e.Hg+) or as divalent mercuric salts (i.e. Hg++). The mercuric salts are more stable andimportant but the mercurous salts can easily be converted into mercuric form. Sulphides can be divided into smaller structural groups. They have ionic bonding andsome have metallic bonding. Sulphates are tightly bound groups and are not capable ofsharing oxygens. These have covalent bond. The probable mercurial compounds in the finished products are mercuric sulphate,mercuric sulphide, mercurous sulphate and mercurous sulphide. These can be calculated onthe basis of standard molecular weight and atomic weight of the same compound and the 146 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 157. Discussionvalues of quantitative analysis of samples. Sulphides of mercury are easily formed where assulphates of mercury are not so easily formed by procedures like mere trituration. Hence only% of mercury sulphides was calculated.Free mercury: In SK and TK, free mercury was in trace levels, where as in SBJR and TBJR freemercury was nil, which proves the nischandratva of kajjali and Rasasindoora and indicatesthat all procedures were properly carried out.Total mercury: % of total mercury in SK, TK, SBJR and TBJR was 40.42%, 30.56%, 82.40% and84.82%. During the preparation of Rasasindoora extra sulfur will be burned off, hence Hg%is more in both the Rasasindoora; more mercury concentration in Rasasindoora indicates thatcorking was done at proper time. More quantity of sulfur in TK might have preventedmercury evaporation, hence Hg% was more in TBJR compared to SBJR.Mercurous mercury: % of mercurous mercury in SK, TK, SBJR and TBJR was 14.17%, 12.32%, 14.36%and 14.06% respectively, which indicates complete mercury has not converted into mercuricform. If % of mercurous mercury is more, then compound will be metastable.Mercuric mercury: % of mercuric mercury in SK, TK, SBJR and TBJR was 26.25%, 18.24%, 68.04%and 70.76% respectively, which indicates mercuric sulphide is more in Rasasindoora thankajjali. Among both the Rasasindoora in TBJR % of Hg++ is more which signifies formationof the stable product.Free sulfur: % of free sulfur in SK and TK was 22.34% and 40.80% respectively. As mercuryforms a stichiometric compound with the sulfur, it is obvious that free sulfur will be more inTK. 147 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 158. Discussion Free sulfur was in traces in SBJR and TBJR, which implies proper paka has lead toproper compound formation and also indicates that corking was done after complete jarana ofGandhaka.Sulphide form of sulfur: % of sulphide sulfur in SK, TK, SBJR and TBJR was 20.06%, 18.91%, 15.19% and13.51% respectively, which indicates most of the mercury is in sulphide form.Sulphate form of sulfur: % of sulphate sulfur in SK, TK, SBJR and TBJR was 18.27%, 15.55%, 2.93% and2.76% respectively. Lesser the % of sulphate, more will be the safety, stability and efficacyof the drug. Hence internal administration of Rasasindoora is safer than kajjali.Calculation based on these analytical results and atomic weight of mercury and sulfurshowed:Percentage of mercurous sulphide:% of Hg2S in SK, TK, SBJR and TBJR was 26.38%, 24.28%, 15.70% and 15.26%.Percentage of mercuric sulphide: % of HgS in SK, TK, SBJR and TBJR was 45.72%, 38.70%, 80.06% and 82.77%.Though ingredients and method of preparation were same in SBJR and TBJR, % of HgSvaries; application of temperature and action of sulfur vapors for long duration might haveresulted in increase in % of mercuric sulphide in TBJR compared to SBJR, more the % ofHgS then more the stability of the compound.DISCUSSION ON XRD ANALYSIS: X-Ray powder diffraction Data file (XPDF) contains thousands of standardcompounds, but they lack in unique compounds like our Rasa aushadhis, which are mixtureof many metals, minerals and metalloids. Hence we can just compare our sample withstandard one, but precise identification cannot be made. Thus XRD will be fraught with somelimitations in exact identification of Rasa aushadhis. 148 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 159. DiscussionXRD of SK and TK: • It was believed that Kajjali is amorphous but XRD shows it is crystalline having cubic structure. • Both the kajjalis were identified as Metacinnabarite with cubic crystal having face centered lattice. • Volume [CD] of metacinnabarite was 202.44. • In standard metacinnabar graph, only ten peaks were identified, but in SK and TK graph 29 and 33 peaks were identified respectively. These peaks might have appeared due to free sulfur. • Highest peak count in SK was 929 (RI-100), where as in TK it was 903 (RI-100), which indicates more crystallinity in SK.XRD of SBJR and TBJR: • Both the Rasasindoora were identified as Cinnabar with Hexagonal crystal system having primitive lattice. • Volume [CD] of cinnabar was 141.55. Thus it can be inferred that there is reduction in the cell volume from kajjali to Rasasindoora. • Highest peak count in SBJR was 1441 (RI-100), where as it was 1400 (RI-100) in TBJR, which indicates more crystallinity in SBJR. • D space of SBJR and Std Cinnabar at 100 Relative Intensity were 3.373 and 3.359 respectively, where as D space of TBJR at RI-100 was 2.88. This indicates that SBJR XRD graph was more matching with the Standard Cinnabar pattern than TBJR graph. • Even though both SBJR and TBJR were identified as Cinnabar, there is difference in D space and Intensity. Thus it can be inferred that there is definite difference in crystallinity and cell volume of both SBJR and TBJR crystals. • Std Cinnabar which was compared with our samples contains < 0.1% Al, Ca, Mg, Na; < 0.01% Fe, Mn, Si and < 0.001% Ag, Cu, Pb. These trace elements might not be present in our samples. • Thus it can be considered that there was a difference in all the three i.e. Std Cinnabar, SBJR and TBJR XRD pattern. 149 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 160. DiscussionDISCUSSION ON N.P.S.T: Namburi phased spot test was carried out to find out chromatographic standards forSK, TK, SBJR and TBJR. The present chromatogram obtained from spot test givescomparative results. A comparison was made between the spottings of SK, TK, SBJR and TBJR.impregnated with 10% potassium iodide paper.Colour spots were developed due to reaction between our sample solution and KI paper. 3HgS + 2HNO3 + 6HCl 3HgCl2 + 4H2O + 2NO + 3S ppt HgCl2 + 2KI HgI2 + 2KCl. Red ppt Hence in the colour spot, brick red color might have occurred due to HgI2.N.P.S.T of SK and TK: • In color spot of SK, brick red colored area was more in all the three phases compared to spot of TK. This might be due to more % of mercury in SK, because when NPST was conducted for plane sulfur, it didn’t yield brick red colour, instead formed brown colored spot, where as brick red colored circle was present in the NPST of plane mercury. • In all the three phases, central spot was white in case of SK where as brick red in TK, again this might be due to more % of Hg in SK.N.P.S.T of SBJR and TBJR: • Distinctive features among these two spots were central spot and periphery. In all the three phases of SBJR, central spot was brick red colored; where as in TBJR it was white colored with dull brown circle in between. • In first two phases, periphery was light brown in SBJR, where as in TBJR it was dark brown. These variations are might be due to more % of mercury in TBJR than in SBJR. A comparison was made with the chromatogram of Dwiguna balijeerna Rasasindoora(DBJR) and Shadguna Balijeerna Rasasindoora.187. In case of DBJR white intermediate circleinner to brown periphery was developed And it was more similar to the NPST of SBJR. 150 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 161. DiscussionWhere as in case of Shadguna Bali Jaritha Rasa Sindoora a brown coloured spot turnedgrayish immediately with encircling chocolate brown periphery, emerging brown rays.Gradually the central gray spot completely faded to white area with a thin brown circle inbetween. And it was more similar to the NPST of TBJR. Chromatograms of all the Rasasindoora were differing with each other. It indicatesthat difference is there in their chemical configuration, which cannot be detected even bymodern analytical techniques. For exact interpretation of these color spots, much experience and in-depth knowledgeof chromatographic techniques is needed.DISCUSSION ON PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS: All our Rasa aushadhis can be covered under Micromeritics, the science of smallparticles. Knowledge of particle size is needed for assessment of drug absorption andbioavailability. In the present study particle size analysis was carried out with Laserdiffraction instrument, which gives information about volume under %, at different particlesize. • In SK, 50% of the sample was having Particle size less than 7.15 µm; in TK less than 9.38 µm. • In SBJR, 50% of the sample was having particle size less than 4.96 µm; in TBJR less than 5.34 µm. • Particles smaller than 0.5µm are likely to be absorbed through passive diffusion in intestine. • In both the samples of Kajjali (SK and TK), particles measuring < 0.5 µm were absent. • In SBJR, 28.59% of particles were smaller than 0.5 µm; in TBJR, 27.80% of particles were smaller 0.5 µm, indicating considerable reduction in the particle size during the kupi paka. • In SK and TK particle size distribution begins approximately from 1.0 µm. i.e. all the particles measures more than 1.0 µm. • 30.88% of SBJR sample and 29.89% of TBJR sample were having particle size less than 1 µm. 151 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 162. Discussion • In TBJR, though the duration of paka was three times more than that of SBJR, there is no reduction in the particle size. Which implies application of temperature for more period, has no effect on particle size. • As particle size of SK is lesser than TK; this might have lead to proportionate reduction in the particle size of SBJR and TBJR; hence particle size of SBJR may be lesser than the TBJR. • As the particle size of TBJR is more compared to SBJR, this may contribute to slow, uniform absorption and prolonged action of the drug, which may be desired in some clinical conditions. TBJR was alkaline in nature, having more % of mercuric sulphide and bigger particlesize than SBJR. These attributes may help in releasing the active substances at a controlledrate, such that the amount available in the body to treat the condition is maintained atrelatively constant level over an extended period of time. 152 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 163. Conclusion CONCLUSION♦ Rasasindoora is a Sagandha, Sagni and Bahirdhooma Kupi pakwa Rasayana.♦ SBJR was prepared with equal quantities of Parada and Gandhaka by kupi paka method in 15 hours.♦ TBJR was prepared using one part of Parada and three parts of Gandhaka by kupi paka method in 39 hours.♦ Out of 150 gm of each, SK and TK, 79 gm of SBJR and 37 gm of TBJR were obtained.♦ Preparation of SBJR was easier and yield was also more compared to TBJR♦ Ash values in SBJR and TBJR were 0.01% and 0.15% respectively.♦ Free mercury was nil in both SBJR and TBJR, where as it was in traces in both the kajjalis.♦ Free sulfur was in traces in both SBJR and TBJR.♦ Total mercury % was more in SK (40.42%) than TK (30.56%).♦ Total mercury % was more in TBJR (84.82%) than SBJR (82.40%). And mercuric mercury % was also more in TBJR than SBJR.♦ Total sulfur % is less in TBJR (14.43%) than SBJR (16.16%).♦ By XRD method, both the Kajjalis were identified as Metacinnabar, having cubic crystal structure with face centered lattice.♦ By XRD analysis, both SBJR and TBJR were identified as Cinnabar having Hexagonal crystal structure with primitive lattice.♦ N.P.S.T of both SBJR and TBJR showed differences in their chromatogram.♦ Particle size analysis reveals that, 50% of SBJR sample was having particle size < 4.96 µm; 50% of TBJR sample was having particle size < 5.34 µm. 153A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 164. Summary SUMMARY The present study entitled with “A Comparative Pharmaceutico- analytical studyof Samaguna and Triguna balijeerna Rasasindoora” can be summarised briefly underfollowing headings.1. Literary Study.2. Pharmaceutical Study.3. Analytical Study.4. Results5. Discussion and Conclusion1. LITERARY STUDY: It comprises the current updated literature regarding Rasasindoora, Hingula, Parada,Gandhaka, Dugdha and Haridra; concepts of pharmaceutical procedures like Shodhana,Bhavana, Murchana, Jarana and detail description of Kupipakwa Rasayana; yantras used forpresent study and analytical procedures.2. PHARMACEUTICAL STUDY: The raw drugs Hingula and gandhaka were collected from the Amrit Kesari depot,Bangalore, identified for Grahya Lakshnas. Then all the pharmaceutical procedures wereconducted at Post Graduate Department of Rasashastra, Taranath Govt. Medical College,Bellary. Shodhana of Gandhaka was carried out with koormaputa method, Parada wasextracted from Hingula by urdhwapatana procedure in damaru yantra. Parada samanyashodhana was done by triturating it with Haridra choorna. Samaguna baliyukta kajjali was prepared by triturating equal parts of Parada andGandhaka for 130 hours and then Vatankura swarasa bhavana was given. Triguna baliyuktakajjali was prepared by triturating one part of Parada and three part of Gandhaka for 110hours and then Vatankura swarasa bhavana was given SBJR was prepared by kupi paka method in 15 hours, using Samaguna baliyuktakajjali. TBJR was prepared by kupi paka method in 39 hours, using Triguna baliyukta kajjali 154 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 165. Summary3. ANALYTICAL STUDY: Qualitative and Quantitative analysis of all the four samples viz SK, TK, SBJR andTBJR was carried out in PG Dept of Rasashastra TGAMC Bellary, Ganesh Consultancy andanalytical services, Mysore. X-ray diffraction study and particle size analysis were carried outat IISc Bangalore.4. RESULTS:Pharmaceutical results: 9.3% of loss was observed during Gandhaka shodhana, 3.33% and 7.5% of loss wasobserved in the preparation of SK and TK respectively. 58% of Parada was extracted fromHingula. In the samanya shodhana of Parada 1.5% of loss was observed. There was 52.67%of yield in the preparation of SBJR where as 24.67% of yield was obtained in the preparationof TBJR.Analytical study results: Total mercury in SK, TK, SBJR and TBJR was 40.42%, 30.56%, 82.40% and 84.82% respectively. Free mercury was in traces in both SK and TK, where as it was nil in SBJR and TBJR. Total sulfur in SK, TK, SBJR and TBJR was 48.49%, 66.89%, 16.16% and 14.43% respectively. Free sulfur in SK and TK was 22.34%, 40.80% respectively. And in case of SBJR and TBJR it was in traces. XRD patterns of SK and TK were compared with the XPDF No- 73-1593; compoundidentified as Metacinnabar (HgS), with Cubic crystal structure, having Face Centered Lattice. XRD pattern of SBJR and TBJR were compared with the XPDF No-06-0256;compound identified as Cinnabar (HgS), with Hexagonal crystal structure, having primitiveLattice. In SK, TK, SBJR and TBJR, 50% of the sample was having particle size, <7.15 µm,<9.38 µm, < 4.96 µm and <5.34 µm respectively. 155 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 166. Summary N.P.S.T. was carried out to compare the chromatogram of SK, TK, SBJR and TBJR.It was found difference in their chromatogram which cannot be analyzed by modernanalytical techniques.4. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: From the pharmaceutical point of view, there was much difference betweenSamaguna and Triguna balijeerna Rasasindoora. Difference was there in the ratio ofingredients, total duration of heat and quantity of yield. In case of SBJR, duration of pakawas less but the yield was more. In case of TBJR duration of heat was more but yield wasless. From analytical point of view, slight variations were observed in quantitative analysis,XRD analysis and particle size analysis of both SBJR and TBJR 156 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 167. Limitations Of The Study LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY ♦ It was a time bound research work. ♦ Instrumental and investigatory facilities were minimum. ♦ Specific instrumentation and technological accreditation was taken form outside laboratories. ♦ There was lack of advanced and sophisticated instruments for pharmaceutical study. Though bound with these limitations scholar has made her honest effort for bringingout this scientific study successful. But for the lacunae and errors may be excused by thelearned adjudicators. 157 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 168. Scope For Further Study SCOPE FOR FURTHER STUDY• Comparative Toxicological, Experimental and Clinical studies can be tried for SBJR & TBJR.• Experimental and Clinical study of TBJR on shukravaha srotogata vikara w.s.t Impotency can be carried out.• Comparative Pharmaceutico–Analytical study of Triguna balijeerna Rasasindoora prepared by Antardooma and bahirdooma method.• Experimental study on bioaccumulation of different types of Rasasindoora can be carried out using Thermolysis Coupled with Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy.• Further study can be conducted to know the systemic action of different types of Rasasindoora at cellular level.• Further chemical analysis can be studied by using advanced instrumental techniques like EPMA (Electron Probe Micro Analyser), NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance), NAA (Neutron Activation Anaalysis).• To get more accurate temperature reading, temperature inside the kupi can be recorded with optical pyrometer during the process. 158A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
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  • 177. Bibliographic References131. Acharya Anantha Deva Suri, Rasa Chintamani edited by Siddhinandan Mishra Ist Edn, Varanasi, Chokamba Orientalia 1990, 2nd Chapter, Verse 4.132. Sri Siddinandana Mishra, Ayurvedeeya Rasashastra, 11th edition, Varanasi, Chaukamba Orientalia, 2001, 247pp.133. Acharya Somadeva, Rasendra Choodamani, Translated by Siddinandan Mishra, 1st edition, Delhi, Chaukamba Orientalia, 1984, 4th Chapter, Verse 102.134. Sri Sadananda Sharma, Rasa Tarangini, Edited by Kashinath Shastri, 11th edition, New Delhi, Motilala Banarasidas publication, 1979, 5th Chapter, Verse 100. 96pp.135. Govinda Bhagavtpada, Rasa Hridaya Tantram, Mugdavabodhini Sanskrit commentary of Chaturbhuja Mishra edited by Acharya Doulatram Rasa Shastri 2nd edition, Varanasi, Choukamba Publishers, 2001, 6th chapter, Verse1-7 102-103pp.136. Acharya Yashodara, Rasa Prakasha Sudhakara, with Siddiprada Hindi commentary by nd Siddinandana Mishra, 2 edition, Varanasi, Chaukamba Orientalia, 1998, 109pp.137. Sri Siddinandana Mishra, Ayurvedeeya Rasashastra, 11th edition, Varanasi, Chaukamba Orientalia, 2001, 148 - 149pp.138. Acharya Bindu, Rasa Paddati, Siddhiprada commentary by Dr. Siddhinandana Mishra, Varanasi, Choukamba Orientalia, Ist edition, 1987, 34 – 35pp.139. Acharya Anantha Deva Suri, Rasa Chintamani edited by Siddhinandan Mishra Ist edition, Varanasi, Chokamba Orientalia 1990, 5th Chapter, Verse 70 - 73.140. Sri Vagbhatacharya, Rasa Ratna Samuchchya, edited by Indradev Tripathi, 3rd edition, Varanasi, Caukamba Sanskrit bhavan, 2006, 8th Chapter,Verse 5, 88pp.141. Gujaraj Ayurveda University, Souvenir and Abstract, 2004, 40pp.142. Sri Sadananda Sharma, Rasa Tarangini, edited by Kashinatha Shastri, New Delhi, Motilala Banarasidas publication, 11th edition 1979, 2nd Taranga, Version 27, 16pp.143. Ibid, 6th Taranga, Version 107, 124 - 125pp.144. Ibid, 2nd Taranga, Version 28, 16pp.145. Vd. Yadav Trikamji, Rasamritam, edited by Damodar Joshi, Varanasi, 2nd edition Choukhamba Sanskrit Bhavan, , 2003, Chapter I, Verse 18, 14pp.146. Sri Sadananda Sharma, Rasa Tarangini, edited by Kashinatha Shastri, 11th Edition, New Delhi, Motilala Banarasidas publication, 1979, 6th Taranga, Verse 115, 126pp.147. Sir. Monier Moneir-Williams, Sanskrit English dictionary, 1st edition, Varanasi, Indica books, 1996.755pp. 167 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 178. Bibliographic References148. Sri Sadananda Sharma, Rasa Tarangini, Kashinath Shastry, 11th edition, New Delhi, Motilal Banarasidas publication, 1979 ,2nd chapter, 49 verse, 21pp149. Shri Govin Dasa, Bhaishajya Ratnavali, edited by Shri Brahmashankar Mishra, Vidyotini Hindi commentary by Ambikadatta Shastri, 18th edition, Varanasi, Choukhamba Sanskrit Samsthan, 2005,verse 117-119, 61pp.150. Sadananda Sharma, Rasa Tarangini, Kashinath Shastry 11th edition, New Delhi, Motilal Banarasidas publication, 2000, 2nd chapter, verse 50, 21pp.151. Ibid, 2nd chapter, verse 51, 21pp.152. Sri Siddinandan Mishra, Ayurvedeeya Rasashastra, 11th edition, Varanasi, Chaukamba Orientalia, 2001, 173-174pp.153. Chandra Bhushana Jha, Ayurvedeeya Rasa Shastra, 2nd edition, Varanasi, Chaukamba Surabharati Prakashan, 2000. 173pp.154. Sri Harisharnanda Sharma, Kupipakwa Rasa Nirmana Vijnana, Ist edition, Amritsar, Ayurveda Vijnana Grautha Karyalaya, 1941, 63, 115pp.155. Vaidya Vasudeva Mulashankara Dvivedi, Parada Vijnaneeyam, 2nd edition, Datia, Sri Sharma Ayurveda Mandira, 1997, 244 -245pp156. Sri Sadananda Sharma, Rasa Tarangini, Kashinath Shastry, 11th edition, New Delhi, Motilal Banarasidas publication, 1979 ,4th chapter, 53pp.157. Sri Siddinandana Mishra, Ayurvedeeya Rasashastra, 11th edition ,Varanasi, Chaukamba Orientalia,2001, 176pp.158. Yadavji Trikamji Acharya, Rasamritam, Translated by Sri Damodhar Joshi, 1st edition, Varanasi, Chaukamba Samskrit Prakashan, 1998, 20-21 pp.159. Acharya Sri Madhava, Ayurveda Prakasha, Edited by Guljar Sharma Mishra, 2nd Edn, Varanasi, Chaukamba Brihat Academy, 1999, 1st Chapter, 399-400pp.160. Vaidya Vasudeva Mulashankara Dvivedi, Parada Vijnaneeyam, Edi 3rd, Datia, Sri Sharma Ayurveda Mandira, 1997, 245pp161. Ibid. 246 pp.162. Sri Siddinandana Mishra, Ayurvedeeya Rasashastra, 11th edition, Varanasi, Chaukamba Orientalia, 2001, 177pp.163. Vaidya Jadavji Trikamji Acharya, Rasamrutham, 1st edition Varanasi, Chaukhambha Sanskrit Bhavana 1998, Appendix 10, 294 - 296 pp.164. Acharya Sri Madhava, Ayurveda Prakasha edited by Gulraj Sharma mishra, varanasi, Chaukhambha Brihat Academy, 1962, 2nd chapter, 19th version 260 pp. 168 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 179. Bibliographic References165. Acharya Sharangadhara, Sharangadhara Samhita Madhyama Khanda edited by Dr. Brahamananda Tripati, 3rd edn, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Orientalia, 1996, 12th Chapter, Version 16-17.166. Sri Harisharnanda Sharma, Kupipakwa Rasa Nirmana Vijnana, 1st edition, Amritsar, Ayurveda Vijnana Grautha Karyalaya, 1941, 48pp.167. Sri Vagbhatacharya, Rasa Ratna Samuchaya, edited by Indra Dev Tripathi, 12th edition, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Amara Bharathi Prakashana, 9th chapter, verse 33-36, 102-103 pp.168. Sri Harisharanananda Sharma, Kupi pakwa Rasa Nirmana Vijnana, Varanasi, Chaukhambha Samskrit Series Office, 53 – 54 pp.169. Dr. Vilas Adole and Dr. Prakash Paranjpe, Rasa Shastra, 1st edition, Delhi, Chaukamba Sanskrit Pratistan, 2004, 4th chapter, 52-54pp.170. O.P. Khanna, Text book of Material Science and Metallurgy, 1st edition, Dhal patrai Publication, 1999, Chapter 46, 1 pp.171. B.K. Sharma, Instrumental methods of chemical analysis, edited by Manjula Sharma, 21st edition, Meerut, Goel Publishing house, 2002, 1st Chapter, 3pp.172. Ibid, 1st Chapter, 4pp.173. Chatwal- Anand, Instrumental methods of chemical analysis, 13th edition, Delhi, Himalaya Publishing house, 1997, 21st Chapter, 455-466pp.174. S.B. Gokhale, Dr. C.K. Kokkate, A.P Purohit, A text book of Pharmacognosy, 14h edn, Nirali Prakashan, 2002, Chapter 1, 58-60pp.175. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, part-1, vol-4, 1st edition, New Delhi, Govt of India, Dept of Ayush, 2006, 213pp.176. S.B. Gokhale, Dr. C.K. Kokkate, A.P Purohit, A text book of Pharmacognosy, 14h edition, Nirali Prakashan, 2002, 1st Chapter,56pp.177. Dr. A.V. Kasture, Pharmaceutical Analysis Vol–1, 6th edition, Nirali Prakashan, 2002, 23- 26pp.178. Vogel, Text book of quantitative chemical analysis, 6th edition, Delhi, Pearson Education Pvt. Ltd., 2005, 11th chapter, 461-462pp.179. H.Willard, L Merritt, F Settle, Instrumental methods of analysis, 1st edition, New Delhi, CBS publishers & Distributors, 1986, 22nd chapter, 682pp.180. Chatwal- Anand, Instrumental methods of chemical analysis, 13th edition, Delhi, Himalaya Publishing house, 1997, 15th Chapter, 381-390pp. 169 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar
  • 180. Bibliographic References181. B.K. Sharma, Instrumental methods of chemical analysis, edited by Manjula Sharma, 21st edition, Meerut, Goel Publishing house, 2002, 8th Chapter, 252/356pp.182. Dr. Namburi Hanumanth Rao, Manual of Namburi phased Spot test, May 1997. 34pp.183. www.Chemie.DE, www.malvern.com184. Sri Gopala Krishna, Rasendra Sara Sangraha, Satyarthaprakashika Hindi Commentary by Vaidya Satyartha Prakash, 1st edition, Varanasi, Krishnadasa Academy, 1994, 1st Chapter, Verse 47,48, 50pp.185. Sri Sadananda Sharma, Rasa Tarangini, edited by Kashinatha Shastri, 11th Edition New Delhi, Motilala Banarasidas publication, 1979, 5th Taranga, Verse 40, 82pp.186. Dr. Savita.K, Preparation and analytical study of dviguna bali jarita rasa sindura and its therapeutic efficacy in kitibha kushta (Psoriasis), (unpublished doctoral dissertation), RGUHS Bangalore. 2004, 141 pp.187. Ibid. 136pp. 170 A Comparative Pharmaceutico-Analytical Study of Samaguna and Triguna Bali Jeerna Rasa Sindoora By- Dr Revati.G.Huddar

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